Ammunition And Explosive Safety

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User Manual: Ammunition and Explosive Safety

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Department of the Army
Pamphlet 385–64
Safety
Ammunition
and Explosives
Safety
Standards
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC
28 November 1997
Unclassified
SUMMARY of CHANGE
DA PAM 385–64
Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards
This new Department of the Army pamphlet--
o Implements and amplifies the explosives safety criteria depicted in DOD
6055.9-STD, DOD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards (chap 1).
o Defines general safety standards for Army operations involving ammunition
and/or explosives (chap 2).
o Establishes management controls for fire prevention, suppression and
protection as applicable to Army ammunition and explosives (chap 3).
o Provides an overview of the Joint Hazard Classification System (JHCS) and
establishes storage principles for the various compatibility groupings of
ammunition and explosives (chap 4).
o Establishes quantities of explosives material and distance separation
requirements that provide defined levels of protection (chap 5).
o Establishes requirements for the installation and use of electrical service
and equipment in Army explosives facilities (chap 6).
o Defines regulations and guidance regarding shipment of Army explosives and
other dangerous articles (chap 7).
o Establishes requirements and provides definitive material on the preparation
and submittal of explosives and toxic chemical site plans (chap 8).
o Explains the purpose, denotes minimum requirements and defines
responsibilities of the Army explosives licensing program (chap 9).
o Provides guidance on the appropriate usage of material handling equipment
(MHE) for ammunition and/or explosives operations (chap 10).
o Establishes requirements for the movement of Army units to ports during times
of war, peace, or national emergency (chap 11).
o Provides the minimum technical criteria for lightning protection of
explosives areas and facilities (chap 12).
o Sets forth requirements for storage of ammunition and explosives within the
Army (chap 13).
o Establishes peacetime operational requirements concerning CONUS and OCONUS
ammunition and explosives activities, training operations, contingency force
operations and airfields used by military aircraft in the theater of
operations (chap 14).
o Provides guidance for the safe handling, transportation, and storage of
ammunition during wartime and contingency operations (chap 15).
o Defines the Army criteria pertaining to the storage and handling of
commercial explosives (chap 16).
o Provides guidance on the requirements and procedures for the disposal of
ammunition, explosives and propellants (chap 17).
o Establishes requirements and criteria relative to operations involving
maintenance and/or the restoration of ammunition and explosives to a
serviceable condition (chap 18).
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC
28 November 1997
Safety
Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards
Department of the Army
Pamphlet 385–64
History. The electronic version of DA Pam
3 8 5 – 6 4 , d a t e d 2 8 N o v e m b e r 1 9 9 7 , d i f f e r s
f r o m t h e p a p e r v e r s i o n . T h e e l e c t r o n i c t e x t
contains corrected data in tables 5–12, 5–27,
5 – 2 8 , 5 – 2 9 , a n d 5 – 3 6 . T h i s i s a n e w
Department of the Army publication.
S u m m a r y . T h i s p a m p h l e t p r o v i d e s f o r c e
protection guidance for commanders with an
a m m u n i t i o n o r e x p l o s i v e s m i s s i o n . I t
provides procedures to protect military and
civilian Army employees, the public, and the
environment. It also sets forth procedures for
use when transporting ammunition or explo-
sives over the public highway.
Applicability. The provisions of this pam-
phlet apply to all Army installations and ac-
tivities, the Army National Guard (ARNG),
t h e U . S . A r m y R e s e r v e ( U S A R ) , G o v e r n -
ment-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO) fa-
c i l i t i e s , a n d c o n t r a c t o r o p e r a t i o n s o n
Government property. Ammunition and ex-
plosives under U.S. title, even though stored
in a host country, remain the responsibility of
the U.S. commander. Storage must conform
with Army standards for explosives safety
unless the use of other criteria (such as North
Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) or host
nation has been agreed to or is mandatory. A
copy of all agreement documents will be pro-
v i d e d m a j o r A r m y c o m m a n d s ( M A C O M s )
involved and two will be sent to the Director,
U.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives
S a f e t y ( U S A T C E S ) . A c o p y o f a l l a g r e e -
ments will also be made a permanent part of
the real property records. Provisions of this
pamphlet apply in wartime, peacetime, and in
contingency situations.
P r o p o n e n t a n d e x c e p t i o n a u t h o r i t y .
The proponent of this pamphlet is the Under
Secretary of the Army. The Under Secretary
of the Army has the authority to approve
exceptions to this pamphlet that are consis-
tent with controlling law and regulation. The
p r o p o n e n t m a y d e l e g a t e t h i s a u t h o r i t y , i n
writing, to a division under his or her super-
vision or to a division chief within the propo-
nent office who holds the grade of colonel or
the civilian equivalent.
Supplementation. Supplementation of this
pamphlet is prohibited without prior approval
from the proponent of this pamphlet.
Suggested Improvements. Users are in-
vited to send comments and suggested im-
p r o v e m e n t s o n D A F o r m 2 0 2 8
(Recommended Changes to Publications and
Blank Forms) directly to Director, U.S. Army
Technical Center for Explosives Safety.
Distribution. Distribution of this publica-
tion is made in accorance with initial distri-
bution number (IDN) 095466, for command
levels D and E for the Active Army, the
Army National Guard, and the U.S. Army
Reserve.
Contents (Listed by paragraph and page number)
Chapter 1
Introduction, page 1
Purpose • 1–1, page 1
References • 1–2, page 1
Explanation of abbreviations and terms • 1–3, page 1
Implementation • 1–4, page 1
Policy on existing explosives facilities • 1–5, page 1
Chapter 2
General Safety Precautions, page 1
Hazard analysis and risk assessment • 2–1, page 1
Personnel qualifications • 2–2, page 1
Use of written standards • 2–3, page 1
Personnel and explosives limits • 2–4, page 1
Handling and movement precautions • 2–5, page 2
Housekeeping • 2–6, page 2
Testing, disassembly, and modification of explosives items • 2–7,
page 2
Explosive ordnance disposal training aids • 2–8, page 2
Field safety • 2–9, page 3
Accident reporting • 2–10, page 3
Rod and gun clubs • 2–11, page 3
Public demonstrations, exhibitions, and celebrations • 2–12,
page 3
Static or public display • 2–13, page 3
Explosives training aids for military working dogs • 2–14, page 3
Hunting • 2–15, page 4
Chapter 3
Fire Prevention, Protection, and Suppression, page 7
Fire prevention management • 3–1, page 7
Smoking • 3–2, page 7
Training • 3–3, page 7
Fire drills • 3–4, page 7
Fire exit drills • 3–5, page 7
Alarms • 3–6, page 7
Fire prevention requirements • 3–7, page 7
Auxiliary firefighting equipment • 3–8, page 9
Storage of water for firefighting • 3–9, page 9
Access to fire hose • 3–10, page 9
Limitation of fire areas • 3–11, page 9
Reciprocal agreements for fire fighting support • 3–12, page 9
Public withdrawal distances • 3–13, page 9
Firefighting guidance symbols • 3–14, page 10
Posting fire symbols • 3–15, page 10
Exceptions on posting fire symbols • 3–16, page 10
Posting chemical hazard symbols • 3–17, page 10
DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997 i
Unclassified
Contents—Continued
Procedures for chemical agents and other toxic substances • 3–18,
page 10
Firefighting at railheads • 3–19, page 10
Automatic sprinkler systems • 3–20, page 11
Deluge systems for explosives operations • 3–21, page 11
Instructions for fighting fires involving ammunition or explosives
3–22, page 12
Chapter 4
Hazard Classification and Compatibility Groups, page 23
Explosives hazard classification procedures • 4–1, page 23
EIDS and EIDS ammunition • 4–2, page 23
Storage principles • 4–3, page 23
Mixed storage • 4–4, page 23
Storage compatibility groups • 4–5, page 23
Class 1 or 6 chemical agent hazards or combined chemical agent
and explosives hazards • 4–6, page 24
Chapter 5
Quantity-Distance, page 25
Explosives quantity-distance • 5–1, page 25
Quantity of explosives • 5–2, page 26
Measuring distance • 5–3, page 26
Q-D computations and determinations • 5–4, page 26
Fragments • 5–5, page 27
Quantity-distance: expected effects and permissible exposures
5–6, page 27
Facilities siting criteria • 5–7, page 30
Magazine orientation • 5–8, page 39
Quantity-distance tables • 5–9, page 40
Airfields, heliports, and seadromes • 5–10, page 41
Pier and wharf facilities • 5–11, page 41
Liquid propellants • 5–12, page 41
Underground storage • 5–13, page 43
Military working dog (MWD) explosives search training • 5–14,
page 45
Chapter 6
Electrical Hazards, page 75
Section I
Electrical Service and Equipment, page 75
Overview • 6–1, page 75
Hazardous locations • 6–2, page 75
Approved equipment • 6–3, page 76
Maintenance of electrical equipment • 6–4, page 76
Electrical service lines in explosives areas • 6–5, page 76
Electrical motors for hazardous locations • 6–6, page 76
Portable lighting systems • 6–7, page 76
Permanent lighting for storage magazines • 6–8, page 76
Flexible cords • 6–9, page 76
Section II
Static electricity, page 76
Static electricity charge dissipation subsystem • 6–10, page 76
Ordnance grounds (static grounds) • 6–11, page 79
Instrument grounds • 6–12, page 79
Section III
Grounding, page 79
Explosives facility grounding • 6–13, page 79
Earth electrode subsystem • 6–14, page 79
Section IV
Electromagnetic Radiation, page 80
Hazards of electromagnetic radiation to electro-explosive devices
(EEDs) • 6–15, page 80
Chapter 7
Transportation, page 89
Section I
General requirements, page 89
General information • 7–1, page 89
Certification of personnel involved with transportation • 7–2,
page 89
Hazard classification • 7–3, page 89
Preparation for shipment • 7–4, page 89
Compatibility of explosives in transportation • 7–5, page 90
Section II
Motor Vehicles, page 90
Vehicle general safety requirements • 7–6, page 90
Inbound motor shipment of ammunition and explosives • 7–7,
page 90
Outbound motor vehicle shipments of explosives • 7–8, page 90
Safe haven for explosive shipments • 7–9, page 91
On-post explosive movements • 7–10, page 91
Passengers in or on Government vehicles transporting explosives
7–11, page 91
Section III
Rail, Air, and Water Transport, page 91
Railroad transportation • 7–12, page 91
Air transportation • 7–13, page 92
Water transportation • 7–14, page 93
Chapter 8
Safety Site Planning, Construction, and Utilities, page 93
Section I
Explosives/Toxic Chemical Safety Site Plans, page 93
Explosives/Toxic Chemical Safety Site Plan Submittals • 8–1,
page 93
Explosives safety site plan contents • 8–2, page 94
Review and approval of explosives safety site plans • 8–3,
page 94
Section II
Construction Considerations, page 94
Construction considerations • 8–4, page 94
Buildings • 8–5, page 94
Interior finishes and floors • 8–6, page 95
Firewalls • 8–7, page 95
Substantial dividing walls • 8–8, page 95
Building exits • 8–9, page 95
Safety chutes • 8–10, page 95
Emergency exits and fire escapes • 8–11, page 95
Stairways • 8–12, page 95
Fixed ladders • 8–13, page 95
Platforms, runways, and railings • 8–14, page 95
Passageways • 8–15, page 95
Roads, walks, and gates • 8–16, page 96
Windows and skylights • 8–17, page 96
Drains and sumps • 8–18, page 96
Hardware • 8–19, page 96
Tunnels • 8–20, page 96
Powerhouse equipment • 8–21, page 96
Refrigeration • 8–22, page 96
Laundries • 8–23, page 96
Steam for processing and heating • 8–24, page 96
Ventilation • 8–25, page 96
Electrical equipment • 8–26, page 96
Collection of explosives dusts • 8–27, page 96
Automatic sprinkler systems • 8–28, page 97
ii DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Contents—Continued
Section III
Open Storage Modules, Barricades, and Protective Construction,
page 97
Barricaded open storage modules • 8–29, page 97
Barricades and earth cover for magazines • 8–30, page 98
Policy on protective construction • 8–31, page 98
Strengthening (hardening of buildings) • 8–32, page 98
Chapter 9
Explosives Licensing, page 104
Procedures • 9–1, page 104
Required information • 9–2, page 104
Chapter 10
Materials Handling Equipment (MHE), page 104
General requirements • 10–1, page 104
Battery-powered materials handling equipment • 10–2, page 104
Gasoline and diesel powered equipment • 10–3, page 104
LP-gas-powered equipment • 10–4, page 104
Gasoline, diesel-powered and LP-gas-powered equipment for
handling explosives materials • 10–5, page 104
Storage • 10–6, page 105
Chapter 11
Port Operations, page 105
Background information • 11–1, page 105
Loading of vehicles • 11–2, page 105
Vehicle holding site • 11–3, page 105
Railhead operations • 11–4, page 105
Road movement • 11–5, page 105
Port safety • 11–6, page 106
Chapter 12
Lightning Protection, page 110
General information • 12–1, page 110
Fundamental principles of lightning protection • 12–2, page 110
Locations requiring an LPS • 12–3, page 111
Locations not requiring lightning protection • 12–4, page 111
Requirements for lightning protection systems • 12–5, page 111
Types of lightning protection systems • 12–6, page 112
General prohibitions • 12–7, page 112
Bonding • 12–8, page 112
Lightning warning systems • 12–9, page 112
Structural grounds • 12–10, page 112
Grounding • 12–11, page 113
Surge protection • 12–12, page 113
Visual inspection requirements • 12–13, page 113
Electrical testing requirements • 12–14, page 113
Records • 12–15, page 113
Truck holding areas • 12–16, page 113
Lightning protection for empty facilities • 12–17, page 113
Chapter 13
Explosives Storage Requirements, page 115
General requirements • 13–1, page 115
Magazine storage of explosives and ammunition • 13–2, page 116
Outdoor storage • 13–3, page 117
Holding yard • 13–4, page 117
Storage of specific types of ammunition and explosives • 13–5,
page 117
Inert ammunition • 13–6, page 119
Unserviceable ammunition • 13–7, page 119
Storage of captured enemy ammunition • 13–8, page 119
Chemical munitions • 13–9, page 119
Chemical Group B agents • 13–10, page 120
Storage of Chemical Group B agent munitions • 13–11, page 120
Special protective equipment for Chemical Group B agent
munitions • 13–12, page 120
First aid for Group B chemical agents • 13–13, page 121
Leaking Chemical Group B agent munitions • 13–14, page 121
Removal of spilled Chemical Group B fillers • 13–15, page 121
Fire in Chemical Group B agent munitions magazines • 13–16,
page 121
Chemical Group C agents • 13–17, page 121
Storage for Chemical Group C munitions • 13–18, page 121
First aid and special equipment for Chemical Group C munitions
13–19, page 121
Leaking Group C chemical munitions • 13–20, page 121
Removal of Chemical Group C contamination • 13–21, page 122
Fire in Chemical Group C munitions magazines • 13–22,
page 122
Chemical Group D fillers • 13–23, page 122
Storage of Chemical Group D munitions • 13–24, page 122
Special protective equipment for Chemical Group D munitions
13–25, page 122
First aid for Chemical Group D munitions • 13–26, page 122
Leaking Chemical Group D munitions • 13–27, page 122
Fire in Chemical Group D munitions magazines • 13–28,
page 122
Chapter 14
Peacetime Operations, page 122
Applicability of provisions outside the United States • 14–1,
page 122
Basic load ammunition holding areas • 14–2, page 123
Basic load storage in other than BLAHAs • 14–3, page 123
Vehicle and equipment maintenance • 14–4, page 123
Fire prevention • 14–5, page 123
Surveillance • 14–6, page 124
Storage • 14–7, page 124
Basic load storage ammunition holding areas in the United States
14–8, page 124
General requirements for training operations • 14–9, page 124
Upload exercises • 14–10, page 124
Combat configured loads • 14–11, page 124
Aviation operations at BLAHAs • 14–12, page 125
Forward area rearm/refuel points (FARP) • 14–13, page 125
General requirements or airfields used only by military aircraft in
the theater of operations • 14–14, page 125
Quantity distance • 14–15, page 125
Chapter 15
Wartime Operations, page 133
General requirements • 15–1, page 133
Theater and corps ammunition storage areas • 15–2, page 134
Storage at the ASP and ATP • 15–3, page 134
Short-term ATP storage • 15–4, page 134
Field storage units • 15–5, page 134
Transportation within the theater of operations • 15–6, page 135
Modular storage • 15–7, page 135
Ammunition turn-in at the cessation of hostilities • 15–8,
page 135
Chapter 16
Storage and handling of commercial explosives, page 137
Background • 16–1, page 137
Use • 16–2, page 137
Procedures • 16–3, page 137
Commercial dynamite • 16–4, page 138
Chapter 17
Demilitarization, page 138
Demilitarization • 17–1, page 138
Methods • 17–2, page 138
Safety precautions • 17–3, page 138
Site selection for burning or demolition grounds • 17–4, page 139
Burning sites • 17–5, page 139
iiiDA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Contents—Continued
New demilitarization technologies • 17–6, page 139
Chapter 18
Maintenance, page 139
General information • 18–1, page 139
Safety requirements • 18–2, page 139
Operational shields • 18–3, page 140
Equipment for shielded operations • 18–4, page 141
Tools, equipment and supplies • 18–5, page 141
Protection of primers • 18–6, page 141
Cleaning ammunition • 18–7, page 141
Spray painting • 18–8, page 141
Electrostatic paint spraying and detearing of inert items in non-
hazardous locations • 18–9, page 142
Infrared ray drying • 18–10, page 142
Drying freshly painted loaded ammunition • 18–11, page 142
Heat sealing equipment • 18–12, page 143
Soldering containers • 18–13, page 143
Thread cleaning • 18–14, page 143
Inert scrap components and packaging materials • 18–15,
page 143
Sand or shotblasting operations • 18–16, page 143
Location of sand or shotblasting operations in explosives storage
areas • 18–17, page 143
Sand or shotblasting operations within a building in an operating
line • 18–18, page 144
Electrical testing of ammunition and ammunition components
18–19, page 144
Profile and alignment gaging operations • 18–20, page 144
Collection of explosives dusts • 18–21, page 144
Location of collection chambers • 18–22, page 144
Design and operation of collection systems • 18–23, page 145
Solid propellant collection • 18–24, page 145
Destruction of solid wastes • 18–25, page 145
Assembly and crimping of complete rounds • 18–26, page 145
Rotational speeds for equipment used in field ammunition
operations • 18–27, page 145
Machining of explosives • 18–28, page 146
Operational shields for munitions loading • 18–29, page 146
Appendixes
A. References, page 147
B. Earth Electrode Subsystem Test and Inspection, page 149
C. Inspection and Test of Static Electricity Charge Dissipation
Subsystem, page 155
D. Inspection and Test of Lightning Protection Subsystems,
page 156
E. Field Expedient Grounding Techniques, page 158
F. Safe Conveyor Separation for Ammunition/Explosives,
page 159
G. Standard designs for explosives facilities, page 164
H. The 100–Foot Zone of Protection, page 165
Table List
Table 3–1: Extinguishing agents for fires, page 12
Table 3–2: Fire symbol hazards and actions, page 13
Table 3–3: Chemical hazard symbols and actions, page 13
Table 3–4: Emergency withdrawal distances for nonessential
personnel, page 14
Table 3–5: Fire divisions hazards, page 14
Table 3–6: Fire division symbols, page 15
Table 3–7: Chemical agents and fillers contained in ammunition
and the chemical hazard symbols required in storage, page 15
Table 4–1: EIDS and EIDS ammunition hazard divisions, page 24
Table 4–2: QD criteria for configuration of HD 1.6 components
and assemblies with other HD components, page 25
Table 4–3: Storage Compatibility Mixing Chart, page 25
Table 5–1: HD 1.1 inhabited building and public traffic route
distances, page 31
Table 5–2: Minimum primary fragment protection distance
expressed in feet for selected HD 1.1 Items, page 33
Table 5–3: HC/D 1.1 intraline distances in feet from PESs other
than earth-covered magazines3, page 34
Table 5–4: HD 1.1 intraline distances from earth-covered
magazines (type of distance protection to be provided to ES),
page 34
Table 5–5: HC/D 1.1 intermagazine hazard factors and distances,
page 35
Table 5–6: HC/D 1.1 guide for intermagazine distance table5,
page 37
Table 5–7: Personnel protection distances from aboveground
detonations, page 38
Table 5–8: Required blast overpressure protection distance in feet
for nonessential personnel at ranges used for detonating
ammunition for demilitarization, demonstration, or explosives
ordnance disposal, page 38
Table 5–9: Thermal flux calculations, page 38
Table 5–10: Impulse noise protection decision table, page 45
Table 5–11: Impulse noise zones measured in feet from intentional
detonations, page 46
Table 5–12: Impulse noise B-duration (estimated for various NEWs
and distances), page 47
Table 5–13: Impulse noise zones and required protections with
maximum permissable number of detonations per day, page 49
Table 5–14: Q-D for unprotected aboveground service tanks
supporting explosives storage or operating complexes, page 50
Table 5–15: HD 1.2 distances, page 50
Table 5–16: HD 1.3 QD, page 50
Table 5–17: HC/D 1.4 quantity-distance, page 53
Table 5–18: QD criteria for HD 1.6 ammunition, page 53
Table 5–19: HD 1.1.QD for military aircraft parking areas,
page 54
Table 5–20: Application of ammunition and explosives safety
distances between various types of facilities, page 55
Table 5–21: Liquid propellant HE (TNT) equivalents2,3,4,5,6,7,
page 56
Table 5–22: Factors for converting gallons of propellant into
pounds1, page 56
Table 5–23: Liquid propellants hazard and compatibility groups,
page 57
Table 5–24 (PAGE 1): QD for propellants, page 58
Table 5–24 (PAGE 2): QD for propellants—Continued, page 59
Table 5–24 (PAGE 3): QD for propellants—Continued, page 60
Table 5–25: Hazard group IV separation distances, page 60
Table 5–26: Chamber separation, page 62
Table 5–27: Distance to protect against ground shock, page 62
Table 5–28: Distance to protect against hard rock debris, page 63
Table 5–29: Distance to protect against soft rock debris, page 64
Table 5–30: Functions of loading density, page 64
Table 5–31: IBD for airblast traveling through earth cover,
page 65
Table 5–32: Distance versus overpressure along the centerline,
page 66
Table 5–33: Distance versus overpressure along the centerline,
page 67
Table 5–34: Effective overpressure at the opening, page 67
Table 5–35: Allowable overpressure at IBD, page 67
Table 5–36: IBD distances to protect against airblast, page 68
Table 6–1: Grounding system inspection and test requirements,
page 82
Table 6–2: Ground rod quantity requirements, page 82
iv DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Contents—Continued
Table 6–3: Minimum safe distance from transmitter antennas,
page 83
Table 6–4 (PAGE 1): Safe separation distance equations, page 85
Table 6–4 (PAGE 2): Safe separation distance equations, page 85
Table 8–1: Intermagazine separation for barricaded storage modules
for mass detonating explosives, page 99
Table 11–1: Mixed class/division for QD computations, page 109
Table 11–2 (PAGE 1): Quantity-distance separations for pier and
wharf facilities, page 110
Table 11–2 (PAGE 2): Quantity-distance separations for pier and
wharf facilities--Continued, page 110
Table 12–1: Lightning protection systems, page 113
Table 14–1: Quantity-distance table for basic load ammunition
holding areas, page 128
Table 14–2: HD 1.1 Quantity-distance for airfields used only by
military aircraft in theaters of operation, page 128
Table 14–3: Quantity-distance for propagation prevention at
airfields, page 130
Table 14–4: Quantity-distance for assets preservation at airfields,
page 130
Table 15–1: Wartime compatibility chart, page 136
Table 15–2: Q-D for field storage units, page 137
Table 16–1: Turning of commercial dynamite, page 138
Table B–1: Test probe C and P distances, page 151
Table F–1: Safe conveyor spacing, page 159
Figure List
Figure 2–1 (PAGE 1): Risk management, page 5
Figure 2–1 (PAGE 2): Risk management, page 6
Figure 3–1: Fire symbol 1 — mass detonation, page 16
Figure 3–2: Fire symbol 2 — explosion with fragments, page 17
Figure 3–3: Fire symbol 3 — mass fire, page 18
Figure 3–4: Fire symbol 4 — moderate fire, page 19
Figure 3–5: Chemical hazard symbol 1, page 20
Figure 3–6: Chemical hazard symbol 2, page 21
Figure 3–7: Chemical hazard symbol 3, page 22
Figure 5–1: Impulse noise zones for various B-durations and peak
sound pressures, page 69
Figure 5–2: Impulse noise zones from intentional detonations,
page 70
Figure 5–3: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 71
Figure 5–4: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 71
Figure 5–5: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 72
Figure 5–6: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 72
Figure 5–7: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 73
Figure 5–8: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 73
Figure 5–9: Intermagazine hazard factors, page 74
Figure 6–1: Typical Ground Rod Installation, page 85
Figure 6–2: Typical multiple ground rod installation, page 86
Figure 6–3: Typical ground loop installation, page 86
Figure 6–4: U.S. Navy designed earth electrode subsystem,
page 87
Figure 6–5: Typical grid installation, page 87
Figure 6–6: Typical radial installation, page 88
Figure 6–7: Typical buried plates or cones installation, page 89
Figure 8–1: Typical 8–cell module, page 100
Figure 8–2: Determination of barricade height, page 101
Figure 8–3: Determination of barrricade length, page 102
Figure 8–4: Barricade locations, page 103
Figure 14–1: Hardened aircraft shelter an as exposed site,
page 131
Figure 14–2: Hardened aircraft shelter as a PES, page 132
Figure 14–3: Igloo Q-D angles, page 133
Figure B–1: Measurement of soil resistivity, page 152
Figure B–2: Resistivity determination of a small site, page 153
Figure B–3: Fall of potential method for measuring the resistance
of earth electrodes, page 154
Figure B–4: Fall of potential resistance to earth test, page 155
Figure D–1: Testing lightning protection system, page 158
Figure H–1: Zone of protection test, page 166
Figure H–2: Zone of protection for integral systems, page 167
Figure H–3: Illustrated zone of protection, page 168
Figure H–4: Zone of protection geometric concept, page 169
Figure H–5: Adequate protection not penetrating earth cover,
page 170
Figure H–6: Adequate protection penetrating earth cover, page 171
Figure H–7: Inadequate protection penetrating earth cover,
page 171
Glossary
Index
vDA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
RESERVED
vi DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Chapter 1
Introduction
1–1. Purpose
This pamphlet explains the Army’s safety criteria and standards for
operations involving ammunition and explosives prescribed by AR
385–64, for the United States Army, GOCO facilities, and contrac-
tor operations on Government property.
1–2. References
Required and related publications are listed in appendix A.
1–3. Explanation of abbreviations and terms
Abbreviations and special terms used in this pamphlet are explained
in the glossary.
1–4. Implementation
a . T h i s p a m p h l e t p r o v i d e s t h e g u i d a n c e t o i m p l e m e n t A R
385–64. Adhering to its procedures will ensure safe and proper
storage and handling of ammunition and explosives. Mandatory
requirements are those in which the term “shall,”“will,” or “must” is
used and no deviation is permitted without specific written authority
in the form of a waiver or exemption as detailed in AR 385–64.
Advisory provisions are those in which the term “may” or “should”
is used, and no deviation is permitted unless local waivers are
authorized in writing by local commander or his or her designee. In
new construction or building modification, advisory standards be
come mandatory.
b. Some of the procedures used in carrying out the U.S. Army
Explosives Safety Program are outlined in publications that are not
published by the Army and are not available through standard sup-
ply channels. For example, several are published by the National
Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and some by the American
National Standards Institute (ANSI).
1–5. Policy on existing explosives facilities
A program should be locally developed to correct deficiencies if
such deficiencies exist where previously constructed explosives fa-
cilities do not comply with current safety standards. The program
priority items should be based on a hazard analysis and risk assess-
ment of each violation.
Chapter 2
General Safety Precautions
2–1. Hazard analysis and risk assessment
All operations involving ammunition and explosives will be re-
viewed to identify and manage the risk associated with the operation
(see fig 2–1).
a. A risk assessment shall be performed on all new or modified
industrial operations and facilities involving ammunition and explo-
sives. Based upon this assessment, engineering design criteria for
the facility and/or operation will be developed to select appropriate
equipment, shielding, engineering controls, and protective clothing
for personnel. The assessment will review such factors as—
(1) Initiation sensitivity;
(2) Quantity of materials;
(3) Heat output;
(4) Rate of burning;
(5) Potential ignition and initiation sources;
(6) Protection capabilities of shields, various types of clothing,
and fire protection systems; and,
(7) The acute and chronic health hazards of hot vapors and com-
bustion products on exposed personnel.
b. Ammunition and explosives operations will require an opera-
tional or task hazard analysis prior to writing a new standing operat-
ing procedure (SOP) for an ammunition or explosives operation or
before the biannual review of an existing ammunition or explosives
operation.
c . P e r s o n n e l c o n d u c t i n g t h e h a z a r d a n a l y s i s w i l l b e
knowledgeable—
(1) In ammunition and explosives safety;
(2) In the task to be performed; and ,
(3) In the methods used to conduct a hazard analysis.
2–2. Personnel qualifications
Personnel working with explosives will be trained in the tasks to be
performed. They must understand the hazards, standards, proce-
dures, and precautions that apply to their work.
2–3. Use of written standards
Written standards must be developed and used for each explosives
operation. These standards may be based on standards found in
Army publications such as regulations or technical manuals, or in
higher headquarters standard publications.
a. SOPs for all explosives operations ensure workers have the
information necessary to perform their tasks safely. Each worker
will read the SOP or have the SOP read aloud before starting the
operation. SOPs must be readily available at the work site. Applica-
ble parts of the SOP will be clearly posted at all workstations in the
operation, such as bays within a building. When posting within the
work site is not practical, the SOP will be posted at the entrance to
the site.
b. All SOPs for explosives operations will identify potentially
hazardous items or conditions. Explosives workers observing haz-
ardous or potentially hazardous conditions will notify their supervi-
sor immediately. Supervisors will correct the operations or practices
which, if allowed to continue, could reasonably be expected to cause
death or serious physical harm to personnel or major system dam-
a g e , o r e n d a n g e r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n ’ s c a p a c i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s
mission.
c. Procedures will be written in English and in the language
workers understand if they do not understand English.
d. Written procedures are not required for explosives ordnance
disposal (EOD) emergency operations in connection with an ap-
proved render-safe procedure.
2–4. Personnel and explosives limits
Operations must be conducted in a manner which exposes the mini-
mum number of people to the smallest quantity of explosives for the
shortest period of time consistent with conducting the operation.
Examples are as follows:
a. Tasks not necessary to the operation will be prohibited within
the immediate area of the hazard produced by the operation.
b. Personnel limits must be clearly posted for each operation and
must not be exceeded during the operation. Limits for explosives
operations will be included in the SOP.
c. Where concurrent operations must be performed in a single
building, the layout will be planned to protect from blast overpres-
sure and to provide separation of dissimilar explosives hazards by
using substantial dividing walls, barricades, or other means to en-
sure maximum personnel protection.
d. Personnel not needed for the operation will be prohibited from
visiting. This does not prohibit official visits by safety, quality
control (QC), management, or inspection personnel, up to estab-
lished personnel limits.
e. Each worker will ensure explosives limits for the work area
are not exceeded. Limits will be expressed in total net explosive
weight (NEW), number of units, or the number of trays, boxes,
pallets, or other units which are more easily controlled.
f. Explosives limits will be based on the minimum quantity of
explosives sufficient for the operation. Limits will not exceed the
quantity used during half a work shift, and will be consistent with
quantity-distance (Q-D) separation criteria.
g. The maximum amount of explosives of each hazard division
(HD) allowed will be clearly posted in each room, cubicle, maga-
zine, or building used for storing explosives. For operating loca-
tions, post the explosives limits for the operation being conducted.
Material limits need only be posted in storage magazines if the limit
is not the same as that for other magazines in the block or if the
1DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
l i m i t w o u l d n o t b e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t d u e t o s o m e u n u s u a l
circumstances.
2–5. Handling and movement precautions
Munitions and/or explosives will be handled only by trained person-
nel who understand the hazards and risks involved in the operation.
Supervisors will be trained to recognize and abate hazards associ-
ated with their operations.
a. Detonators, initiators, squibs, blasting caps (electrical and non-
electrical), and other initiating devices will be carried in protective
containers. The containers must prevent item-to-item contact and be
marked to identify the contents.
b. Bale hooks will not be used to handle explosives.
c. Nails may be used to secure covers or repair explosives con-
t a i n e r s o n l y i f t h e r e i s n o h a z a r d t o t h e e x p l o s i v e i t e m o r o f
penetrating protective coverings.
d. Nails and other packing materials will comply with technical
packing orders, military specifications, or Department of Transporta-
tion (DOT) specifications applicable to the item.
e . M u n i t i o n s w i l l n o t b e t u m b l e d , d r a g g e d , d r o p p e d , t h r o w n ,
rolled, or walked. Containers designed with skids may be pushed or
pulled for positioning, unless otherwise marked on the container.
f. Conveyors, chutes, hand trucks, and forklifts may be used in
atmospheres and locations where they will not create hazards.
g. Sectionalized roller conveyors moving munitions or explosives
will be supported and the sections interlocked or secured. Boxes of
explosives will not be used to support conveyors.
h. Safety handtools will be constructed of wood or other non-
sparking or spark-resistant materials such as bronze which, under
normal conditions of use, will not produce sparks. Only properly
maintained safety handtools will be used for locations having haz-
ardous concentrations of flammable dusts, gases, vapors, or exposed
explosives.
(1) Handtools or other implements used near hazardous materials
must be handled carefully and kept clean. All tools will be checked
for damage at the start and on completion of work.
(2) If it is necessary to use ferrous metal handtools because of
their strength, the immediate area should be free from exposed
explosives and other highly combustible materials except in specific
operations approved by the installation safety officer.
(3) Safety handtools containing copper or zinc, such as brass or
bronze, will not be used in proximity to lead azide or residuals from
the treatment of lead azide.
2–6. Housekeeping
a. Waste materials.
(1) Waste materials, such as oily rags, hazardous materials, such
as explosives scrap, and wood, paper, and combustible packing
materials, will not be mixed. Each of these categories of waste will
be carefully controlled and placed in separate approved, properly
marked containers. The containers will be placed outside the facili-
ties, except for containers required at the work location during
operations. Working location containers will be emptied as needed
but at least once each shift.
(2) Containers for explosives waste will have covers, preferably
self-closing. Explosives hazardous waste includes scrap powder, ini-
t i a t i n g o r s e n s i t i v e e x p l o s i v e s , s w e e p i n g s f r o m o p e n e x p l o s i v e s
areas, and rags contaminated with these explosives.
(a) Receptacles should have enough liquid, normally water or oil,
to cover the scraps or rags if this does not add to the hazard.
(b) No. 10 mineral oil is useful for covering white phosphorous
(WP), pyrotechnic, tracer, flare, and similar mixtures. If water is
used to cover such materials, scrap should be put in so it is immedi-
ately immersed to reduce any production of dangerous gases.
(3) Hazardous waste material will be removed from operating
buildings to the disposal area (or an isolated, temporary collection
point) at frequent intervals and before leaving at the end of the duty
day or shift. When isolated collection points are used, time and
quantity limits, which comply with environmental regulations, will
be set up to ensure timely movement of the material to the disposal
area. Hazardous material should not be “stored” in the disposal area
but disposed of as soon as possible after arrival.
(4) Hazardous wastes will be disposed of in authorized facilities.
Disposal operations will be covered by an SOP. The organization
responsible for hazardous waste disposal will include disposal facili-
ties on waste disposal permits, as required by the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA).
b. Cleaning. A regular cleaning program will be established. To
e n s u r e s a f e t y , f r e q u e n c y , e s p e c i a l l y i n o p e r a t i n g b u i l d i n g s , w i l l
depend on local conditions.
(1) General cleaning will not be done during an explosives opera-
tion or while explosives are in operating buildings.
(2) Where there are exposed explosives or a risk from accumulat-
ing explosives, structural members, radiators, heating coils, pipes,
and electrical fixtures will be kept clean.
c. Sweeping compounds.
(1) Sweeping compounds containing wax or oil will not be used
on conductive floors.
(2) Cleaning agents that include caustic alkalies must not be used
in locations containing exposed explosives because sensitive explo-
sive compounds may form.
(3) Where there may be exposed explosives on the floor, hot
water or steam is the preferred cleaning method. When sweeping
compounds must be used, they will be nonabrasive.
(4) Sweeping compounds may be combustible but will not be
volatile (closed cup flashpoint will not be less than 230 degrees
Fahrenheit).
d. Explosives recovery and re-use. All loose explosives recovered
as sweepings will be destroyed.
2–7. Testing, disassembly, and modification of explosives
items
This paragraph gives precautions to take during testing, disassemb-
ly, and modification of explosives items.
a. All testing, disassembly, and modification operations will be
done by qualified technicians according to approved SOPs. The
supervisor will provide any necessary drawings and sketches.
b. Modification, testing, or disassembly of explosives items is
permitted for any one of the following circumstances:
(1) When authorized by approved publications.
(2) When approval has been granted by the MACOM and the
item manager or system program office.
(3) When EOD personnel require disassembly for technical intel-
ligence or emergency render-safe operations.
(4) When conducted as part of an approved organization mission
that includes research, development, or test of explosives items or
explosive equipment.
c. Operational shields, remote controlled devices, fire protection
systems, and ventilator systems will be used where needed to pro-
tect personnel and property.
(1) Operations such as continuity checks of electrically actuated
explosives devices, propellant cutting, explosives component assem-
bly, modification, or disassembly and demilitarization will require
proven operator protection.
(2) Operational shields and remote control systems will be de-
signed and tested to protect completely against all potential hazards.
These hazards may include explosion, fragments, fire, heat, radia-
tion, high-intensity light, or toxic vapors, dependent on the explo-
sive material involved.
(3) When protective devices of a specific design are required by
a technical manual (TM), the TM managing agency must ensure that
the devices have been tested and are safe.
(4) When a using command establishes a requirement for protec-
tive devices, that command must ensure that the devices are of a
safe design.
2–8. Explosive ordnance disposal training aids
a. EOD training aids are unique in their requirements for realism.
The EOD requirements listed below are required for ensuring that
EOD training aids are properly maintained. The Commander of each
EOD unit having training aids, will—
2 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
(1) Ensure that no live explosive or ammunition is mixed with
the training aids.
(2) Ensure that each training aid larger than .50 caliber is marked
as being inert. Small arms ammunition which is .50 caliber or less
may be marked by marking the container and the number of rounds
contained in the box.
(3) Ensure that each training aid is marked with a serial number.
Small arms ammunition containers may be marked instead of each
item.
b. The accountability program for controlling EOD training aids
will include the following:
(1) A 100 percent serial number inventory conducted yearly.
(2) A formal report of the results of the inventory.
(3) A file on record at EOD headquarters which shows by serial
number and type where EOD training aids are located.
c. When an EOD training aid is released from EOD control, it
will comply with the requirements of paragraph 13–6 for marking of
inert ammunition.
2–9. Field safety
Using units must keep ammunition and explosives properly packed
to the maximum extent possible. This practice is critical to safety
and quality.
a. Ammunition and explosives must remain packed until immedi-
ately prior to use. Unpack only the quantity expected to be immedi-
ately fired. Save all packing material until exercise is complete for
possible use in repack.
b. Properly repack ammunition before transporting on motor ve-
hicles, aircraft, or watercraft.
c. It is especially important to replace safety devices before repa-
cking; for example, shorting clips on 2.75–inch rockets, electrical
shunts on Hoffman devices, and pads protecting primers on gun and
mortar ammunition.
d. Ammunition which has misfired or has been classified as un-
serviceable must be indelibly marked and segregated from servicea-
ble ammunition.
2–10. Accident reporting
Ammunition and explosives accidents shall be reported and investi-
gated in accordance with AR 385–40. Malfunctions must be repor-
ted in accordance with AR 75–1.
2–11. Rod and gun clubs
Each club that handloads ammunition on Army property must oper-
ate according to written explosives safety standards. A qualified
member will be designated to ensure explosives safety criteria are
developed and enforced.
a. Retail stores. Where only retail sales are made, paragraph
5–1b of this pamphlet will apply.
(1) As determined by the installation commander, compliance
with Q-D standards will not be required for reasonable quantities of
small arms ammunition, such as 100 pounds of propellant, and 25,
000 primers packed in their shipping containers.
(2) HD 1.3 propellant will not be placed in other containers if it
would result in extreme confinement if ignited.
(3) When complying with (1) and (2) above, an exception to Q-D
and fire symbol requirements for HD 1.1 primers will apply. Fire
symbol 3 may be used to designate the presence of propellant and
primers. The symbol need not be changed during temporary periods
when the propellant has been sold out, but primers are still in stock.
b. Handloading. Handloading operations will be done in a room
or building solely used for this purpose. The safety requirements
outlined above for a retail store apply, as well as the following:
(1) A written procedure approved by the installation safety office
will be developed and posted.
( 2 ) O n l y a u t h o r i z e d p e r s o n n e l , t r a i n e d i n u s i n g h a n d l o a d i n g
equipment and knowledgeable about safety provisions and hazards
involved, will be allowed loading privileges. Reloaders will wear
safety goggles or face shields. Trainees must be strictly supervised.
(3) Smoking, matches, or flame-producing devices will not be
allowed in any loading or storage location.
(4) No more than 10 pounds of propellants; 10,000 primers, and
5,000 assembled rounds will be allowed in the handloading room at
one time.
(5) Storage lockers will be provided for the explosives. Only
quantities required to sustain a continuous operation will be trans-
ferred to the loading point. Only one packing tray at a time will be
removed from primer storage. Unused components will be repacked
in their original containers and returned to the storage locker at the
end of each loading operation. Lockers will be locked when not in
use.
(6) Floors and walls must be free of cracks that could accumulate
explosives dust and foreign materials. Good housekeeping practices
will be observed at all times.
(7) In case of a spill, all operations will stop until the explosives
are cleaned up. Place all salvaged propellant in a metal container
with water. All damaged components, or damaged complete rounds
will be placed in a separate, properly marked container. Salvaged
propellant, damaged rounds or components, and empty explosives
containers will be disposed of by qualified personnel.
( 8 ) O n l y c o m m e r c i a l - t y p e l o a d i n g t o o l s , d i e s , s c a l e s , p o w d e r
measures, and other equipment will be used during handloading
operations.
(9) Bullet molding will be done outside the handloading room.
2–12. Public demonstrations, exhibitions, and
celebrations
a. Participation of Army personnel (military of civilian) in pubic
demonstrations, exhibitions, and celebrations involving the use of
military or commercial explosives and pyrotechnics is not advisable,
except in rare instances.
b. Requests for participation of Army personnel in such demon-
strations, exhibitions, an celebrations, either in an official or semiof-
f i c i a l c a p a c i t y , w i l l b e d i s c o u r a g e d . I n t h e e v e n t s u c h o f f i c i a l
participation is considered advisable, detailed plans for demonstra-
tions, exhibitions, or celebrations involving Army personnel, activi-
t i e s , e q u i p m e n t , o r m a t e r i a l s w i l l b e s u b m i t t e d t h r o u g h s a f e t y
channel to the MACOM commander for approval.
c. Commercial fireworks used in holiday celebrations on the in-
stallation will be transported, set up, and fired on the same day only
by commercial firms or licensed pyrotechnic technicians in accord-
ance with local laws and NFPA Standard 1123. Commercial fire-
works confiscated or found on an installation will be placed in
isolated storage until qualified EOD personnel destroy them.
2–13. Static or public display
Live explosives items will not be used for display or loaded, or
installed on display vehicles or aircraft. Explosives items will not be
rendered inert for this purpose unless authorized by the specific item
manager or the system program office.
a. Live or expended ammunition must be removed from vehicle
or aircraft gun system, if feasible. If not feasible, gun systems must
be rendered mechanically and electrically safe before the aircraft or
vehicle is placed on display.
b. Operational vehicles and aircraft may be displayed without
removing explosives components from egress or life support sys-
tems. Appropriate safety precautions in accordance with technical
manuals will be taken, and visitors will not be allowed near actuat-
ing controls.
c. When feasible, ejection cartridges will be removed from exter-
nal release systems. If not, ensure that safety pins or devices cannot
be easily removed and firing circuits are isolated (for example,
circuit breakers pulled).
d. Procedures for static display of vehicles and aircraft are con-
tained in specific vehicle or aircraft technical manuals.
2–14. Explosives training aids for military working dogs
The use of explosives training aids for training military working
3DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
dogs is addressed in paragraph 5–14 and AR 190–12 and DA Pam
190–12.
2–15. Hunting
Written permits authorizing hunting within an explosives area may
be issued by the installation commander if hunting conditions can be
controlled to ensure life and property are not endangered.
a. Hunting will not be allowed in surety “limited” storage and
operating areas.
b. Where hunting is allowed, maps will clearly define the “hun-
t i n g ” a n d “ n o h u n t i n g ” a r e a s . E a c h h u n t e r m u s t b e t h o r o u g h l y
briefed on the respective areas and local arrangements.
c. All hunting will conform to applicable State, Federal, or host
nation regulations.
d. Hunting in dedicated impact areas (real property contaminated
with explosives and ammunition) is not authorized.
4 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 2-1 (PAGE 1). Risk management
5DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 2-1 (PAGE 2). Risk management
6 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Chapter 3
Fire Prevention, Protection, and Suppression
3–1. Fire prevention management
a. Fire and excessive heat are two of the greatest hazards to
explosives. This chapter gives procedures for dealing with these
hazards.
b. Fires which may occur in buildings or magazines containing
ammunition or explosives will vary in intensity and effect, depend-
ing on the material involved in the fire. Certain explosives will
ignite immediately on contact with a spark or flame or when sub-
jected to frictional heat or concussion. Some explosive substances
may burn freely while others will be subject to explosion while
burning or will develop such intense heat, as in the case of solid and
liquid propellants, that firefighting efforts will be practically impos-
sible. Firefighting forces will be well acquainted with the hazards
involved in each fire hazard group and the best methods of fighting
fires of all kinds of materials under their protection. They should
also know how to use personnel protective devices required for the
various types of fires.
c . E a c h i n s t a l l a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n e x p l o s i v e s o p e r a t i o n s w i l l
develop prefire plans in accordance with AR 420–90. Plans will
cover all explosives areas and possible exposures of explosives to
fire. In addition to the requirements of AR 420–90, the overall plan
will specify responsible individuals and alternates, their organiza-
tions and training, and include a description of the emergency func-
tion of each department or outside agency. Duties of personnel
spelled out in the plan will include the following:
(1) Reporting the fire.
(2) Directing orderly evacuation of personnel.
( 3 ) N o t i f y i n g p e r s o n n e l i n n e a r b y l o c a t i o n s o f i m p e n d i n g
dangers.
(4) Activating means of extinguishing or controlling the fire.
(5) Meeting and advising the firefighters on the details of the fire
up to the time of their arrival.
d. Each Army fire station central communications center will
have an area map showing all explosives areas or locations. Loca-
tions with less than 1,000 rounds of HD 1.4 small arms ammunition
(.50 caliber or less) are exempt.
e. Personnel in charge of explosive operations will notify the fire
department when there is a change in the type of explosives being
worked which would require a change of fire or chemical hazard
symbols.
f. Where explosives, highly flammable, or energetic materials are
i n v o l v e d , a w r i t t e n p e r m i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r u s i n g h e a t - p r o d u c i n g
equipment capable of reaching a temperature higher than 228 de-
grees Fahrenheit (F) (109 degrees Celsius (C)). (See para 3–7a and
AR 420–90 for additional guidance.)
g. Matches or other flame or spark producing devices will not be
permitted in any magazine area or explosives area unless the com-
manding officer or his or her designated representative provides
written authority. When such authority has been received, a carrying
device, too large to fit into the pockets, will be used for matches,
lighters, and similar materials.
h. Carrying and using “strike anywhere” (kitchen) matches are
prohibited.
i. All flashlight or storage-battery lamps used in buildings con-
taining hazardous quantities of exposed explosives or flammable
vapors will be certified for the hazardous environment by the United
States Bureau of Mines or by a similarly recognized testing labora-
tory for that specific type of exposure.
3–2. Smoking
a. Smoking is prohibited in any explosives storage or operating
area or location, except as permitted below.
(1) Smoking may be allowed within an explosives area or loca-
tion in specially designated and posted “authorized smoking areas.”
A certification of approval by the installation commander or his or
her designated representative (fire chief, fire marshal, or fire war-
den), in coordination with the safety office, will be displayed in
each designated smoking location.
(2) In “Authorized Smoking Areas,” the following minimum pre-
cautions will be taken:
(a) Suitable receptacles for cigarette and cigar butts and pipe
heels will be provided. (Smoking residue will not be placed in trash
receptacles until it has been determined that no flammable or com-
bustible risk exists.)
(b) If electric power is available, push-button electric lighters that
cut off when pressure is released will be used. Lighters will be
permanently installed to prevent removal and use outside the desig-
nated area.
(c) Where intervening noncombustible walls are not available to
separate a potential smoking area from an area where ammunition
and explosives are present, the smoking area shall be separated by a
distance of at least 50 feet from the ammunition or explosives.
(d) At least one portable fire extinguisher with a 1A or greater
rating will be provided at each designated smoking area.
(e) Personnel whose clothing is contaminated with explosives or
other hazardous materials will not be allowed in smoking areas.
(f) Personnel working with hazardous chemicals or material must
wash their hands before smoking.
(g) A “No Smoking” sign will be posted at each entrance to an
explosives storage area. Where applicable, include a notice that
flame-producing devices must be turned over to the entry controller
or placed in the container provided.
b. Smoking is prohibited in, on, or within 50 feet of any motor
vehicle, trailer, railcar, or material handling equipment loaded with
explosives items.
c. Smoking is prohibited in any explosives-laden compartment of
an aircraft.
3–3. Training
All operating personnel and firefighting forces involved with explo-
sives must be trained in the precautions to be taken and how to fight
fires. This training will include the application and meaning of each
type fire hazard symbol, reporting fires, sounding alarms, area evac-
uations, and type and use of appropriate firefighting equipment. See
tables at the end of this chapter.
3–4. Fire drills
Fire drills will be held within the explosives areas at intervals of 6
months or less. See table 3–4 for withdrawal distances.
a. Drills are conducted to train firefighting forces and ensure
other personnel involved understand their duties and to evaluate fire
alarm systems and firefighting equipment.
b. Fire drills involving a fire department response will be coordi-
nated with the fire chief. This does not preclude unannounced tests
of a fire department’s response capabilities, provided adequate prior
coordination with the fire chief is accomplished. Personnel who
conduct these tests will make sure all personnel in the area are
aware that an exercise, and not a real fire, is in progress.
3–5. Fire exit drills
a. Frequent fire exit drills should be held when warranted by the
size of the building and the number of occupants. If emergency exits
other than the usual doors and stairways are provided, these drills
will cover their use.
b. All emergency exits will have exit signs which are clearly
visible. Signs will be marked in accordance with AR 385-30.
3–6. Alarms
In addition to any automatic alarm systems required by AR 420–90
or other applicable directives, an audible, manually operated fire
evacuation alarm system should be installed in each explosives
operating building. All alarm systems will be clearly labeled.
3–7. Fire prevention requirements
a. Heat-producing devices. The use of devices which produce
7DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
temperatures higher than 228 degrees F (109 degrees C) in any
explosives area should be confined to essential, temporary use.
Written instructions and a DA Form 5383–R (Hot-Work Permit),
are required before beginning work. They should cover the location,
purpose, duration, and details of general and explosives safety pre-
cautions to be used. Approved furnaces, electrical space heaters, and
electrical cigarette lighters which are properly installed in an operat-
ing building are exempt. Bilingual instructions are required in for-
eign countries where local employees are included in the work
force.
b. Control on wax pots.
(1) All wax pots regardless of size will be equipped with a power
indicator light, lids with fusible link, and placed on noncombustible
surfaces.
(2) Wax pots with a capacity in excess of one gallon must be
equipped with dual temperature controls.
c. Vegetation control. Vegetation control measures within explo-
sives areas and adjacent areas will be determined by the local
commander. The following items should be considered in a vegeta-
tion control program:
(1) The primary purpose of vegetation control is to limit the
probability of combustible vegetation causing an unacceptable risk
to munitions in storage. Control of combustible materials, such as
long dry grass or brush, heavy clippings, or dead wood, is designed
to slow the spread of vegetation fires.
(2) Except for firebreaks, those grounds in or near explosives
areas or locations should be maintained as unimproved grounds.
Maintenance should be limited to prevent waste of natural resources
(for example, erosion) and to prevent or suppress fires. Intensive
maintenance should not be performed.
(3) Vegetation control requirements must be balanced with other
operational factors such as cost to control, security, erosion preven-
tion, and passive defense (camouflage). Each of these factors must
be weighed in determining the level of vegetation control in and
around a particular explosives area.
(4) Varieties of vegetation that are resistant to burning should be
used wherever feasible. If removal of vegetation will cause soil
erosion, soil sterilants will not be used. Shrubs and trees planted on
earth cover of magazines should be selected so that their weight or
root system will not damage the structure. Dead or cut vegetation
must not be allowed to accumulate.
(5) When animals are used for vegetation control, overgrazing of
barricade surfaces and magazine earth cover must be avoided to
prevent erosion.
(6) Where vegetation growth is ineffective in preventing erosion,
a layer of approximately 2 inches of pressure-applied (Gunite) con-
crete or asphalt mixture may be used.
d. Firebreaks. Firebreaks will be kept clear of all readily com-
bustible material, such as dry grass, dead wood, or brush. The level
of live vegetation to be permitted in firebreaks (except those around
earth-covered magazine ventilators) will be determined as outlined
in c above.
( 1 ) A 5 0 – f o o t f i r e b r e a k w i l l b e m a i n t a i n e d a r o u n d e a c h
aboveground magazine, operating building or location, outdoor stor-
age site, and ready explosives facility.
(2) A 5-foot firebreak will be maintained around earth-covered
magazine ventilators.
(3) A 5-foot firebreak will be maintained on both sides of fences.
e. Separation criteria for burning vegetation. Intentional burning
will not be allowed within 200 feet of any explosives location.
When wind velocity exceeds 5 miles per hour or is forecasted to
exceed 5 miles per hour, burning operations will not take place.
(1) The windows, doors, and ventilators of magazines and/or
buildings within 600 feet of burning operations will be closed.
( 2 ) D u r i n g b u r n i n g o p e r a t i o n s , f i r e b r a n d s , s p a r k s , a n d / o r h o t
ashes must be controlled.
(3) Firefighting personnel and equipment determined necessary
by the fire chief will be present during burning operations.
f. Flammable liquids for cleaning. Flammable liquids will not be
used for cleaning within an explosives area or near explosives,
except as authorized by approved SOPs. Flammable liquids will be
used in explosive areas only when authorized by approved SOPs.
In-use stocks will—
(1) Not exceed one workday’s supply;
(2) Be kept in approved safety containers or dispensers; and,
(3) Be removed at the end of each workday.
g. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) fire separation distances
(1) POL storage location requirements. Fire clearance criteria
from POL locations are specified by the NFPA Standard 30. If
required fire clearances are greater than those required by this regu-
lation, use the greater required separation.
(a) Antisiphon systems will be used where applicable.
(b) Any aboveground petroleum storage tank which has a capac-
ity of 2,000 gallons or more must be enclosed within a dike area as
prescribed in 29 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 1910.106 and
NFPA Standard 30. The capacity of this diked area must equal the
capacity of the largest tank within the diked area.
(2) Quantities of 500 gallons or less.
(a) Where tanks serve equipment (such as oil heaters or diesel
generators) located in explosives buildings, antisiphoning devices
will be used. They are not needed if the level of the tank installation
is such that siphoning is impossible.
(b) Above ground petroleum facilities (such as tanks, pumps, or
pumphouses) will be located a minimum of 50 feet from explosives
locations.
(3) Parking fuel service trucks. Parking areas for fuel service
t r u c k s w i l l b e l o c a t e d a m i n i m u m o f 5 0 f e e t f r o m e x p l o s i v e s
locations.
(4) Mobile dispensing units. There must be at least 100 feet
between explosives and any mobile petroleum dispensing unit oper-
ating in an explosives area, unless a shorter distance is needed
during transfer operations to an underground tank (as allowed under
(2) above).
(5) Liquid petroleum (LP) gas facilities. LP gas facilities will
meet the requirements of this section.
(6) Vehicle refueling. Gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles and
equipment will not be refueled inside any structure in the explosives
storage area or in any facility, site, revetment, or other building
containing explosives, regardless of location. When being refueled,
vehicles will be at least 100 feet from structures or sites containing
explosives. When refueling is completed, the refueling vehicle must
be removed promptly from the storage area.
(a) Use the smallest available size refueling unit consistent with
the mission.
(b) When refueling explosives-loaded vehicles, maintain an elec-
trically continuous bonding path between the vehicle being filled
and the tank being emptied. The entire system will be grounded.
(c) Do not allow smoking or open flame devices within 50 feet
of gasoline or diesel refueling. At least one person must be present
during the entire operation. During the refueling, stop the motor of
both the vehicle being refueled and the refueling truck (unless the
refueling truck motor drives the pump).
(d) If a fuel spill occurs, immediately notify the installation fire
department. Do not start the motors of the refueling truck or unit
being refueled until the area is rendered safe by the fire department.
(e) Refueling will not be done within 20 feet of a inert ammuni-
tion storage building or loading dock.
( 7 ) E x c e p t i o n s . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r e e x c e p t e d f r o m t h e a b o v e
requirements:
(a) Separation of POL facilities and aircraft during combat or
simulated combat operations.
(b) Separation between POL hydrants set on the flight line flush
with the pavement and explosives loaded aircraft or explosives load-
ing or unloading operations.
(c) Diesel-powered generators may be equipped with an opera-
tional “day-tank” of the smallest size needed to operate the motor
properly. Supply tanks will be separated by the applicable under-
ground or aboveground criteria.
8 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
h. Paint and other flammable materials. Small stocks of flamma-
ble materials, such as paints and solvents required to support explo-
s i v e s m a i n t e n a n c e o p e r a t i o n s , m a y b e s t o r e d i n a n e x p l o s i v e s
storage area. The 29 CFR 1910.106 and AR 420–90, apply.
(1) Combustible materials, such as wood, paper, and rags, will
not be stored with flammables. Containers of flammable materials
will be closed, except when in use.
( 2 ) F l a m m a b l e m a t e r i a l s i n a p p r o v e d w e a t h e r p r o o f c o n t a i n e r s
maystored outdoors. Grounding and bonding are required when con-
tents are being dispensed.
(3) Flammable storage will be located at least 50 feet from explo-
sives locations.
(4) A limited supply of paint, not to exceed a one day require-
ment, may be stored in explosives operating facilities if the require-
ments of AR 420–90 are met.
( 5 ) A t l e a s t o n e f i r e e x t i n g u i s h e r , s u i t a b l e f o r t h e t y p e o f
materials involved, will be readily available for use (table 3–1).
i. Vehicle parking. Vehicles, except during loading or unloading,
will not be parked closer than 100 feet to any explosives facility.
j. Operating support equipment. The following applies to all sup-
port equipment powered by internal combustion engines used with
explosives and not otherwise regulated under chapter 10.
(1) This equipment should be located 50 feet or more from ex-
plosives but never less than 25 feet.
(2) Only qualified personnel will use the equipment.
(3) The equipment will be inspected for cleanliness and visual
defects before each use. Defects will be documented in the applica-
ble forms. Equipment that is malfunctioning or has defects that
present a hazard will be removed from the operational site for
repairs.
(4) Two fire extinguishers rated 10BC or higher for flammable or
combustible liquid fires (Class B fire) and electrical fires (Class C
fire) will be readily available.
(5) Equipment will not be refueled within 100 feet of explosives.
k. Stacking combustible material. Containers, dunnage, lumber,
and other material will be stacked in an orderly manner. Stacks
should be limited to an area of no more than 1,500 square feet. Bulk
stacks of combustible materials should not be closer than intraline
distance from locations containing explosives (use chap 5 to estab-
lish minimum separations). Working quantities may be stacked in
the vicinity of explosives. Portable fire extinguishers or water bar-
rels should be provided in these areas.
l. Exceptions on stacking combustible material. When needed to
prepare for combat operations, empty containers, dunnage, and lum-
ber which cannot be removed while the work is in progress may be
t e m p o r a r i l y s t a c k e d i n o r n e a r t h e e x p l o s i v e s s t o r a g e s i t e ,
provided—
(1) The stacks are stable and are separated from the operations as
far as practical.
(2) All of the materials are removed upon completion of the
operation or once each day (24 hours).
3–8. Auxiliary firefighting equipment
a. Fire extinguishers. A minimum of two fire extinguishers suita-
ble for the hazards involved, will be available for immediate use
when explosives are being handled. Extinguishers need not be per-
manently located at the site. Each extinguisher will be placed in a
conspicuous and readily accessible location. Each fire extinguisher
will be kept in a full, or fully charged, operable condition. Table
3–1 lists agents for fighting fires.
b. Water barrels. Water barrels and pails are suitable for fighting
Class A fires. Water barrels will be covered to prevent insect breed-
ing and evaporation. The installation fire chief will decide if they
are required and where to put them at explosives locations. At least
two metal pails will be available for each barrel. Water barrels
should be winterized as needed. Water barrels may not be needed in
an explosives storage area if—
(1) Vegetation control measures are adequate and the area is
regularly monitored.
(2) Each crew working in the area has two fire extinguishers
readily available. If more than one crew are working at the same
location, only two fire extinguishers are required.
(3) The installation has an organized firefighting force able to
combat grass and brush fires in a timely manner.
3–9. Storage of water for firefighting
a. Adequate water to fight fires must be available at permanent
explosives facilities. The required amount of water will be calcu-
lated in accordance with Mil Handbook 1008.
b. The minimum water supply will not be less than 3,000 gallons.
c. The following will be used as guidelines in separating water
supplies from explosives:
(1) Water tanks shall be separated from explosives per chapter 5.
(2) Sectional control valves will protect the water distribution
system so that damaged sections of the main can be cut off without
impairing the operation of the remainder of the system. Water mains
will not be located under railroads or roads used for conveying large
quantities of ammunition or explosives, as a detonation may cause a
main to break.
3–10. Access to fire hose
The fire chief may choose to have a standard hose prepositioned and
connected to fire hydrants. Hose and accessories will be protected
from deterioration by approved hose houses and other protection as
determined by the fire chief.
3–11. Limitation of fire areas
Openings in fire walls will be provided with approved automatic fire
doors. They will be installed and maintained per NFPA Standard 80.
3–12. Reciprocal agreements for fire fighting support
Mutual aid agreements will be established where civilian fire depart-
ments support major firefighting efforts or when the host nation
provides fire protection.
a. The Army fire department will provide adapters if there is any
difference in the thread size of equipment connections the cooperat-
ing departments use.
b. The Army fire department will give familiarization training to
s e n i o r f i r e o f f i c i a l s o f c o o p e r a t i n g d e p a r t m e n t s f o r t h e s p e c i a l
firefighting problems in the territory served by their departments.
This will ensure better integration of their forces in an emergency.
c. Non-Department of Defense (DOD) firefighters who support
Army units will not be used to fight fire involving chemicals or
explosives. These firefighters will be informed during training of the
hazards of a fire involving chemicals or explosives. A mutual aid
agreement according to AR 420–90 will specify the base agency
which will provide this training.
3–13. Public withdrawal distances
a. Emergency withdrawal distances for nonessential personnel are
intended to apply in emergency situations only and are not to be
used for facility siting. Emergency withdrawal distances depend on
fire involvement and on whether or not the hazard classification, fire
division, and quantity of explosives are known. The withdrawal
distance for essential personnel at accidents shall be determined by
emergency authorities on site. Emergency authorities shall deter-
mine who are essential personnel.
b. If a fire involves explosives or involvement is imminent, then
the initial withdrawal distance applied will be at least inhabited
building distance. When emergency authorities determine that the
fire is or may become uncontrollable and may result in deflagration
and/or detonation of nearby ammunition or explosive material, all
nonessential personnel will be withdrawn to the appropriate emer-
gency withdrawal distance listed in table 3–4. If fire is not affecting
explosives or involvement is not imminent, then emergency authori-
ties shall determine the withdrawal distance based on the situation at
hand.
c. Structures or protected locations offering equivalent protection
for the distances listed in table 3–4 may be used instead of relocat-
ing personnel from the structure and/or location to the specified
emergency withdrawal distance.
9DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
d. Commanders will develop evacuation plans for their installa-
tions that reference the appropriate withdrawal distances as part of
the disaster response plan. The commander must alert civilian au-
thorities of any explosive accident on the installation that may affect
the local community and provide these authorities with the appropri-
ate emergency withdrawal distances.
3–14. Firefighting guidance symbols
There are two types of symbols which give guidance for firefighting
forces and other personnel, fire and chemical hazard symbols.
a. Fire divisions. There are six explosives divisions. Fire division
1 indicates the greatest hazard. The hazard decreases as the fire
division numbers increase, as shown in table 3–5.
b. Fire division symbols.
(1) Each of the six fire divisions is indicated by one of four
distinctive symbols recognizable to the firefighting personnel ap-
proaching the fire scene. The applicable fire division number is
shown on each symbol. For easy identification from long range, the
symbols differ in shape as shown in table 3–6. (Also, see figs 3–1
through 3–4.)
(2) The hazard and firefighting precautions for each symbol are
summarized in table 3–3.
c. Chemical hazard symbols. These symbols are used to identify
operating buildings and storage facilities which contain pyrotechnic
and chemical munitions or agents and other hazardous material.
(1) Hazard symbols vary with the type of agent. These symbols
are described in figures 3–5 through 3–7.
(2) The hazard each symbol represents and the firefighting pre-
cautions are summarized in table 3–3.
(3) The APPLY NO WATER sign is intended for use with haz-
ardous materials where use of water may intensify the fire, cause an
explosion, or spread the fire.
(4) The chemical agents most used in ammunition and the combi-
nations of chemical hazard symbols required in storage are specified
in table 3–7.
d. Posting symbols. Symbols will be removed, covered, or re-
versed if the explosives or chemical agents are removed from a
facility or location. The person in charge of the operation will post
or change the symbols. The fire department will be notified each
time fire or hazard symbols are changed.
e . S y m b o l d i m e n s i o n s . T h e d i m e n s i o n s s h o w n i n f i g u r e s 3 – 1
through 3–7 are the normal minimum sizes. Half-size symbols may
be used where appropriate, for example, on doors and lockers inside
buildings.
f. Obtaining symbol decals. Decals for fire and chemical hazard
symbols may be obtained through normal supply channels. National
stock numbers of standard and half-size decals are listed in figures
3–1 through 3–7.
g. Storing toxic chemical and ammunition items. Toxic chemicals
without explosive components may be received as Class 6, Division
1 poisons (6.1). Items which contain chemical substances of another
commodity class and which do not contain explosive components,
may be stored with ammunition items containing explosives and the
same chemical substance.
3–15. Posting fire symbols
The fire symbol that applies to the most hazardous material present
will be posted on or near all nonnuclear explosives locations. It will
be visible from all approach roads. One symbol posted on or near
the door end of an earth-covered magazine is normally enough. One
or more symbols may be needed on other buildings. When all
munitions within a storage area are covered by one fire symbol, it
may be posted at the entry control point. Backing material for fire
symbol decals should be the shape of the decal and should be
noncombustible.
a. When different HDs of explosives are stored in individual
multi-cubicle bays or module cells, they may be further identified
by posting the proper fire symbol on each bay or cell.
b. Where facilities containing explosives are located in a row on
one service road and require the same fire symbol, only one fire
symbol at the entrance of the row is required.
c. Fire symbols will be placed on entrances to arms rooms con-
taining ammunition. Where explosives are stored in a locker or
similar container, the container will also be marked with the appro-
priate fire symbol. Symbols are not required on the exterior of the
building, providing the building is exempt from Q-D according to
paragraph 5–1b.
3–16. Exceptions on posting fire symbols
a. Fire symbols need not be posted on locations having 1,000
rounds or less of HD 1.4 small arms ammunition (.50 caliber or
less).
b. Use the symbols in this regulation unless host nation symbols
differ and, by agreement, host nation symbols are required.
c. The responsible commander may, for security purposes, re-
move symbols. In such situations the commander will emphasize
giving prompt and exact information to the fire department about
changes in the status of explosives.
d. Fire symbols are not required on individual structures used to
store, maintain, or handle nuclear weapons or components. Howev-
er, fire symbols are required to mark individual structures used to
store, maintain, or handle conventional ammunition. The following
procedures will be used in these situations:
(1) Maintain a storage area facility map or listing as applicable
showing the proper TM 39–20–11 line number for nuclear weapons
and components.
(a) Provide the information on this map or listing to the fire
department and update it as changes occur.
(b) The entry controller will keep a map or listing similar to the
one in (1) above. This information will be given to firefighters
responding to an emergency.
(2) If explosives are stored overnight in the maintenance and
assembly building, advise the entry controller (when required) and
fire department of the TM 39–20–11 line number for the building.
e. If vehicles or aircraft are in a designated explosives parking
area, fire symbols need not be posted if such areas are described in
a local publication, such as the vehicles and aircraft parking plan,
which includes the following:
(1) The HD involved.
(2) The governing fire symbol for the parking area.
(3) Procedures to be followed during an emergency.
(4) The requirement to notify the fire department.
f. Do not post fire symbols near vehicle or aircraft loaded with
nuclear weapons. Do not post fire symbols near vehicles loaded
with nonnuclear munitions parked within the same designated area
as nuclear weapons-loaded vehicles or aircraft. In these cases, use
the procedures described in e above.
3–17. Posting chemical hazard symbols
If chemical or pyrotechnic munitions are assembled with explosive
components, then chemical hazard symbols must be used together
with fire division symbols. Chemical munitions which do not have
explosive components will be identified by the chemical hazard
symbol only. Requirements for posting hazard symbols are the same
as for fire symbols.
3–18. Procedures for chemical agents and other toxic
substances
These procedures vary according to the type of agent involved and
are summarized in table 3–3.
3–19. Firefighting at railheads
a. Fires are most likely to occur in the under-structure of railcars.
Often they can be extinguished if found in the early stages. Every
effort should be made to separate and promptly remove undamaged
cars from yards where a fire has broken out.
b. Where explosives operations are conducted at railheads, Gov-
ernment railroad personnel should be trained to use fire equipment.
10 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
3–20. Automatic sprinkler systems
a. Properly installed and maintained automatic sprinkler protec-
tion is important in reducing fire losses and is justified in certain
buildings. In addition to requirements of the National Fire Codes,
published by the NFPA, the following are examples of locations
where sprinklers will be installed when required by AR 420–90:
(1) In certain buildings, in load lines, explosives manufacturing,
r e c e i v i n g , s h i p p i n g , i n s p e c t i o n , a m m u n i t i o n w o r k s h o p , a n d
demilitarization areas after a risk assessment.
(2) Where a potential loss of life exists.
(3) When value of buildings and/or contents warrants.
b. Automatic sprinkler systems will not be deactivated unless
repairs or modification to the system are required. When interrup-
tion is required or deactivation of a system is necessary, the criteria
and precautions outlined in TM 5–695 will be followed. Where
heating is a problem, wet systems should be converted to automatic
dry systems. Valve rooms will be heated during the winter.
c. Inspection and maintenance of automatic sprinkler systems
will conform with requirements of TM 5–695.
d. Local water flow alarm facilities are required for automatic
sprinkler systems installed in explosives operating buildings; howev-
er, transmitted waterflow alarms may not be required.
3–21. Deluge systems for explosives operations
a. In addition to sprinklers, deluge systems will be provided to
protect operating personnel in high hazard occupations and locations
where a process fire hazard exists. An ultra high speed deluge
system will be considered when the following conditions exist—
(1) A risk assessment indicates that an accidental deflagration or
explosion is unacceptable.
(2) An area or operation will expose personnel to thermal flux in
excess of 0.3 calories per square centimeter per second if an ac-
cidental deflagration or explosion should occur.
(3) The system must be capable of preventing propagation be-
tween bays and preventing significant injury to employees. Quick-
acting sensors such as ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) detectors
will be used. The MACOM may approve using new technology
which offers comparable or better protection than UV or IR detec-
tors. The deluge valve will be arranged for automatic and/or manual
activation.
b. An ultra high speed deluge system is an instantaneous re-
sponse (milliseconds) system. It is used primarily to protect person-
nel, process equipment, and buildings from the fire and thermal
hazard presented by energetic material involved in high hazard ex-
plosive operations, such as, melting, mixing, blending, screening,
sawing, granulating, drying, pressing, extrusion, and pouring. Del-
uge systems with heat actuated devices (HAD) are not ultra high
speed deluge systems and will not be used for personnel protection.
c. Due to the speed of water coming from all the nozzles, ultra
high speed deluge systems depend on the detection system, piping
network, nozzles and water supply characteristics. Only experienced
designers, engineers, and installers who understand the system’s
limitations and capabilities should provide the design, specification,
and installation of the deluge system.
d. All munitions production, maintenance, renovation, quality as-
surance and demilitarization operations will receive a risk assess-
ment to identify potential fire and thermal threats and to assess the
level of risk. The hazard must be accurately defined. A potential fire
and or thermal hazard whose level of risk is high or extremely high
is unacceptable. The risk assessment will consider factors such as:
(1) Initiation sensitivity
(2) Quantity of material
(3) Heat output
(4) Burning rate
(5) Potential ignition and initiation sources
(6) Protection capabilities
(7) Personnel exposure
(8) Munitions configuration
(9) Process equipment
(10) Process layout
(11) The building layout.
e. The diameter, length, number of bends, and friction coefficient
limits the effective flow rate of the water that the system can
transport at an effective pressure. Pipe runs will be kept to a mini-
mum. Horizontal runs will be sloped at least 1/4 inch per 10 feet of
run, with air bleeders at all high points. The looping of deluge
piping systems may improve response time by improving pressure
and effective flow rate.
f. The design of the nozzle orifice determines the dispersion pat-
tern, water droplets, and turbulence of the water flow which in turn,
directly affects the water velocity. Nozzles will be installed with
priming water being held back at the nozzle with blowoff caps,
rupture disc, or the poppet valve when utilizing pilot operated noz-
zles. Nozzle discharge rates and spray patterns will be selected to
meet the hazard condition being protected.
g. The nozzles will be located as close to the exposed surface of
the explosives as possible to ensure immediate drenching of all parts
of the machine or operation under extreme conditions. The dis-
charge pattern of the nozzle can be used in determining the required
distance. When explosives are located inside machines under tight
hoods or covers, distributing outlets will be located inside the en-
closed space.
h. Where explosive vapors, gases, or dusts may enter outlets and
interfere with their operation, nonmetallic internally spring- held
caps will be placed on the outlets. The design must provide immedi-
ate release of the cap when pressure is exerted within the outlet.
Caps will be attached to outlets with small nonferrous chains to
prevent their loss when the deluge system is activated.
i. Install a device on the supply side of the system so that the
system will actuate an audible warning device in affected operating
areas when the pressure falls.
j. Deluge systems will be charged with water or chemicals. This
depends on the character of the fire to be controlled, as determined
by engineering studies of the hazards and the hazard analysis.
k. Operations protected by a deluge system will be stopped im-
mediately if the system fails and will not be resumed without ade-
quate protection.
l. An estimate of the required maximum flow rate and pressure
will be made. The capabilities of the existing water supply and
distribution system to meet these requirements will be evaluated. If
the required flow rate and pressure is not adequate, arrangements
must be made to provide the required flow and pressure. The water
pressure necessary for proper functioning of a deluge system must
be available instantaneously. The water supply will have a duration
of at least 15 minutes. If there are two or more deluge systems in
the same fire area, supply mains and the arrangements and size of
the system rise will provide each system with the required quantities
of water per head. No allowance is required for hose lines. All valve
on water lines between the water main and the deluge systems will
be supervised to ensure the valves are not accidently closed.
m. The deluge valve will be arranged for automatic or manual
activation or both. Manual activation devices will, as a minimum, be
located at exits.
n. The deluge system must able to prevent fire spreading from
one cell or bay to another. Together with personal protective equip-
ment required for workers at the operation, the deluge system will
prevent significant injury to the worker. The workers will not re-
ceive more than first-degree burns from any thermal threat. The
effectiveness of the deluge system will be demonstrated by test
against actual or equivalent threat. These tests will be conducted
with the maximum quantity of energetic material expected to be in
the cell or bay. Testing is unnecessary if a small deluge (design
flow of 500 gallons per minute or less) has a response time of 100
milliseconds. Testing is unnecessary for a large deluge system (de-
sign flow of more than 500 gallons per minute) with a response time
of 200 milliseconds or less, provided a hazard analysis indicates that
a faster response time is not required. For the life of the system, the
installation will retain on file the results of the tests or the use of the
100 or 200 milliseconds or less response time.
o. Response time is the time in milliseconds from the presenta-
tion of an energy source to the detection system, to the beginning of
11DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
water flow from the critical nozzle under test. The critical nozzle is
usually located closest to the hazard or as a hazard analysis deter-
mines best.
p. Two methods are commonly used to measure response time—
(1) A millisecond digital time is started by saturated UV source
(IR for IR detectors) held directly in front of the detector and is
stopped by the actuation of a water flow switch at the critical
nozzle. This method does not measure the time lag of and water
travel time from the nozzle to the target. It is normally used for
routine testing.
(2) A high-speed video camera and recorder (at least 120 frames
per second) can be used for very accurate measurement. The time
from ignition to detection and water travel time from nozzle to
target can also be measured. The video recording system can be
used for contract compliance or when measurement of total response
time is required.
q. Deluge systems will be tested and maintained per the criteria
of TM 5–695 and this pamphlet. A good preventive maintenance
program is required to reduce the number of false alarms and other
system problems. Systems in laid-away or inactive facilities are
exempt from testing. Laid-away systems will be tested when they
are put back into service. Records of tests will be kept on file at the
installation. The following tests will be conducted—
(1) A full operational flow test will be conducted at intervals not
to exceed 1 year, including measurement of response time. The
installation will retain the results of tests on file for the life of the
system.
(2) Detectors will be tested and inspected for physical damage
and accumulation of deposits on the lenses at least monthly.
(3) Controllers will be checked at the start of each shift for any
faults.
(4) Valves on the water supply line shall be checked at the start
of each shift to ensure that they are open. Checking is unnecessary
if the valve is secured in the “open” position with a locking device
or is monitored by a signaling device that will sound a trouble
signal at the deluge system control panel or other central location.
r. The melt kettle and closed containers of molten explosive will
normally not be equipped with internal flame detectors or deluge
nozzles. The exterior of the kettles and closed containers will be
protected by ultra-high-speed deluge systems. This is especially
i m p o r t a n t f o r c o n t a i n e r o r k e t t l e o p e n i n g s w h e r e m a t e r i a l s a r e
placed.
s. A portable deluge may be used in lieu of a permanently in-
stalled deluge system provided it meets the following—
(1) A portable ultra-high-speed deluge system may be used to
protect short-run ammunition operations involving production, main-
tenance, renovation, demilitarization, and surveillance. It is not a
permanent solution for long-term runs or high usage locations.
(2) The portable deluge systems, as a minimum, will consist of—
(a) Two detectors,
(b) Two nozzles,
(c) A pressurized tank with at least 100 gallons of water.
(3) The portable deluge system must be tested and timed each
time it is set up for each new operation. This time must not exceed
100 milliseconds as outlined above.
(4) The portable deluge system must be located so that no per-
sonnel are working directly opposite it.
(5) The portable deluge system should be tied into a backup
water supply. It will also set off the building fire alarm.
t. The required density will depend upon the type of energetic
material involved, process layout, and whether the aim is to extin-
guish the fire, prevent its propagation, or prevent serious injury, or a
combination of these. A commonly used density for preventing
propagation and structural damage is 0.5 GPM/SQ FT. To protect
p e r s o n n e l a n d p r o c e s s e q u i p m e n t o r e x t i n g u i s h p y r o t e c h n i c
materials, significantly higher density rates may be necessary. These
may be as high as 3.0 GPM/SQ FT for area coverage or 200 GPM
for point-of-operation coverage.
3–22. Instructions for fighting fires involving ammunition
or explosives
a. When a guard, watchman, or other person discovers smoke
coming from a closed magazine, or sees any evidence that a maga-
zine is afire, he or she will give the alarm as quickly as possible and
evacuate to a safe distance. He or she will not enter a burning
building or magazine, nor open the building or magazine door if a
fire is suspected.
b. If a fire is discovered in grass or other combustible material
surrounding a magazine, the alarm should be given immediately and
the guard should do all that is possible, using available firefighting
tools to extinguish or control the fire until firefighting forces arrive.
It is important to extinguish grass fires especially when they are
close to magazines. If a fire has actually started inside a magazine,
firefighting forces should either combat the fire or seek the nearest
suitable protection, depending on the type of ammunition or explo-
sives with the magazine.
c. When a workman or other person discovers a fire in a building
where people are working and explosives are present, a suitable fire
signal will be given and all personnel present will be evacuted. At
least one responsible manager will be dispatched in the direction
from which the fire department is expected to come, to inform
firemen of the location, nature, and extent of the fire. The officer in
charge of firefights will not permit personnel to advance until ac-
cruate information is available about the existing hazard and an
dconcludes that the advance is justified.
Table 3–1
Extinguishing agents for fires
Type of Fire Extinguishing Agent
Class A - Combustible (materials Water
such as wood, paper, rubbish, or
grass)
Class B - Volatile flammables Carbon dioxide, halon, foam,
(materials such as oil, gasoline or dry chemical
grease, or paint)
Class C - Electrical (electrical equip- Carbon dioxide, halon, or dry
ment) chemical
Class D - Combustible metals (mag- Dry powder
nesium, potassium, and so forth)
Notes:
1This is general guidance. For more specific guidance, see MSDS, NFPA publi-
cations, or consult a fire protection specialist.
12 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 3–2
Fire symbol hazards and actions
Fire Materials Hazard Action/remarks
sym-
bol
1 1.1 explosives, ammunition, and
liquid propellants Mass detonation 1. Will not be fought unless a rescue attempt is being made.
2. If there is suitable separation between nonexplosive and symbol 1
materials, and if approved by the fire chief, fire fighting forces may at-
tempt to extinguish the fire.
3. If personal safety is in doubt, take suitable cover.
2 1.2 ammunition and explosives Explosion with fragments 1. Give the alarm and attempt to extinguish the fire if in an early stage.
2. Firefighting forces should fight the fire, until the explosive material be-
comes involved in the fire or the fire chief determines the risk is too great.
If not possible, prevent the spreading of the fire.
3. Detonations of items could occur. Provide protection from fragments.
3 1.3 ammunition and explosives Mass fire 1. May be fought if explosives not directly involved.
2. If WP munitions are involved, smoke is liberated. WP munitions may
explode. WP should be immersed in water or sprayed with water con-
tinuously.
3. For fire involving HC and incendiaries, water should not be used unless
large quantities are available. Use dry and/or dry powder agent in the
early stage.
4. For fires involving pyrotechnics and magnesium incendiaries, protect
adjacent facilities and equipment. Do not use CO2or halon extinguishers
or water on or near the munitions. Allow magnesium to cool unless upon
flammable material. In this case, use a 2-inch layer of dry sand or powder
on the floor and rake the burning material onto this layer and resmother.
4 1.4 ammunition and explosives Moderate fire 1.Fight these fires.
2. Expect minor explosions and hot fragments.
Table 3–3
Chemical hazard symbols and actions
Chemical symbol Materials (SCG) Hazard Action/Remarks
Full protective clothing—
set 1 (Red) Nerve or blister agents (K) Highly toxic as aerosol/va-
por 1. Evacuate public 2 miles downwind or 1 mile upwind or
to the sides. These are initial evacuation distances which
can and should be modified using an approved evacuation
plot program.
2. Use munitions decontamination procedures.
3. If explosion does not occur, approach from upwind and
extinguish fire.
Full protective clothing—set
2 (Yellow) Riot control/smokes (G) In-
capacitating agents (K) Toxic as aerosol/vapor 1. Approach from upwind and extinguish fire.
2. Decontamination may be required.
Full protective clothing—set
3 (white) TEA smoke (L) Spontaneously flammable
when exposed to air 1. Do no look at burning material.
2. Do not use water.
White Phosphorous (H),
Red Phosphorous Spontaneously flammable
when exposed to air 1. Post fire guard until leaking phosphorus has been re-
moved.
2. After removal of agents, post fire guard for 2 days for
possible reignition.
3. Use putty knife to remove small amounts, then use
blowtorch to burn off remainder.
13DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 3–3
Chemical hazard symbols and actions—Continued
Chemical symbol Materials (SCG) Hazard Action/Remarks
Wear breathing apparatus HC smoke (G) Smoke Do not use water.
Incendiary (G) Burns with extremely high
temperatures 1. Do not use water.
2. Do not look at burning material.
Napalm (J) Mass fire Fight as a POL fire.
Apply no water HC smoke (G) Smoke Do not use water.
Incendiary (G) Burns with extremely high
temperature 1. Do not use water.
2. Do not look at burning material.
TEA smoke (L) Spontaneously combustible 1. Do not use water.
2. Do not look at burning material.
Table 3–4
Emergency withdrawal distances for nonessential personnel
Hazard Class/Division Unknown quantity NEW Known quantity NEW
Unknown facility, truck and/or tractor
trailer 4000 feet (approximately .75 mile) 4000 feet (approximately .75 mile)
Unknown railcar 5000 feet (approximately 1 mile) 5000 feet (approximately 1 mile)
HC/D 1.1 (see note 1) Same as unknown HC/D For transportation:
(a) Use 2500 feet minimum distance for 500 lbs NEW and
below.
(b) Use 5000 feet minimum distance for railcars above 500
lbs,
(c) Otherwise use 4,000 feet minimum distance.
(d) Use 4000 feet minimum distance for bombs and projec-
tiles with caliber 5 inch (127mm) and greater.
For facilities:
(a) Use 2500 feet minimum distance for 15000 lbs and be-
low.
(b) Use 4000 feet minimum distance for above 15000 lbs
and less than 50,000 lbs.
(c) Above 50,000 lbs, use D = 105W1/3.
HC/D 1.2 (See note 1.) 2500 feet 2500 feet
HC/D 1.3 (See note 2.) 600 feet Twice the IBD distance with a 600 feet minimum distance.
HC/D 1.4 300 feet 300 feet
Notes:
1For HC/D 1.1 and 1.2 items, if known, the maximum range fragments and debris will be thrown (including the interaction effects of stacks of items, but excluding lugs,
strongbacks, and/or nose and tail plates) may be used to replace the minimum range shown above.
2For accidents involving propulsion units, it is unnecessary to specify emergency withdrawal distances based upon the potential flight ranges of these items.
Table 3–5
Fire divisions hazards
Fire division Hazard involved
1 Mass detonation
2 Explosion with fragments
3 Mass fire
4 Moderate fire
14 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 3–6
Fire division symbols
Fire symbol Shape National Stock Number
1 Octagon 7690-01-082-0290
7690-01-081-9581
2 X 7690-01-082-0289
7690-01-087-7340
3 Inverted triangle 7690-01-081-9583
7690-01-081-9582
4 Diamond 7690-01-082-6709
7690-01-081-9584
Table 3–7
Chemical agents and fillers contained in ammunition and the chemical hazard symbols required in storage
Chemical agents and fillers Full protective clothing Breathing ap- Apply no water G VX BZ H L
paratus
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3
GB X X
VX X X
H, HD, HT X X
LX X
CL, CG, CK, CN, CNS, CS, BBC, DA, DC, DM, FS, FM X
HC XX
BZ X X
WP, PWP, RP X
TH, PT XX
IM, NP X
TEA, TPA X X
Colored smokes X
15DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-1. Fire symbol 1 — mass detonation
16 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-2. Fire symbol 2 — explosion with fragments
17DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-3. Fire symbol 3 — mass fire
18 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-4. Fire symbol 4 — moderate fire
19DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-5. Chemical hazard symbol 1
20 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-6. Chemical hazard symbol 2
21DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 3-7. Chemical hazard symbol 3
22 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Chapter 4
Hazard Classification and Compatibility Groups
4–1. Explosives hazard classification procedures
a. To make identifying hazard characteristics easier and thus pro-
mote safe storage and transport of ammunition and explosives, DOD
uses the international system of classification devised by the United
Nations (UN) for transport of dangerous goods. Ammunition and
explosives are also assigned DOT class and marking in accordance
with 49 CFR 173.
b . T h e U . S . A r m y T e c h n i c a l C e n t e r f o r E x p l o s i v e S a f e t y
(USATCES) assigns proper hazard classifications. Inquiries for in-
formation about existing munitions or required data regarding newly
developed systems will be addressed to U.S. Army Technical Center
for Explosives Safety.
c. The UN classification system consists of nine hazard classes,
two of which contain most ammunition and explosives as defined in
this publication (Classes 1 and 6). Ammunition is now being classi-
fied by predominant hazard. This means that if an ammunition item
contains something which presents a greater hazard in transportation
than the hazard class 1 material, it will be placed in that hazard
class. For example, if a rocket motor contains a quantity of fuel and
a small igniter, then the proper hazard class may be class 3, rather
than HD 1.3.
d. Class 1 is divided into divisions that indicate the character and
predominance of associated hazards:
(1) Mass detonating (Division 1)
(2) Nonmass-detonating fragment producing (Division 2)
(3) Mass fire (Division 3)
(4) Moderate fire - no blast (Division 4)
(5) Extremely insensitive detonating substances (EIDS) (Division
5) (6) Extremely insensitive ammunition (Division 6).
e. For further refinement of this hazard identification system, a
numerical figure (in parentheses) is used to indicate the minimum
separation distance (in hundreds of feet) for protection from debris,
fragments, and firebrands when distance alone is relied on for such
protection. This number is placed to the left of the HD designators
1.1 through 1.3, such as (18)1.1, (08)1.2, and (06)1.3 (see para 5–5
for more information).
f. Articles that contain riot control substances without explosives
components are classified as Class 6, Division 1, in the U.N. Rec-
o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r T r a n s p o r t o f D a n g e r o u s G o o d s . B u l k l e t h a l
chemical agents and munitions without explosives are HD 6.1 in the
U.N. recommendations.
g. Technical Bulletin (TB) 700–2 is used to assign an HD to all
ammunition and explosives except those that are candidates for
designation as EIDS and EIDS ammunition. The EIDS and EIDS
ammunition shall be assigned to HD as indicated in table 4–1 with
prior Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB)
approval.
h. Final hazard classifications for ammunition and explosives are
listed in the Joint Hazard Classification System (JHCS). The JHCS
is the DOD authority for hazard classifications. The JHCS is availa-
ble through File Transfer Protocol (FTP), on-line as the Joint Haz-
ard Automated Retrieval System (JHARS), microfiche, or printout.
Requests for copies of the JHCS shall be addressed to U.S. Army
Technical Center for Explosives Safety. DOD contractors have to
submit their requests through their Contracting Officer’s Representa-
tive (COR) who will validate the contractor’s need.
4–2. EIDS and EIDS ammunition
a. EIDS is comprised of substances which have a mass explosion
hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of
initiation or of transistion from burning to detonation under normal
conditions of transport. These materials are assigned to HD 1.5 for
transportation purposes only. For storage, these materials are as-
signed to HD 1.1 (see para 5–2 also).
b. The EIDS ammunition consists of extremely insensitive arti-
cles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. The articles con-
tain only EIDS and demonstrate (through test results) a negligible
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. These materials
are assigned HD 1.6.
c. Quantity-distance application:
(1) Quantity-distance separations for HD 1.6 ammunition and
explosives will be based on table 5–18. This information is detailed
in table 4–2.
(2) Inhabited building distance (IBD) for bulk HD 1.6 explosives
will be based on chapter 5.
4–3. Storage principles
a. The highest degree of safety in ammunition and explosives
storage could be assured if each item were stored separately. How-
ever, such ideal storage generally is not feasible. A proper balance
of safety and other factors frequently requires mixing of several
types of ammunition and explosives in storage.
b. Ammunition and explosives may not be stored together with
dissimilar materials or items that present additional hazards. Exam-
ples are mixed storage of ammunition and explosives with flamma-
ble or combustible materials, acids, or corrosives.
c. All ammunition and explosives items are assigned to one of 13
storage compatibility groups (SCGs), based on the similarity of
characteristics, properties, and accident effects potential. Items in
each individual SCG can be stored together without increasing sig-
nificantly either the probability of an accident or, for a given quanti-
ty, the magnitude of the effects of such an accident. Considerations
used in assigning SCGs include but are not limited to the following:
(1) Chemical and physical properties.
(2) Design characteristics.
(3) Inner and outer packing configurations.
(4) Quantity-distance division.
(5) Net explosive weight.
(6) Rate of deterioration.
(7) Sensitivity to initiation.
(8) Effects of deflagration, explosion, or detonation.
d. When such mixed storage will facilitate safe operations and
promote overall storage efficiency, ammunition and explosives may
be mixed in storage, provided they are compatible. Assignment of
items of SCGs requiring separate storage will be minimized consis-
tent with actual hazards presented and not based on administrative
considerations or end use.
e. Ammunition and explosives in substandard or damaged pack-
aging, in a suspect condition, or with characteristics that increase the
risk in storage will be stored separately.
4–4. Mixed storage
a. Table 4–3 shows how different SCGs of ammunition and ex-
plosives can be mixed in storage. Exceptions are listed in b, below.
b. Certain locations within the United States, its territories, and
possessions designated by the Army and with site approval from the
DDESB to store ammunition in rapid response configurations and
B a s i c L o a d A m m u n i t i o n H o l d i n g A r e a s ( B L A H A ) o u t s i d e t h e
United States are authorized to store ammunition without regard to
compatibility. The maximum net explosive quantity (NEQ) at any of
these locations storing mixed compatibility ammunition must not
exceed 4000 kg (8820 pounds NEW) calculated in accordance with
paragraph 14–2d of this pamphlet.
4–5. Storage compatibility groups
a. Assignment. Ammunition and explosives are assigned to one
of 13 SCGs as follows:
(1) Group A. Bulk initiating explosives that have the necessary
sensitivity to heat, friction, or percussion to make them suitable for
use as initiating elements in an explosives train. Examples are wet
l e a d a z i d e , w e t l e a d s t y p h n a t e , w e t m e r c u r y f u l m i n a t e , w e t
tetracene, dry cyclonite (RDX), and dry pentaerythritol tetranitrate
(PETN).
23DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
(2) Group B. Detonators and similar initiating devices not con-
taining two or more independent safety features. Items containing
initiating explosives that are designed to initiate or continue the
functioning of an explosives train. Examples are detonators, blasting
caps, small arms primers, and fuzes.
(3) Group C. Bulk propellants, propelling charges, and devices
containing propellant with or without their own means of ignition.
Items that, upon initiation, will deflagrate, explode, or detonate.
Examples are single-, double-, triple-base and composite propel-
lants, rocket motors (solid propellant), and ammunition with inert
projectiles.
(4) Group D. Black powder, high explosives (HE), and ammuni-
tion containing HE without its own means of initiation and without
propelling charge, or a device containing an initiating explosives
and containing two or more independent safety features. Ammuni-
tion and explosives that can be expected to explode or detonate
when any given item or component thereof is initiated except for
devices containing initiating explosives with independent safety fea-
tures. Examples are bulk trinitrotoluene (TNT), Composition B,
black powder, wet RDX or PETN, bombs, projectiles, cluster bomb
units (CBUs), depth charges, and torpedo warheads.
(5) Group E. Ammunition containing HE without its own means
of initiation and with propelling charge (other than one containing a
flammable or hypergolic liquid). Ammunition or devices containing
HE and containing propelling charges. Examples are artillery ammu-
nition, rockets, or guided missiles.
(6) Group F. Ammunition containing HE with its own means of
initiation and with propelling charge (other than one containing a
flammable or hypergolic liquid) or without a propelling charge.
Examples are grenades, sounding devices, and similar items having
an in-line explosives train in the initiator.
(7) Group G. Fireworks, illuminating, incendiary, and smoke,
including hexachloroethane (HC) or tear-producing munitions other
than those munitions that are water activated or which contain white
phosphorous (WP) or flammable liquid or gel. Ammunition that,
u p o n f u n c t i o n i n g , r e s u l t s i n a n i n c e n d i a r y , i l l u m i n a t i o n ,
lachrymatory, smoke, or sound effect. Examples are flares, signals,
incendiary or illuminating ammunition, and other smoke or tear-
producing devices.
(8) Group H. Ammunition containing both explosives and WP or
other pyrophoric material. Ammunition in this group contains fillers
which are spontaneously flammable when exposed to the atmos-
phere. Examples are WP, plasticized white phosphorous (PWP), or
other ammunition containing pyrophoric material.
(9) Group J. Ammunition containing both explosives and flam-
mable liquids or gels. Ammunition in this group contains flammable
liquids or gels other than those which are spontaneously flammable
when exposed to water or the atmosphere. Examples are liquid- or
gel-filled incendiary ammunition, fuel-air explosives (FAE) devices,
flammable liquid-fueled missiles, and torpedoes.
(10) Group K. Ammunition containing both explosives and toxic
chemical agents. Ammunition in this group contains chemicals spe-
c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r i n c a p a c i t a t i n g e f f e c t s m o r e s e v e r e t h a n
lachrymation. Examples are artillery or mortar ammunition (fuzed or
unfuzed), grenades, and rockets or bombs filled with a lethal or
incapacitating chemical agent. (See note 5, fig. 4–1.)
(11) Group L. Ammunition not included in other compatibility
groups. Ammunition having characteristics that do not permit stor-
age with dissimilar ammunition belong in this group. Examples are
water-activated devices, prepackaged hypergolic liquid-fueled rocket
engines, certain FAE devices, triethylaluminum (TEA), and dam-
aged or suspect ammunition of any group. Types presenting similar
hazards may be stored together but not mixed with other groups.
(12) Group N. Ammunition containing only EIDS. Examples are
bombs and warheads.
(13) Group S. Ammunition presenting no significant hazard. Am-
munition so packaged or designed that any hazardous effects arising
from accidental functioning are confined within the package unless
the package has been degraded by fire, in which case all blast or
projection effects are limited to the extent that they do not hinder
firefighting significantly. Examples are thermal batteries, explosives
switches or valves, and other ammunition items packaged to meet
the criteria of this group.
b. Means of initiation. As used in this standard, the phrase “with
its own means of initiation” indicates that the ammunition has its
normal initiating device assembled to it, and this device would
present a significant risk during storage. However, the phrase does
not apply when the initiating device is packaged in a manner that
eliminates the risk of causing detonation of the ammunition if the
initiating device functioned accidentally, or when fuzed end items
are configured and packaged to prevent arming of the fuzed end
items. The initiating device may be assembled to the ammunition
provided its safety features preclude initiation or detonation of the
explosives filler of the end item during an accidental functioning of
the initiating device.
4–6. Class 1 or 6 chemical agent hazards or combined
chemical agent and explosives hazards
a. Items in these classes are chemical agent-filled ammunition,
chemical agents, and chemical agent-filled components. Depending
upon the type of agent, its persistency, toxicity, or other characteris-
tics, the primary safety considerations may be the area of agent
dispersal rather than blast or fragment considerations.
b. Items that contain only toxic chemical components are as-
signed to HD 6.1. Items that contain both explosives and toxic
chemical components are included in UN Class 1, ammunition and
explosives, as appropriate. HD 6.1 requirements also shall be ap-
plied so that the explosives and toxic chemical hazards both are
considered.
Table 4–1
EIDS and EIDS ammunition hazard divisions
Type QD HD
SCG
EIDS bulk 1.5D
EIDS loaded projectiles and/or warheads w/o fuzes or with 1.6N
EIDS fuzes 1,2
EIDS fuzes11.4D
EIDS loaded projectiles and/or warheads w/1.3 propelling 1.3C/1.2C
charges and without fuzes or with EIDS fuzes1,2
EIDS loaded projectiles and/or warheads with non-EIDS 1.2D3,4
fuzed and without 1.3 propelling charges
EIDS loaded projectiles and/or warheads 1.2E3,4
with non-EIDS2,4fuzes and with 1.3 propelling charges
Notes:
1EIDS fuzed means that the fuze has an EIDS booster with an out-of-line non-
EIDS explosive and two or more independent safety features. The fuze must be
certified as invulnerable to accidental detonation of the warhead.
2Fuzed configuration must be tested for propagation.
3Unit risk may be justified on a case-by-case basis.
4Fuze must have two or more independent safety features and be indepen-
dently classified group D.
24 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 4–2
QD criteria for configuration of HD 1.6 components and assemblies with other HD components
Location Explosives Ammunition
Bulk Non-EIDS fuzed2Unfuzed or with EIDS fuze2,4
With or without 1.3 propel-
ling charge With 1.3 propelling charge Without 1.3 propelling charge
Earth covered magazine Div 1.3 Div 1.23Div 1.3 Div 1.3/1.45
All others Div 1.3 Div 1.23Div 1.31Div 1.31
Notes:
1Unit risk minimum fragment distance applies, unless excepted on a case-by-case basis by the DDESB.
2Fuzed configuration must be tested for propagation.
3Unit risk may be justified on a case-by-case basis.
4EIDS fuzed means that the fuze has an EIDS booster with an out-of-line non-EIDS explosive and two or more independent safety features.
5Hazard class/division 1.4 applies for items packed in nonflammable pallets or packing, stored in earth covered steel, or concrete arch magazines when accepted by
USATCES.
Table 4–3
Storage Compatibility Mixing Chart
Group A B C D E F G H J K L N S
AXZ
B Z XZZZZZ XX
C ZXXXZZ XX
D ZXXXZZ XX
E ZXXXZZ XX
F ZZZZXZ ZX
G ZZZZZX ZX
HXX
JXX
K Z
L
N XXXXZZ XX
S XXXXXXXX XX
Notes:
1"X" indicates that these groups may be combined in storage, otherwise, mixing is either prohibited or restricted according to note #2.
2"Z" indicates that, when warranted by operational considerations or magazine nonavailability and when safety is not sacrificed, logical mixed storage of limited quanti-
ties of some items of different groups may be approved. These relaxations involving mixed storage shall be approved by the MACOM and are not considered waivers.
However, DA shall determine which items within Group K may be stored together and which must be stored separately. Group K requires not only separate storage from
other groups but may also require separate storage within the group.
3Compliance with compatibility criteria is not required for mission essential or operationally necessary quantities of explosives in class/division 1.4 or 6.1 (excluding toxic
chemical munitions); up to 100 lbs. NEW class/division 1.3; and up to 50 lbs. NEW Class/Division (04)1.2. See paragraph 5-5g for Q-D requirements and additional infor-
mation concerning small quantities of explosives.
4Equal numbers of separately packaged components of complete rounds of any single type of ammunition may be stored together. When so stored, compatibility is that
of the assembled round; for example, WP filler in Group H, HE filler in Groups D, E, or F, as appropriate.
5Ammunition items without explosives that contain substances properly belonging to another U.N. hazard class may be assigned to the same compatibility group as
items containing explosives and the same substance, and be stored with them.
6DA may authorize ammunition designated "practice" by National Stock Number (NSN) and nomenclature to be stored with the fully loaded ammunition it simulates.
7The MACOM may authorize the mixing of compatibility groups, except items in Groups A, K, and L, in quantities not exceeding 1,000 lbs. NEW per storage site. This is
independent of note #2 and the exception found in paragraph 4-4b.
8For purposes of mixing, all items must be packaged in approved storage/shipping containers. Items shall not be opened for purposes of issuing unpackaged munitions
in storage locations. Outer containers may be opened in storage locations for inventorying; for removing munitions still inside an approved inner package in limited
amounts, and for magazines storing only hazard division 1.4 items, unpacking, inspecting, and repacking the hazard division 1.4 ammunition.
9Articles of compatibility Groups B and F shall each be segregated in storage from articles of other compatibility groups by means which are effective in preventing prop-
agation of those articles.
10 If dissimilar HD 1.6, SCG N munitions are mixed together and have not been tested to ensure nonpropagation; the mixed munitions are considered to be HD 1.2, SCG
D for purposes of transportation and storage. When mixing SCG N munitions with SCGs B through G, see chapter 5, paragraph 5-2f through 5-2i about changing quanti-
ty-distance (QD) class/divisions.
11 For storage purposes, fuzes assigned to SCG D are also compatibile with fuzes assigned to SCG B.
Chapter 5
Quantity-Distance
5–1. Explosives quantity-distance
a. The damage or injury potential of an explosion normally is
determined by the distance between the potential explosion site
(PES) and the exposed site (ES); the ability of the PES to suppress
blast overpressure, fragments and debris; and the ability of the ES to
withstand explosion effects. This chapter sets minimum standards
for separating a PES from an ES taking these factors into account.
These standards represent minimum acceptable levels of protection.
Greater levels of protection should be applied where possible.
b. Compliance with Q-D and compatibility criteria is not required
for mission essential or operationally necessary quantities of ammu-
nition and explosives in HD 1.4 or 6.1 (excluding toxic chemical
munitions). In addition, up to 100 pounds NEW HD 1.3 and up to
50 pounds NEW HD (04)1.2 may be stored in this manner.
(1) For document destroyers of HD 1.3, quantities in excess of
25DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
100 pounds may be stored without complying with Q-D and com-
patibility if the MACOM finds this necessary for security reasons.
(2) When HD (04)1.2 is stored inside or at less than IBD from
inhabited buildings such as barracks, fragment barriers will be pro-
vided. Minimum acceptable fragment barriers are: 1/4 inch of mild
steel plate, or one layer of sand bags, or 12 inches of loose sand or
dirt, or equivalent protection.
(3) Quantities in excess of the above must comply with all Q-D
requirements of this chapter.
5–2. Quantity of explosives
For Q-D purposes, the total quantity of explosives at a site shall be
calculated using the JHCS listing, or other similar listing approved
by the MACOM. The JHCS is the preferred source and the recog-
nized authority when data varies between sources.
a. When HDs 1.1 and 1.2 are located in the same site, determine
the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1 and then as
1.2. The required distance is the greater of the two. Unless testing or
analysis has shown otherwise, unpackaged 1.2 is treated as 1.1,
regardless of the presence of 1.1. This unpackaging provision does
not apply to 1.2 chemical munitions in facilities sited and approved
to process 1.2 chemical munitions as 1.2 material.
b. When HDs 1.1 and 1.3 are located in the same site, determine
the distances for the total quantity as 1.1. However, when the HE
equivalence of the 1.3 is known, the HE equivalent weight of the
1.3 items may be added to the total explosive weight of 1.1 items to
determine the NEW for 1.1 distance determinations.
c. When HDs 1.2 and 1.3 are located in the same site, determine
the required distance for each separately. The required distance is
the greater of the two. The two quantities do not need to be added
together for Q-D purposes.
d. When HDs 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 are located in the same site,
determine the distances for the total quantity considered first as 1.1,
next as 1.2, and finally as 1.3. The required distance is the greatest
of the three.
e. When HD 1.2 and/or 1.3 are stored with 1.1, and when re-
quirements are controlling, the HE equivalence of the 1.2 and/or 1.3
may be used to compute the total NEW. The DDESB must approve
HE equivalence data.
f. Explosives designated as HD 1.5 for transportation are consid-
ered to be HD 1.1 for storage or Q-D purposes.
g. When HD 1.6 is located with HD 1.1 or 1.5, HD 1.6 is
considered HD 1.1 for Q-D purposes. When HD 1.6 is located with
HD 1.2, HD 1.6 is considered HD 1.2 for Q-D purposes.
h. When HD 1.6 is located with HD 1.3, add the explosives
weight of the HD 1.6 to the weight of the HD 1.3 and consider the
total weight as HD 1.3 for Q-D purposes.
i. The Q-Ds for HD 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5 or 1.6 individually or in
combination, are not affected by the presence of HD 1.4.
j. If DDESB approved buffered configurations are provided, the
NEW for Q-D purposes is the explosives weight of the largest stack
plus the explosives weight for the buffer material.
5–3. Measuring distance
a. Measure the distance to or from the outside of the nearest wall
of the structure or room containing explosives. When a structure is
s u b d i v i d e d t o p r e v e n t m a s s d e t o n a t i o n b e t w e e n c o m p a r t m e n t s ,
measure from the outside of the nearest wall of the compartment
containing the greatest explosives hazard. Measurements for open
storage, such as modules and revetments, are made from stack face
to stack face.
b. Where explosives are outdoors or on a vehicle parked in the
open, distances are measured to the explosives. In protective shel-
ters, distances are measured from the external wall of the shelter or
stall containing the explosives or explosives-loaded vehicle. Dis-
tances are measured from the center of large missiles, launchers, or
launch pads.
c. Measure to the nearest point of a nonexplosive location, build-
ing, vehicle, aircraft, or taxiway.
d. Measure to the centerline of the runway.
e. Measure to the nearest edge of open recreational areas. For
golf courses, measure to the nearest edge of the tee or green or to
the centerline of the fairway.
f. Measure to the nearest edge of the ship’s channel.
g. Distances are expressed in feet or meters (as applicable) and
measured along a straight line. For large intervening topographical
features such as hills, measure over or around the feature, whichever
is the shorter.
h. When railroad cars or motor vehicles containing ammunition
and explosives are not separated from operating buildings, maga-
zines, or open storage sites containing ammunition and explosives
so as to prevent their mass-detonation, the total quantity of explo-
sives will be considered as a unit. The separation distance will be
measured from the nearest outside wall of the building, railcar,
vehicle, or edge of open stack, as appropriate, to an ES. If the
explosives are separated into smaller units so that propagation of the
explosion between the explosives in the railcars, motor vehicles, or
other units will not occur, the separation distance will be measured
from the nearest controlling explosives unit, railcar, or vehicle to a
target.
5–4. Q-D computations and determinations
a. For blast protection from 1.1 materials, required distances lis-
ted in this standard have been calculated using formulas of the type
D = KW1/3 where D is the distance in feet, K is a factor depending
upon the risk assumed or permitted, and W is the NEW in pounds.
When metric units are used in the formula D = KQ1/3, the symbol Q
denotes NEQ in kilograms and the distance D is expressed in meters
(m). The value of K in English units is approximately 2.5 times its
value in metric units. For example, if D(m) = 6Q1/3, then D(feet) =
15W1/3. Distance requirements determined by the formula with Eng-
lish units are sometimes expressed by the value of K, using the
terminology “K9,”“K11,”“K18,” to mean K = 9, K = 11, and K =
18.
b. Interpolation and extrapolation of Q-D in specified tables is
authorized in the table footnotes.
c. In some cases, it may be advantageous for Q-D computations
to subdivide a total quantity of mass-detonating explosives into
smaller units. Simultaneous detonation will be prevented either by
constructing a suitable barrier to provide “Category Four” protection
or by adequately separating stacks. Intervening barriers designed to
provide “Category Four” protection (prevents simultaneous detona-
tion) in accordance with the principles contained in TM 5–1300 will
satisfy this requirement. If this requirement is met, the NEW of the
subdivision requiring the greatest distance will govern. If this re-
quirement is not met, Q-D computations must be based upon the
s u m m a t i o n o f t h e m a s s - d e t o n a t i n g e x p l o s i v e s i n a l l o f t h e
subdivisions.
d. Substantial dividing walls (SDWs) are designed to prevent
b a y - t o - b a y s i m u l t a n e o u s d e t o n a t i o n o f 1 . 1 m a t e r i a l s . E x i s t i n g
12–inch reinforced concrete SDWs are approved for quantities no
greater than 425 pounds per bay provided explosives are no closer
than 3 feet from the SDW. Construction of new SDWs shall be in
accordance with TM 5–1300.
e. In many operations, not only 1.1 but also 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 are
found in the various bays of an operating building. The following
rules apply for Q-D determinations in these situations:
(1) If any bay containing 1.1 has a quantity greater than the limit
of its walls, determine the distance based upon the total building
quantity of all 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 materials. Consider the total quantity
first as 1.1, next as 1.2, and finally as 1.3. The required distance is
the greatest of the three.
( 2 ) I f n o b a y c o n t a i n i n g 1 . 1 e x c e e d s i t s l i m i t s , p r o c e e d a s
follows:
(a) Total all 1.3 in the building and determine the 1.3 distance.
(b) Total all 1.2 in the building and determine the 1.2 distance.
(c) Consider each bay containing 1.1 as a separate PES and
determine the 1.1 distance from each of these bays.
(d) The greatest distance as computed by (a) through (c) above
will govern.
f. The quantity of explosives to be permitted in each of two or
26 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
more locations will be determined by considering each location as a
PES. The quantity of explosives to be permitted in each of these
locations shall be the amount permitted by the distance specified in
the appropriate Q-D tables considering each as an ES in turn, except
for service magazines. For service magazines that are part of operat-
ing lines, the distances are based on the quantity and type of ammu-
nition and explosives in the service magazine or magazines, not the
operating line.
g. It is impractical to specify Q-D separations allowing for the
designed flight range of propulsive units (rockets, missile motors,
and catapults) that properly belong in HD 1.1, 1.2, or 1.3. Therefore,
maximum designed flight ranges for units in a propulsive state will
be disregarded.
5–5. Fragments
a. An important consideration in analyzing the hazard associated
with an accidental explosion is the effect of the fragments generated
by the explosion.
(1) A hazardous fragment is defined as one having an impact
energy of 58 foot-pounds or greater. For 1.1 materials, hazardous
fragment density is defined as one or more hazardous fragments per
600 square feet. This equates to a hit probability of 1 percent on a
man with a face-on surface area of 6 square feet. For 1.2 and 1.3
materials, maximum fragment throw range (not density) is the basis
for fragment distance. For further information, see TB 700–2.
(2) Fragments are classified as primary or secondary, depending
on their origin. The minimum distance for protection from hazard-
ous fragments is the greater of the primary or secondary fragment
distance.
(3) Public traffic route (PTR) distance for fragment protection is
60 percent of the IBD for fragment protection.
(4) Fragment distances are not considered for intraline or inter-
magazine distance.
b. Primary fragments. Primary fragments are formed from the
shattering of the explosives container.
(1) The container may be the casing of conventional munitions,
the kettles, hoppers, and other metal containers used in manufactur-
ing explosives, the metal housing of rocket engines, or similar
items.
(2) These fragments are usually small and travel initially at ve-
locities on the order of thousands of feet per second (fps).
( 3 ) F o r H D 1 . 1 , p r i m a r y f r a g m e n t d i s t a n c e s a r e a s s i g n e d a s
follows:
(a) Items without metal casings and items with thin metal casings
do not produce primary fragments. No primary fragment distances
apply. Examples of thin cased items are M15 land mines and demo-
lition shaped charges with sheet metal bodies.
(b) All other metal cased items are considered primary fragment
producers. IBD and PTR for fragment protection applies.
(c) For some 1.1 metal cased items, the IBD and PTR for pri-
mary fragment protection is given by a numerical figure (in paren-
thesis). This number will be placed to the left of the division
designators, such as (18)1.1. An (18)1.1 item has a primary frag-
ment IBD of 1800 feet and a primary fragment PTR of 60 percent
of 1800 or 1080 feet.
(d) Most 1.1 items with metal casings do not have a fragment
distance given in parenthesis. For these, a primary fragment IBD of
1250 feet and PTR of 750 feet applies unless the item is listed in
table5–2, which provides primary fragment distance for selected 1.1
items for which detailed studies have been done.
(4) For HD 1.2 items, a parenthetically indicated primary frag-
ment distance is always provided.
(5) For HD 1.3 items, a parenthetically indicated fragment dis-
tance is provided only for those 1.3 items capable of producing
fragments. Unlike 1.1, a fragment distance is not applied to those
1.3 items with metal casings which lack a parenthetically indicated
distance. Consider 1.3 fragments as firebrands, burning 1.3 items
projected from the 1.3 fire.
(6) For HD 1.4 items, fragment distance does not apply.
c. Secondary fragments include debris such as that from struc-
tural elements of the facility and from non-confining process equip-
ment likely to break into enough pieces to significantly contribute to
the total number of expected fragments. These fragments are gener-
ally larger in size than primary fragments and travel initially at
velocities in the order of hundreds of fps. Secondary fragment dis-
tances are provided below.
( 1 ) S e c o n d a r y f r a g m e n t h a z a r d s a r e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y f o r 1 . 1
materials.
(2) PTR is 60 percent of IBD.
(3) For 100 pounds NEW or less of demolition explosives, thin-
cased ammunition items, bulk high explosives, pyrotechnics of HD
1.1, and other inprocess explosives of HD 1.1, IBD is 670 feet.
Exception: Table 5–1 allows lesser distances for storage in earth-
covered magazines.
(4) For all types of 1.1 in quantities over 100 lbs, IBD is 1250
feet. Exceptions are—
(a) Table 5–1 allows lesser distances for storage in earth-covered
magazines for quantities up to 500 lbs
(b) Facilities sited at 1235 or 1245 feet in accordance with past
standards shall be considered in compliance.
(c) Alternative distances based upon analysis or test may be used
if DDESB approves them. DDESB Technical Paper No. 13 provides
an approved alternative method.
d. Fragment hazards must be considered along with the principal
hazard of the HD in determining distance.
(1) For 1.1, determine both the fragment distance (if any) and the
blast distance. Use the greater distance.
(2) For 1.2, (primary) fragment distance is the only consideration.
(3) For 1.3, consider both the fragment distance (if any) and the
mass fire distance. Use the greater distance.
(4) For 1.4, fragment hazards are not considered. Consider only
the moderate fire distance.
e. The following relaxations apply to the consideration of frag-
ment hazards in determining IBD and PTR.
(1) For 1.1 and 1.3, fragment distance does not apply to an ES
requiring IBD or PTR when the ES is inside the ammunition area
and is exclusively supporting ammunition operations. For example,
IBD is often applied between operating lines to ensure continued
production. Each line is an IBD ES of the other. If the material in
the lines were 1.1, then the IBD between them is based only on the
blast hazard. Fragment hazards are not considered.
(2) For IBD to sparsely populated locations, the minimum 1250
feet may be reduced to 900 feet if both of the following conditions
are met:
(a) No more than 25 persons are located in any sector bounded
by the sides of a 45 degree angle (whose vertex is at the PES) and
by the 900 feet and 1250 feet arcs (from the PES).
(b) The NEW does not exceed 11,400 pounds.
f. For 1.1 materials, Q-D to public highways depends on traffic
density. Traffic density will be determined for a 24–hour period on
days that reflect normal busy periods.
(1) For 5,000 or more vehicles per day, use IBD.
(2) For 200 or more but less than 5,000 vehicles per day, use
PTR.
(3) For less than 200 vehicles per day, use PTR based only on
the blast hazard. Fragment distance does not apply.
5–6. Quantity-distance: expected effects and permissible
exposures
a. Inhabited building distance. The inhabited building distance is
40W1/3 - 50W1/3 feet; 1.2 - 0.90 psi incident overpressure.
(1) Expected effects.
(a) Unstrengthened buildings are likely to sustain damage up to
about 5 percent of the replacement cost.
(b) Personnel are provided a high degree of protection from death
or serious injury, with likely injuries principally being caused by
broken glass and building debris.
(c) Personnel in the open are not expected to be injured seriously
directly by the blast. Some personnel injuries may be caused by
27DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
fragments and debris, depending largely upon the PES structure and
the amount of ammunition and its fragmentation characteristics.
(2) Control at IBD. Broken glass and structural damage can be
reduced by orientation and by keeping the surface area of exposed
glass panels to a minimum or by using blast resistant windows.
(3) Permissible exposures at IBD
(a) Inhabited buildings, administrative, and housing areas.
(b) Installation boundaries, with two exceptions. First, if restric-
tive easements (“buffer zones”) prohibiting inhabited buildings or
other occupied areas are established beyond the installation bounda-
ry, then IBD applies to the edge of the restrictive easement and not
t o t h e b o u n d a r y . S e c o n d , i f m a n i f e s t l y u n i n h a b i t a b l e l a n d ( u n -
suitable terrain, Government land not open to the public, and so
forth) forms a buffer zone beyond the installation boundary, then
IBD applies to the nearest inhabited building.
Note. For locations where installation boundary lines are penetrated by in-
habited building Q-D arcs, the installation shall certify that conditions do not
require inhabited building protection for the encumbered area and shall
establish procedures to monitor the area for any change in that status.
(c) Training and recreation areas when structures are present. For
an exception, see paragraph 5–6b(5)(d).
(d) Flight line passenger service involving structures.
(e) Main power houses providing vital utilities to a major portion
of an installation.
(f) Storehouses and shops that, because of their vital, strategic
nature or the high intrinsic value of their contents, should not be
placed at risk.
(g) Functions that, if momentarily put out of action, would cause
an immediate secondary hazard by their failure to function.
(h) Public highways with 5,000 or more vehicles per 24–hour
period.
(i) Certain types of power lines (see para 5–7n).
b. PTR distance. The PTR distance is 24W1/3 - 30W1/3 feet; 2.3 -
1.7 psi incident overpressure.
(1) Expected effects (under 100,000 pounds HE): 24W1/3 feet; 2.3
psi.
(a) Unstrengthened buildings are likely to sustain damage ap-
proximating 20 percent of the replacement cost.
(b) Occupants of exposed structures may suffer temporary hear-
ing loss or injury from secondary blast effects such as building
debris and the tertiary effect of displacement.
( c ) P e r s o n n e l i n t h e o p e n a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o b e k i l l e d o r
seriously injured directly by blast. There may be some personnel
injuries caused by fragments and debris, depending largely upon the
PES structure and the amount of ammunition and its fragmentation
characteristics.
(d) Vehicles on the road should suffer little damage unless hit by
a fragment or unless the blast wave causes momentary loss of
control.
(e) Aircraft should suffer some damage to appendages and sheet
metal skin from blast and possible fragment penetration; however,
the aircraft should be operational with minor repair.
(f) Cargo ships should suffer minor damage to deck structure and
exposed electronic gear from blast and possible fragment penetra-
tion, but such damage should be readily repairable.
(2) Control at PTR - 24W1/3. The risk of injury or damage due to
fragments from limited quantities of explosives at the PES can be
reduced by barricading. Also, many situations arise when control of
pressure by suitably designed suppressive construction at the PES or
protective construction at the ES are practical.
(3) Expected effects (over 250,000 pounds HE): 30W1/3 feet; 1.7
psi.
(a) Unstrengthened buildings are likely to sustain damage ap-
proximating 10 percent of the replacement cost.
(b) Occupants of exposed unstrengthened structures may suffer
injury from secondary effects such as building debris.
(c) Aircraft in landing and takeoff status may lose control and
crash.
(d) Parked military and commercial aircraft will likely sustain
minor damage due to blast but should remain airworthy.
( e ) P e r s o n n e l i n t h e o p e n a r e n o t e x p e c t e d t o b e k i l l e d o r
seriously injured directly by blast. There may be some personnel
injuries caused by fragments and debris, depending largely upon the
PES structure and the amount of ammunition and its fragmentation
characteristics.
(4) Control at PTR - 30W1/3. The risk of injury or damage due to
fragments from limited quantities of explosives at the PES may be
reduced by barricading or applying minimum fragment distance
requirements.
(5) Permissible exposures at PTR distance.
(a) PTRs (see para 5–5f for QDs to public highways).
( b ) P e r s o n n e l e x p o s e d t o r e m o t e l y c o n t r o l l e d o p e r a t i o n s w h o
have blast-attenuating and fragment-defeating shields, such as for
those at control stations, need not be at PTR from the operation, but
the shield must ensure no exposure to overpressures exceeding 2.3
psi incident. See paragraph 5–7k for more information.
(c) Open air recreation facilities (such as ball diamonds and vol-
leyball courts) when structures are not involved. When these recrea-
tion facilities are solely for off-duty recreation of military personnel
at their posts of duty, Q-D requirements do not apply. This total
relaxation of Q-D requirements applies only when the PES and the
ES are related closely. Examples are a security alert force and the
explosives facilities which they control and crews for quick reaction
force armored vehicles and the explosives-loaded vehicles that these
crews man during military action. It is not intended that these
relaxations be used to encourage the building of elaborate installa-
tions that substitute for properly located rest and recreation (R&R)
facilities or that they encourage collocation of essentially unrelated
military functions.
(d) Training areas for unprotected military personnel including
observation points and instruction areas for small arms and artillery
f i r i n g r a n g e s a n d s i m i l a r f i x e d f a c i l i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g s m a l l c l a s s -
rooms) designed for occasional use coincident with use by groups or
classes using the range. Separation or other protection from perma-
nent magazines and ammunition supply points is required, but not
from ammunition and explosives needed for any particular exercise
to achieve realism in training, nor from explosives in necessary on-
the-job training operations for explosives workers.
(e) Aircraft passenger loading and unloading areas that do not
include any structures.
(f) Certain types of power lines (see para 5–7n).
(g) Combat aircraft parking areas exposed to ammunition and
explosives storage and operating facilities.
(h) Construction personnel who must, on a temporary basis, be
near PESs to perform their jobs. If distances are less than PTR, the
minimum distance shall be determined through risk management as
approved by the installation commander. The risk assessment will
address the probability and effects of an accidental explosion on the
construction personnel and also will address any hazards the con-
struction activity poses to the ammunition. Control measures, such
as limiting activity at PESs to reduce the probability of explosion,
will be devised as appropriate. Documentation of the risk assess-
ment and control measures taken will be maintained until operations
have been completed and personnel have permanently vacated the
work site.
c. Barricaded intraline distance (IL(B)). The barricaded intraline
distance is 9W1/3 feet; 12 psi incident overpressure.
(1) Expected effects.
(a) Unstrengthened buildings will suffer severe structural damage
approaching total destruction.
(b) Severe injuries or death to occupants of the ES may be
expected from direct blast, building collapse, or translation.
(c) Aircraft will be damaged beyond economical repair both by
blast and fragments. If the aircraft are loaded with explosives, de-
layed explosions are likely from subsequent fires.
(d) Transport vehicles will be damaged heavily, probably to the
extent of total loss.
(e) Immediate spread of the fire between two explosives loca-
tions is unlikely when barricades are interposed between them to
intercept high-velocity low-angle fragments. Delayed propagation is
possible from lobbed munitions and burning materials.
28 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
(f) Improperly designed barricades or structures may increase the
hazard from flying debris, or may collapse increasing the risk to
personnel and equipment.
(2) Control at IL(B). Barricading is required. Exposed structures
containing equipment of high monetary value or critical mission
importance or where personnel exposure is significant may require
hardening to protect personnel and equipment.
(3) Permissible exposures at IL(B) distance.
(a) Operating buildings housing successive steps of a single pro-
duction, renovation, or maintenance operation.
(b) Security alert force buildings.
(c) Facilities of a tactical missile site where greater distances
from the PES cannot be provided for technical reasons.
(d) Breakrooms and change houses, if they are part of an operat-
ing line and are used exclusively by personnel employed in opera-
tions of the line.
(e) Temporary holding areas for trucks or railcars containing ex-
plosives to service production or maintenance facilities.
(f) Field operations in magazine areas when performing minor
maintenance, preservation, packaging, or surveillance inspection.
( g ) U n m a n n e d a u x i l i a r y p o w e r f a c i l i t i e s , t r a n s f o r m e r s t a t i o n s ,
water treatment and pollution abatement facilities, and other utility
installations that serve the PES and are not an integral function in
the PES, if their loss would not create an immediate secondary
hazard. These applications need not be barricaded. An exception is
unmanned auxiliary power generation or conversion facilities sup-
plying power exclusively to the explosives storage area and security
fence lighting may be located at fire protection distance from explo-
sives facilities (50 feet for fire-resistant structures, 100 feet for
nonfire-resistant structures).
(h) Dunnage preparation and similar support structures housing
nonexplosives operations if used only by personnel employed at the
PES.
(i) Service magazines that are part of operating lines. Distance
between an explosives operating building and its service magazines
is determined by the quantity of explosives in the service magazines
irrespective of the quantity in the operating building. Magazines
serving the same line may be separated by magazine distance.
(j) Exposures as indicated in paragraph 5–6d(3) below if blast
suppression and structure hardening provide comparable protection
for personnel and equipment involved.
d. Unbarricaded intraline distance (IL(U)) 18W1/3 feet; 3.5 psi
incident overpressure.
(1) Expected effects.
(a) Direct propagation of explosion is not likely.
(b) Delayed communication of an explosion may occur from fires
or equipment failure at the ES.
(c) Damage to unstrengthened buildings will be serious and ap-
proximate 50 percent or more of the total replacement cost.
(d) There is a 1 percent chance of eardrum damage to personnel.
(e) Serious personnel injuries are likely from fragments, debris,
firebrands, or other objects.
(f) Cargo ships would suffer damage to decks and superstructure
from being struck by fragments and having doors and bulkheads on
the weather deck buckled by overpressure.
( g ) A i r c r a f t c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o s u f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r u c t u r a l
damage from blast. Fragments and debris are likely to cause severe
damage to aircraft at distances calculated from the formula 18W1/3
when NEWs under 9,000 pounds are involved.
(h) Transport vehicles will incur extensive, but not severe, body
and glass damage consisting mainly of dishing of body panels and
cracks in shatter-resistant window glass.
(2) Control at IL(U). Many situations arise in which control of
pressure by suitably designed suppressive construction at the PES or
protective construction at the ES are practical. Using such construc-
tion to withstand blast overpressure is encouraged if it is more
economical than distance alone, or if sufficient distance is not avail-
able to prevent the overpressure from exceeding this level.
(3) Permissible exposures at IL(B) distance.
(a) Operating buildings housing successive steps in a single pro-
duction, maintenance, or renovation operation.
(b) Surveillance buildings, laboratories in exclusive support of
ammunition operations, field offices, and other labor intensive oper-
ations closely related to the ammunition mission. The minimum
level of protection for these types of operations will be IL(B),
regardless of whether a barricade is provided.
( c ) O c c u p i e d c o m f o r t , s a f e t y , a n d c o n v e n i e n c e b u i l d i n g s e x -
clusively in support of the PES (such as lunchrooms, motor pools,
area offices, auxiliary fire stations, transportation dispatch points,
and shipping and receiving buildings (not magazine area loading
docks).
(d) Parallel operating lines from one another, whether or not
barricaded, provided the ammunition and explosives involved in
each line present similar hazards. Operations with similar hazards
may be conducted within a single operating building provided a
hazards analysis verifies 3.5 psi (IL(U)) protection from one opera-
tion to the other.
(e) Operations and training functions that are manned or attended
exclusively by personnel of the unit operating the PES. This in-
cludes day rooms and similar functions for units such as individual
missile firing batteries or ammunition supply companies. Training
functions permitted this level of exposure include organized class-
room and field training of personnel who must perform explosives
work at the PES. Maneuver areas, proving ground tracks, and simi-
lar facilities for armored vehicles also may be permitted this level of
exposure since the vehicle should adequately protect the operators
from fragments and debris.
(f) Maintenance of military vehicles and equipment when the
PES is basic load or ready storage located outside the United States
(para 14–4). The maximum credible event is limited to 4,000 kg or
less NEQ, and the work is performed exclusively by and for military
personnel of the unit for which the basic load of ammunition is
stored.
( g ) M i n i m u m d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n s e p a r a t e g r o u p s o f e x p l o s i v e s
loaded combat-configured aircraft or between aircraft and a pre-load
or quick-turn site that serves to arm the aircraft. Barricades are
required to reduce further communication and fragment damage, and
to eliminate the necessity for totaling NEW. Loading ammunition
and explosives aboard aircraft can be accomplished within each
group of aircraft without additional protection.
(h) Service magazines that are part of operating lines. Distance
between the service magazine and buildings in the operating line is
based on the quantity of explosives in the service magazine irrespec-
tive of the quantity in the operating building. Magazines serving the
same line may be separated by magazine distance.
(i) Container stuffing and unstuffing operations that are routine
support of PES. This applies only to main support functions set
aside for support of ship loading or manufacturing operations. When
the activity involves ship loading and unloading and the ES is an
ammunition ship, the quantity at the container site will govern.
(Container stuffing and unstuffing in a magazine area are permitted
at intermagazine distances.)
(j) Ammunition and explosives being transported on conveyors
within an operating building or from one operating building to
another unless test data support reduced spacing.
(k) Parking lots for employees’ privately owned automobiles at
multiple PESs will be sited at intraline distance from each PES.
When a parking lot supports a single PES, it may be separated at
less than intraline only from its associated facility. A minimum
distance of 100 feet to the associated facility is required to protect it
from vehicle fires. Access for emergency vehicles must be provided.
Parking lots for administrative areas will be located at PTR distance
from all PESs (minimum fragment distances apply).
e . A b o v e g r o u n d m a g a z i n e d i s t a n c e . A b o v e g r o u n d m a g a z i n e
(MAG) distance is barricaded - 6W1/3 feet, 27 psi incident overpres-
sure and unbarricaded - 11W1/3 feet, 8 psi incident overpressure.
(1) Expected effects - barricaded magazine distance.
(a) Unstrengthened buildings will be destroyed completely.
(b) Personnel will be killed by direct action of blast, by being
struck by building debris, or by impact against hard surfaces.
29DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
(c) Transport vehicles will be overturned and crushed by blast.
(d) Explosives vessels will be damaged severely, with propaga-
tion of explosion likely.
( e ) A i r c r a f t w i l l b e d e s t r o y e d b y b l a s t , t h e r m a l , a n d d e b r i s
effects.
(2) Control at MAG. Barricades will prevent immediate propaga-
tion of explosion, but provide only limited protection against de-
layed propagation.
(3) Expected effects - unbarricaded magazine distance.
( a ) D a m a g e t o u n s t r e n g t h e n e d b u i l d i n g s w i l l a p p r o a c h t o t a l
destruction.
(b) Personnel are likely to be injured seriously by the blast,
fragments, debris, and translation.
(c) There is a 20 percent risk of eardrum rupture.
(d) Explosives vessels are likely to be damaged extensively and
delayed propagation of explosion may occur.
(e) Aircraft will be damaged heavily by blast and fragments;
ensuing fire will likely destroy them.
(f) Transport vehicles will sustain severe body damage, minor
engine damage, and total glass breakage.
(4) Control at unbarricaded magazine distance. Barricading will
reduce significantly the risk of propagation of explosion and person-
nel injuries from fragments.
(5) Permissible exposures at magazine distance. Magazines for
HD 1.1 will be separated one from another in accordance with
tables 5–5 and 5–6. Paragraph 5–8 below explains how to use table
5–6.
5–7. Facilities siting criteria
This paragraph establishes criteria for siting explosives and nonex-
plosive facilities with respect to PESs.
a. Administrative and industrial areas.
(1) Administrative and industrial areas will be separated from
PESs by IBD.
(2) Auxiliary facilities such as heating plants, line offices, break
rooms, briefing rooms for daily work schedules or on-site safety
matters, joiner shops, security posts, and similar locations may be at
explosives operations servicing only one building or operation. They
will be located and constructed to provide prudent fire protection.
b. Classification yard.
(1) To protect the classification yard from external explosions,
s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e s w i l l b e a t l e a s t t h e a p p l i c a b l e m a g a z i n e
distance.
(2) Specific Q-D separation is not required from the classification
yard to ESs other than explosives locations when the classification
yard is used exclusively for the following:
(a) Receiving, dispatching, classifying, and switching of cars.
(b) When a classification yard is used solely as an interchange
yard, see paragraph 5–7e below.
(c) Conducting external inspection of motor vehicles and railcars,
or opening of free rolling doors of railcars to remove documents and
make a visual inspection of the cargo.
(3) If the yard is used at any time for any purpose other than
listed in (2) above such as placing or removing dunnage or explo-
sive items into or from cars, then Q-D must apply to nonexplosives
locations as well as explosives locations.
c. Ranges used to detonate ammunition for demilitarization, dem-
onstration, and explosives ordnance disposal. The minimum dis-
tances to essential and nonessential personnel on these ranges are as
follows:
(1) Essential personnel. Competent authorities on site determine
t h e m i n i m u m s e p a r a t i o n d i s t a n c e f o r e s s e n t i a l r a n g e p e r s o n n e l .
These authorities will also determine who is essential.
(2) Nonessential personnel. This paragraph provides the primary
criteria for protection of nonessential personnel. If this criteria can-
not be met, then the criteria in paragraph 5–7k may be used as an
alternate.
(a) Nonessential personnel shall be separated from demolition
range operations by a distance sufficient to protect from both blast
and fragments or debris. This distance is determined by first finding
the blast distance, then the fragment or debris distance, then choos-
ing the greater distance.
(b) For aboveground (unburied) detonations, use table 5–7 to
determine blast and fragment or debris distance. Instead of the
formula D = 328W1/3, the 0 foot column of table 5–8 may be used.
(c) For buried detonations, the distances in table 5–7 may be
reduced as follows:
(d) Use table 5–8 to determine reduced blast distance for buried
detonations.
(e) Use the following procedure to determine reduced fragment
or debris distance for buried detonations: For existing detonation
o p e r a t i o n s f o r w h i c h a p p r o v e d l o c a l S O P s p r e s c r i b e p r o c e d u r e s
which experience has shown adequate to contain fragments within
the controlled access area, existing distances will be considered
adequate. For new detonation operations such as those involving a
greater quantity or different type of munitions, applicable on-site
authorities may determine earth cover depth and safe separation
distance by conducting thorough reconnaissance of adjoining lands
during trials to observe debris and fragment throw ranges, and then
adding 20 percent to the maximum observed throw range as an
appropriate safety factor.
(f) In addition to burial, protective structures for non-essential
personnel may also allow use of distances less than those required
in table 5–7. The protective structures must limit blast overpressure
to occupants to no more than 0.065 psi, and must protect completely
from all fragments and debris.
( g ) W h e r e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n v o l v e l i v e f i r e ( t h a t i s , c a n n o n ,
rocket launchers, and so forth), competent local authorities will
determine safe viewing range from the impact area using surface
danger zone data found in range safety regulations. The distances in
table 5–7 do not apply.
d. Inert storage area. The MACOM will determine the accepta-
ble protection for such areas after consideration of the value and
importance of material in relation to the mission of the installation,
the operational conditions, and the availability of space.
e. Interchange yards. Truck, trailer, or railcar interchange yards
are not subject to Q-D regulations when they are used exclusively—
(1) For the interchange of vehicles or railcars containing ammu-
nition and explosives between the commercial carrier and Army
activities.
(2) To conduct external inspection of the trucks, trailers, railcars,
or military demountable containers (MILVANs) containing ammuni-
tion and explosives.
(3) To conduct visual inspection of the external condition of the
cargo in vehicles (such as trucks, trailers, railcars, and MILVANS)
that passed the external inspection. If the yards are used at any time
for any purpose other than above, applicable Q-D tables apply.
f. Interservice support and tactical facilities. Q-D between inter-
service support facilities and for interservice tactical facilities is as
follows:
(1) Common requirements.
(a) Appropriate safety distances provided herein will be applied
between Army facilities and facilities of another military service
regardless of the boundary between the Army and other service
installations.
(b) Safety criteria based on toxicity, noise, thermal radiation,
flight trajectory, incendiary, or other hazards may be greater than
explosives safety distance criteria. In these cases, the criteria based
on the predominant hazard will be considered.
(2) Q-D relationships. The following Q-D relationships will ap-
ply to the separation of facilities of two services, neither of which is
a tenant of the other:
(a) Explosives storage facilities of the Army will be separated
from explosives storage facilities of another military service, as a
minimum, by appropriate intermagazine distance.
(b) IBD will be provided from explosives storage or operating
locations of the Army to explosives operating locations of another
service. When operations in each facility present a similar degree of
hazard or for joint or support operations, this separation may be
reduced to the appropriate intraline distance.
(c) IBD will be provided from explosives storage and operating
30 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
locations of the Army to explosives tactical facilities of another
service. For joint or support operations, use the appropriate separa-
tion distance as though both facilities belonged to a single military
service.
g. Loading docks. Separate loading docks will be sited on the
basis of use. When servicing magazines, they must be separated
from the magazines by intermagazine distances. When servicing
o p e r a t i n g b u i l d i n g s , t h e y m u s t b e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e o p e r a t i n g
buildings by intraline distances. When servicing firing ranges, they
must be separated from firing points having either unarmored vehi-
cles or unprotected personnel by intraline distance. For firing points
with armored vehicles when personnel are in the vehicles with the
hatches closed, no Q-D applies, but a 100 feet fire protection dis-
tance must be maintained from the firing point to the loading dock.
h. Rail and truck holding yards.
(1) Generally, rail holding yards will be laid out on a unit car-
g r o u p b a s i s w i t h e a c h c a r - g r o u p s e p a r a t e d b y t h e a p p l i c a b l e
aboveground magazine distance.
(2) If the rail holding yard is formed by two parallel ladder tracks
connected by diagonal spurs, the parallel tracks and the diagonal
spurs will be separated by applicable aboveground magazine dis-
tance for the unit-group quantities of HE.
(3) If the rail holding yard is a “Christmas tree” arrangement
consisting of a ladder track with diagonal dead-end spurs projecting
from each side at alternate intervals, the spurs will be separated by
the applicable aboveground magazine distance for the net quantity
of HE in the cars on the spurs.
(4) Generally, truck holding yards will be laid out on a unit
t r u c k - g r o u p b a s i s w i t h e a c h g r o u p s e p a r a t e d b y t h e a p p l i c a b l e
aboveground magazine distances.
(5) Both rail and truck holding yards will be separated from other
facilities by the applicable Q-D criteria.
(6) In addition to the temporary parking of railcars, trucks, trail-
ers, or MILVANS containing ammunition and explosives, holding
yards also may be used to interchange truck trailers or railcars
between the commercial carrier and the Army activity and to con-
duct visual inspections.
i. Railcar and truck inspection stations.
(1) Specific Q-D separations are not required for inspection sta-
tions; however, they should be as remote as practical from hazard-
ous or populated areas. Activities that may be performed at the
inspection station after railcars or motor vehicles containing ammu-
nition and explosives are received from the delivering carrier and
before further routing within the installation are as follows:
(a) External visual inspection of the railcars or motor vehicles.
(b) Visual inspection of the external condition of the cargo pack-
aging in vehicles (such as trucks, trailers, railcars) that have passed
the external inspection indicated above.
(c) Interchange of trucks, trailers, railcars, or MILVANS between
the common carrier and the Army activity.
(2) If any activities other than the above are conducted at the
inspection station, Q-D applies.
(3) Any cars or trucks which appear hazardous will be isolated
consistent with standard Q-D separation for the hazard class and
explosives quantity involved. This will be done before any other
action.
j. Recreational and training facilities. Open areas between explo-
sive storage and handling sites and between these sites and nonex-
p l o s i v e b u i l d i n g s a n d s t r u c t u r e s s h a l l b e c o n t r o l l e d c a r e f u l l y
regarding use for recreation or training facilities. As a general rule,
the fragment hazard will be severe from the explosion site out to
approximately the PTR distances. Accordingly, recreation and train-
ing facilities, where people are in the open, will be sited at not less
than PTR distances and preferably as near IBDs as practical. When
structures, including bleachers, are included as part of these facili-
ties, they will be sited at not less than IBD. For an exception, see
paragraph 5–6b(5)(d).
k. Remote operations (see glossary).
(1) Accidental ignition or initiation of explosives at remotely con-
trolled and/or shielded operations.
(a) Personnel shall be protected from potential blast overpres-
sures, hazardous fragments, and thermal effects with attendant respi-
ratory and circulatory hazards, when risk assessments indicate the
probability of an accidental explosion with attendant overpressures
and hazardous fragments, or an accidental flash fire with attendant
thermal hazards is above an acceptable risk level as the MACOM
determines on a case-by-case basis. The risk assessment shall in-
clude such factors as initiation sensitivity; quantity of materials; heat
output; rate of burning; potential initiation sources; protective capa-
bilities of shields, clothing, and fire protection systems; and person-
nel exposure to respiratory and circulatory hazards from inhalation
of hot vapors and combustion products.
(b) When required by (a) above, protection for all personnel must
be capable of limiting incident blast overpressure to 2.3 psi, frag-
ments to energies of less than 58 ft-lb, and thermal fluxes to 0.3
calories per square centimeter per second. These protection levels
shall be certified through analysis for cases where personnel are
exposed at distances less than K24 or for situations where personnel
exposure criteria are obviously exceeded. Shields complying with
Military Standard (MIL STD) 398 are acceptable protection.
(2) Intentional ignition or initiation of explosives.
(a) At operations where intentional ignition or initiation of explo-
sives is conducted (such as function, proof, lot acceptance testing,
and so forth), and where remote operation and/or shielding is re-
quired as determined on a case-by-case basis by the MACOM con-
cerned, protection for all personnel will meet the requirements of
(1)(a) above, and must also be capable of limiting overpressure
levels in personnel-occupied areas to satisfy MIL STD 1474, con-
taining all fragments, and limiting thermal flux as expressed in table
5 – 9 . S h i e l d s c o m p l y i n g w i t h M I L S T D 3 9 8 a r e a c c e p t a b l e
protection.
Table 5–1
HD 1.1 inhabited building and public traffic route distances
Distance in ft to inhabited building distance from: Distance in ft to public traffic route from:
earth-covered magazine other PES earth covered-magazine other PES
NEW in lbs Front side rear Front side rear
col 1 col 21,8 col 3 1,8 col 42,8 col 53col 64,8 col 7 5,8 col 86,8 col 97
1 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
2 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
5 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
10 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
20 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
30 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
40 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
50 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
100 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
150 500 250 250 1250 300 150 150 750
31DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–1
HD 1.1 inhabited building and public traffic route distances—Continued
Distance in ft to inhabited building distance from: Distance in ft to public traffic route from:
earth-covered magazine other PES earth covered-magazine other PES
NEW in lbs Front side rear Front side rear
col 1 col 21,8 col 3 1,8 col 42,8 col 53col 64,8 col 7 5,8 col 86,8 col 97
200 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
250 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
300 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
350 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
400 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
450 700 250 250 1250 420 150 150 750
500 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
600 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
700 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
800 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
900 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
1000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
1500 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
2000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
3000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
4000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
5000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
6000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
7000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
8000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
9000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
10000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
15000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
20000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
25000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
30000 1250 1250 1250 1250 750 750 750 750
35000 1250 1250 1250 1310 750 750 750 785
40000 1250 1250 1250 1370 750 750 750 820
45000 1250 1250 1250 1425 750 750 750 855
50000 1290 1290 1250 1475 775 775 750 885
55000 1330 1330 1250 1520 800 800 750 910
60000 1370 1370 1250 1565 820 820 750 940
65000 1405 1405 1250 1610 845 845 750 965
70000 1440 1440 1250 1650 865 865 750 990
75000 1475 1475 1250 1685 885 885 750 1010
80000 1510 1510 1250 1725 905 905 750 1035
85000 1540 1540 1250 1760 925 925 750 1055
90000 1570 1570 1250 1795 940 940 750 1075
95000 1595 1595 1250 1825 960 960 750 1095
100000 1625 1625 1250 1855 975 975 750 1115
110000 1740 1740 1290 1960 1045 1045 770 1175
120000 1855 1855 1415 2065 1110 1110 850 1240
125000 1910 1910 1480 2115 1165 1165 890 1270
130000 1965 1965 1545 2165 1180 1180 925 1300
140000 2070 2070 1675 2255 1245 1245 1005 1355
150000 2175 2175 1805 2350 1305 1305 1085 1410
160000 2280 2280 1935 2435 1370 1370 1160 1460
170000 2385 2385 2070 2520 1430 1430 1240 1515
175000 2435 2435 2135 2565 1460 1460 1280 1540
180000 2485 2485 2200 2605 1490 1490 1320 1565
190000 2585 2585 2335 2690 1550 1550 1400 1615
200000 1680 1680 2470 2770 1610 1610 1480 1660
225000 2920 2920 2810 2965 1750 1750 1685 1780
250000 3150 3150 3150 3150 1890 1890 1890 1890
275000 3250 3250 3250 3250 1950 1950 1950 1950
300000 3345 3345 3345 3345 2005 2005 2005 2005
325000 3440 3440 3440 3440 2065 2065 2065 2065
350000 3525 3525 3525 3525 2115 2115 2115 2115
375000 3605 3605 3605 3605 2165 2165 2165 2165
400000 3685 3685 3685 3685 2210 2210 2210 2210
425000 3760 3760 3760 3760 2250 2250 2250 2250
450000 3830 3830 3830 3830 2300 2300 2300 2300
475000 3900 3900 3900 3900 2340 2340 2340 2340
32 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–1
HD 1.1 inhabited building and public traffic route distances—Continued
Distance in ft to inhabited building distance from: Distance in ft to public traffic route from:
earth-covered magazine other PES earth covered-magazine other PES
NEW in lbs Front side rear Front side rear
col 1 col 21,8 col 3 1,8 col 42,8 col 53col 64,8 col 7 5,8 col 86,8 col 97
500000 3970 3970 3970 3970 2380 2380 2380 2338
Notes:
1
Basis for columns 2 and 3 distances:
1–45,000 lbs of debris hazard. Lesser distances permitted if proved sufficient to limit hazardous debris to 1 per 600 square feet.
Formula D = 35W1/3 (blast overpressure) may be used if fragments and debris are absent.
45,000–100,000 lbs - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by formula D = 35W3, W = (d/35)3.
100,000–250,000 lbs - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by formula D = 0.3955W0.7227, W = (d/.3955)1.384.
250,000 lbs and above - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by formula D = 50W1/3, W = (d/50)3.
2
Basis for column 4 distances:
1–100,000 Ibs - debris hazard. Lesser distances are permitted if proved sufficient to limit hazardous debris to 1 per 600 square feet. The formula D = 25W1/3 (blast over-
pressure) may be used if fragments and debris are absent. W = (d/25)3.
100,000–250,000 lbs - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by the formula D = 0.004125W1.0898, W = 0.004125W1.0898, W = (d/.004125).9176.
250,000 lbs and above - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by the formula D = 50W1/3, W = (d/50)3.
3
Basis for column 5 distances:
1–30,000 lbs - fragments and debris hazard. Lesser distances permited as follows:
a.
Thin-cased ammunition and bulk explosives with NEW to 100 lbs - 670 feet.
b.
For bare explosives in the open, distances are computed by the formula D = 40W1/3. Distances greater than 1,250 feet are to be used when the 1.1 item in question
has a parenthetically assigned fragment distance greater than 1,250 feet, or is listed in table 5–2 with a fragment distance greater than 1,250 feet.
30,000–100,000 lbs - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by the formula D = 40W3, W = (d/40)3.
100,000–250,000 lbs - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by the formula D = 2.42W0.5777, W = (d/2.42)1.7331.
250,000 lbs and above - blast overpressure hazard. Computed by the formula D = 50W1/3, W = (d/50)3
4Column 6 distances have the same hazard basis and are equal to 60 percent of column 2 distances.
5Column 7 distances have the same hazard basis and are equal to 60 percent of column 3 distances.
6Column 8 distances have the same hazard basis and are equal to 60 percent of column 4 distances.
7Column 9 distances have the same hazard basis and are equal to 60 percent of column 5 distances.
8The earth-covered magazine columns (columns 2–4 and 6–8) apply as follows:
a.
For standard magazines, 26 feet by 60 feet or larger, the front, side, and rear columns may be used.
b.
For nonstandard magazines, 26 feet by 60 feet or larger, only the side and rear columns may be used. For front exposures use the ’other PES’ column.
c.
For standard or nonstandard magazines, smaller than 26 feet by 60 feet, the following applies: if the magazine loading density is less than or equal to 0.028 lb of
NEW per cubic foot of the magazine’s internal volume, the front, side, and rear columns may be used. If the loading density is greater than this, use the ’other PES’
column for all exposures.
Table 5–2
Minimum primary fragment protection distance expressed in feet for selected HD 1.1 Items
Nomenclature 1 Unit52 Units 5 Units 10 Units2
AGM 65/A 400 500 500 500
AIM 7, MK38 Warhead 700 700 700 700
AIM 9 400 400 400 400
ASROC 500 5004
Bomb, 750 lb, M117A2 690 820 1020 1470
Bomb, 500 lb, MK82 670 860 1080 1240
Chapparral 400 400 400 400
Harpoon 500
Improved Hawk 900 900 900 900
Nike Hercules 900 1150 1150 1150
Penquin 500 5004
Projectile, 175mm, M437A2 450 580 830 2070
Projectile,155mm, M107 400 510 720 1490
Projectile, 105mm, M11270 350 500 1000
Projectile, 8-inch, MK25 520 750 960 1240
Projecitle, 5-inch, MK49 280 430 660 1000
Tomahawk 500
33DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–2
Minimum primary fragment protection distance expressed in feet for selected HD 1.1 Items—Continued
Nomenclature 1 Unit52 Units 5 Units 10 Units2
Torpedoes not over 1500 NEW 5003500350035003
Notes:
1Applies only to HE 105mm M1 cartridges and projectiles not in standard shipping and storage containers. These are HD 1.1.
2Ten units or more, until this distance is exceeded by table 5–1 distance.
3Distance applies to torpedoes with explosive hazard analogous to those tested (for example, MK16 war shot).
4This distance applies for a maximum of 3 units.
5A unit is one article for unpackaged items such as bombs, or one outer package of articles for items such as fuzes. If an operation involves palletized articles, the unit
shall be considered as a pallet load.
Table 5–3
HC/D 1.1 intraline distances in feet from PESs other than earth-covered magazines3
NEW in lbs Barricaded Unbarricaded NEW in lbs Barricaded Unbarricaded
D = 9W1/3 D = 18W1/3 D = 9W1/3 D = 18W1/3
50133 66 70,000 371 742
100 42 84 75,000 380 759
200 53 105 80,000 388 776
300 60 120 85,000 396 791
400 66 133 90,000 403 807
500 71 143 95,000 411 821
600 76 152 100,000 418 835
700 80 160 125,000 450 900
800 84 167 150,000 478 956
900 87 174 175,000 503 1,007
1,000 90 180 200,000 526 1,053
1,500 103 206 225,000 547 1,134
2,000 113 227 250,000 567 1,134
3,000 130 260 275,000 585 1,171
4,000 143 286 300,000 602 1,205
5,000 154 308 325,000 619 1,238
6,000 164 327 350,000 634 1,269
7,000 172 344 375,000 649 1,298
8,000 180 360 400,000 663 1,326
9,000 187 374 500,0002714 1,429
10,000 194 388 600,000 759 1,518
15,000 222 444 700,000 799 1,598
20,000 244 489 800,000 835 1,671
25,000 263 526 900,000 869 1,738
30,000 280 559 1,000,000 900 1,800
35,000 294 589 1,500,000 1,030 2,060
40,000 308 616 2,000,000 1,134 2,268
45,000 320 640 2,500,000 1,221 2,443
50,000 332 663 3,000,000 1,298 2,596
55,000 342 685 3,500,000 1,366 2,733
60,000 352 705 4,000,000 1,429 2,857
65,000 362 724 5,000,000 1,539 3,078
Notes:
1For less than 50 pounds, lesser distances may be used when structures, blast mats, or equipment will completely contain fragments and debris. Determine distances
using the formula shown.
2Quantities above 500,000 pounds are authorized only for group IV liquid propellants.
3This table is not applicable when blast, fragments, and debris are completely contained as in certain test firing barricades.
Table 5–4
HD 1.1 intraline distances from earth-covered magazines (type of distance protection to be provided to ES)
NEW in pounds Barricaded intraline explosion coming from: Unbarricaded intraline explosion coming from:
Front1Side Rear Front Side Rear
50 35 25 20 60 60 45
l00 45 30 30 80 75 55
200 60 40 35 100 95 70
300 65 45 40 120 105 80
400 75 50 45 130 120 90
500 80 55 50 140 125 95
600 85 60 50 150 135 100
34 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–4
HD 1.1 intraline distances from earth-covered magazines (type of distance protection to be provided to ES)—Continued
NEW in pounds Barricaded intraline explosion coming from: Unbarricaded intraline explosion coming from:
Front1Side Rear Front Side Rear
700 90 60 55 160 140 105
800 90 65 55 170 150 110
900 95 70 60 175 155 115
1,000 100 70 60 180 160 120
1,500 115 80 70 210 185 135
2,000 125 90 75 230 200 150
3,000 145 100 85 260 230 175
4,000 160 110 95 290 255 190
5,000 170 120 100 310 275 205
6,000 180 125 110 330 290 220
7,000 190 135 115 340 305 230
8,000 200 140 120 360 320 240
9,000 210 145 125 370 330 250
10,000 215 150 130 390 345 260
15,000 245 175 150 450 395 295
20,000 270 190 165 490 435 325
25,000 290 205 175 530 470 350
30,000 310 220 185 560 500 370
35,000 325 230 195 590 525 390
40,000 340 240 205 620 545 410
45,000 355 250 215 640 570 425
50,000 370 260 220 660 590 440
55,000 380 265 230 680 610 455
60,000 390 275 235 700 625 470
65,000 400 280 240 720 645 480
70,000 410 290 245 740 660 495
75,000 420 295 255 760 675 505
80,000 430 300 260 780 690 520
85,000 440 310 265 790 705 530
90,000 450 315 270 810 715 540
95,000 455 320 275 820 730 545
100,000 465 325 280 840 745 555
125,000 500 350 300 900 800 605
150,000 530 370 320 960 850 650
175,000 560 390 335 1,010 895 700
200,000 585 410 350 1,055 935 745
225,000 610 425 365 1,090 975 795
250,000 630 440 380 1,135 1,005 840
275,000 650 455 390 1,170 1,040 890
300,000 670 470 400 1,200 1,070 935
325,000 675 520 465 1,240 1,135 1,035
350,000 680 570 530 1,270 1,200 1,130
375,000 685 615 600 1,300 1,265 1,230
400,000 690 665 665 1,330 1,330 1,330
500,000 715 715 715 1,430 1,430 1,430
Notes:
1A separate intervening barricade is required between the front of the earth-covered magazine and the ES.
Table 5–5
HC/D 1.1 intermagazine hazard factors and distances
Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 Col 7 Col 8 Col 9 Col 10 Col 11
Net Expl. K1.1 K1.25 K2 K2.75 K4 K4.5 K5 K6 K8 K11
Wt.(lbs)
100 7 7 9 13 19 21 23 28 37 51
110 7 7 10 13 19 22 24 29 38 53
120 7 7 10 14 20 22 25 30 39 54
140 7 7 10 14 21 23 26 31 42 57
150 7 7 11 15 21 24 27 32 43 58
170 7 7 11 15 22 25 28 33 44 61
190 7 7 11 16 23 26 29 34 46 63
220 7 8 12 17 24 27 30 36 48 66
250 7 8 13 17 25 28 31 38 50 69
280 7 8 13 18 26 29 33 39 52 72
310 7 8 14 19 27 30 34 41 54 74
350 8 9 14 19 28 32 35 42 56 78
390 8 9 15 20 29 33 37 44 58 80
440 8 10 15 21 30 34 38 46 61 84
35DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–5
HC/D 1.1 intermagazine hazard factors and distances—Continued
Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 Col 7 Col 8 Col 9 Col 10 Col 11
Net Expl. K1.1 K1.25 K2 K2.75 K4 K4.5 K5 K6 K8 K11
Wt.(lbs)
500 9 10 16 22 32 36 40 48 63 87
560 9 10 16 23 33 37 41 49 66 91
630 9 11 17 24 34 39 43 51 69 94
700 10 11 18 24 36 40 44 53 71 98
790 10 12 18 25 37 42 46 55 74 102
890 11 12 19 26 38 43 48 58 77 106
1000 11 13 20 28 40 45 50 60 80 110
1100 11 13 21 28 41 46 52 62 83 114
1200 12 13 21 29 43 48 53 64 85 117
1400 12 14 22 31 45 50 56 67 89 123
1500 13 14 23 31 46 52 57 69 92 126
1700 13 15 24 33 48 54 60 72 95 131
1900 14 15 25 34 50 56 52 74 99 136
2200 14 16 26 36 52 59 65 78 104 143
2500 15 17 27 37 54 61 68 81 109 149
2800 16 18 28 39 56 63 70 85 113 155
3100 16 18 29 40 58 66 73 87 117 160
3500 17 19 30 42 61 68 76 91 121 167
3900 17 20 31 43 63 71 79 94 126 173
4400 18 20 33 45 66 74 82 98 131 180
5,000 19 21 34 47 68 77 85 103 137 188
5,600 20 22 36 49 71 80 89 107 142 195
6,300 20 23 37 51 74 83 92 111 148 203
7,000 21 24 38 53 77 86 96 115 153 210
7,900 22 25 40 55 80 90 100 119 159 219
8,900 23 26 41 57 83 93 104 124 166 228
10,000 24 27 43 59 86 97 108 129 172 237
11,000 24 28 44 61 89 100 111 133 178 245
12,000 25 29 46 63 92 103 114 137 183 252
14,000 27 30 48 66 96 108 121 145 193 265
15,000 27 31 49 68 99 111 123 148 197 271
17,000 28 32 51 71 103 116 129 154 206 283
19,000 29 33 53 73 107 120 133 160 213 294
22,000 31 35 56 77 112 126 140 168 224 308
25,000 32 37 58 80 117 132 146 175 234 322
28,000 33 38 61 84 121 137 152 182 243 334
31,000 35 39 63 86 126 141 157 188 251 346
35,000 36 41 65 90 131 147 164 196 262 360
39,000 37 42 68 93 136 153 170 203 271 373
44,000 39 44 71 97 141 159 177 212 282 388
50,000 41 46 74 101 147 166 184 221 295 405
56,000 42 48 77 105 153 172 191 230 306 421
63,000 44 50 80 109 159 179 199 239 318 438
70,000 45 52 82 113 165 185 206 247 330 453
79,000 47 54 86 118 172 193 215 257 343 472
89,000 49 56 89 123 179 201 223 268 357 491
100,000 51 58 93 128 186 209 232 278 371 511
110,000 53 60 96 132 192 216 240 287 383 527
120,000 54 62 99 136 197 222 247 296 395 543
140,000 57 65 104 143 208 234 260 312 415 571
150,000 58 66 106 146 213 239 266 319 425 584
170,000 61 69 111 152 222 249 277 332 443 609
190,000 63 72 115 158 230 259 287 345 460 632
220,000 66 75 121 166 241 272 302 362 483 664
250,000 69 79 126 173 252 283 315 378 504 693
280,000 72 82 131 180 262 294 327 393 523 720
310,000 74 85 135 186 271 305 338 406 541 744
350,000 78 88 141 194 282 317 352 423 564 775
390,000 80 91 146 201 292 329 365 438 584 804
440,000 84 95 152 209 304 342 380 456 608 837
500,000 87 99 159 218 317 357 397 476 635 873
560,000 91 103 165 227 330 371 412 495 659 907
630,000 94 107 171 236 343 386 429 514 686 943
700,000 98 111 178 244 355 400 444 533 710 977
790,000 102 116 185 254 370 416 462 555 740 1,017
890,000 106 120 192 265 385 433 481 577 770 1,058
1,000,000 110 125 200 275 400 450 500 600 800 1,100
1,100,000 114 129 206 284 413 465 516 619 826 1,136
1,200,000 117 133 213 292 425 478 531 638 850 1,169
1,400,000 123 140 224 308 447 503 559 671 895 1,231
1,500,000 126 143 229 315 458 515 572 687 916 1,259
1,700,000 131 149 239 328 477 537 597 716 955 1,313
36 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–5
HC/D 1.1 intermagazine hazard factors and distances—Continued
Col 1 Col 2 Col 3 Col 4 Col 5 Col 6 Col 7 Col 8 Col 9 Col 10 Col 11
Net Expl. K1.1 K1.25 K2 K2.75 K4 K4.5 K5 K6 K8 K11
Wt.(lbs)
1,900,000 136 155 248 341 495 557 619 743 991 1,362
2,200,000 143 163 260 358 520 585 650 780 1,040 1,431
2,500,000 149 170 271 373 543 611 679 814 1,086 1,431
2,800,000 155 176 282 388 564 634 705 846 1,128 1,550
3,100,000 160 182 262 401 583 656 729 875 1,166 1,604
3,500,000 167 190 304 418 607 683 759 911 1,215 1,670
3,900,000 173 197 315 433 630 708 787 944 1,259 1,731
4,400,000 180 205 328 451 655 737 819 983 1,311 1,803
5,000,000 188 214 342 470 684 769 855 1,026 1,368 1,881
5,600,000 195 222 355 488 710 799 888 1,065 1,421 1,953
6,300,000 203 231 369 508 739 831 923 1,108 1,478 2,032
7,000,000 210 239 383 526 765 861 956 1,148 1,530 2,104
7,900,000 219 249 398 548 797 896 996 1,195 1,593 2,191
8,900,000 228 259 414 570 829 933 1,036 1,243 1,658 2,280
10,000,000 237 269 431 592 862 69 1,077 1,293 1,724 2,370
11,000,000 245 278 445 612 890 1,001 1,112 1,334 1,779 2,446
12,000,000 252 286 458 630 916 1,030 1,145 1,374 1,832 2,518
14,000,000 265 301 482 663 964 1,085 1,205 1,446 1,928 2,651
15,000,000 271 308 493 378 986 1,110 1,233 1,480 1,973 2,713
Table 5–6
HC/D 1.1 guide for intermagazine distance table5
To Standard earth-covered magazine1,4 Nonstandard earth-covered magazine2,4 Aboveground Modules
magazine3
Module Cell
From S R F(U) F(B) S R F(U) F(B) (U) (B) (B) (B)
Standard earth-covered
magazine 1,4 S33553399973 3
R33443399973 3
F(U) 5 4 11 9 5 4 11 9 11 9 9 9
F(B)549954999 9 9
Nonstandard earth-covered
magazine2,4 S33553399993 3
R33443399993 3
F(U) 9 9 11 9 9 9 11 9 11 9 9 9
F(B)99999999999 9
Aboveground magazine3(U) 6 6 11 9 6 6 11 9 11 9 9 9
(B)66996699999 9
Module (B) 3 3 9 9 3 3 9 9 9 9 2 2
Notes:
1Standard earth-covered magazines consist of all magazines equal or greater in strength to those enumerated in paragraph 8–5.
2Nonstandard earth-covered magazines except those in note 1 with earth cover equal to or greater than required by standard earth-covered magazines.
3Aboveground magazines are all types above grade (not earth covered), storage pads, loading docks, or any other facility which provides no blast attenuation.
4Reference paragraph 5–8 and figures 5–1 through 5–7 to determine what constitutes the front, side, and rear of earth-covered magazines.
5Abbreviations used: F - front; S - side; R - rear; (U) -unbarricaded; (B) - barricaded.
6Numbers at the intersections identify the column to be used in table 5–5.
37DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–7
Personnel protection distances from aboveground detonations
Blast distance (feet) Fragment/debris distance
Nonfragmenting explosive material D = 328W1/3 1,250 feet
Bombs and projectiles with a diameter less than 5 inches (127mm) D = 328W1/3 2,500 feet
Bombs and projectiles with a diameter of 5 inches (127mm) or more D = 328W1/3 4,000 feet
All other ammunition D = 328W1/3 2,500 feet
Notes:
1The distance required is the greater of the blast distance or fragment/debris distance.
Table 5–8
Required blast overpressure protection distance in feet for nonessential personnel at ranges used for detonating
ammunition for demilitarization, demonstration, or explosives ordnance disposal
NEW (lbs) Burial depth in feet
0123451015
1328 79 16 16 16 16 16 16
5 561 261 104 41 28 28 28 28
10 707 398 191 92 44 35 35 35
20 890 464 326 182 102 57 45 45
30 1019 566 368 260 157 94 51 51
40 1122 650 439 329 208 131 56 56
50 1208 721 501 349 255 165 60 60
100 1522 984 737 553 414 326 76 76
150 1743 1171 911 708 550 428 105 87
200 1918 1322 1052 837 665 529 151 96
250 2066 1450 1172 948 767 620 198 103
300 2196 1562 1279 1047 858 702 243 110
350 2312 1663 1375 1137 941 778 288 116
400 2417 1755 1463 1220 1018 849 332 121
450 2514 1839 1545 1297 1089 915 375 134
500 2603 1918 1620 1369 1157 977 417 154
1000 3280 2515 2200 1924 1683 1472 754 360
1500 3755 2936 2612 2324 2067 1839 1025 556
2000 4133 3273 2943 2646 2380 2140 1258 739
2500 4452 3558 3224 2921 2647 2398 1465 894
3000 4731 3808 3471 3163 2883 2627 1652 1039
4000 5207 4236 3893 3578 3289 3023 1983 1301
5000 5609 4598 4251 3931 3635 3362 2273 1537
6000 5960 4915 4566 4241 3940 3660 2533 1752
7000 6274 5199 4847 4520 4214 3929 2769 1952
8000 6560 5457 5104 4773 4464 4175 2988 2138
9000 6823 5695 5340 5007 4695 4402 3191 2313
10000 7067 5916 5560 5225 4910 4614 3382 2479
Notes:
1This table provides distances for protection from blast overpressure only. Fragment distances are given in table 5–7 and may be reduced per paragraph 5–7
c
.
2The 0 foot column distances are for above ground or open pit detonations and are based on the formula: D = 328W3/8.
3The columns 1 foot through 15 feet are for buried detonations and are generated from the program EARTHEX. These distances assume the use of alluvium soil, a silty
material which is the lightest soil type. They also assume ’base weather conditions,’ meaning low winds and high clouds. In lieu of this table, EARTHEX may be used for
soil types other than alluvium (heavier soils may allow smaller distances), for atmospheric conditions such as low, stable clouds (which may increase distances), and for
interpolation between table values. EARTHEX, an IBM compatible program, is available from the U.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety.
Table 5–9
Thermal flux calculations
Q = 0.62t–0.7423 Where:
Q is the calories/square centimeter/sec-
ond
t is the time in seconds
Notes:
Shields complying with MIL STD 398 are acceptable protection.
(b) To determine overpressure protection requirements in accord-
ance with MIL STD 1474, use tables 5–10 through 5–12, and figure
5–1. They provide separation distances and hearing protection re-
quirements to protect against both blast injury to the body and
hearing loss. There are three methods for using the tables and
figure, depending on what type of equipment is available to measure
sound (See table 5–13).
(3) For both accidental and intentional detonations, personnel
hazards from broken glass can be minimized by building orientation
and/or keeping the number of exposed glass panels and panel size to
a minimum. When window panels are necessary and risk assessment
determines a glass hazard will be present, blast resistant windows
must be used. The framing and/or sash of such panels must be
strong enough to retain the panel in the structure.
l. Storage tanks.
( 1 ) A b o v e g r o u n d t a n k s . T o p r e v e n t r u p t u r e a n d c o l l a p s e , u n -
protected aboveground storage tanks for hazardous materials (such
as petroleum, oils, lubricants, industrial chemicals) will be separated
from all PESs by IBD. Exceptions are as follows—
(a) Large permanent bulk storage facilities are of primary con-
cern when applying IBD to storage tanks. For smaller tanks, it may
38 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
be best to weigh the cost of distance and protective construction
against the strategic value of the stored material, the ease of replace-
ment after an accident, and the potential environmental impact. The
MACOM may approve distances less than IBD without formal
waiver through such a risk management process, but only if spill
containment is provided to safeguard adjacent facilities.
(b) Distances less than IBD may be used when an engineered
design protects against rupture and collapse from fragments and
blast.
(c) Small quantities of POL and other hazardous materials used
for operational purposes require no specific Q-D separation distance
for explosives safety.
(d) A service tank supporting a single PES shall be separated
from the PES by the appropriate NFPA distance (see NFPA, parts
30 and 31). The distance from the service tank to other PESs shall
be the NFPA distance or the Q-D distance between the PESs,
whichever is greater. Consider the following example: An explo-
sives operating line consists of two buildings, A and B. For Q-D
purposes, A and B are separated by 200 feet intraline distance. A
service tank supports A. The NFPA requires 25 feet from the tank
to A. The distance between the tank and the other PES (Building B)
is the greater of the NFPA distance (25 feet) or the Q-D distance
between A and B (200 feet). Therefore, the distance required be-
tween the tank and B is 200 feet.
(e) Q-D from underground ammunition storage to aboveground
storage tanks must be determined on a site specific basis taking
account of crater, blast, ground shock, debris hazards, and potential
adverse environmental impacts.
(2) Unprotected service tanks. Unprotected service tanks which
support aboveground explosives storage or operating complexes, but
not inhabited buildings (such as those in administrative, supply,
industrial, and housing areas) may be sited in accordance with table
5–14 provided the following conditions are met—
(a) The MACOM must accept the possible loss of the tanks and
any collateral damage that a fire might cause if the tanks were
punctured by fragments.
(b) A dike system must be installed meeting the requirements of
NFPA, part 30 to provide spill containment.
(c) If the tank is supplied by a pipe system as opposed to a tank
truck, then the supply pipe must be protected from blast and frag-
ments to prevent a spill larger than the contents of the tank. If the
supply pipe is underground, it will be located from PESs in accord-
ance with paragraph 5–7m. If it is aboveground, use IBD or design
protection in accordance with paragraph 5–7l(1)(b).
(3) Storage tanks for water. A key Q-D consideration is whether
loss of the water tank is acceptable. If a water tank is used for
firefighting and no adequate alternate water supplies exist, the tank
is essential and its loss is unacceptable. If adequate alternate water
supplies do exist, loss of the tank may be acceptable. However,
consider other factors, such as the replacement cost of the tank and
the effect of its loss on the installation mission, before making a
final determination.
(a) If the loss of the water tank is acceptable, Q-D does not
apply.
(b) If the loss of the water tank is unacceptable, IBD applies to
aboveground water tanks in this category. Buried tanks and associ-
ated components of like value shall meet the siting requirements of
paragraph 5–7m.
(c) The MACOM shall designate the approval authority level for
the siting of aboveground water tanks within IBD of PESs, and for
buried tanks or pipelines sited at less than the distances required by
paragraph 5–7m.
m. Underground tanks or pipelines. These shall be separated
from buildings or stacks containing ammunition and explosives of
HDs 1.2 through 1.4 by a minimum distance of 80 feet. The separa-
tion for HD 1.1 shall correspond to the formula D = 3.0W1/3 with a
minimum distance of 80 feet.
n. Electrical supply lines. These lines are classified by purpose as
transmission, distribution, or service. The following separation re-
quirements apply:
(1) Transmission lines. Transmission lines are those lines supply-
ing locations outside the installation uniquely, or in common with
the installation. Any line carrying 69 KV or more shall be classified
as a transmission line for Q-D purposes. The following separations
apply from PESs to transmission lines and to the towers or poles
supporting them:
(a) IBD, based on blast only (Use formulas in notes to table
5–1.), if the line in question is part of a grid system serving a large
offpost area.
(b) PTR, based on blast only (Use formulas in notes to table
5–1.), if loss of the line will not create a serious social or economic
hardship.
(c) A minimum distance equal to the length of the lines between
the supporting poles or towers, if loss of the line does not cause loss
of power (that is, power is rerouted through other existing lines and/
or networks). This distance may be further reduced if an effective
means is provided to ensure that energized lines, upon breaking,
cannot come into contact with the PES.
(2) Distribution lines. These are normally lines solely supplying
multiple installation locations. Distribution lines, the poles or towers
supporting them, and electrical substations directly connected to
distribution lines will be separated from PESs by PTR, based on
blast only. (Use formulas contained in notes to table 5–1.)
(3) Service lines. Service lines are those lines supplying individ-
ual installation locations. When a service line provides power to an
explosives facility, the line must be run underground for the last 50
feet to the facility. Service lines not serving a particular explosives
facility but running near it, will normally be no closer to the facility
than the distance between the supporting poles or towers. If an
effective means is provided to ensure that energized lines on break-
ing cannot come into contact with the explosives facility or its
appurtenances, then they may be closer than the distance between
poles. Examples of effective means include messenger lines, cable
trays, and ground fault circuit interrupters. Before implementing any
of these means, a safety submission must be approved per chapter 8.
o . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n m o d e c h a n g e l o c a t i o n s . T r a n s f e r p o i n t s f o r
roll-on, roll-off transportation operations involving ammunition and
explosives do not require Q-D application when the ammunition is
moved in compliance with national, international, or host country
specific transportation regulations.
p. Burning areas. Sites for burning ammunition and explosives
shall be separated from other facilities as specified below.
(1) To protect burning area essential personnel (those conducting
the burning operation) and non-essential personnel (those conduct-
ing other ammunition operations not directly related to the burning
ground operation) in ammunition facilities or areas will be located at
a minimum of K24, based on the quantity at the burning grounds.
(2) All other personnel in administrative, housing, industrial, and
other operations not related to ammunition will be located at a
minimum of K40 with a 1250 feet minimum (670 feet for quantities
o f 1 0 0 p o u n d s o r l e s s ) , b a s e d o n t h e q u a n t i t y a t t h e b u r n i n g
grounds.
(3) Burning grounds will be sited at intraline distance from other
potential explosions sites.
5–8. Magazine orientation
a. When standard earth-covered magazines containing HD 1.1
ammunition are sited so that any one is in the forward sector 60
degrees either side of the centerline of another, the two must be
separated by distances greater than the minimum permitted for side-
to-side orientations. The greater distances are required primarily to
protect door and headwall structures against blast from a PES for-
ward of the exposed magazine and, to a lesser extent, due to the
directionality of effects from the source.
b. Permitting some significant (but oblique) unbarricaded head-
wall-to-headwall exposure at reduced intermagazine distances is a
relaxation of conditions that have been proven safe by test. Some
examples of the application of the rules, with references to columns
in table 5–5, are as follows:
(1) Figures 5–3 and 5–4. If the headwalls of both A and B are
39DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
outside the 120 degree sector (60 degrees either side of the center-
line), they may be separated by column 3 (1.25W1 3) distances
based on the largest quantity of HD 1.1 stored in either. Figures 5–3
and 5–4 are considered the equivalent of standard side-to-side sepa-
ration with the optimum orientation, that is, all earth-covered maga-
zines facing the same direction and axes parallel.
(2) Figure 5–5. If the headwall of A is outside the 120 degree
sector of B but the headwall of B is inside the 120 degree sector of
A, separation distance between these two earth-covered magazines
(column 5, 2.75W1/3) is based on the largest quantity of HD 1.1 in
either magazine.
(3) Figure 5–6. If headwalls of A and B are within the 120
degree sector of each other and are not provided with a separate
door barricade, column 11 (11W1/3) distances must be used to sepa-
rate them. If one or more separate door barricades are present
meeting requirements of chapter 8, such as A to C, then column 9
(6W1/3) distances may be used to determine separation distances.
Although no separate barricade is shown between A and B, more
detailed analysis of a specific storage condition of this type may
show that the distribution of explosives within A and B is such that
the earth fill of one or the other or both meets the specifications of
an effective barricade according to paragraph 8–31b. In such case,
column 9 (6W1/3) distances would apply between A and B.
(4) Figures 5–7 and 5–8. In the arrangement shown, earth-cov-
ered magazines A and B are either of significantly different length
or canted so that one of them is within the 120 degree sector off the
headwall of the other, even though a straight line between headwall
A and magazine B does pass through the earth cover of B. The
limits for both A and shall be determined using column 5 (2.75W1/
3).(5) Figure 5–9. Separation distances between earth-covered mag-
azines and ESs other than earth-covered magazines are depicted in
figure 5–9.
c. When nonstandard earth-covered magazines are so oriented
that all straight lines between the sides and rear walls of the two
magazines pass through an earth-covered surface of each, column 3
(1.25W1/3) separation distances apply. Similarly, column 9 (6W1/3)
distances apply to all orientations in which every straight line be-
tween two magazines passes through the earth cover of one and
only one of them. If the above conditions cannot be met, column 11
(11W1/3) distances apply. The earth cover of nonstandard magazines
must be equal to or greater than that required for standard earth-
covered, arch-type magazines.
d. Other factors limiting earth-covered magazine storage are as
follows:
(1) Earth-covered magazines that are as strong as those classed as
standard in paragraph 8–5a(1) are limited to 500,000 pounds of 1.1
materials. Earth-covered magazines not meeting these strength re-
quirements are classed as nonstandard and are limited to 250,000
pounds of 1.1 materials. Exceptions are—
(a) Quantities above 500,000 pounds (for standard magazines) or
above 250,000 pounds (for nonstandard magazines) are authorized
for liquid propellants.
(b) Quantities above 500,000 pounds (for standard magazines) or
above 250,000 pounds (for nonstandard magazines) are authorized
for any 1.1 material in any earth-covered magazine provided the
magazine is Q-D sited as an aboveground magazine, not as an earth-
covered magazine. When siting an earth-covered magazine as an
aboveground magazine, the magazine earth cover shall be consid-
ered a barricade.
(2) The distance given for up to 100 pounds NEW constitutes the
minimum magazine spacing permitted.
( 3 ) E a r t h - c o v e r e d m a g a z i n e s w i t h l e s s t h a n t h e r e q u i r e d 2 4
i n c h e s , b u t 1 2 i n c h e s o r m o r e o f c o v e r s h a l l b e c o n s i d e r e d
aboveground magazines, barricaded on the sides and rear. If earth
c o v e r i s l e s s t h a n 1 2 i n c h e s , t h e m a g a z i n e w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d
aboveground, unbarricaded. These earth cover depth criteria do not
apply to USAREUR Types II, IIA, III and IV earth-covered maga-
zines, which have unique earth cover requirements.
(4) The use of Ammunition Peculiar Equipment 1983 to measure
earth cover depth is encouraged. It is a nonintrusive measurement
method which will preserve magazine waterproofing membranes.
e. Siting requirements specified above apply only to the storage
of HD 1.1 ammunition and explosives. Existing earth-covered mag-
azines, regardless of orientation, standard or nonstandard (and sited
one from another for at least 100 pounds HD 1.1), may be used to
their physical capacity for the storage of HD 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4,
provided distances to other exposures comply with applicable Q-D
tables.
5–9. Quantity-distance tables
a. HD 1.1 Q-D tables (tables 5–1 through 5–6).
(1) HD 1.1 includes items which mass-detonate. The principal
hazards are blast and fragments.
(2) Separation distances required from earth-covered magazines
and other types of PESs to exposures requiring inhabited building
and PTR protection (see paras 5–6a and b) are listed for various
quantities of HD 1.1 in table 5–1. Specified separations from earth
covered magazines take into account reductions in blast overpres-
sure, structural debris, and primary fragments attributable to the
earth cover of the magazines. The PTR distances are 60 percent of
IBDs because of the transient nature of exposure.
(3) Separation distances required between PESs and those ESs
requiring intraline distance protection (see paras 5–6c and 5–6d) are
listed for various quantities of HD 1.1 in tables 5–3 and 5–4.
Testing has shown some attenuation of the airblast overpressure
from the sides and rear of earth-covered magazines relative to the
unconfined surface burst configuration. If the PES is an earth-cov-
ered magazine, use table 5–4. If not, use table 5–3. The distance
required between an explosives operating building and its service
magazine is determined by the quantity of explosives in the service
magazine irrespective of the quantity in the operating building.
(4) Magazines for HD 1.1 shall be separated one from another
per tables 5–5 and 5–6.
b. HD 1.2 Q-D table (table 5–15).
(1) HD 1.2 presents a fragment hazard. HD 1.2 includes items
configured for storage and transportation that do not mass detonate
when a single item or package in a stack ignites. Explosions cause
these items to burn and explode progressively, a few at a time,
projecting fragments, firebrands, and unexploded items from the
explosion site. Blast effects are limited to the immediate vicinity.
Heavy confinement, such as that in underground storage, may alter
1.2 explosion behavior significantly so that large aggregates of the
1.2 quantity may detonate en masse.
(a) Fragment distances are assigned to 1.2 items in 100 foot
increments, starting at 200 feet. Currently, the maximum 1.2 frag-
ment distance is 1,800 feet.
(b) Separate barricades and magazine earthcover do not reduce
IBD and PTR. Long-range, high-angle fragments fly over the barri-
cade. In earth-covered magazines, high angle fragments may eventu-
ally escape from the top and the front of the magazine due to
breaching of the arch after a prolonged 1.2 event.
(c) There is a 500,000 pounds (lbs) NEW storage limit for all
aboveground storage structures for items of this HD with an IBD
requirement greater than 800 feet.
(2) Public traffic route distances give consideration to the tran-
sient nature of the exposure in the same manner as for HD 1.1.
Public traffic route distance is computed as 60 percent of the IBD
for items of this HD.
(3) Intraline distances take account of the progressive nature of
explosions involving these items (normally from spreading fire) and
the ability to evacuate personnel from endangered areas before this
progression involves large numbers of items.
(a) Exposed structures may be extensively damaged by projec-
tiles and delayed propagation of the explosion may occur projec-
tions ignite combustibles.
(b) Intraline distance is computed as 50 percent of the IBD for
items of this HD. However, if the HE at an operating line PES is
limited to 5,000 pounds for items of this HD with an IBD require-
ment of 500 feet to 1,200 feet, then the intraline distance may be
reduced to 200 feet.
40 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
(4) Aboveground magazine distances provide strong protection
against any propagation of explosion. However, there is some risk
of delayed propagation when the ES contains combustible dunnage
or packing materials that may be ignited by projected firebrands.
(a) Items of this HD with IBD requirements of 1,200 feet or
greater risk propagation to adjacent aboveground magazines, partic-
ularly when packed in combustible containers. Storage in earth-
covered magazines is therefore preferred.
(b) The aboveground magazine distance requirement is 50 per-
cent of the IBD for items in this HD with an IBD of less than 400
feet. The aboveground magazine distance requirement for HD 1.2
with an IBD between 400 and 700 feet is 200, and for HD 1.2 with
an IBD of 800 feet and greater, it is 300 feet.
c . H D 1 . 3 ( t a b l e 5 – 1 6 ) . H D 1 . 3 i n c l u d e s i t e m s t h a t b u r n
vigorously and cannot usually be extinguished in storage situations.
Explosions normally will be confined to pressure ruptures of con-
tainers and will not produce propagating shock waves or damaging
blast overpressure beyond the magazine distance specified in table
5–16. Tossing about of burning container materials, propellant, or
other flaming debris may cause a severe hazard of spreading fire.
d. HD 1.4 (table 5–17).
(1) HD 1.4 items present a moderate fire hazard with no blast
hazard and virtually no fragmentation hazard. Q-Ds in table 5–17
are based on fire hazard clearance.
(2) Articles classified as 1.4S based on testing (as opposed to
analogy) may be considered as inert for storage purposes and can be
stored in any general purpose warehouse which provides adequate
security. Questions about whether a given 1.4S item was classified
by test or analogy shall be directed to USATCES.
e. HD 1.6. Quantity-distance separations for HD 1.6 ammunition
will be based on the storage location and configuration. This infor-
mation is detailed in table 5–18. A maximum of 500,000 pounds
NEW will be permitted at any one location. Any special storage
configuration and siting approved for HD 1.1 ammunition or explo-
sives may be used to store like explosive weights of HD 1.6.
f. HD 6.1
(1) HD 6.1 includes items that contain only toxic or incapacitat-
ing chemical agents. Items containing both explosives and chemical
agents are included in United Nation Organization Class 1, ammuni-
tion and explosives. The specific division (that is, 1.1, 1.2, and so
forth) is based on testing in accordance with TB 700–2.
(2) Hazard zones for toxic chemical agents are determined by the
relative toxicity of the agents, the amount released to the atmos-
phere and the rate at which they are released (that is, evaporation,
pressure, or explosives dispersal), terrain features, and meteorologi-
cal conditions. Hazard zone calculations are based on maximum
credible events (MCEs), using DDESB Technical Paper No. 10,
June 1980.
(3) Items containing both explosives and toxic chemical agents
require application of both the appropriate HDs 1.1 through 1.4 Q-D
and the HD 6.1 hazard zone distances.
5–10. Airfields, heliports, and seadromes
a. Scope and application.
(1) This section applies to airfields, heliports, and seadromes
located within the United States, its territories, and its possessions
used by the Army at which ammunition and explosives are under
the control and custody of DOD military or civilian personnel.
Chapter 14 applies where these requirements cannot be met in a
foreign nation. Its provisions do not apply to explosives items in-
stalled on aircraft or contained in survival and rescue kits such as
flares, signals, egress systems components, squibs, and detonators
for jettisoning external stores, engine-starter cartridges, fire extin-
guisher cartridges, destructors in electronic equipment, explosives
c o m p o n e n t s o f e m e r g e n c y e q u i p m e n t , a n d o t h e r s u c h i t e m s o f
materials necessary for safe flight operations.
(2) Combat aircraft loaded only with the munitions shown below
are exempt from the intraline quantity distance requirements to
related facilities.
(a) Gun ammunition 30mm or less of HD (04)1.2.
(b) HD 1.3 tactical missiles or pyrotechnics.
(c) HD 1.4 munitions.
(3) These Q-Ds will be applied together with airfield clearance
criteria as prescribed by the Army and Federal Aviation Regulations
(14 CFR 77) as follows:
(a) Combat aircraft parking areas, ammunition and explosives
cargo areas, alert hangers, and shelters may be located within the
airfield clearance zone insofar as these Q-D standards are concerned
at airfields, heliports, and seadromes used exclusively by the Army,
other services, and allied nations’ military components. They must
never be located in the ammunition and prohibited areas described
in c below.
(b) For airfields, heliports, and seadromes not used exclusively
by the Army, other services, or allied nations’ military components,
combat aircraft parking areas, ammunition and explosives cargo
areas, alert hangars, and shelters shall be located as prescribed in
tables 5–19 and 5–20.
b. Measurement of separation distances. In applying tables 5–19
and 5–20, distances will be measured as follows:
(1) Loaded aircraft to loaded aircraft. Measure the shortest dis-
tance between explosives on one aircraft to explosives on the adja-
cent aircraft.
(2) Ammunition and explosives location to taxiways and runways.
Measure from the nearest point of the ammunition and explosives
location to the nearest point of the taxiway and to the centerline of
the runway.
c. Ammunition and prohibited areas (APAs). No ammunition,
explosives, or explosives facilities may be located in APAs as de-
fined below.
(1) The APA for fixed-wing visual flight rules (VFR) runways,
fixed-wing instrument flight rules (IFR) runways, and rotary-wing
IFR heliports are the ground areas under the normal fixed-wing
VFR approach/departure (A/D) zones as described in TM 5–803–4
unless local conditions make a larger zone prudent.
(2) The APA for rotary-wing VFR heliports is the ground area
under the VFR A/D zone for this type of facility as described in TM
5–803–4.
(3) APAs and A/D zones begin at the edge of the “landing area”
(TM 5–803–4) for runways and heliport pads.
5–11. Pier and wharf facilities
See paragraph 11–6 for Q-D rules on pier and wharf facilities.
5–12. Liquid propellants
a. General requirements.
(1) These criteria are minimum requirements for all Army instal-
lations where liquid propellants are present. This includes liquid and
gaseous substances used to propel rockets and missiles, and multi-
compartment tanks in which both liquid fuels and liquid oxidizers
are stored.
(2) These criteria do not apply to—
(a) Liquid propellant manufacturing facilities.
(b) Prepackaged liquid propellant units when installed as compo-
nents of weapon systems having assigned storage compatibility and
explosives classifications.
( c ) A s i n g l e , m i n i m u m - s i z e s t a n d a r d s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r o f a
given propellant. This container may be one 55–gallon drum or one
500–pound net weight cylinder. Such containers will be stored in
the normal manner prescribed for flammable liquids.
(d) The storage and handling of hydrocarbon fuels used to oper-
ate ships, aircraft, and vehicles. However, when hydrocarbon fuels
serve the dual purpose of both fuel and liquid propellant, they will
be treated as liquid propellants when the fuel is actually charged
into the missile, rocket, ammunition item, or its component. Other-
wise, store and handle them as flammable liquids in accordance
with fire protection regulations.
( e ) O n e n o n s t a n d a r d c o n t a i n e r w i t h l e s s e r q u a n t i t i e s t h a n ( c )
above.
(f) Liquid propellants developed for guns, howitzers, and other
field cannon and hazard classified 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 or 1.5.
(3) When storage involves other explosives (solid) or explosives
41DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
items, use the Q-D criteria for those hazards together with the
criteria for the liquid propellant.
(4) These criteria do not consider toxic hazards. If the toxic
hazard is the controlling factor in siting and storing a liquid propel-
lant, refer to the directive on toxic hazards, together with explosives
criteria. When a site plan is submitted, it will consider both explo-
sives and toxic hazards.
(5) Q-D tables below do not apply to propellants contaminated to
a degree that would increase the hazards involved. Send a request
through channels to the U.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives
Safety for assistance in determining the following:
(a) Q-D criteria for conditions other than those shown here; or,
either of the following:
(b) Explosives equivalents for propellants
(c) Combinations other than those in table 5–21.
b. Determining the propellant quantity to consider in Q-D calcu-
lations.
(1) The NEW of a propellant is the total quantity of the propel-
lant in a tank, drum, cylinder, or other container. When storage
containers are not separated from each other by required distances,
calculate the quantity of propellant on the basis of the total contents
of all such storage containers. Propellant in related piping must be
included where positive means have been provided for interrupting
the flow during a mishap.
(2) Where incompatible propellants are not separated by the re-
quired distances, or there are no provisions to prevent their mixing,
the combined quantity of the two will be used.
(3) When quantities of propellants are given in gallons, use table
5–22 to find the quantity in pounds.
c. Measuring separation distances to exposures.
(1) Measure the distance to the ES from the closest point of all
hazard sources (containers, buildings, or positive cutoff points in
piping).
( 2 ) W h e n t h e b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g p r o p e l l a n t i n c y l i n d e r s o r
d r u m s a r e e f f e c t i v e l y s u b d i v i d e d , m e a s u r e d i s t a n c e s f r o m t h e
nearest container or the separate subdivision of containers requiring
the greatest separation.
d. Hazard and compatibility storage grouping. Liquid propellants
may present hazards of various types and degrees (see table 5–23).
The following groups are based on these hazards:
(1) Group I—relatively low fire hazard. These materials are the
least hazardous. They have, or may develop, a fire hazard potential
requiring some separation.
(2) Group II—fire hazard. These materials are strong oxidizers
subject to rapid combustion. When they come in contact with cer-
tain materials, such as organic matter, they may present a serious
fire hazard. Therefore, storage facilities are prescribed on the basis
of quantities involved to minimize property loss.
(3) Group III—fragment and deflagration hazard. Storage con-
tainers of these materials may rupture in a fire or deflagration, or
there may be a vapor phase explosion. Either the pressure rupture or
vapor phase explosion can cause a fragment hazard from the con-
tainer, its protective structure, or adjacent material.
(4) Group IV—detonation hazard. These materials present the
same hazard as mass-detonating explosives. They create air blast
overpressures as well as severe fragment hazards from containers
and surrounding equipment and material.
e. Location factor. Since the hazards differ in each of the above
groups, the predominant hazard of a propellant can vary with the
storage location and the operation involved. In determining safety
criteria and separation distances, consider the following conditions:
(1) Range launch pads. Range launch pads involve research, de-
velopment, test, and space exploration launches. Proximity of fuel
a n d o x i d i z e r t o e a c h o t h e r m a k e s t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s h a z a r d o u s .
Launch vehicle tanks are also involved. HE equivalents must be
used.
( 2 ) O p e r a t i o n a l l a u n c h p a d s . A c t i v i t i e s a t o p e r a t i o n a l l a u n c h
pads are similar to those at range launch pads. Launch vehicle tanks
are involved at these locations. HE equivalents must be used for all
quantities of incompatible propellants that could possibly become
mixed during a mishap. When an operational launch pad is used for
training launches, it will be considered a range launch pad.
(3) Static test stands. These units remain static and are subject to
better control than obtainable in (1) and (2) above. To reduce the
hazard, tanks should be separated (except fuel and oxidizer tanks
that are mounted one above the other). HE equivalents must be used
for all quantities of incompatible propellant that could possibly
become mixed during a mishap.
(4) Ready storage. This storage is close to launch and static test
stands, but it is not actually directly involved in feeding the engine.
If the facility is designed to prevent mixing fuels and oxidizers or
initiation of a detonation, it presents Group I through III hazards.
However, if positive measures cannot be taken to prevent mixing of
fuel and oxidizer or to prevent the propagation of a detonation, use
HE equivalents.
(5) Cold-flow test operations. These present only fire and frag-
ment hazards if the system is closed except for approved venting, is
completely airtight, fuels and oxidizers are never employed concur-
rently, each commodity has a completely separate isolated system
and fittings to positively prevent intermixing, and the propellants are
of required purity. Otherwise, use HE equivalents.
(6) Bulk storage. This is the most remote storage. It is never
directly connected to any launch or test operation. It consists of the
area, tanks, and other containers used to hold propellant for supply-
ing ready storage and, indirectly, run tanks where no ready storage
is available. Fire and fragment hazards govern storage requirements.
However, if positive measures cannot be taken to prevent mixing of
fuel and oxidizer or to prevent propagation of a detonation, use HE
equivalents.
(7) Rest storage. This resembles bulk storage. It is temporary
holding at parking locations for barges, trailers, tank cars, and porta-
ble tanks used for topping operations (when the storing vehicle is
not directly engaged in the operation). It includes parking locations
f o r s u c h v e h i c l e s w h e n t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o e m p t y t h e i r c a r g o
promptly into proper storage containers. Fire and fragment hazards
govern. A transporting vehicle becomes a part of the storage con-
tainer to which it is attached during propellant transfer.
(8) Transfer pipelines. These present minimum hazards when
used to transfer Group I through III propellants between unloading
points and storage areas or between storage areas and points of use.
Group IV material is generally too hazardous to be moved any
significant distance through such lines. Short fill, drain, or feeder
lines that are part of a system are not considered transfer pipelines
within the meaning of this paragraph. The following applies to
transfer pipelines:
(a) Group I. No minimum Q-D has been set up. Give normal fire
protection for each pipeline site.
(b) Groups II and III. Keep at least 25 feet between the pipeline
and inhabited buildings of any type. Give normal fire protection for
each pipeline site.
(c) Group IV. Generally considered too hazardous to transport by
pipeline. However, if the line is designed to carry the material,
apply the criteria in table 5–25.
f. Tables of distance.
(1) Group I—relatively low fire hazard. Table 5–24 applies.
(2) Group II—fire hazard. Table 5–24 applies.
(3) Group III—fragment and deflagration hazard. Table 5–24
applies.
( 4 ) C o m b i n e d h a z a r d g r o u p s . W h e n G r o u p s I , I I , a n d I I I
materials are stored with Group IV under conditions described in
paragraph 5–12e, tables 5–21 and 5–25 apply as appropriate.
(5) Group IV—detonation hazard (100-percent HE equivalent).
Table 5–25 applies.
g. Compatible storage. Compatible storages of different propel-
lants will be separated by the intragroup storage distances required
by the more hazardous groups.
h. Incompatible storage. Separation distance between propellants
of different SCGs will be the inhabited building distance for the
propellent quantity and the group that requires the greater distance.
There is an exception for propellants subdivided by barriers or by
42 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
other means to prevent mixing during a mishap. For them intragroup
separation applies.
5–13. Underground storage
a. Background.
(1) This section details Q-D standards for the underground stor-
age of military ammunition and explosives. Underground storage
includes natural caverns and below grade, excavated chambers, but
criteria of this section also apply to any storage facility providing
the overpressure confinement effects typically encountered in under-
ground storage. Use criteria of this section when the minimum
distance from the perimeter of a storage area to an exterior surface
exceeds 0.25W1/3. This minimum distance most often, but not al-
ways, equals the thickness of the earth cover. This section addresses
explosives safety criteria both with and without rupture of the earth
cover. Figure 5–10 illustrates a facility layout and shows key param-
eters to be used in these criteria.
(2) Expected ground shock, debris, and airblast hazards from an
accidental explosion in an underground storage facility depend on
several variables, including the local geology and site specific pa-
rameters. These parameters vary significantly from facility to facili-
ty, so criteria listed here will likely be safety conservative for some
geologies and configurations. Siting distances other than those listed
may be used when validated by approved experimental or analytical
results showing equal protection to that required.
(3) Q-D siting requirements of this section may be determined
from applicable equations or by interpolating between table and
figure entries.
(4) The provisions of this section do not apply to storage in
earth-covered magazines.
b. Types of underground storage sites.
(1) The chamber type of underground facility may be a single
chamber or a series of connected chambers. The chamber type
usually has rectangular chambers excavated at sufficient depth to
provide the required cover thickness without having to construct a
descent for access.
(2) The cavern type of underground facility, usually a large area
of irregular shape, is often divided into smaller areas by natural
formations.
c. Explosion effects in underground storage sites.
(1) An accidential explosion confined in the very limited space in
underground storage will cause very high pressures for a prolonged
duration. Blast waves and dynamic flow fields will travel at high
velocity throughout the underground facility, causing ground shocks
and potential break-up of the cover with attendant debris throw.
(2) Under conditions of heavy confinement and high loading den-
sity, HD 1.3 material may, while either detonating or burning, pro-
duce intense gas pressures sufficient to rupture the cover and create
a significant debris hazard.
(3) An accidental explosion involving only HD 1.2 material will
likely start a fire that is sustained by burning packages and other
ammunition. This may cause further explosions that become more
frequent as the fires build and multiply until everything in the site is
destroyed. Results of these repeated explosions will depend on the
type and quantity of munitions, the type of explosion produced, and
the layout of the facility. Hazards created outside the underground
facility will likely not be as severe as those produced by HD 1.1 or
1.3 material.
d. Layout.
(1) Underground storage sites should, where possible, be op-
t i m a l l y d e s i g n e d t o c o n t a i n o r c o n t r o l e f f e c t s o f a n a c c i d e n t a l
explosion.
(2) Underground storage sites should be excavated in sound rock.
Faults and fissures in the walls should be filled with concrete to
prevent the escape of blast and hot gases.
(3) Exits from underground storage sites should be located and
oriented to minimize blast, flame, and debris hazards to exposed
sites.
( 4 ) C o n n e c t e d c h a m b e r s t o r a g e s i t e s w i t h a s i n g l e e n t r a n c e
s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d b e c a u s e o f t h e r i s k o f b l o c k a g e f r o m a n
explosion.
(5) Branch passageways that connect chambers on opposite sides
of the main passageway shall be separated as far apart as possible.
(6) Connected chamber storage sites should be provided with
positive means, such as blast doors and blast valves, to prevent the
propagation of an explosion between chambers.
(7) A properly designed blast door may be used to protect the
contents of a chamber from the blast wave originating in another
chamber. Design per TM 5–1300 is an acceptable method. The blast
door and its mounting must be carefully designed to withstand the
expected blast wave.
(8) Blast traps may be used to reduce the amount of blast and
fragments leaving or entering a passageway. Since the effect of a
blast trap will depend on its geometrical design and details of the
incident blast wave, fixed reductions must be developed on a site
specific basis.
(9) High pressure closures (seals) may be used to contain or
mitigate the effects of an explosion. High pressure closures can
include specially designed blast doors or blocks that automatically
close when loaded by blast from an accidental explosion. Since
many variables influence the function of a closing device, their
design must be developed on a site specific basis.
(10) Lightning protection for underground storage sites will meet
the requirements of chapter 12.
e. Protection provided. Quantity-distance criteria listed here pro-
vide separation distances from stored ammunition and explosives to
mitigate the hazards of ground shock, debris, or air blast. The
required distance for a given quantity and storage condition corre-
sponds to the dominant (farthest-reaching) hazard that is applicable
to the exposure under consideration. It is therefore the widest dis-
tance necessary to protect against the individual effects considered
in turn.
f. Storage limitations. Ammunition and explosives of different
kinds may be mixed in underground storage only to the extent
permitted by the compatibility rules (chap 4). In addition, ammuni-
tion containing incendiary or smoke-producing fillers, flammable
liquids or gels, or toxic agents, when stored underground, must be in
single-chamber sites.
g. Chamber interval separation requirements.
(1) Chamber separations should prevent or control the communi-
cation of explosions or fires between donor and acceptor chambers.
Consider all credible modes which could spread an explosion or
fire. Credible modes for communicating fires or explosions to an
acceptor include blast pressure, induced motion and subsequent im-
pact, spall or collapse of structural elements within an acceptor
chamber, hot gases, and directly applied flame.
(2) The separation distance between storage chambers for HD
1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 materials must always equal or exceed 15 feet. For
HD 1.4 material, use structural considerations to determine spacing
between chambers without regard to the content of ammunition.
(3) The chamber interval is the shortest distance between the
natural walls of two adjacent chambers. The interval between cham-
bers formed by subdivision of a cavern is the thickness of a compe-
tent barrier constructed between them.
(4) Prevention of rock spall for HD 1.1 and 1.3 can be assured by
providing an acceptor chamber with reinforced concrete (or equiva-
lent) walls, roof, and floor, adequately constructed to prevent spall
or collapse.
(5) When no special protective construction is used, the chamber
separation, Dcd, which prevents damage from HD 1.1 and 1.3 to
stored ammunition by spalled rock is, with Dcd in feet and W in
pounds:
(a) Dcd = 3.5W1/3 (sandstone)
(b) Dcd = 4.3W1/3 (limestone)
(c) Dcd = 5.0W1/3 (granite)
(6) Propagation by rock spall (HD 1.1 and 1.3) is considered
immediate because time separations between donor and acceptor
explosions may not be enough to prevent coalescence of blastwaves.
U n l e s s a n a l y s e s o r e x p e r i m e n t s i n d i c a t e o t h e r w i s e , e x p l o s i v e s
weights subject to this mode must be added to other donor weights
43DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
to determine NEW. When no special protective construction is used,
the separation distance, Dcp, to prevent explosion communication
by spalled rock is Dcp = 1.5W1/3. When the acceptor chamber has
protective construction to prevent spall and collapse (into the accep-
tor chamber) the separation distance to prevent propagation by im-
pact of spalled rock is (Dcp)/2. Dcp is in feet and W is the weight
in pounds of HD 1.1 and 1.3 material in the donor chamber, ad-
justed for significant differences in energy release from that of TNT.
(7) Separation distances, Dcp and Dcd, are listed in table 5–26.
These distances are based on an explosive loading density of about
17 lb/ft3. The distances will likely be safety conservative for lower
loading densities, but the effects have not been quantified.
(8) Propagation by flame and hot gas (HD 1.1 and 1.3) is gener-
ally considered a delayed mode of propagation. Time separations
between the original donor event and the potential explosions of this
mode will likely be enough to prevent coalescence of blastwaves.
Consequently, for Q-D siting, only the maximum credible explo-
sives weight need be used to determine NEW. To protect assets,
precautions should be used to determine NEW. Even when direct
paths are eliminated, it is still possible for high pressure gases to
form rock crevices so that the hot gases can flow into an acceptor
chamber and initiate acceptor ammunition. Significant factors for
this mode of propagation include the strength of rock, the prior
existence of cracks, the type of barriers in cavern storage sites, the
cover, and the loading density in the chamber. Often communication
of an explosion or fire by thermal effects will dictate necessary
chamber separations. When direct paths for flames and hot gases are
eliminated, explosions or fires are not likely to spread when cham-
ber separations equal or exceed 5W1/3. Evaluations for required
chamber separations for this communication mode should be made
on a site specific basis.
( 9 ) F o r H D 1 . 1 a n d 1 . 3 m a t e r i a l s , c h a m b e r e n t r a n c e s a t t h e
ground surface, or entrances to branch tunnels off the same side of a
main passageway, shall be separated by at least the chamber interval
determined above. Entrances to branch tunnels off opposite sides of
a main passageway shall be separated by at least twice the width of
the main passageway.
(10) Chambers, containing only HD 1.2 and 1.4 material and
separated by the appropriate distance listed above, may be used to
the limits of their physical capacities unless there are any items with
special stacking and NEW restrictions. However, when HD 1.2 or
1.4 material is stored in the same chamber with HD 1.1 or 1.3
material, the propellant and explosive content of all H/CD material
shall be added to obtain NEW.
h. External Q-D determinations.
(1) HD material dependence.
(a) HD 1.1 and 1.3 materials. Distances shall be determined
from the total quantity of explosives, propellants, pyrotechnics, and
incendiary materials in the individual chambers, unless the total
quantity is subdivided to prevent rapid communication of an inci-
dent from one subdivision to another. All HD 1.1 and 1.3 material
likely to be consumed in a single incident shall be assumed to
contribute to the explosion yield as would an equal weight of TNT.
Any significant and validated differences in energy release per unit
mass of the compositions involved from that of TNT may be con-
sidered. A connected chamber or cavern storage site containing HD
1.1 or 1.3 material shall be treated as a single-chamber site, unless
a d e q u a t e s u b d i v i s i o n o r c h a m b e r s e p a r a t i o n p r e v e n t s e x p l o s i o n
communication.
(b) HD 1.2 materials. Except for primary fragments from open-
ings to underground storage, external explosives safety hazards are
not normally significant for HD 1.2 materials. Accordingly, except
for credible primary fragments that might be hurled from openings,
external Q-D criteria do not apply for HD 1.2 materials. The safe
distance for both IBD and PTR is the IBD distance in table 5–15 for
locations within 20 degrees of the centerline of a tunnel opening.
Primary fragments exiting from underground storage facilities will
be so highly dependent on site specific parameters, that default
criteria, intended to conservatively cover all situations, will likely be
overly conservative in many situations. Site specific evaluations that
take into account significant parameters are encouraged.
(c) HD 1.4 materials. External explosives safety hazards are not
normally significant for 1.4 materials. Accordingly, external Q-D
criteria do not apply for 1.4 materials.
(2) External distance measurement.
(a) Distances determined by blast or debris issuing from open-
ings will be the minimum distances measured from the openings to
the nearest wall or point of the location to be protected. Use ex-
tended centerlines of the openings as reference lines for directional
effects.
(b) Distances determined for blast traveling through the earth
cover and for surface ejecta shall be the minimum distance from an
exterior point above the storage chamber to the nearest wall or point
of the location to be protected.
(c) Distance determined for ground shock will be minimum dis-
tance measured from a wall of a storage chamber to the nearest wall
or point of the location to be protected.
(3) Inhabited building distance (HD 1.1 and 1.3 materials). IBDs
will be the largest of those distances required to protect against
ground shock, debris, and airblast as defined below.
(a) Ground shock. To protect residential buildings against signifi-
cant structural damage by ground shock, the maximum particle
velocity induced in the ground at the building site may not exceed
2.4 inches-per-second (ips) in sand, gravel, or moist clay, 4.5 ips in
soft rock, or 9.0 ips in hard rock. Unless site-specific data are
available for ground shock attenuation in the earth materials be-
tween the PES and ES, find the IBD by using these formulas: Dig =
2.1fgW4/9 for sand, gravel, and moist clay; Dig = 11.1fgW4/9 for
soft rock; and Dig = 12.5fgW4/9 for hard rock. (Dig is in feet and
W is the explosive quantity in pounds.) Values of Dig/fg are shown
in table 5–27. The dimensionless, decoupling factor, fg depends on
loading density, w and is fg = (4/15)w0.3. The loading density is the
NEW divided by the volume of the storage chamber (Vc).
(b) Debris. A minimum IBD distance of 2,200 feet for debris
throw from an opening shall apply within 20 degrees of either side
of the centerline axis of that opening unless positive means are used
to prevent or control the debris throw. Distances required to protect
inhabited areas against the effects of surface debris depend on the
depth of overburden, or earth cover, over the storage chamber. The
minimum depth (Cc) at which debris throw from ruptures becomes
negligible is 2.5W1/3 for both soft rock and hard rock. If the depth
of overburden is less than Cc, the distance, Did, required to protect
inhabited areas against such debris will be calculated from Did =
fdfcW0.41, where fd= (3/5)w0.18, and fcdepends on the type of rock
around the storage chamber. Values of Did/fd, for hard rock (granite
or limestone) and for soft rock (sandstone), are listed in tables 5–28
and 5–29. Values of fcare shown graphically in figure 5–10. Values
for the decoupling factors fgand fdare listed in table 5–30.
(c) Airblast. For uncontained explosions the external airblast dis-
tribution will result from shock waves traveling through the earth
cover (C expressed in feet) and those issuing from designed open-
ings. Required IBDs are to be independently determined for each of
these airblast sources, with the maximum IBD used for siting. Use
t h e p r o c e d u r e i n t a b l e 5 – 3 1 t o f i n d I B D f o r a i r b l a s t t r a v e l i n g
t h r o u g h t h e e a r t h c o v e r . A n y o p e n i n g w i t h c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a
greater than 5 percent of the largest opening (normally the main
passageway) must be considered for its contribution to the airblast
distribution. (Debris hazards must be considered for all openings.)
To obtain the overpressure at a point due to several openings,
linearly add the predicted maximum overpressure values from each
opening. This linear addition of maximum values will most likely
yield safety conservative values of overpressure. If required for a
given site, experiments or computations for actual site specific inter-
actions and additions of blast from more than one opening should be
considered. Exceptions to this procedure of linear addition must be
based on validated experiment or analysis. The distance versus the
overpressure along the centerline can be determined by using the
formula in table 5–32. The distance versus the overpressure off the
centerline can be determined by using the formula in table 5–33.
The equations in tables 5–32 and 5–33 show that the distance
44 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
providing protection from an overpressure exceeding PSO depends
on the hydraulic diameter, the effective pressure at the exit, and the
angle from centerline axis for the location of interest. Figure 5–11
shows the ratio of off-axis to on-axis distances. To find the required
distances for air blast using the appropriate equations from the
above tables, the incident pressure at IBD shall not exceed the
pressures shown in table 5–35.
(4) PTR distance (HD 1.1 and 1.3 materials).
(a) Ground shock. Q-D criteria for PTR is 5W1/3.
(b) Debris. Use appropriate criteria from chapter 5.
(c) Airblast. Q-D is 60 percent of IBD for airblast.
(5) Intraline distance (HD 1.1 and 1.3 materials).
(a) Ground shock. Q-D criteria for ground shock do not apply.
(b) Debris. For locations within 20 degrees of the centerline of a
tunnel opening, site intraline facilities at IBD for debris issuing from
the opening unless experiment or analysis shows that the debris is
mitigated to that accepted at IBD. Q-D criteria for debris are not
applicable for locations greater than 20 degrees from the centerline
axis of an opening.
(c) Airblast. Overpressure at barricaded and IL(U) distances shall
not exceed 12 and 3.5 psi, respectively.
( 6 ) D i s t a n c e t o a b o v e g r o u n d m a g a z i n e s ( H D 1 . 1 a n d 1 . 3
materials).
(a) Ground shock. Q-D criteria for ground shock do not apply.
(b) Debris. Q-D criteria for surface debris do not apply. For
locations within 20 degrees of the centerline of an opening, site
aboveground magazines at IBD for debris issuing from the opening
(not less than 2200 feet), unless experiment or analysis shows that
the debris is mitigated sufficiently to prevent the propagation of
explosions.
( c ) A i r b l a s t . O v e r p r e s s u r e a t b a r r i c a d e d a n d u n b a r r i c a d e d
aboveground magazine distance shall not exceed 27 and 8 psi,
respectively.
(7) Distance to earth-covered magazines (HD for 1.1 and 1.3
materials).
(a) Ground Shock. Q-D criteria for ground shock do not apply.
(b) Debris. Q-D criteria for surface debris do not apply. Q-D
criteria for debris issuing from an opening do not apply if the
magazine is oriented for side-on or rear-on exposures to the debris
but the criteria do apply for frontal exposures. Site earth-covered
magazines that are located within 20 degrees of the centerline of an
opening and oriented for a frontal debris exposure, at IBD for that
debris hazard (not less than 2,200 feet) unless experiment or analy-
sis shows that the debris is mitigated sufficiently to prevent the
propagation of explosions.
(c) Airblast. Use tables 5–5 and 5–6, treating the underground
facility as a standard earth-covered magazine, for this application.
Although an underground facility may contain several storage cham-
bers, distances are measured only from those chambers and their
associated tunnels that contribute to the MCE.
5–14. Military working dog (MWD) explosives search
training
a. Background. Realistic and effective training of MWDs to de-
tect explosives requires simulated searches using real explosives
samples in areas that are normally inhabited. Training will be con-
ducted so that all persons unrelated to the training of the dogs are
not exposed to the hazards associated with an accidental explosion
of a training sample.
b. Operations on explosives used for training. Only qualified
personnel will operate on training explosives. Such activities as
unpacking, handling, cutting, dividing, and repacking will be con-
ducted in facilities that meet the Q-D and other requirements of this
pamphlet.
c. Storage of explosives used for training. Explosives must be
stored in facilities that meet the Q-D and other requirements of this
pamphlet.
d. Training safety procedures. Persons unrelated to the training
of the dogs must not be exposed to the hazards associated with an
accidental explosion of a training sample. Therefore, at the training
site—
(1) The number of samples and the quantity of explosives will be
the minimum to conduct the exercise. When deployed, adjacent
samples should be separated to preclude propagation from one to
another. The distance for nonpropagation is D = 11W1/3.
(2) For quantities of explosives of 15 lbs NEW or less, all unre-
lated personnel must be evacuated from the training area to at least
100 feet from the explosives. For quantities over 15 pounds, the
evacuation distance is D = 40W1/3.
(3) Blasting caps, squibs, explosive detonators, or any initiating
explosives must not be used for any type of explosives detection
training.
(4) Samples must not be placed near any heat or spark producing
items such as bare electrical wiring, radiators, electric heaters, heat-
ing vents, or any other source of potential initiation.
Table 5–10
Impulse noise protection decision table
Type of equipment available Applicable tables and figures
No equipment available Use table 5–11, then table 5–13.
Equipment (such as a sound meter) is available to measure peak noise pressure. Peak
noise pressure is expressed in decibels (db) but may be measured in any unit (psi,
pascals, and so forth) and converted to db (see MIL STD 1474).
Use table 5–12, then figure 5–1, then table 5–13.
Equipment is available to measure both peak noise pressure and the B-duration of the
pressure. Use figure 5–1, then table 5–13.
Notes:
Of the three methods above, the last method is best because it is the most precise and least conservative.
45DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–11
Impulse noise zones measured in feet from intentional detonations
NEW Prohibited zone Z zone Y zone X zone W zone
1 oz 0 14 25 42 230
2 oz 0 18 31 53 290
3 oz 0 20 35 61 332
4 oz 0 22 39 67 365
5 oz 0 24 42 72 394
6 oz 0 25 45 76 418
7 oz 0 27 47 80 440
8 oz 0 28 49 84 460
9 oz 0 29 51 88 479
10 oz 0 30 53 91 496
11 oz 0 31 55 94 512
12 oz 0 32 56 96 527
13 oz 0 33 58 99 541
14 oz 0 33 59 101 555
15 oz 0 34 61 104 568
1 lb 0 35 62 106 580
2 lb 0 44 78 134 731
3 lb 0 50 89 153 837
4 lb 0 56 98 168 921
5 lb 0 60 106 181 992
6 lb 0 64 113 193 1054
7 lb 0 67 119 203 1110
8 lb 0 70 124 212 1160
9 lb 0 73 129 220 1206
10 lb 0 75 134 228 1250
15 lb 0 89 153 261 1430
20 lb 0 95 168 288 1570
25 lb 0 102 181 310 1696
30 lb 0 109 193 329 1802
35 lb 0 114 203 347 1897
40 lb 0 120 212 363 1984
45 lb 0 124 221 377 2063
50 lb 0 129 228 391 2137
60 lb 0 137 243 415 2271
70 lb 0 144 256 437 2390
80 lb 0 151 267 457 2499
90 lb 0 157 278 475 2599
100 lb 0 162 288 492 2692
150 lb 0 186 329 563 3082
200 lb 0 205 363 620 3392
250 lb 0 220 391 668 3654
300 lb 0 234 415 710 3883
350 lb 0 247 437 747 4087
400 lb 0 258 457 781 4273
450 lb 0 268 475 812 4445
500 lb 0 278 492 841 5603
600 lb 0 295 523 894 4892
700 lb 0 311 551 941 5150
800 lb 0 325 576 984 5384
900 lb 0 338 599 1023 5600
1000 lb 0 350 620 1060 5800
2000 lb 0 441 781 1336 7308
3000 lb 0 505 894 1529 8365
4000 lb 0 556 984 1683 9207
5000 lb 0 598 1060 1813 9918
6000 lb 0 639 2217 1926 10539
7000 lb 0 670 1186 2028 11095
8000 lb 0 700 1240 2120 11600
9000 lb 0 728 1290 2205 12064
10000 lb 0 754 1336 2284 12496
Notes:
1This table provides impulse noise zones for use with table 5–13.
2Use this table only if unable to measure the actual noise pressure (in db) from the intentional detonation. This table is very conservative. It does not consider the effects
of terrain, earth cover, buildings, trees, and so forth in reducing noise and overpressure. This table also assumes a ’worst case’ impulse noise B-duration, the effect of
which is to further increase required distances. For this reason, actual measurement of noise pressure is preferred.
3To read the table, using a NEW of 1 oz as an example, assume the Prohibited Zone is from 0 ft up to (but not including) 14 ft. Unless protected from blast, personnel
are not allowed here due to possibile non-auditory injury. The Z zone is from 14 ft up to (but not including) 25 ft. The Y zone is from 25 ft up to (but not including) 42 ft.
The X zone is from 42 ft up to (but not including) 230 ft. The W zone is from 230 ft and beyond. After reading this table, go to table 5–13 to determine protection.
46 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–12
Impulse noise B-duration (estimated for various NEWs and distances)
NEW Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B duration
(msec) (msec) (msec) (msec)
1 oz 4 3 8 4 12 4 16 4
2 oz 5 4 10 5 15 5 20 6
3 oz 6 4 11 5 17 6 23 6
4 oz 6 4 13 6 19 6 25 7
5 oz 7 5 14 6 20 7 27 8
6 oz 7 5 14 6 22 7 29 8
7 oz 8 5 15 7 23 8 30 8
8 oz 8 6 16 7 24 8 32 9
9 oz 8 6 17 7 25 8 33 9
10 oz 9 6 17 8 26 9 34 9
11 oz 9 6 18 8 26 9 35 10
12 oz 9 6 18 8 27 9 36 10
13 oz 9 7 19 8 28 10 37 10
14 oz 10 7 19 9 29 10 38 11
15 oz 10 7 20 9 29 10 39 11
1 lb 10 7 20 9 30 10 40 11
2 lb 13 9 25 11 38 13 50 14
3 lb 14 10 29 13 43 15 58 16
4 lb 16 11 32 14 48 16 63 18
5 lb 17 12 34 15 51 17 68 19
6 lb 18 13 36 16 55 19 73 20
7 lb 19 13 38 17 57 20 77 21
8 lb 20 14 40 18 60 20 80 22
9 lb 21 15 42 19 62 21 83 23
10 lb 22 15 43 19 65 22 86 24
15 lb 25 17 49 22 74 25 99 27
20 lb 27 19 54 24 81 28 109 30
25 lb 29 21 58 26 88 30 117 32
30 lb 31 22 62 28 93 32 124 34
35 lb 33 23 65 29 98 33 131 36
40 lb 34 24 68 31 103 35 137 38
45 lb 36 25 71 32 107 36 142 39
50 lb 37 26 74 33 111 38 147 41
60 lb 39 28 78 35 117 40 157 43
70 lb 41 29 82 37 124 42 165 46
80 lb 43 30 86 39 129 44 172 48
90 lb 45 32 90 40 134 46 179 50
100 lb 46 33 93 42 139 47 186 51
150 lb 53 37 106 48 159 54 212 59
200 lb 58 41 117 53 175 60 234 65
250 lb 63 44 126 57 189 64 252 70
300 lb 67 47 134 60 201 68 268 74
350 lb 70 50 141 63 211 72 282 78
400 lb 74 52 147 66 221 75 295 82
450 lb 77 54 153 69 230 78 306 85
500 lb 79 56 159 71 238 81 317 88
600 lb 84 59 169 76 253 86 337 94
700 lb 89 63 178 80 266 91 355 98
800 lb 93 65 186 84 278 95 371 103
900 lb 97 68 193 87 290 98 386 107
1000 lb 100 70 200 90 300 102 400 111
2000 lb 126 89 252 113 378 128 504 140
3000 lb 144 102 288 130 433 147 577 160
4000 lb 159 112 317 143 476 162 635 176
5000 lb 171 120 342 154 513 174 684 190
6000 lb 182 128 363 164 545 184 727 201
7000 lb 191 135 382 172 574 195 765 212
8000 lb 200 141 400 180 600 204 800 222
9000 lb 208 146 416 187 624 212 832 231
1000 lb 215 152 431 194 646 220 862 239
1 oz 20 5 24 5 28 5 32 5
2 oz 25 6 30 6 35 6 40 7
3 oz 29 7 34 7 40 7 46 8
4 oz 31 7 38 8 44 8 50 8
5 oz 34 8 41 8 48 9 54 9
6 oz 36 9 43 9 50 9 58 10
7 oz 38 9 46 9 53 10 61 10
8 oz 40 9 48 10 56 10 63 11
9 oz 41 10 50 10 58 11 66 11
47DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–12
Impulse noise B-duration (estimated for various NEWs and distances)—Continued
NEW Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B duration
(msec) (msec) (msec) (msec)
10 oz 43 10 5l 11 60 11 68 11
11 oz 44 10 53 11 62 11 71 12
12 oz 45 11 55 11 64 12 73 12
13 oz 47 11 56 12 65 12 75 12
14 oz 48 11 57 12 67 12 77 13
15 oz 49 12 59 12 69 13 78 13
1 lb 50 12 60 12 70 13 80 13
2 lb 63 15 76 16 88 16 101 17
3 lb 72 17 87 18 101 19 115 19
4 lb 79 19 95 20 111 21 127 21
5 lb 85 20 103 21 120 22 137 23
6 lb 91 21 109 23 127 24 145 24
7 lb 96 23 115 24 134 25 153 26
8 lb 100 24 120 25 140 26 160 27
9 lb 104 25 125 26 146 27 166 28
10 lb 108 25 129 27 151 28 172 29
15 lb 123 29 148 31 173 32 197 33
20 lb 136 32 163 34 190 35 217 36
25 lb 146 35 175 46 205 38 234 39
30 lb 155 37 186 39 217 40 249 42
35 lb 164 39 196 41 229 42 62 44
40 lb 171 40 205 43 239 44 274 46
45 lb 178 42 213 44 249 46 285 48
50 lb 184 44 221 46 258 48 295 49
60 lb 196 46 235 49 274 51 313 52
70 lb 206 49 247 51 288 53 330 55
80 lb 215 5l 258 54 302 56 345 58
90 lb 224 53 269 56 314 58 358 60
100 lb 232 55 278 58 325 60 371 62
150 lb 266 63 319 66 572 69 425 71
200 lb 292 69 351 73 409 76 468 78
250 lb 315 74 378 78 441 82 504 84
300 lb 335 79 402 83 469 87 535 90
350 lb 352 83 423 88 493 91 564 94
400 lb 268 87 442 92 516 95 589 99
450 lb 383 91 460 95 536 99 613 103
500 lb 397 94 476 99 555 103 635 106
600 lb 422 100 506 105 590 109 75 113
700 lb 444 105 533 110 621 115 710 119
800 lb 464 110 557 115 650 120 742 124
900 lb 483 114 579 120 676 123 772 129
1000 lb 500 118 600 124 700 130 800 134
2000 lb 630 149 756 157 882 163 1008 169
3000 lb 721 171 865 179 1009 187 1153 93
4000 lb 793 188 952 197 1111 206 1270 213
5000 lb 855 202 1026 213 1197 221 1368 229
6000 lb 908 215 1090 226 1272 235 1453 243
7000 lb 956 226 1147 238 1339 248 1530 256
8000 lb 1000 236 1200 249 1400 259 1600 268
9000 lb 1040 246 124S 259 1456 269 1664 279
10000 1077 255 1292 268 1508 279 1723 288
1 oz 36 5 40 6 44 6
2 oz 45 7 50 7 55 7
3 oz 52 8 57 8 63 8
4 oz 57 9 63 9 69 9
5 oz 61 9 68 10 75 10
6 oz 65 10 72 10 79 10
7 oz 68 10 76 11 84 11
8 oz 71 11 79 11 87 12
9 oz 74 11 83 12 91 12
10 oz 77 12 86 12 94 12
11 oz 79 12 88 13 97 13
12 oz 82 13 91 13 100 13
13 oz 84 13 93 13 103 14
14 oz 86 13 96 14 105 14
15 oz 88 13 98 14 108 14
1 lb 90 14 100 14 110 I5
2 lb 113 17 126 18 139 18
3 lb 130 20 144 20 159 21
4 lb 143 22 159 23 175 23
5 lb 154 24 171 24 188 25
6 lb 164 25 192 26 200 26
48 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–12
Impulse noise B-duration (estimated for various NEWs and distances)—Continued
NEW Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B-duration Distance (feet) B duration
(msec) (msec) (msec) (msec)
7 lb 172 26 191 27 210 28
8 lb 180 28 200 28 220 29
9 lb 187 29 208 29 229 30
10 lb 194 30 215 31 237 31
15 lb 222 34 247 35 271 36
20 lb 244 37 271 38 299 39
25 lb 263 40 292 41 322 43
30 lb 280 43 311 44 342 45
35 lb 294 45 327 46 360 48
40 lb 308 47 342 48 376 50
45 lb 320 49 356 50 391 52
50 lb 332 5l 368 52 405 54
60 lb 352 54 391 55 431 57
70 lb 371 57 412 58 453 60
80 lb 388 59 431 61 474 63
90 lb 403 62 448 64 493 65
100 lb 418 64 464 66 510 68
150 lb 478 73 531 75 584 77
200 lb 526 81 585 83 643 85
250 lb 567 87 630 89 693 92
300 lb 602 92 669 95 736 97
350 lb 634 97 705 100 775 103
400 lb 663 102 737 104 810 107
450 lb 690 106 766 109 843 111
500 lb 714 109 794 113 873 115
600 lb 759 116 843 120 928 123
700 lb 799 122 888 126 976 129
800 lb 835 128 928 132 1021 135
900 lb 869 133 965 137 1062 140
1000 lb 900 138 1000 142 1100 145
2000 lb 1134 174 1260 179 1386 183
3000 lb 1298 199 1442 204 1586 210
4000 lb 1428 219 1587 225 1746 231
5000 lb 1539 236 1709 242 1880 249
6000 lb 1635 250 1817 258 1998 264
7000 lb 1721 264 1912 271 2104 278
8000 lb 1799 276 1999 283 2199 291
9000 lb 1872 287 2079 295 2287 303
10000 lb 1938 297 2154 305 2369 313
Notes:
1Use table 5–12 to measure the peak impulse noise in decibels (a sound meter is all that is required). After measuring the peak impulse noise, estimate the impulse
noise B-duration using this table. Then go to figure 5–2 and find the impulse noise zone. From there, go to table 5–13 to determine the protection required.
2To read table 5–12, if the NEW is 1 oz and personnel are 4 feet away, what is the B-duration? Answer: The B-duration is 3 milliseconds (msec). If the NEW is 1 oz and
personnel are 167 feet away, what is the B-duration? Answer: 17 feet lies between 167 feet (4 msec) and 20 feet (5 msec). To be conservative, choose the larger value:
5 msec. Linear interpolation between table values is not permitted. The answer, then, is 5 msec.
3“B-duration” is defined as the total time in milliseconds for the noise pressure to rise to a peak and then fall back. Any significant fluctuations after the initial rise and fall
are also included in B-duration. To the human ear, all one hears is a single sound; specialized equipment is required to measure the sound wave to determine its Indura-
tion. Procedures to calculate impulse noise s-duration from measured sound waves are in MIL STD 1474.
4It is best to determine B-duration from measured sound waves in accordance with MIL STD 1474 instead of estimating it using this table. This table conservatively esti-
mates B-duration to account for unknown conditions, such as reflecting surfaces, which can lengthen B duration.
5The B-duration values in this table were derived by computing the duration of the positive portion of the overpressure wave per TM 5–1300. This duration was then
tripled to conservatively account for follow-on fluctuations caused by reflections from walls, roofs, etc.
Table 5–13
Impulse noise zones and required protections with maximum permissable number of detonations per day
Impulse noise zone No protection Either ear plugs or ear muffs Both ear plugs and ear muffs
W zone1Unlimited exposures Unlimited exposures Unlimited exposures
X zone 0 2000 40000
Y zone 0 100 2000
Z zone 0 5 100
Prohibited zone2No personnel allowed No personnel allowed No personnel allowed
Notes:
1The W zone is the zone where noise levels are 140 decibels (db) or lower. One hundred forty decibels is the maximum impulse noise level allowed by Mil Std 1474 for
personnel not wearing hearing protection. It should be noted that 140 db presents a high risk of complaints from the public. One hundred fifteen decibels is the generally
accepted threshold for noise complaints.
2Unless protected from blast so that pressure levels are reduced to the W, X, Y, or Z zones, no personnel are allowed in the prohibited zone because of possible non-
auditory injury.
49DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–14
Q-D for unprotected aboveground service tanks supporting explosives storage or operating complexes
NEW Distance
Over Not over
0 1,000 D = 400 feet
1,000 30,000 D = 40W1/3
30,000 100,000 D = 40W1/3 or use table 5–1, column 5
100,000 250,000 D = 2.42W0.577 or use table 5–1, column 5
250,000 500,000 D = 50W1/3 or use table 5–1, column 5
Table 5–15
HD 1.2 distances
Category IBD Public traffic route IL distance Above ground mag Magazine limit2
distance distance3
(02)1.2 200 ft4120 ft 100 ft 100 ft No limit
(03)1.2 300 ft4180 ft 150 ft 150 ft No limit
(04)1.2 400 ft4240 ft 200 ft 200 ft No limit
(05)1.2 500 ft 300 ft 250 ft1200 ft No limit
(06)1.2 600 ft 360 ft 300 ft1200 ft No limit
(07)1.2 700 ft 420 ft 350 ft1200 ft No limit
(08)1.2 800 ft 480 ft 400 ft1300 ft No limit
(09)1.2 900 ft 540 ft 450 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(10)1.2 1000 ft 600 ft 500 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(11)1.2 1100 ft 660 ft 550 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(12)1.2 1200 ft 720 ft 600 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(13)1.2 1300 ft 780 ft 650 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(14)1.2 1400 ft 840 ft 700 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(15)1.2 1500 ft 900 ft 750 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(16)1.2 1600 ft 960 ft 800 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(17)1.2 1700 ft 1020 ft 850 ft1300 ft 500,0002
(18)1.2 1800 ft 1080 ft 900 ft1300 ft 500,0002
Notes:
1If the HE in the items at an operating line PES is limited to 5,000 pounds, intraline distance may be reduced to 200 feet.
2The 500,000 pound limit applies only to aboveground magazines. See note 3 below for earth-covered magazine limits.
3This column provides magazine distances between above ground magazines. Other distances are as follows:
Between earth-covered magazines: Earth-covered magazines of any size, of standard or non-standard construction, and mutually sited on the basis of at least 100 lb
of HD 1.1 may be used to physical capacity.
From the earth-covered magazines containing HD 1.2 to an above ground magazine, above ground magazine distance separation is required. If this minimum distance
is met, the earth-covered magazine may be used to physical capacity.
From an above ground magazine containing HD 1.2 to an earth-covered magazine, a 50-foot minimum separation is required. If this minimum distance is met, the
above ground magazine may be loaded to the limit shown in the table.
4See paragraph 5–1
b
information on storage of limited quantities of these HDs without regard to QD.
Table 5–16
HD 1.3 QD
New in pounds IBD/PTR5in feet Above-ground mag7/IL6
1,000175 50
2,000 86 57
3,000 96 63
4,000 106 69
5,000 115 75
6,000 123 81
7,000 130 86
8,000 137 91
9,000 144 96
10 000 150 100
12,000 159 105
14,000 168 111
16,000 176 116
18,000 183 120
20,000 190 125
50 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–16
HD 1.3 QD—Continued
New in pounds IBD/PTR5in feet Above-ground mag7/IL6
22,000 195 130
24,000 201 134
26,000 206 138
28,000 210 142
30,000 215 145
32,000 219 147
34,000 224 149
36,000 228 151
38,000 231 153
40,000 235 155
42,000 238 157
44,000 242 159
46,000 245 161
48,000 247 163
50,000 250 165
52,000 252 167
54,000 254 169
60,000 260 175
62,000 262 177
64,000 264 180
66,000 266 182
68,000 268 183
70,000 270 185
72,000 272 186
74,000 274 187
76,000 276 188
78,000 278 189
80,000 280 190
82,000 284 191
84,000 287 192
86,000 290 193
88,000 293 194
90,000 295 195
92,000 296 196
94,000 297 197
96,000 298 198
98,000 299 199
100,000 300 200
110,000 307 205
120,000 315 210
130,000 322 215
140,000 330 220
150,000 337 225
160,000 345 230
170,000 352 235
180,000 360 240
190,000 367 245
200,000 375 250
210,000 383 255
220,000 390 260
230,000 398 265
240,000 405 270
250,000 413 275
260,000 420 280
270,000 428 285
280,000 435 290
290,000 443 295
300,000 450 300
310,000 458 305
320,000 465 310
330,000 473 315
340,000 480 320
51DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–16
HD 1.3 QD—Continued
New in pounds IBD/PTR5in feet Above-ground mag7/IL6
350,000 488 325
360,000 495 330
370,000 503 335
380,000 510 340
390,000 518 345
400,000 525 350
410,000 533 355
420,000 541 361
430,000 549 366
440,000 556 371
450,000 564 376
460,000 571 381
470,000 579 385
480,000 586 391
490,000 593 395
500,000 600 400
510,000 605 402
520,000 609 404
530,000 614 407
540,000 618 409
550,000 623 411
560,000 627 413
570,000 632 415
580,000 636 418
590,000 641 420
600,000 645 422
610,000 649 424
620,000 654 426
630,000 658 428
640,000 662 430
650,000 667 432
660,000 671 435
670,000 675 437
680,000 679 439
690,000 684 441
700,000 688 443
710,000 692 445
720,000 696 447
730,000 700 449
740,000 704 451
750,000 708 453
760,000 712 455
770,000 716 457
780,000 720 459
790,000 724 461
800,000 728 463
810,000 732 465
820,000 735 467
830,000 739 469
840,000 743 471
850,000 747 472
860,000 750 474
870,000 754 476
880,000 75S 47S
890,000 761 480
900,000 765 482
910,000 769 484
920,000 772 486
930,000 776 487
940,000 779 489
950,000 783 491
960,000 786 493
52 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–16
HD 1.3 QD—Continued
New in pounds IBD/PTR5in feet Above-ground mag7/IL6
970,000 790 495
980,000 793 496
990,000 797 498
1,000,000 800 500
Notes:
1For quantities less than 1,000 pounds the required distances are those specified for 1,000 pounds. The use of lesser distance may be approved when supported by test
data and/or analysis.
2Linear interpolation of NEW quantities between table entries is permitted.
3For quantities above 1,000,000 pounds, the values given above will be extrapolated by means of the formulas:
a.
For IBD/PTR: D = 8W1/3.
b.
For aboveground mag/IL: D = 5W1/3.
4See para 5–1b for storage of limited quantities of items in this class without regard to QD and compatibility.
5The same distances are used for IBD and PTR.
6The same distances are used for aboveground magazines and intraline distance.
7This column provides magazine distances between aboveground magazines. Other distances are as follows:
Between earth-covered magazines: Earth-covered magazines of any size, of standard or non-standard construction, and mutually sited on the basis of at least 100 lb
of HD 1.1 may be used to physical capacity.
From the earth-covered magazines containing HD 1.3 to an aboveground magazine: Aboveground magazine distance separation is required.
From an aboveground magazine containing HD 1.3 to an earth-covered magazine: A 50 ft minimum separation is required. If this minimum distance is met, the
aboveground magazine may be loaded to physical capacity.
Table 5–17
HC/D 1.4 quantity-distance
Magazine distance 1,3
NEW Inhabited building dis- Public traffic route dis- Intraline Aboveground Earthcovered
tance tance
Limited quantities2
Larger quantities: no
limit specifically required
for safety reasons
100 100 50
(100 if combustible
construction)
50
(100 if combustible
construction)
No specified separation
requirement
Notes:
1With reasonable care in storage, HC/D 1.4 items may be stored in any weatherproof warehouse in warehouse area for general supplies provided such warehouse is
separated from all other warehouses by at least the aboveground magazine separation distance specified.
2See paragraph 5–1 for storage of mission essential or operationally necessary quantities without regard to Q-D.
3Magazines storing only Class/Division 1.4 items may be located 50 feet (100 feet if combustible construction) from all other magazines or explosives operation locations
regardless of the class/division or quantity of explosives authorized in these adjacent structures. Because loss of the Class/Division 1.4 stocks is expected if an the adja-
cent structure explodes, application of this provision must be accepted by the MACOM on a case-by-case basis. Consideration shall be given to the impact of loss on
stockage levels, readiness, and sustainment.
Table 5–18
QD criteria for HD 1.6 ammunition
NEW (lbs) IBD or PTR (ft)3,4 Above ground IMD or New (lbs) IBD or PTR (ft)3,4 Above ground IMD or
ILD (ft)1,3,4 ILD (ft)1,3,4
100237 23 180000 452 282
200 47 29 190000 460 287
300 54 33 200000 468 292
400 59 37 225000 487 304
500 64 40 250000 504 315
600 67 42 275000 520 325
700 71 44 300000 536 334
800 74 46 325000 550 344
900 77 48 350000 564 352
1000 80 50 375000 577 361
2000 101 63 400000 589 368
3000 115 72 425000 601 376
4000 127 79 450000 613 383
5000 137 86 475000 624 390
6000 145 91 500000 635 397
7000 153 96
8000 160 100
9000 166 104
10000 172 108
53DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–18
QD criteria for HD 1.6 ammunition—Continued
NEW (lbs) IBD or PTR (ft)3,4 Above ground IMD or New (lbs) IBD or PTR (ft)3,4 Above ground IMD or
ILD (ft)1,3,4 ILD (ft)1,3,4
15000 197 123
20000 217 136
25000 234 146
30000 249 155
35000 262 164
40000 274 171
45000 285 176
50000 295 184
55000 304 190
60000 313 196
65000 322 201
70000 330 206
75000 337 211
80000 345 215
85000 352 220
90000 359 224
95000 365 228
100000 371 232
110000 383 240
120000 395 247
125000 400 250
130000 405 253
140000 415 260
150000 425 266
160000 434 271
170000 443 277
175000 447 280
Notes:
1The same distances are used for aboveground intermagazine distances (IMD) and intraline distances (ILD). Earthcovered magazines may be used to their physical
capacity for this division, provided they comply with the construction and siting requirements of chapters 5 and 8 for HD 1.1.
2For quantities less than 100 lbs, the required distances are those specified for 100 lbs. The use of lesser distances may be approved when supported by test data and/
or analysis.
3Interpolation is permitted. For IBD and PTR, use D = 8W1/3. For aboveground IMD and ILD, use D = 5W1/3.
4For IBD and PTR, a minimum distance of K40 applies or fragment distance, whichever is greater. Distances will be based on a single round of 1.6 ammunition. For
aboveground IMD and ILD, a minimum distance of K18 applies, based on a single round of 1.6 ammunition.
5For HD 1.6 items packed in nonflammable pallets or packing stored in earthcovered steel or concrete arch magazines, the following Q-D criteria apply, unless table 5–7
permits a lesser distance; IBD and PTR - 100 feet; aboveground IMD and ILD - 50 feet; earthcovered IMD - no specified requirements.
Table 5–19
HD 1.1.QD for military aircraft parking areas
NEW in pounds Distance in feet for targets listed in table NEW in pounds Distance in feet for targets listed in table
5–2015–201
50 110 50,000 1,105
100 140 55,000 1,140
200 175 60,000 1,175
300 200 65,000 1,205
400 220 70,000 1,235
500 240 75,000 1,265
600 255 80,000 1,295
700 265 85,000 1,320
800 280 90,000 1,345
900 290 95,000 1,370
1,000 300 100,000 1,390
1,500 345 125,000 1,500
2,000 380 150,000 1,595
3,000 435 175,000 1,675
4,000 480 200,000 1,755
5,000 515 225,000 1,825
6,000 545 250,000 1,890
7,000 575 275,000 1,950
8,000 600 300,000 2,005
9,000 625 325,000 2,065
10,000 645 350,000 2,115
15,000 740 375,000 2,165
20,000 815 400,000 2,210
25,000 875 425,000 2,250
30,000 935 450,000 2,300
35,000 980 475,000 2,340
54 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–19
HD 1.1.QD for military aircraft parking areas—Continued
NEW in pounds Distance in feet for targets listed in table NEW in pounds Distance in feet for targets listed in table
5–2015–201
40,000 1,025 500,000 2,380
45,000 1,070
Notes:
1To protect against low angle, high speed fragments, barricades will be provided; however, these distances will not be reduced.
2The distance given for 0 to 50 pounds of NEW constitutes the minimum spacing permitted.
3The minimum distance of 1,250 feet for HC/D 1.1 does not apply to targets for which this table is used.
Table 5–20
Application of ammunition and explosives safety distances between various types of facilities
To
From Combat Aircraft
Parking Area Ammo/Explo-
sives Cargo
Area
Ammo/Explo-
sives Storage Ammunition/Ex-
plosives Opera-
tions
Ready Ammo
Storage Facility Inhabited Build-
ing
Combat Aircraft Parking Area 3 3 3 4 3 1
Ammunition/Explosives Cargo
Area 333431
Ammunition/Explosives Stor-
age 533431
Ammunition/Explosives Opera-
tions 533431
Ready Ammunition Storage 3 3 3 4 3 1
From Ptr and taxiway
for DOD and
Non-DOD use
Runway DOD
and Non-DOD
use
Runway/taxiway
for DOD only Aircraft parking Aircraft
passenger area Recreation area
Combat aircraft parking area 2 1 None 10 7 8
Ammo/explosives cargo area 2 1 None 10 7 9
Ammo/explosives storage 2 1 11 6 7 9
Ammo/explosives operations 2 1 2 6 7 9
Ready ammo storage 2 1 None 10 7 8
Notes:
1Use appropriate IBD. A joint DOD/Non-DOD use runway/taxiway is defined as a runway/taxiway serving both DOD and commercial aircraft. A runway/taxiway serving
solely DOD, DOD chartered, or non-DOD aircraft on DOD authorized business (for example, a contractor on business) is not joint use.
2Use appropriate PTR distance. A joint DOD/Non-DOD use runway/taxiway is defined as a runway/taxiway serving both DOD and commercial aircraft. A runway/taxiway
serving solely DOD, DOD chartered, or non-DOD aircraft on DOD authorized business (for example, a contractor on business) is not joint use.
3Use appropriate intermagazine distance. This protects against simultaneous detonation but does not prevent serious damage to aircraft and possible propagation of
detonation due to fragments, debris, or fire.
4Use appropriate intraline distance.
5Use table 5–19 distances for mass detonating and appropriate PTR distances for non-mass detonating items.
6Use table 5–19 distances for Army or other service aircraft parking areas and appropriate IBD for non-DOD aircraft parking areas. A joint DOD/Non-DOD use runway/
taxiway is defined as a runway/taxiway serving both DOD and commercial aircraft. A runway/taxiway serving solely DOD, DOD chartered, or non-DOD aircraft on DOD
authorized business (for example, a contractor on business) is not joint use.
7Use appropriate PTR distances for locations in the open where passengers board and leave the plane; use appropriate IBD if a structure is included where passengers
assemble, such as a passenger terminal building.
8No distance is required to recreational areas that are used exclusively for alert personnel manning the combat loaded aircraft. Other recreational areas where people
are in the open shall be at appropriate PTR distance. When structures, including bleacher stands, are a part of such an area, appropriate IBD shall be used.
9Recreational areas, where people are in the open, shall be at appropriate distance. When structures, including bleacher stands, are part of such areas, appropriate IBD
shall be used.
10 Within the areas of airfields, heliports, and seadromes used exclusively by the Army or other services, the separation of aircraft parking areas from combat aircraft
parking areas and their ready ammunition storage facilities and ammunition and explosives cargo areas are considered to be a MACOM function. At joint DOD/non-DOD
use airfields, heliports, and seadromes, the combat aircraft parking area and its ready ammunition storage facilities and ammunition and explosives cargo area shall be
separated from non-DOD aircraft by IBD.
11 Use 18W1/3distances from side or rear of standard earthcovered magazine containing mass detonating items to the taxiway; use appropriate PTR distance from the
side or rear of standard earthcovered magazines containing non-mass detonating items to the taxiway; use appropriate PTR distance from the front of standard
earthcovered magazines, and from any other storage location containing mass detonating or non-mass detonating items to the runway.
55DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–21
Liquid propellant HE (TNT) equivalents2,3,4,5,6,7
Propellant combinations Static test stands Range launch
LO2LH2or B5H9an oxidizer 60% 60%
LO2/LH2and LO2/RP–1 Sum of 60% for
LO2/LH2plus 10% for
LO2/RP–1
Sum of 60% for
LO2/LH2plus 20% for
LO2/RP–1
LO2/RP–1, LO2/NH3or
B5H9and a fuel 10% 20% up to 500,000 pounds plus 10% over 500,
000 pounds
IRFNA/Aniline110% 10%
IRFNA/UDMH110% 10%
IRFNA/UDMH plus JP–4110% 10%
N2O4/UDMH plus N2H415% 10%
N2O4UDMH plus N2H41plus solid propellants 5% plus the NEW of the solid propellants 10% plus the NEW of the solid propellant
Tetranitromethane (alone or in combinations) 100% 100%
Nitromethane (alone or in combinations) 100% 100%
Notes:
1These propellant combinations are hypergolic.
2The percentage factors given in the table are to be used to determine the equivalences of propellant mixtures at static test stands and range launch pads when such
propellants are located aboveground and are unconfined except for their tankage. Other configurations shall be considered on an individual basis to determine the equiv-
alents.
3The explosive equivalent weight calculated using this table shall be added to any non-nuclear explosives weight aboard before distances can be determined from tables
5–1 and 5–3.
4The equivalences apply also when the following substitutions are made: Alcohols or other hydrocarbons may be substituted for PR–1; BrF5, C1F3, F2, H2, H2O2, OF2,
or O2F2may be substituted for LO2; MMH may be substituted for N2H4or UDMH; C2H4O may be substituted for any propellant; or NH3may be substituted for any fuel if
a hypergolic combination results.
5Use LO2/rp–1 distances for pentaborane plus a fuel and LO2LH2distances for pentaborane plus and oxidizer.
6For quantities of propellant up to, but not over, the equivalent of 100 pounds of explosives, the distance shall be determined on an individual basis by the controlling
MACOM with USATCES approval. All personnel and facilities, whether involved in the operation or not, shall be protected adequately by proper operating procedures,
equipment design, shielding, barricading, or other suitable means.
7Distances less than intraline are not specified. When a number of prepackaged liquid propellant units are stored together, separation distance to other storage facilities
shall be determined on an individual basis, taking into consideration normal hazard classification procedures.
Table 5–22
Factors for converting gallons of propellant into pounds1
Propellant Density (pounds per gallon) At temperature (degrees F.)
Anhydrous ammonia 5.1 68
Aniline 8.5 68
Bromine pentafluoride 20.7 68
Chlorine trifluoride 15.3 68
Ethyl alcohol 6.6 68
Ethylene oxide 7.3 68
Fluorine 12.6 -306
Furfuryl alcohol 9.4 68
Hydrogen peroxide (90%) 11.6 68
Hydrazine 8.4 68
Isopropyl alcohol 6.6 68
Liquid hydrogen 0.59 -423
Liquid oxygen 9.5 -297
Methyl alcohol 6.6 68
Monomethyl hydrazine 7.3 68
Nitromethane 9.5 68
Nitrogen tetroxide 12.1 68
Oxygen difluoride 12.7 -229
Otto fuel 10.5 77
Ozone difluoride 14.6 -297
Pentaborane 5.2 68
Perchloryl fluoride 12.0 68
Red fuming nitric acid 12.5 68
RP–1 6.8 68
Tetranitromethane 13.6 78
UDMH 6.6 68
UDMH/hydrazine 7.5 68
Notes:
1To convert quantities of propellants from gallons to pounds: pounds of propellant equals gallons of propellant times density in pounds per gallon.
56 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–23
Liquid propellants hazard and compatibility groups
Propellant Hazard group1Storage group2
Alcohols, CH3OH, C2H5OH, (CH3)2,CHOH I C
Anhydrous Ammonia NH3IC
Aniline C6H5NH2IC
Hydrocarbon fuels JP–4, JP–5, RP–1 I C
Monopropellant NOS–58–6 I C
Nitrogen Tetroxide N2O4IA
Otto fuel II I G
Red fuming nitric acid HNO3IA
Bromine pentafluoride BrF5II A
Chlorine trifluoride C1F3II A
Hydrogen peroxide greater than 52% H2O2II3A
Liquid fluorine LF2II A
Liquid oxygen LO2II A
Perchloryl fluoride CLO3FII A
Oxygen fluoride OF2II A
Ozone difluoride O3F2II A
Ethylene oxide C2H4O III D
Hydrazine N2H4III C
Hydrazine-UDMH mixtures III C
Liquid hydrogen LH2III C
Mixed amine fuels III C
Monomethylhydraizine CH3NHNH3III C
Propellant III D
Pentaborane B5H9ID
Triethyl Boron B(C2H5)3III C
UDMH (CH3)2NNH2IV5F4
Nitromethane CH3NO2IV F
Tetranitromethane C(NO24 IV F
Notes:
1For some of the materials listed, the toxic hazard may be an overriding consideration. Consult applicable regulations and, if necessary, other authorities or publications
for determination of toxic siting criteria.
2All propellants in a compatibility group are considered compatible. Groupings are not to be confused with ammunition and explosives compatibility groupings with like
letters.
3Under certain conditions, this propellant can detonate. However, its sensitivity to detonation is not greater than that of a standard energetic double base solid propellant
under the same conditions.
4Nitromethane is chemically compatible with compatibility storage group C liquid propellants, but due to differences in hazards should be stored separately.
5Technical grade nitromethane in unit quantities of 55 gallons or less in DOT 17E or C drums may be stored as hazard group II provided the following conditions apply:
drums are stored only one tier high; drums are protected from direct rays of sun; and maximum storage life is 2 years, unless storage life tests indicate product continues
to meet purchase specification. Such tests are to be repeated at 1 year intervals thereafter.
57DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–24 (PAGE 1)
QD for propellants
58 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–24 (PAGE 2)
QD for propellants—Continued
59DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–24 (PAGE 3)
QD for propellants—Continued
Table 5–25
Hazard group IV separation distances
Quantity of propellant/explosives Distances from propellant/explosives
To inhabited buildings To public traffic routes Intraline Magazine
Total Weight group IV propellant or HE
equivalents for other propellants/ex-
plosives (see table 5–21.)
Use table 5–1. Use table 5–1. Use table 5–3 or 5–4. Use tables 5–5 and 5–6.
60 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–26
Chamber separation
61DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–27
Distance to protect against ground shock
NEW in pounds Dig/fg
2.1W4/9 11.1W4/9 12.5W4/9
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
45,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
90,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
450,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
45
49
52
56
58
62
68
74
78
84
88
92
100
105
115
120
125
135
145
155
165
170
190
205
220
235
245
260
280
300
320
330
350
380
410
430
450
480
520
579
620
640
680
720
780
840
880
240
260
280
290
310
330
360
390
420
440
470
490
540
560
600
640
660
720
780
820
860
900
1,000
1,100
1,150
1,250
1,300
1,350
1,500
1,600
1,700
1,750
1,850
2,000
2,150
2,300
2,400
2,500
2,800
3,000
3,200
3,400
3,600
3,800
4,100
4,400
4,700
270
290
310
330
350
370
400
440
470
500
520
560
600
640
680
720
740
820
880
920
980
1,000
1,150
1,200
1,300
1,400
1,450
1,550
1,650
1,800
1,900
2,000
2,100
2,250
2,400
2,600
2,700
2,800
3,100
3,400
3,600
3,900
4,100
4,300
4,600
5,000
5,200
62 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–28
Distance to protect against hard rock debris
C/W1/3 (FT/LB1/3)
Weight (lbs) .30 .50 .70 .90 1.10 1.60 2.10 2.50
Did/fd(ft)
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
600000
700000
800000
900000
160
170
185
195
205
210
230
250
270
280
300
310
330
350
370
390
410
440
470
500
520
540
600
640
680
720
760
800
860
920
960
1000
1050
1150
1200
1300
1350
1400
1550
1650
1750
1850
1950
2050
2200
2350
2450
2600
180
195
210
220
230
240
260
290
300
320
340
350
380
400
430
450
470
500
540
560
600
620
680
740
780
820
860
900
980
1050
1100
1150
1200
1300
1400
1450
1550
1600
1750
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2500
2700
2800
3000
200
215
230
240
250
260
290
310
330
350
370
380
410
440
470
490
520
560
580
620
640
680
740
800
860
900
940
980
1050
1150
1200
1250
1300
1400
1500
1600
1650
1750
1900
2050
2200
2300
2450
2500
2700
2900
3100
3200
205
220
235
250
260
270
300
320
340
360
380
400
430
460
480
500
520
560
600
640
680
700
760
820
880
940
980
1000
1100
1150
1250
1300
1350
1450
1550
1650
1750
1800
2000
2150
2250
2400
2500
2600
2800
3000
3200
3300
195
210
225
240
250
260
290
310
330
350
360
380
410
440
460
480
500
540
580
620
640
680
740
800
840
900
940
980
1050
1100
1150
1250
1300
1400
1500
1600
1650
1750
1900
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2700
2900
3100
3200
145
155
165
175
180
190
210
225
240
250
260
280
300
320
330
350
370
400
420
440
470
490
540
580
620
640
680
700
760
820
860
900
940
1000
1100
1150
1200
1250
1350
1500
1600
1650
1750
1800
1950
2100
2200
2300
92
98
105
110
115
120
135
145
155
160
170
175
190
205
215
225
235
250
270
290
300
310
340
370
390
420
440
460
490
520
560
580
600
660
700
740
780
800
880
960
1000
1050
1100
1150
1250
1350
1400
1500
62
67
72
76
79
83
91
98
105
110
115
120
130
140
145
155
160
175
185
195
205
215
235
250
270
285
295
310
335
355
375
395
410
445
475
500
525
550
600
645
690
725
765
800
860
915
965
1015
63DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–29
Distance to protect against soft rock debris
C/W1/3 (FT/LB1/3)
Weight (lbs) .20 .60 .75 .90 1.00 1.50 1.75 2.50
Did/fd(ft)
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
600000
700000
800000
900000
155
165
175
185
195
205
225
240
260
270
290
300
320
340
360
380
400
430
460
480
500
520
560
600
620
660
680
740
800
860
900
960
1000
1050
1150
1200
1250
1300
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
2150
2250
2400
2500
200
215
230
245
260
270
290
310
330
350
370
390
420
450
470
490
520
560
600
620
660
680
740
800
860
900
960
1000
1050
1150
1250
1300
1450
1500
1600
1700
1750
1800
1950
2100
2200
2350
2450
2600
2800
2900
3100
3300
205
220
235
250
260
270
300
320
340
360
380
400
430
460
480
500
520
560
600
640
680
700
760
820
880
940
980
1000
1050
1150
1250
1300
1350
1450
1550
1650
1750
1800
2000
2150
2250
2400
2500
2600
2800
3000
3200
3300
200
215
230
245
260
270
290
310
330
350
370
390
420
450
470
490
520
560
600
620
660
680
740
800
860
900
980
1000
1050
1150
1250
1300
1450
1500
1600
1700
1750
1800
1950
2100
2200
2350
2450
2600
2800
2900
3100
3300
188
200
215
225
240
250
270
290
310
330
350
360
390
410
440
460
480
520
560
580
620
640
700
760
800
840
880
920
1000
1050
1150
1200
1250
1350
1400
1500
1550
1650
1800
1950
2050
2200
2300
2400
2600
2700
2900
3000
92
98
105
110
115
120
135
145
155
160
170
175
190
205
215
225
235
250
270
290
300
310
340
370
390
420
440
460
490
520
560
580
600
660
700
740
780
800
880
960
1000
1050
1100
1150
1250
1350
1400
1500
64
70
74
78
82
86
94
100
110
115
120
125
135
145
150
160
165
180
190
200
210
220
240
260
280
290
310
320
350
370
390
410
430
460
490
520
550
560
620
660
720
760
780
820
880
940
1000
1050
25
27
29
31
32
34
37
40
43
45
47
49
53
57
60
63
65
71
75
79
83
87
95
100
110
115
120
125
135
145
155
160
170
180
195
205
215
225
245
265
280
300
310
325
350
375
390
415
Table 5–30
Functions of loading density
Loading density Ground shock Debris
wf
gf
d
(lbs/ft1/3) (0.267w0.30) (0.600w0.18)
1.0 0.27 0.60
1.2 0.28 0.62
1.4 0.29 0.64
1.6 0.31 0.65
1.8 0.32 0.67
2.0 0.33 0.68
2.5 0.35 0.71
3.0 0.37 0.73
3.5 0.39 0.75
4.0 0.40 0.77
4.5 0.42 0.79
5.0 0.43 0.80
6.0 0.46 0.83
7.0 0.48 0.85
64 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–30
Functions of loading density—Continued
Loading density Ground shock Debris
wf
gf
d
(lbs/ft1/3) (0.267w0.30) (0.600w0.18)
8.0 0.50 0.87
9.0 0.52 0.89
10.0 0.53 0.91
12.0 0.56 0.94
14.0 0.59 0.96
16.0 0.61 0.96
18.0 0.63 1.01
20.0 0.66 1.03
25.0 0.70 1.07
30.0 0.74 1.11
35.0 0.77 1.14
40.0 0.81 1.17
45.0 0.84 1.19
50.0 0.86 1.21
60.0 0.91 1.25
70.0 0.95 1.29
80.0 0.99 1.32
90.0 1.03 1.35
100.0 1.06 1.37
Table 5–31
IBD for airblast traveling through earth cover
65DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–32
Distance versus overpressure along the centerline
Table 5–33
Distance versus overpressure along the centerline
66 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–34
Effective overpressure at the opening
Table 5–35
Allowable overpressure at IBD
67DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Table 5–36
IBD distances to protect against airblast
W R/[D/VT1/3] (ft) at selected off-axis angles (deg)
lbs 0 deg 30 deg 60 deg 90 deg 120 deg 180 deg
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
600000
700000
800000
900000
1340
1420
1500
1570
1630
1690
1820
1930
2030
2130
2210
2290
2430
2560
2680
2790
2890
3070
3230
3380
3510
3640
3920
4160
4380
4580
4770
4940
5250
5520
5770
6010
6220
6910
7540
8130
8690
9220
10460
11110
11700
12230
12720
13180
14000
14740
15410
16030
1110
1180
1240
1300
1350
1400
1510
1600
1690
1760
1840
1900
2020
2130
2220
2310
2400
2550
2680
2800
2910
3020
3250
3450
3640
3800
3950
4100
4350
4580
4790
4980
5160
5730
6250
6740
7210
7650
8680
9220
9710
10150
10550
10930
11620
12230
12790
13300
760
810
850
890
930
960
1030
1100
1160
1210
1260
1300
1380
1460
1520
1580
1640
1740
1830
1920
1990
2070
2230
2360
2490
2600
2710
2800
2980
3140
3280
3410
3530
3920
4280
4620
4930
5240
5940
6310
6640
6950
7220
7480
7950
8370
8750
9100
520
550
580
610
630
660
710
750
790
830
860
890
950
1000
1040
1080
1120
1190
1260
1310
1370
1410
1520
1620
1700
1780
1850
1920
2040
2150
2250
2340
2420
2690
2930
3160
3380
3590
4070
4320
4550
4760
4950
5120
5450
5730
5990
6230
370
400
420
440
460
470
510
540
570
600
620
640
680
720
750
780
810
860
900
940
980
1020
1100
1160
1230
1280
1330
1380
1470
1550
1620
1680
1740
1930
2110
2270
2430
2580
2930
3110
3270
3420
3560
3690
3920
4120
4310
4480
220
240
250
260
270
280
300
320
340
350
370
380
400
430
440
460
480
510
540
560
580
600
650
690
730
760
790
820
870
920
960
1000
1030
1150
1250
1350
1440
1530
1730
1840
1940
2030
2110
2190
2320
2450
2560
2660
68 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-1. Impulse noise zones for various B-durations and peak sound pressures
69DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-2. Impulse noise zones from intentional detonations
70 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-3. Intermagazine hazard factors
Figure 5-4. Intermagazine hazard factors
71DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-5. Intermagazine hazard factors
Figure 5-6. Intermagazine hazard factors
72 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-7. Intermagazine hazard factors
Figure 5-8. Intermagazine hazard factors
73DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Figure 5-9. Intermagazine hazard factors
74 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
Chapter 6
Electrical Hazards
Section I
Electrical Service and Equipment
6–1. Overview
The installation and use of electrical equipment within buildings,
magazines, operating locations, shelters, and so forth, containing
explosives will comply with the latest edition of the NFPA, Stand-
ard 70, unless stated otherwise in this chapter.
6–2. Hazardous locations
Locations are classified depending on the properties of the flamma-
ble vapors, liquids or gases, or combustible dusts or fibers which
may be present and the likelihood that a flammable or combustible
c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r q u a n t i t y i s p r e s e n t . W h e r e p y r o p h o r i c ( s p o n -
taneously igniting in air) materials are used or handled, these loca-
tions will not be classified. Each room, section, or area will be
considered individually in determining its classification. To qualify
as a hazardous location, conditions listed in paragraph 6–2a through
c should either exist or be probable in the location. Hazardous
locations are divided into three classes. Each class consists of two
division: Division 1 (more hazardous) and division 2. Hazardous
locations require either explosives dusts, flammable vapors, or ignit-
able flyings (or fibers) to be present in a proper mixture with air.
Ammunition storage structures will not normally have the proper
mixture and would not be considered a hazardous location within
the context of this definition. Additional information can be found
in NFPA 70, article 500.
a. Class I. Class I locations are those in which flammable gases
or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to
produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. Rooms or buildings con-
taining vapors from explosives which may condense will be consid-
ered Class I, Division 1 locations. Electrical equipment must have
been tested and listed by a recognized testing agency as suitable for
installation and use in Class I hazardous locations for safety of
operation in the presence of flammable mixtures of specific vapors
or gases in the air.
(1) Class I, Division 1. Class I, Division 1 locations are those in
which—
(a) Hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors exist
continuously, intermittently, or periodically under normal operating
conditions.
(b) Hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or vapors may
exist frequently because of repair or maintenance operations or
because of leakage.
(c) Breakdown or faulty operation of equipment or processes
which might release hazardous concentrations of flammable gases or
v a p o r s m i g h t a l s o c a u s e s i m u l t a n e o u s f a i l u r e o f e l e c t r i c a l
equipment.
(d) Explosives may sublime and outgas.
(e) Equipment operating temperatures will not have an external
temperature capable of igniting the flammable mixture of the spe-
cific gas or vapor in its location.
(2) Class I, Division 2. Class I, Division 2 locations are those in
which—
(a) Volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases are handled,
processed, or used. In these areas the hazardous liquids, vapors, or
gases normally are confined within closed containers or systems
from which they can escape only in an accidental rupture or break-
down of such containers or systems or during abnormal operation of
equipment.
(b) Positive mechanical ventilation normally prevents hazardous
concentrations of gases or vapors from accumulating, but concentra-
tions might become hazardous if the ventilating equipment fails or
malfunctions.
( c ) H a z a r d o u s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f g a s e s o r v a p o r s o c c a s i o n a l l y
might accumulate if they spread from adjacent Class I, Division 1
locations unless prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation
from a source of clean air, and effective safeguards against ventila-
tion failure are provided.
b. Class II. Class II locations are those locations which are haz-
ardous because of the presence of combustible dust. Rooms or
buildings that contain explosive dusts or explosives having a chemi-
cal composition or physical size such that particles of explosives
may become disassociated from the whole and disperse in the sur-
rounding atmosphere, will be considered Class II hazardous loca-
tions. Equipment installed in Class II locations will be able to
function at full rating without developing surface temperatures high
enough to cause excessive dehydration or gradual carbonization of
any organic dust deposits that may be present. Dust that is carbon-
ized or excessively dry is highly susceptible to spontaneous ignition.
Operating temperatures of electrical equipment will not be high
enough to ignite expected dusts in its location if equipment, such as
m o t o r s , p o w e r t r a n s f o r m e r s , a n d s o f o r t h , b e c o m e s o v e r l o a d e d .
Equipment and wiring defined as explosion-proof is not required in
Class II locations, and may not be acceptable unless it meets all the
requirements of NFPA 70, Article 500 for Class II locations.
(1) Class II, Division 1. Class II, Division 1 locations are those in
which—
(a) Combustible dust is or may be suspended in the air con-
t i n u o u s l y , i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , o r p e r i o d i c a l l y u n d e r n o r m a l o p e r a t i n g
c o n d i t i o n s i n q u a n t i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t t o p r o d u c e a n e x p l o s i o n o r
ignition.
(b) Mechanical failure or malfunctioning machinery or equipment
may cause explosive or ignitable mixtures to be produced, or be-
come a source of ignition through simultaneous failure of electrical
equipment and protection devices or other causes.
(c) Combustible dusts which are electrically conductive may be
present.
(d) Explosives or explosive dusts may, during handling, produce
dust capable of being dispersed in the atmosphere.
(e) Explosives may outgas.
(2) Class II, Division 2. Class II, Division 2 locations are those in
which—
(a) Combustible dust will not normally be suspended in the air,
or thrown into suspension, by the normal operation of equipment or
apparatus in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable
mixtures.
(b) Deposits or accumulations of dust may be sufficient to inter-
fere with the safe dissipation of heat from electrical equipment or
apparatus.
(c) Deposits or accumulations of combustible dust on, in, or in
the vicinity of, electrical equipment may be ignited by arcs, sparks,
or burning material from electrical equipment.
c. Class III. Class III locations are those that could be hazardous
because of the presence of easily ignitable fibers or flyings, but
where these fibers or flyings are not likely to be in suspension in the
air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable mixtures. These loca-
t i o n s i n c l u d e c o m b u s t i b l e f i b e r m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r e s s i n g p l a n t s ,
woodworking plants, and establishments involving similar hazardous
processes or conditions. Easily ignitable fibers and flyings include
rayon, cotton, hemp, oakum, excelsior, and other materials of simi-
lar nature.
(1) Class III, Division 1. Class III, Division 1 locations are those
in which easily ignitable fibers or materials that produce combusti-
ble flyings are handled, manufactured, or used.
(2) Class III, Division 2. Class III, Division 2 locations are those
in which easily ignitable fibers are stored or handled, excluding
l o c a t i o n s w h e r e i g n i t a b l e f i b e r s a r e s t o r e d o r h a n d l e d d u r i n g
manufacturing.
d. Change of classification. Operating buildings and magazines
are constructed to perform a specific function which dictates the
requirements for electrical equipment installation. If the functions
performed in the facility change or are rearranged, the safety offi-
cers must inspect, approve, or reclassify the hazardous locations.
Multiple classifications are discussed in the following paragraph.
e . M u l t i p l e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I n s o m e a r e a s o f A r m y o p e r a t i n g
75DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
buildings or magazines there may be hazards from both dust and
flammable vapors. If so, these areas will have a dual or multiple
classification. Electrical equipment used in these areas must be lis-
ted by a recognized testing agency as suitable for use in all hazard-
ous locations to which it will be subjected.
f. Special requirements.
(1) Electrical equipment and installations in Class I, II, or III
hazardous locations involving explosives will comply with the re-
quirements of the code for Division 1 of the appropriate hazardous
location class. Equipment and installations in locations which could
be used as either a Class I or II hazardous location will meet the
requirements of both classes.
(2) An alternate source of power must be available for explosives
operations where the lack of a continuous power supply may cause
a fire or explosion.
(3) Low power, solid state devices which are intrinsically safe
under the NFPA, Standard 70, Article 504, may be used in any
hazardous location, provided they do not introduce a physical or
electromagnetic radiation (EMR) hazard. See section III of this
chapter for more information on EMR.
g. Maintenance. More than ordinary care will be taken to main-
tain equipment and electrical installations in hazardous locations.
The equipment must be periodically inspected and maintained by
qualified personnel, with a written record kept of the inspections
and maintenance. Where inspection frequency is not prescribed in a
TM or other directive, the inspection period will be fixed by local
authority on the basis of the existing situation.
h. Photographic lighting. Magnesium flashlights or photoflash
bulbs are not allowed in hazardous locations. Only lighting equip-
ment bearing the Underwriter’s Laboratory (UL) listed label for the
hazard involved will be used in photography.
6–3. Approved equipment
a. Listed equipment. Electrical equipment listed by a recognized
testing agency, is acceptable only when used under the recom-
mended environmental and operational conditions. Equipment will
be approved not only for the class of location but also for the
explosive properties of the specific gas, vapor, or dust that will be
present. For additional details, see NFPA 70.
b. Unlisted equipment. Electrical equipment not specifically listed
by a recognized testing agency for the purpose or operating condi-
tion present may be certified for use by a qualified safety or system
safety engineer (GS–803). This certification will be based on the
following:
(1) Listed equipment is not available from any source;
(2) Hazard analysis has determined that no additional hazards
would be created by using this equipment. Unlisted equipment certi-
fication and justification thereof, must be maintained at the installa-
tion until the equipment is withdrawn from service.
6–4. Maintenance of electrical equipment
Only qualified personnel authorized to do such work will perform
maintenance. Where equipment may have been contaminated by
explosives, the explosives will be removed or neutralized before
maintenance is started.
6–5. Electrical service lines in explosives areas
Each service line will be run underground from a point at least 50
feet away from the building. The exterior line side of the main
disconnecting switch or circuit breaker must have suitable lightning
arrestors. See paragraph 5–7o for separation distance for electrical
lines.
a. Surge (lightning) arresters will be required and installed as
specified in NFPA 70, Article 280.
b. Local telephone service and similar low voltage intercom or
alarm systems must also comply with the same underground routing
for the last 50 feet. Surge protection, even for lines that run under-
ground, will be provided to shield against any severe electrical
surges from a nearby lightning strike or from excessive power
through the line from other outside sources, such as broken power
lines.
c. Ground fault interrupters virtually eliminate electrical shock
hazards presented by line-to-ground fault currents and leakage cur-
rents by removing power from the faulty circuit. When building or
renovating facilities, all 120 volts alternating current (VAC) single-
phase receptacle outlets installed outdoors will have ground fault
circuit protection. Ground fault protection will be provided in other
areas where conditions creating a high-level electrical hazard exist.
Ground fault circuit interrupters can often be activated by spurious
electrical impulses. Therefore, these devices will not be used on
circuits that serve critical equipment and processes; for example,
lighting in an explosives building, or lighting required for a safe exit
from any building.
6–6. Electrical motors for hazardous locations
Electrical motors should not be installed in a room or building
which is a Class I or II hazardous location. They should have no
connection to the building except through glands or apertures ade-
quately sealed against entrance of hazardous materials either into the
location or into the motor itself. If an electrical motor must be
located in a hazardous location, paragraph 6–3 applies.
6–7. Portable lighting systems
a. Floodlight systems, which are listed by an recognized testing
agency, may be used where required. These will be mounted on
heavy portable stands and placed outside the magazine door or the
outside working area. Service cords must be placed or protected so
that they cannot be walked on or run over by equipment.
b. Flashlights and hand lanterns powered by low voltage dry cell
batteries and miners’ cap lamps, each approved as permissible by
the U.S. Bureau of Mines and by a recognized testing agency for
Class I hazardous locations, are considered satisfactory for both
Class I and II hazardous locations. In Class III hazardous locations
and nonhazardous explosives locations, any type dry cell flashlight
is acceptable. Devices which provide cold light through chemical
action are acceptable for any hazardous location.
6–8. Permanent lighting for storage magazines
If permanent lighting is essential, an approved type of disconnect
switch must be used. The switch will be placed outside the maga-
zine and arranged so that it can be locked in the open position. The
power will be on only when personnel are working in the magazine.
The magazine doors will be opened and the magazine interior will
be visually inspected before actuating the switch. As a minimum,
sparkproof or industrial rated electrical systems in rigid metal con-
duits, enclosed junction boxes, and closure plates without opening
and protective covers for lighting fixtures will be used. Explosion
proof lighting is required only for the hazardous locations listed in
paragraph 6–2.
6–9. Flexible cords
Flexible cords should be type “S” hard service cords approved for
extra hard usage in damp areas as defined in the National Electric
Code (NEC). Splices are not allowed. All flexible cords with plugs
must be equipped with a ground. Flexible cords will not be used in
place of fixed or installed electrical wiring. Place or protect each
electrical cord so that it cannot be walked on or run over by
equipment.
Section II
Static electricity
6–10. Static electricity charge dissipation subsystem
a. General information.
(1) Static electricity. Static electricity is produced when two un-
like materials are brought into contact and then separated. During
contact, there is a redistribution of the charge across the area of
contact and an attractive force is established. When the materials are
separated, work is done in overcoming these attractive forces. This
work is stored as an electrostatic field which is set up between the
76 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
two surfaces when they are separated. If no conducting path is
available to allow the charges to bleed off the surfaces, the voltage
between the surfaces can easily reach several thousand volts as they
are separated. Static electricity is an annoyance to many individuals.
Static shock may cause discomfort and even injury to a worker due
to involuntary reaction. A far more dangerous aspect of static elec-
tricity is the fire and explosion hazard. This hazard can occur in
situations where a vapor-air, gas-air, dust-air, or combination of
these mixtures exist in the proper ratio. For static to cause ignition,
four conditions must exist:
(a) An effective means of static generation.
(b) A means of accumulating the charges and maintaining a dif-
ference of electrical potential.
(c) A spark discharge of adequate energy.
(d) The spark must occur in an ignitable mixture.
(2) Sources. The most common sources of static electricity are:
(a) Steam, air, or gas flowing from any opening in a pipe or
hose, particularly when the stream is wet or when the air or gas
stream contains particulate matter.
(b) Pulverized materials passing through chutes and pneumatic
conveyors.
(c) Nonconductive power or conveyor belts in motion.
(d) Moving vehicles.
(e) All motion involving changes in relative position of contact-
ing surfaces (usually of dissimilar substances), of which one or both
must be a poor conductor of electricity. The following paragraph
provides information and procedures on how to control static elec-
tricity charge dissipation.
(3) Materials sensitive to static spark discharge. Practically all
finely divided combustible materials, especially explosives, when
suspended in the proper concentration in air or deposited in finely
divided layers, can be ignited by an electro-static spark.
(a) Explosives. The explosives or explosive mixtures that are
sensitive to static discharge (electro-static sensitivity of 0.1 joule or
less) when exposed are generally primer, initiator, detonator, igniter,
tracer, incendiary, and pyrotechnic mixtures. Ammonium picrate,
tetryl, RDX compositions, and tetrytol are sensitive to static dis-
charge when present in dust-air mixtures. The following are some of
the explosives that can be ignited by a static electricity spark dis-
charged from a person: black powder; diazodinitrophenol; igniter
compositions; lead azide; lead styphnate; aluminum, magnesium,
titanium, uranium, or zirconium powder exposed in layers; mercury
fulminate; mixtures of flammable vapors; potassium chlorate mixed
with flammable dusts; pyrotechnic mixtures; smokeless powder dust
when present; and tetrazene.
(b) Electro-explosive devices. Static electricity on insulated con-
ductive objects, such as metal stands with rubber casters, or on a
person, can discharge through the air to other objects which are at a
sufficiently different potential. Such a discharge or spark, even
though too small to be felt, may contain enough energy to cause an
electro-explosive device, such as a primer or a detonator, to fire.
Static discharges may also be strong enough to break down the
insulation within the electro-explosive device and cause it to fire.
(c) Solvents. Flammable mixtures of solvents and air can be ig-
nited by the static charge that can be accumulated on a person.
Typical flammable solvents are ethyl ether, ethyl alcohol, ethyl
acetate, acetone, benzene, and naphtha.
(4) Static generating materials. Personnel who work in a hazard-
ous location or who handle or install unpackaged electro-explosive
devices and ammunition must avoid using rags and wearing outer
garments made of materials which have high static generating char-
acteristics. Materials of 100 percent polyester, nylon, rayon, silk, or
wool are highly static-producing. Wool socks, glove inserts, and
caps, as well as undergarments of synthetic fabrics or silk are less of
a hazard. Nylon field jacket liners should not be worn as an outer
garment. Cotton or cotton-synthetic blend materials are preferred.
(5) Static electrical potential discharge or equalization. Person-
nel, regardless of the type of clothing worn, can collect a charge of
static electricity by being in contact with moving nonconductive
s u b s t a n c e s o r c o m i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h a m a s s t h a t h a s b e e n
previously charged. Therefore, personnel must be particularly care-
ful to discharge their static electrical potential or equalize it to that
of the explosives item before the item is handled.
(6) Garment removal. Garments will not be put on or removed
while engaged in explosives operations. This reduces the generation
of static charges caused by physical separation of materials. If outer
garments need to be removed, personnel will step out of the imme-
diate area of operation, remove the garment, ground themselves,
then reenter. Workers shall not unfasten Velcro fasteners while
present in an explosives operation.
b. Static electricity dissipation.
(1) The grounding method generally used to eliminate or reduce
the hazard from static electricity is to provide an electrically contin-
uous path to the earth electrode subsystem.
(a) When all of the objects are conductive, they can be grounded
by electrically connecting all parts to a common ground conductor.
(b) When deemed necessary, effective grounding must include
the exterior and the contents of a container.
(c) Electrical continuity may be broken by oil on bearings, paint,
or rust at any contact point. To get a continuous circuit, grounding
straps should be used to bridge such locations. Equipment in contact
with conductive floors or table tops is not adequately grounded.
(d) Static grounds will not be made to telephone grounds; electri-
cal conduit systems; gas, steam, water, or air lines; sprinkler sys-
t e m s ; o r a i r t e r m i n a l s o f l i g h t n i n g p r o t e c t i o n s y s t e m ( L P S )
(connection to the down conductor of the system at the ground level
is authorized).
(2) Static electricity accumulations and subsequent discharges are
usually impossible if the relative humidity is above 60 percent.
Where humidification techniques are used to prevent static electric-
ity accumulations, perform a daily preoperational check of the hu-
midity levels before starting work. However, certain materials such
as metallic powders and some of the pyrotechnic mixtures cannot be
exposed to air with 60 percent or higher relative humidity because
of the possibility of spontaneous ignition.
(3) Ionization is electrical neutralization and serves as an effec-
tive method of removing static charges from certain processes and/
or operation. Methods of application can be found in NFPA Recom-
mended Practice 77. Ionization methods of removing static charges
must not be used in hazardous locations as defined in the National
Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and paragraph 6–2 of this pamphlet.
Unless the MACOM commander gives approval, do not use radio-
active ionization sources due to the potential for radioactive material
contamination during an explosives accident or pyrotechnic fire.
c. Conductive floors, mats, and runners. The combination of con-
ductive floors and shoes provides the static electricity charge a
dissipation path to the earth electrode subsystem.
(1) General requirements.
(a) Conductive floors, plates, mats, and runners will be used
together with conductive footwear to protect personnel at operations
involving items and materials having an electrostatic sensitivity of
0.1 joule or less. A list of items and materials that are sensitive to
this level are listed in paragraph 6–10a(3)(a) through 6–10a(3)(c).
Operations involving such items as loosely unpacked ammunition
with electric primers, exposed electro-explosives devices, electri-
cally initiated items with exposed electric circuitry, and other haz-
a r d o u s m a t e r i a l s w i l l b e a n a l y z e d o n a c a s e - b y - c a s e b a s i s t o
determine if conductive floors, plates, mats, runners, and footwear
a r e r e q u i r e d . T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l i n c l u d e a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e
electrostatic sensitivity of the item and the compensatory measures
to be employed.
(b) Conductive floors are not required throughout a building or
room if the hazard is localized. In these cases, conductive mats or
runners may be used where appropriate. These mats or runners will
be subject to all the specifications and tests that apply to conductive
floors.
( 2 ) N e w i n s t a l l a t i o n o r r e n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s C o n d u c t i v e
floors must be constructed of nonsparking material such as lead,
conductive rubber, or conductive flooring composition and must
meet the following requirements:
(a) The surface of the installed floor must be free from cracks
77DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
and reasonably smooth. The surface material must not slough off,
wrinkle, or buckle under operating conditions. Conductive tiles are
not recommended in areas where explosives dust can cause contami-
nation. The large number of joints and the tendency of tiles to
loosen can allow explosives dust to become lodged. The tiles are not
easy to clean using normal cleanup procedures.
(b) The conductive floors must be compatible with the materials
to be processed.
(3) Conductive floor bonding requirements.
(a) Conductive floors will be bonded to the earth electrode sub-
system. The bonding material will be selected in accordance with
paragraph 6–13d below.
(b) On former Naval installations conductive floors will be bon-
ded to the secondary girdle. The bonding material will be selected in
accordance with paragraph 6–13d.
(4) Visual inspection requirements.
( a ) V i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n i n t e r v a l . C o n d u c t i v e f l o o r s w i l l b e i n -
spected daily during operations.
(b) Visual inspection procedures. (See para C–2 and table 6–1 for
inspection procedures.)
(5) Electrical test requirements.
(a) Electrical test intervals. Conductive floors will be tested at
the completion of installation, at the completion of renovation, and
at least semi-annually thereafter.
(b) Electrical test procedures. Electrical tests will be conducted
only when the room or area is free of exposed explosives and/or
flammable gas mixtures. (See para C–3 and table 6–1 for testing
procedures.)
(6) Maintenance of conductive floors. Conductive floors will be
kept clean, dry, and free of nonconductive material. Soaps, deter-
gents, and solvents that leave a residue will not be used to clean
conductive floors.
d. Conductive footwear.
(1) General requirements. Personnel who work upon conductive
flooring, conductive mats, or conductive runners where the require-
ments in c(1)(a) above apply, must wear nonsparking conductive
footwear. Personnel from other departments or visitors who enter
these areas and who walk on conductive flooring materials also
must wear nonsparking conductive footwear (conductive overshoes
with ankle straps may be used). Legstats are acceptable for visitors
or transients only, as long as their basic footwear is of nonsparking
construction. Under no circumstances will personnel working on
electrical equipment or facilities wear conductive-sole safety shoes
or other conductive footwear.
(2) Conductive footwear requirements.
( a ) C o n d u c t i v e s h o e s w i t h c o n d u c t i v e c o m p o s i t i o n s o l e s w i l l
meet ANSI Safety Standard for Safety-Toe Footwear, Z41.1 and
MIL-S–3794.
(b) Conductive footwear requires care to retain its conductive
properties. When conductive footwear is not in use, it should be
stored in lockers close to the room where it will be worn. Employ-
ees who have been issued conductive footwear will not wear it from
the workplace to their homes and return. A thin layer of dust or wax
may insulate conductive footwear from the floor.
(c) Only conductive materials will be used to repair conductive
soled shoes. Conductive shoes will be thoroughly cleaned before
being repaired.
(3) Visual inspection requirements.
(a) Inspection intervals. Conductive footwear will be inspected
every day before use.
(b) Inspection procedures and criteria. (See para C–2 and table
6–1.)
(4) Electrical test requirements.
(a) Test intervals. Conductive footwear will be tested at the time
issued and daily before use.
(b) Test procedures. (See para C–4 and table 6–1.)
e. Conductive tables and table tops. The requirements for con-
ductive floors will apply to conductive tables and table tops.
f. Conductive belts.
(1) New installation, renovation, and general requirements.
(a) Conductive conveyor belts will meet the requirements of In-
ternational Standard Organization (ISO) 284, Conveyor Belts, Elec-
tric Conductive, Specifications and Method of Test.
( b ) C o n d u c t i v e V - b e l t s w i l l m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f I S O
1 8 1 3 – A n t i s t a t i c V - B e l t s E l e c t r i c C o n d u c t i v e — S p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d
Method of Test at initial installation.
(2) Bonding requirements.
(a) The belt must be electrically continuous.
(b) The combination of the belt tension and the weight on the
belt provides the bonding of the belt to the pulleys and rollers.
(c) The static electricity charge dissipation from the belt to the
pulley or roller will also dissipate through the bearings to the equip-
ment. The equipment in turn must be bonded to the earth electrode
subsystem. Static combs or sliding contacts may be used between
pulleys and roller to the equipment housing. Bonding straps can be
used on the equipment housing. Braided straps will be required on
equipment that vibrates.
(d) On former Naval installations this subsystem must be bonded
to the secondary girdle.
(3) Visual inspection requirements.
(a) Inspection intervals. Conveyer belt and v-belt systems will be
i n s p e c t e d a t i n s t a l l a t i o n o r r e n o v a t i o n a n d d a i l y b e f o r e u s e
thereafter.
(b) Inspection procedures and criteria. (See para C–2 and table
6–1.)
(4) Electrical test requirements.
(a) Test intervals. All conveyor belt systems will be tested at the
time of installation or renovation and at least semi-annually. Con-
ductive v-belts will be tested at time of installation (para C–6), but
need not be tested after installation.
(b) Test methods. (See para C–5 and table 6–1.)
g. Conductive legstats.
(1) General requirements. Legstats will not be used in place of
conductive shoes. Only transients will use legstats when they re-
quire conductive footwear. Legstats will be used in pairs (one on
each leg) when they are required.
(2) Visual inspection requirements.
(a) Inspection intervals. Legstats will be inspected upon receipt
and daily before use.
(b) Inspection procedures and criteria. (See para C–2d and table
6–1.)
(3) Electrical testing requirements.
(a) Test intervals. Legstats will be tested upon receipt and daily
before use.
(b) Test criteria. (See para C–7 and table 6–1.)
h. Conductive wriststats.
(1) General requirements. As a general rule, wriststats should not
serve as the primary method of dissipating electrostatic charges
from the human body. Wriststats may be a supplemental method
w h e n o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r e m o r e t h a n n o r m a l p r e c a u t i o n s a g a i n s t
e l e c t r o s t a t i c d i s c h a r g e . W r i s t s t a t s m a y b e u s e d a s t h e p r i m a r y
method of electrostatic control when directed by Army publications.
(2) Visual inspection requirements.
(a) Inspection intervals. Wriststats will be inspected upon receipt
and daily before use.
(b) Inspection procedures and criteria. (See para C–2d and table
6–1.)
(3) Electrical testing requirements.
(a) Test intervals. Wriststats will be tested upon receipt and daily
before use.
(b) Test criteria. The resistance value will be provided in the
publication that requires the use of wriststats. (See table 6–1 and
C–8.)
i. Forklift trucks. Requirements, inspection, and test procedures
are in TB 43–0142.
j. Machinery and equipment
(1) General requirements. All machinery and equipment such as
m i x e r s f o r p y r o t e c h n i c , p r o p e l l a n t , a n d e x p l o s i v e c o m p o s i t i o n s ,
screening and sifting devices, assembly and disassembly machines,
elevators, defuzing machines, presses, hoppers, and all associated
78 DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
equipment involved in loading or processing explosives or explo-
sives materials will be bonded to the earth electrode subsystem.
(2) Visual inspection requirements.
(a) Inspection intervals. Machinery and equipment will be in-
spected upon receipt and daily before use.
(b) Inspection procedures and criteria. (See para C–2e and table
6–1.)
(3) Electrical testing requirements.
(a) Test intervals. Machinery and equipment will be tested upon
receipt and as specified in table 6–1.
(b) Test criteria. The resistance value between the machinery and
equipment and the earth electrode subsystem will be as specified in
paragraph C–9 and table 6–1.
k. Spray painting operations. During paint spraying operations,
static electricity dissipation will be accomplished as required in
NFPA 33 and/or NFPA 77. Electrostatic paint systems will not be
used or installed in explosives areas.
l. Aircraft loading and unloading operations. Aircraft, both ro-
tary and fixed wing, will be grounded when loading or unloading
ammunition or explosives. The resistance value between the aircraft
and the earth electrode subsystem will be as specified in table 6–1.
For sling loading ammunition and explosives, see FM 55–450–1.
m. Ground grab bars. Ground grab bars may be installed just
outside the entrance doors to operating buildings or other buildings
or structures where special hazards exist. A ground grab bar consists
of a length of noncorroding conductive pipe fitted in brackets and
connected to ground. All persons entering structures equipped with
grab bars will momentarily grasp the bar to dissipate any possible
accumulation of static electricity. To prevent reaccumulation of a
static charge, conductive floors, tables, footwear, and so forth, must
be used.
n. Field expedient grounding. There will be times when, due to
o p e r a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y , i t e m s s u c h a s c o n d u c t i v e f o o t w e a r a n d / o r
flooring will not be available. Appendix E provides methods that
may be used in these situations.
6–11. Ordnance grounds (static grounds)
Ordnance grounds are used to ensure that electric currents do not
flow between ordnance components when they come in contact or
are assembled. These currents can be produced by common mode
voltages induced in ground loops, electrostatic discharge of one
component into another, and potential differences created in the
f a c i l i t i e s g r o u n d s y s t e m d u e t o d i r e c t l i g h t n i n g s t r i k e s o r n e a r
misses.
a. Ordnance grounds are electrically separated from all other
ground systems (and objects connected to them). At former Navy
installations, ordnance grounds will be connected to the secondary
ground girdle at a single point. Each ordnance ground subsystem
will be connected to the secondary ground girdle at a single point.
b. Where they exist, ordnance grounds will be maintained.
6–12. Instrument grounds
Instrument grounds are used to provide error-free operation of sensi-
tive electronic instruments.
a. Instrument grounds are electrically separated from all other
ground systems (and objects connected to them). At former Navy
installations, instrument grounds will be connected to the secondary
ground girdle at a single point.
b. Instrument grounds at those installations having them will be
maintained.
Section III
Grounding
6–13. Explosives facility grounding
a. Explosives facilities will be provided with a ground system to
p r o v i d e p e r s o n n e l , e q u i p m e n t , a n d f a c i l i t y p r o t e c t i o n . P e r s o n n e l
safety is provided by low impedance grounding and bonding for
personnel, equipment, metallic objects, and piping so as to prevent
voltages sufficient to cause a shock hazard or initiate explosives
within the facility.
b. A facility ground system is composed of the earth electrode
subsystem and one or more of the following subsystems:
(1) Static electricity charge dissipation subsystem.
(2) Ordnance ground subsystem.
(3) Instrument ground subsystem.
(4) Lightning protection subsystem.
(5) Structural ground subsystem.
(6) Fault protection subsystem.
(7) Power service grounds subsystem.
c. The explosives facility grounding system at all Army installa-
tions will be visually inspected and electrically tested at the required
intervals for values specified in table 6–1.
(1) General requirements are as follows:
(a) The installation safety officer, unless an alternate officer is
specifically designated by the installation commander, will maintain
the inspection and test reports and/or records for a period of 30
years.
(b) Visual inspections and electrical tests should be performed by
properly trained personnel. Personnel classified as electrical engi-
neers/technicians or who have successfully completed the Army
Electrical Explosives Safety for Army Facilities Course (or equiva-
lent) are considered properly trained to perform both visual inspec-
tions and electrical tests. Visual inspections may be performed by
individuals who have been formally trained by personnel who have
completed the above course.
(2) All required maintenance will be performed on all grounding
systems.
(3) Results of all electrical tests will be recorded and reported to
the appropriate office for resolution.
d. Grounding system material will be in accordance with NFPA
7 0 , A r t i c l e 2 5 0 , P a r t J , p a r a g r a p h s 2 5 0 – 9 1 t h r o u g h 2 5 0 – 9 9 ,
inclusively.
6–14. Earth electrode subsystem
The earth electrode subsystem establishes the electrical connection
between the facility and earth. This connection is necessary for
static electricity dissipation, useful in power fault protection, and
aids in minimizing electronic noise from communications and in-
strumentation. It is a network of electrically interconnected rods
and/or cables installed to establish a low resistance contact with
earth. Electrodes are usually buried or driven beneath the earth’s
surface. Older installations may also find that buried metal plates,
cones, pipes, grids, wells, and/or grounded railroad tracks are used
as the earth electrode subsystem. Only ground rods, ground loops,
combinations, and variations thereof and salt water grounds are
authorized for new construction or major renovation projects.
a. Earth electrode subsystem general requirement. Earth elec-
trodes will be placed at uniform intervals about the protected facility
as required; grouping of earth electrodes on one side of a facility is
prohibited. Earth electrodes will be set not less than 3 feet or more
than 8 feet from the structure. The type and size of the earth
electrode subsystem will depend on local soil conditions. Test bor-
ings and/or soil resistivity tests performed in the areas before con-
struction will be used for deciding on an adequate earth electrode
system. All connections will be tested for electrical resistance, and
the entire earth electrode subsystem will be tested to assure that
resistance to earth meets the requirements of table 6–1.
b. Designing or renovating earth electrode subsystems. The sub-
system must be tailored to reflect the characteristics of the site and
requirements of the facility. It must be properly installed and steps
must be taken to assure that it continues to provide a low resistance
connection to earth throughout the life of the facility. To achieve
these objectives—
(1) Before beginning the design, conduct a survey of the site
where the earth electrode subsystem is to be installed. Through this
survey, determine the resistivity of the soil, identify significant
geological features, gather information on architectural and land-
scape features which may influence the design of the subsystem,
and review local climate effects. (If possible, conduct this survey in
79DA PAM 385–64 • 28 November 1997
advance of the final site selection to avoid particularly troublesome
locations.)
(2) As the first step of the site survey, measure the resistivity of
the soil at several points over the area of the planned facility. Even
the smallest facility, in so far as the earth electrode subsystem is
concerned, will affect an area at least 15 meters by 15 meters (50
feet by 50 feet). For larger facilities, the area is assumed to extend
at least 6 meters (20 feet) beyond the basic building or structural
outline; that is, the ground floor plan. The soil resistivity must be
known over the area encircled or covered by the earth electrode
subsystem.
(3) Design an earth electrode subsystem appropriate for the site.
(4) Install the subsystem in accordance with the recommended
procedures.
(5) Finally, measure the resistance to earth of the subsystem to
verify that it meets the goals or design specifications.
c. Selection of earth electrode type. Only ground rods, ground
loops, combinations and variations thereof, and salt water grounds
are authorized for new or renovation projects.
(1) Acceptable resistance to earth values are easiest to achieve