CE 7.4E ED172501
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4A.0 T lib R.Kaufsaan, Felice ,
Tt Ti4 Your Gifted Child and You. Revised Edition.
INSTITUTION .Council*/ for Exceptional Children; -Reston, Va.
inforsation. Services and Publications.
S.P9NS AGENCY Diational'qnst. of EdUcation (DfiEW) , Washington,
PUB. DATE 76.
morE 56p.; A Product of the ERIC Clearinghvuse on
13a.r.dicappeld and Gifted Children; This abstract
sdpersedei ED 133 933 a.n 1 EC 092 719
AVAILABLE FROM The Council for Exceptional Children, Publication
... 1Sales Unit, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, Virginia
?.22091 (Publication No. 143, $4.25)
ZORS PRICE ..M.F01/PC03 Plus Postage
DESCRIPTORS Creative: Development; Gifted; *Parent AssociationS;
Parent Rols; *Resource Guides; *Stud.ent
Charecterisatics; *Talented Stu-dents; *Talent
IDENTIFIERS .*Parent Resources
.Intended for parents and 'tted-Ehe.rs" of gifted) and
*alented children, the book discugses identification -criteria -and
(-ducat ional .strategies for developing_ their potential. Case studies
,of gifted and talented children are cited. and a checklist of common
charactetistics is provided. Suggestions are given for fostering
creativity In' th:e home; end special problss .of the gifted ate
explained to include untherachievement, cultural differences, and
laeart.ing difficulties., Answers are. 'Ores.ented to .pa.re.nts, questions
about raising A gifted child and guidelines .art given for developing
:a Taar44t,- org-tnization. _Aard,ng appendixes. ate a bibliography, resource.
liFrtinga, and directory of° statr., parent ibrganiza.tions for the g'kfed.
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...INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)
RE VISED ,EDITION ,
he,Coun,cil for Exceptional Children
Publish atrIM by
The Council I% Exceptional Children
Reston, Virginia 2204''n0
A product of the Er ,Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 76-21990 7
Th nal in this POlication was prepared pursuant to a contract with the National
Ins tute of Education, US Depaft.ment of Healtb. Education and Welfare, and a gient
fro the OtVe of Gifted and Talented, Bureau, of Education for the Handicapped,
US Tice of Edueation. Contractor undertaking such projects under government
sponso ip are encouraged to. ex ess freely their judgmeht in professional and
technical matters. Prior to publicat p, the manuscript was submitted to The Coundil
for Exceptioaat Children for cri al review. and determination of professional com-
'petence. This publication ha 'et lucli standards. Point,d, of view' r opinions,
however, do not necessarily represnt the official vie or opinions Of either The
Councit for Exceptional Children, the Natibnal tristitute f Education, or the US ,
Office of Education.
Felice.Kaufmann is .curren/ly Working on her d rge at
the .University of, Georgia, !Athens. ,9.he has served as i.teadher of
gifted children, a Consultant typarent groups; an as an intern in
the VSOE'.Office of- Gifted and Talented.
author wishes to thank Dr. E. Paul T trance and. Dr..'
Catherine Bruch for their assist Ce ,preparing this Manuscript.
-Lac; youlknow a gifted child?
How can parentsttell?
Cre4tivity in the tiome
Special problems of the gifted
Parents view their childiep
Appendix A: Additional readings of special interest to parents 47
Appendi B: Parent involved organizations fOr the gifted
Bo you know a gifted child?
Jtistt a quick note to tell you that we are all fine and thinking of .
you during the holiday season.r
Since you asked about Danny, -I have tO report ab t his terrific,
,.year in school he amazes even me sometimes! is teacher has
told us that she t nks *nay be a gifted child! I ave to admit
his school' work h been .nothing short of tensati nal. Not only
does he get all his homework done (with A's in all s 'ects), but
he has also been doing some really creative projects with his
after school club. I just wish that Mt talents could be applied.to
'cleaning his room! His teacher suggested that we think about
giving him extra challenges,at home because he finishes I his
work so fast, but I'm really not ore what to do. I wish there WVre
some kind of special prOgram forhim in our school system
there must be other kids like him who need special opportunities.
week I'm going to talk to the principal to get her advice
but urftil we- can' get something going, I'm hoping that Sctuts
and his club will do the trick.
That's about it ft4 nor>"We hope that you'll come #sit soon. We
all send our love.
Why read this book? -.
Everyone has.met a child Whom he would Considef gifted, a child
who really stands out in a crowd. "Ths Old might be the one
who is the best report card,..Writes original' poetry, has.the
leadiriffole in the school play, invents a new, mame, or multiplies
oomplicated problems correctly. As in the case of Danny, this
child would be one Agri parents would immediately spot as
ppecial. They would probably tell friends and relatives a multitude
of anecdotestbo\ut their one in a million "gifted" child.
A gifted child, however, may also be the one who faits spelling
tests, falls asleep in class, doei not turn in homework, is the
playground bully, or sings off key. These are tliMted children
that parents, not perceiving their child's true abilitie wound not
always want to discuss because they areSimply not sure.wbat to
say! That the behaviors of these children do not fit into theukial
image of a gifted child sloes not make them any less gifted. it just
means that their giftedness will be harder for parents td.
recognize without help. It means that the looking will have 4e
*4 deeper and perhaps directed to areas Other than school
The purpose of this book is to help parents and teeelers-better
identify andinterpret outstandin§ potential in their childre%,If Is
designed it inform them of various Ways they might help their
child develop. his/her* potential and to present strOgies they
might use to assist the schools in iipviding for this process. The
intent ifipt to deliver to parehts the ultimate fOrMula for raising
a gitteb Mild. Rather'', it is to offer suggestions which may help if
they think they have one. . '440
L.,/ Enter the gifted and talented
In the field of education, the terrrt "gifted and talented" refers to
those childrich who have been identified by professionally
qualified persons aWcapable of outstanding performance. This
definition differs in tylio ways from a parent's eye view 'of gifted
children. First "identified by ppfeasionally qualified persons"
does not 'restrict other people frbm claiming that they have or
know a gifted child. It just means that the child has not been
formally tested, observed, or otherwise designated as such.
Second, "capable Of outstanding performances" implies that even
a child who is not doing well in school might be identified as
gifted if the conditions for achievement were improved.
'From here on, the term "his" will trsed, for the sake of convenience, to refer to
bot% male and female children.
NM all gifted children are gifted in the same way, nor is there
only one 14;in which a 0414 may be gifted. Basically, the many
indicationrOrgifiedness mWibe broken down into six categories:
(a) general intellectual aptitude, (b) ustteCifi-academic aptitude,
(e) creativity, (d) leadership, (e) vis I and -rierforrning arts, and (f)
Agifted. child May be especially skilled in one.of these areas or
may demonstrate high ability in a few- or all,of them. Each of the
categories has specific behaviors associated with it. Parents and
teachers will surely recognize children they know in the'following
Anita, age 11, is in a special class for gifted children. She kndws a
great deiel about many things, ranging from animal care to literature-
to folk.music to rocketry'.She is curious about almost any new idea
with which she-comes in contact and pursues them bytioingfextra
reading, asking questions, or finding"other resources to support her,
Arita is vtlick to-perceiye relationships between people, ideas,
and facts and has an equally 'sharp power of reasoning. She puts
her many skills to prattical use, inipating projects, writingpapers,
Dr designing aperitnents. Anita also tends to be selective about
(the iriterests she pursues'in depth,as shown by her year long
study of an underwater city of the future, a science project that
took a great deal of diligent researcil in many subjects other than
science. Anita enjoys discussing topics that mest children her
,,age never thing about intelligence testing 'for minority children,
the long term effects of drugs on the,human body, and
Renaissance music, to name ,a few4,
Allan, age 11, is also in a special class fskr gifted children. While he is
a generally bright boy, he really excels at and has a passionate
interestinscience. Allan has designed and carried out many `
experiments, some of them dealing in detail with very advaed
subject matter. He has acquired a great nififilther of practicel skills in
the sciences. His intuitive thought is almost always accurate.
ian also has an excellent memory for facts related to his interests.
He is able to apply these facts systematically in many innovative s, .
ways. His view of the world tends to be primarily through' science:
colored glasses, as he is able to relate all 'subjects to somf science
topicueven when the relationship is not easily apparent to others.
Allan also can anticipate putcomes and effects in science but is not
overly anxious about wha't these outcomes will be. Even when he
,makes a mistake after a long period of trial and error, he calmly
goes back to his work to find out how he made his mistake, learning
as much frOrn this prpcess as frcirfrfindingthe right answer.
Michael is 10 years old anq has been identified as a gifted child,
althOugh he is rrol yet in a special program. While he is generally of
above average intelligence' , his true strong.point is hisreativitY.
Fpr any one situation Or problem Michael isablekto come up with
many ideas or sOlutions. He gets.involved in many projects
writing .books of short stories or peetry, composing music, drawing
comic books. He frequently attacks ideas from all angles at once,
even/hough his approaches may be in contrast to each other.
Often, he does not finish all he sets out to do.
Michael is quick to attach his own ideas and interpretation to other
persons' 'work in order to produce something which isnew or more
interesting to him. His ability to work amidst noise and disorder is a
nuisance for his teacher, but his production in that kind of .
atmosphere is good enough to justify the chaos. Especially in hiS
art and music, he pays careful attention to'cletail. Michael is a
spontaneous chit and frequently,reacts to things without thinking
about them. His attention span varies greatly, depending on the
task he is doing, though the,nUmber and originality of ideas he
produces is consistently above average..,
Beverlyis 12 ears.ftld and alreagy recognized by her peers and
teachersas a leader in the sche She has been elected to several
offices in clubs and is criairperson of teeschool committees. "Her"
style of Leadershiri is almost adult. She is able td identify both
personal and group goals and knows how to systematically get,
where she wants to go. She brings relevant informagn, sequence,
and, order to':meetngs by 'synthesizing ideas from many group
members. Beverly piiirsues her goals with great 'persistence but
remains sensitive to ttie feelings and needs of others' in the group'.
Her gift for vieing her fangual0 has been a valuable-asset in
speaking to different groups. This ability enablesher to get support
for her ideas from people of all ages. For example, her campaign for
changing the school grading policy won almost\ unanimousIagor
from students and faculty alike because shwas able to explain the
goals, of her proposal in ways that were mitaningfullo every"
audience from the principal on down to the firstorade.
Elizabeth is 13 years old and has attended a summer camp for
Musically and artistically tafented atirdten for three years. Although
she originally, enrolled in the prOgram on the strength of her
abilities in art, she became involved in the music section after she
presented a multimedia show of photographs based on Beefhoven's
"Pastorale" for her final project. She has shown over the past three
years a tremendous growth in her already acute eye for detail and
subtlety's shown by her cityscape in which even thelindividual
brioks of the buildings had texture. Her ability to comAnicate
unusual visual perspectives is also sharp, as demonstrated by her
painting of a still life in which she showed *overhead view of the
She shows remarkable sensitivity in music and can discriminate .
Inanydiffeeerit sounds and tones. She,enjoyi acid is quiteadept
improvisations on several instruments. Elizabeth prefers creating
her owo compositionS to pPacticing skills. Her persistence and
.absorption are remarkable in any task related to herbriginal work.
Peterie9 years old and enrolled in-a sp'ecial:class for thegifted.
While his academic abilities are above average, his real strong point
appears to-be in the area of psychomotor performance. This talent
was first recognized in a creative dance session presented in his
class by,a-trained instructor. During this session Peter showed
remarkable dexterity in his movement, excellent improvisational
skills, and the ability to, put abstract ideas like "darkness," "solid,"
and "green" into dance. He becomes intensely animated with the
challenge of creating ways to express emotions with different parts
of his body. He islablts to take a simple movement and work out
elaborate routines; likewise, he can fake complex patterns and
break them down to basic movements.
Peter's motor abilities are also applied tosports, mechanical
design, yoga, woodworking, and exercise. He frequently uses his
motor abilities toexperience something for another area. For a
language arts assignment, for example, he "became" a p6hcil by
_moving around like one so he could better write about it. .
From these and other examples from the Mei of classrooM
teachers around the, country, it is obvious that gifted children
express their special talents in many different ways. Some of
these ways become evident on formal tests and, in -grades; others
are beady seen only in situations where a sensitive observer is
looking for a particular skill..
JSome qualities that generally.describe the gifted-population are
_listed below. All of these characteristics, however, are not
necessarily apparent in every case. Parents might wish to check
this list to find some characteristics that might possibly relate to
Reads above-grade level.
Has a large vocabulary. .
Has a good memory for things he hears or reads.
FIE4-a long attention span.
Has complex thoughts and ideas.
Learrfs quickly and easily. ,
Is curious &lb asks probing questions,
Is an independent workermith lots of initiative.
Produce,-original or unusual products or ideas.
Shows goodegment and logic.
Is widely inf rmed about many topic emir
Understands relationships and co reffends tunings.
It is important to note that while thi and other checklists can be
applied 4o a wide variety of individuals, they are incompleteuch
lists of traits should not be used as the only meals of identifying
giftedness in children. Not only do other factors enter Into each
case, but also the signs may become apparent in many. unique
ways. It is almost impossible to predict how giftedness will show
up in every child. This is why parents rnmst stay open to all
kinds of behaviort. In other words, *hat may appear to be an
endless round of question asking might really be the beginning of
a major breakthrough in scientific research!
For better underitanding of how gifted children are identified by-
tests and formal identification procedures, parents might
familiarize themselves with appropriate references cited in
Appendix A. There are, however, other ways in which parents can
and should become involved in recognizing their child's potential.
Knoifirig hovi special abilities are displayed in a non- school
environment is one gdod means of doing this; observing the child in
school is another. Both types of evidence are.needed if the abilities
of gifted children are to be fostered to their upper limits. The A
information and suggestions that follow include specific ideas for
parentsfo think about in mating for themselves a meaningful roler
in that develophtental pr s.
iHow can parents tell?
In school districts where the identificatiOn of gifted children is
carried.qut as a ulartprocedur there are generally a
multitude of form ,interviewS,'and r preliminary tasks to be
done before the actual testing and pia ment can be coMpleted.
Somewhere along the l' e, a child's teac r is usually asked to
present evidence of s Odor performance or other information
that could suppo recommendation for inclusion in a special
program. Occasionally, after the child; has been nominated by
someone in the schp.01 system, parents are requested to round,
out the picture by dekribing the child's behavior at home.
Why parents must be aware
It is sometimes frustrating for parents to)laye to give an on-the-
spot account of their child's giftedness, especially if they havec,
previously been una*are of his special abilities. Likewise, it is
difficult for parents who know that their child's behavior is above
average to indicate the signs of piftednessas they appear at
home if the school personnel have not yet noticed them. One
_reason for this difficulty,is that parents, like most people, tend to
think of giftedness mainly as it relates to school and academic
performance. However, this assumption is untrue, as giftedness
shows up in a child's behavior in many ways that have nothing to
don with the -3 R's unless rollertkating, restlessness, and
remembering happen to be indluded in the list! 7-
;,-- The six children who have already been discussed were all
identified by their respective schools as having Above average
:abilities because of their excep nal class performance. TO
obtain a more complete descri 9, however; it is important to
look it them as they might ha been seen by their parents. In
each case, it is obvious that giftedness was not just a 0 a.m. to 3
p.m. effort to be taken out and put away with the school books.
In fact, had the schools not identified these children on the basis-
ltheis achievement in schbol, they 'might have been picked up
the reportpffered by their famHies.
Anifit is seen by her mother as very bright an un tiring question
qsker and Observant almost to a fault (glVdtPing gets by Anita!" her
mother says). She is sometimes seen as sassy by her fathet because
she knows a lot about many,ihings-and'uses her knowledge easily
ih conversation with adults tCri occasion, to correct them, much
to the embarrassment of tier parentslopita has good common
sense in household matters, anything from figuring out which buys
are the most economical to reasoning which would be the best way
to spend her allowance. Her mother claims that their arguments
overdbores areespecially troublesothe cause Anita almost
always has a logical rewn for what-she s or does riot want to
Allan's parents have long been aware of his s al abilities in
science ever since he singlehandedly repaired the toaster at age
7. AHanIsks many unusual questions, mostlPrelated to how things
work; and enjoys experimenting with all kinds of things around the
house, His mother says that She has to watch him carefully because
many of his `'What would happen if ..." questions lead to unsafe
explorations. Allan watches a great deal of television and is quick to
perceive the scientific implications of all his favorite shows, even
the cartoons. His concentration and absorption while doing an
experiment are total, much to the dismay of his mother calling hir
to the dinner table. Allan's scout leader reports that he is an
invaluable aifi on camping trips because hsis S good planner and is
almost always accurate in his predictions forsuppilies and activities.
Michael's parents first noticed, his creativity when'he was 3 years
old. At that age he would stand for hours in front of a mirror, looking
at himself from all angleS, making as many different faces as hi
could. While very young, he was alalk to think of many unusual uses
for his playthings ("Tinker Toys were never just Tinker Toys!" says
his mother) and was always sensitive to detail ("No! Not that color.
Mommy. That color green!"). His room is usually a mess, but
he claims to like it that way and, in fact, seems stimulated by seeing
all his things out at once. Michael tends not to listen well and says
things without thinking, causing him unknowingly to hurt the
feelings of others. His father says that this does not seem to be out
of 6tairafousnesS, but rather because Michael "hears a different
drummer." Michael's father also reports that he sometimes seems to
be playing a game of one - upmanship because Michael so often
interrupts diScussionewithis own ideas, even if his thoughtsido
not appear to be relatedor practical.' .
Beverly, according to her bitfthers and gisters, has alwiys been a
leader in the neighborhood. She is the one the other children ask to
settle an argument or decide on fair game rules. While still in
kindergart&i. she showed an uncanny ability to participate in adult
conversation and was able to remember and relate ideas from other
conversations she heard. When a city council decision to pave a
vacant lot affected the children's Winfield, Beverly mapped out
strategies kir convincing the council to change its vote. Her mother
worries that her involvement with so many school club' and extra-
curricular activities may'become a problem, but Beverly,
approaches this possibility realistically, saying that she only gets
herseli into things after she has considered all the consequences and
that she will know when she has takerfon too much.
Elizabeth has shown outstanding bilities in art ever since she was
first able to hold a crayon. She was able to make fine discrimination
between colors and forms while she was practically in hpr playpen
and.was fascinated by all the-complex patterns she Gould build with
her blocks. Her parents claiM that she is easily distracted and that
the slightest change in a room a sudden noise, a familiar object
out of place, a change in temperature can make her Uneasy. Her
brothers say that she tloes "weird" things in music and art because
she "fools around .a lot" with strange sounding and loaking objects.
Elizabeth detests practicing and performing, preferring to work on
Iher own compositions to rehearsing skills. This worries hik parents,
1who say that they cannot ifiderstand how she can continue for .
hours at a time with her own work andthen say that she hateslo
play thepiano. Elizabeth also may often be fourid imunexpected
places in the haiiise, listening to the radiator to hear all the sounds
-inside or crawling on top of the refrigerator just to "see what the _
kitchen looks like from up here:'
Peter's parents only recently became more of his unusual abilities
in movement, bUt ikretrospepet mention several instances of out-
standing skill. His mother remembers that ma toddler he was never
able to sit still while.Tusic was on the radio. He also became
_f_ascinated by.machines.and frequently would pretend to be one. At
family gatherings he is ofte The ife the party bectuse he does
great imitations of all his relatives, occasionally picking up on the
Asubtlest detail of their movement or expression. He can also
perceive others' moods by the way they carfy themselves an
ability which sometimks gets him into-trouldle when he Is feeling
and enjoys twisting his body to fit himself into unexplored space.
mischievous. Around tt*house,Peter Ilk's to hide in tiny places
NHe likes to take small objects apart to see how they work,
sometimes using the same object several times in new
combinations. Peteroften wears himself out by engaginb in too
many sports, but he regains'his energyquickly. Even when he
resting, his father says, he amuses himself by working with
mechanical toys and-byjmagining himself to be all sorts of animals
What parents can do
It is understandable that the,, parents of the Anitas, Aliens, Michaels,
Beverlys, Elizabeths, and Peters of the world might allow the
behavior of their children to go by without much attention.
Thinking of one's child as different ocexceptional is not.easy,
especiallywtiqp the signs arehot known. But when it comes right
down to it, parent's are the ones who know their children best, since
they see them in so manydifferent situations and overlong periods
of time and development. Parents would, because of this closeness,
be the first to observe rapid giowth or sudden changes in behavior,
if they knew what to look for. They would understand how their
children react and are reacted to by others long before the school
ever sees them.
It is obvious that tests do not tell everything about chilcI4n and that
there are many other sides to them than, show up in school. One
way that parents can assist the schools is by learning early the cues
that speak of giftedness so ttiey can relate specific information.
abouttheir child's growth. By being aware of these signs they can
also help their child find the many ways he can use his talents. A
family effort from early identification in the home to partici-
pation in formal education cannot be overemphasized. It is vital
to the child, to the school, and to society, and besides, it can be a lot
Cr )0_ -
ativity in the home,
Creativity is a word that ismSed widely by persons both in and out of
educational circles. We speak of a creative child, creative writing,
creative drama, and the like. Too often, however, this term is
applied only to an end product an artistic work or musical ,
composition, for example without much thoLight being given to,
'what the creative proCws is really all about.
Th = iJiy changing demands and challenges existing in the wqrfd
tod almost necessarily been accompanied by an upswing,
st in and a broadening of the concept of creitikrity.Conse-
que t nOw able to look to a variety of activities and be-
haviots.to lo e-bur creative children, rather than the usual means
of lootring a academic performance alohe. Some of these
behaviors ca be espally well observed in A home environment
where the ch d is retailed and relating to people and things with
'which he is f iliar a d Safe. It is here, then; that parents can be
most instrumental in d lo ing the kind of situation in Which
creativity, can truly flourish.
What is creativity?
Torrarlice's (1970) definition of creativity has wide currency in
educational circles. He defines creativity as
becoming sensitive to or aware of problems, deficiencies, gaps in
.knowledgermissingelements, disharmonies and so of bringing
together available information; defining the difficulty or identifyir;g
the missing element; searching for solutions, making guekse,s or
formulating hypotheses about the deficiencies, tettinglndsf etesting
these hypotheses and modifying arid restating them; perfecting them
and finally communicating the results. (p.22)
HeriNie see limitless situations in which parents might recoghize
and encourage their children's creativity. Anything from solving
pioblems with brothers and sisters to finding unique methods of
cleaning out comic book dollectionsmight be considered good .,...,
The realization that creativity is a natural, healthy process and a
..strong human -need is one good reason for parent's to want to .
provide for creative experiences in the home, fiuch ashey would
..provide for.their children's.phyeical or.psychOlogical needs:
Creativity should be viewed as alai/that has dal Ate relevance aft
application. Any opportunity that a child.has to sense problems and /
create-solutions can be helpful to his growth as a creative person.
Haw parenb can recognize creative behavior r-
it is, of course, no easy task for to devote close attention to
their child's creativity when sa anypither are of development
need either obviotis or immediat attention. At ti es parents may
even feel that working,on the creative aspect of.their child's
personality may interfere with other types of learning. But there are,
as Torrance points out;certain types of things a parent can do
without extensiveor exhaustive effart. It is importantlhat parents
become familiar with certain signalS of creativity so thrill they will be
able to recognize and encourage creative behavior when it appears.
rraiice (1969, p.36) suggests the following indications:
Intense absorption in listening, observing or doing ( "Burl
didift hear you call me for dinned")
Intense animatioiand physical involvement ("BUt tocan'f sit
Ug of analogies in speech ("I feel like a caterpillar.Waiting to
rcome a butterfly.")
Tendency to challenge ideas of authorities ("Why do
go to school until I'm /1t?") ave to
Habit.of checking many sources ("Mom, I looked at al e
books and watched a TV special and asked my teacher a d I
.still can't figure out, where God lives.")
Taking a close look at things ("Hey, this centipede only has 99
Eagernesi to tell others about discoveries ("Giress what,
guess what, guess what!")
Continuing in creative activities after the sc eduled time for
quitting ( "l did my art work right through re ss todayr)
Showing relationships among apiiarehtlY"Lintelated ideas,
("Hey, Mom, your new hat loolss4ustlae a flying saucer.")
'Follovig through on ideas seein, ration ("Torhorrow I'm
goirYg to dig for gold in our bapk yard.") _
Various manifestations of curiosity and wanting to know ("I r
justwanted to seewhatitha yard looked like from on top of
Spontaneous Use of discovery or dteNlinehtal approach ("
-4h0Qgtrt flour and water would make bread, but all I got was white
Excitement in voice about distoveries ("Flour and water make
Habit of guessing and testing 'outcomes ("I put deteWt.in
the birdbath but no birds came to clean.Op. Can I try some
bubble bath today?")
Honesty and intense search for truth ("Mom, I hope this
doesn'txpset you, but I've come to the conclusion that there
is perooth Fairy. ",) 144.
Independent action, ("There a no good books on racing., ars,
'Mom, I'm going,to write my own.") ,
- Boldness of-ideas ("But I thins that children should be
.allowed to vote.")
Lovi distractability (,"I can't come out to play I'm waiting for
my chemical to dissolve.")
Manipulation o ideas and objects to obtain new combinations
.(I'm going to take this string and this pencil and make a
Penetra g observations and questions ("When the snow
where does the white go?")
Tendency to seek alternatives and explore new possibilities
("This old shoe would titmice a great flower pot.")
Self initiated learningJ"Yesterday I went tope library and
checked out all the book ''on diftbsaurs.")
Willingness to consider or toy with strange ideas ("What if
dogs were masters and people were pets?")
How **, parent can help
knowingillItse beha ors, it is imp°. nt that patents waf,oh their
children for their:fiat al tendencies in.this direction. Behavior's
'such as those mentioned may show up in unexpected *des drat
unexpected limes I-- at the dinner table, at bedtime, in the pla
wound. But *herever or.wheqever they surface, it 'becones dial
for parents tai appreciate that creative thinking. haMitev;44eee.
Using creative potential that the dhildrenhave end demOnstrate*is
always easier and mote eroguctiye than teaching these behaviors
,from scratch later on. .
There are some positive steps a paient can'take toward setting the
stage for creativity to glow. Thefoilowing list is adapte.d from some
suggestions provided by Torrance (1969. pp 40 - 43):
Provide materials that develop imagination, such as open-ended
stories or drawings.
Provide Materials that enrich imagery, such as fairy tales, folk
tales, myths, fables, nature books.' ,4..
.zi .. ..
Permit time/or thinking and daydreaming. Just a;use aOh/ ild
doesn't look like he's busy doesn't mean that his mind it notl
Encourage children to record their ideas in binders,,,notebloks,
and the like.. Even playing secretary for your child by having him
dictate his stories to you,canbe a special way of showing that hi
ideas are valuable arid that you care ab at he is thinking.
Accept and use the tendency to take a different look. There are
really many things onecan.leary about tfre world by standing
Prize rather than punish true individuality. It is always possible
to find little details-about a child's work or behavior t at might
--Kmake him feel as though you noticed film as a speci person.
. Be cautious in editing children's products. Sometimes a word
,corrected in the wrong place or too many times can stifle a
child's creative energy and feeling of worth as a cr ator.
Encourage children to play with'wbrds. Even in s ch common
settings as a car ride or shopping trip, word games like
rhyming, opposites, and puns can be used to their full
Teachin4 restive thinking In the home .
In addition to the general setting of tone and opportunity for
.creativity.t&deVelop-, it is also a challenge for par Wear() and .
reinforce some of the specific thinking processeXttgo into a--
'Creative act. Thiekndwledge is helpful not only in its direct effect on
children, but alsp in the parent's understanding of creativity as it
applies to toys; materials, experiences, and problems in the home.
tour main thought processes of creative thaing are flue'ncy,
flexibility, originality, and elaboration. Each of these plays a
spesifiC role in the development of creativity; all are vital to its
Fluent thinking is the ability to produce a quantity of possibilities,
ideas, consequences, or objects. The importance of this proceis is
that it builds a large store of information or materials fora person to
select from or yse at a latertime. It is fun and exciting to be
challenged to think of new ideas, and little or no materials are
(required to create games for this purpose.
Asking a child "I wonder h many different ways we can figure outt"d"
to use these old plastic bags hat shoebox? those extra milk
.cartons?" is a gopd way *to stimulate fluent thinking and also
produces some interesting and helpful solutions for everyday
problerris. Questions like "How many wordscan ydu remember that(
begin with tI'?" or "What would happen if animals could talk?" have
keet many a child occupied on long car trips. And the benefits of
"How many different ways can you think of to remind yoUtself to 41)
take out The garbage?" should go without saying.
The point is quantity of ideas, not wOlether a child comes up with
realistic or practical solutions,,After his thoughts flow, the may,
Want to go back and work on his ideas, evaluate them, and develop
one or two. But even,if hatioeenot get to this stage immediately, the
process will have begun. Practicing fluency in a variety of situations
leads to greater ease with creativity.
Flexible thi ing is the ability'to use many different approaches or
.strategies in solvjng a problem. It allows for changes in thinking to
include alternatives, contrasting ideas, vPil3us points of view, and
so forth, Some examples of questions that foster flexible thinking
would be "How Many sentences can you think of that begin with the
word )4i/ow and end with the word forest?" or "In how many
different patterns can you arrange this triangle acid circle?" As with
fluent thinking, the deVeloprnent of this process helps children
produce many approaChes to a problem so that their final solution
comes only after the.considergtion of many possible ideas. This
.Process can, of course; be useful in solving all kinds4:problems
from academic to social and thus is an especially important tool for ,.
Original thinking is the ability to prbdpce unusual, unique, or'
unanticipated responses. This, too, is a process that requires feW
tiv materials. Asking a child to think up new nametTor common
"."`P objects, comic strip characters:or animals, or having_lierrimake up
*.titles for books or movies ara§ood ways of encouragingoriginality.
Some parents have been able to use lists of children'stexcusesfor
not doing chores as a take off point for some original thinking by
manipulating the humor of the situation to reduce conflict. If
children feel that Oftlir excUsesare being appreciated for their
originality, the chore itself may seem less awesome. Good natured
omments like, "Well, last week it was that you were-coming down
with the plague...What is it this time?" can be just as effective as
"Don't tell me that you're too sickto clean this room!" If the
hoUsehold schedule can stand it, it might even_be possible to use a
vacation from a particular chore as a reward for the most original
excuse, provided that the children know this procedure is just a
Elaborative thinking is the ability to expand, develop, and embellish'
one's ideas, plans, stories, or products. It is important in the
development of creativity because it promotes communication,
which is vital to the-process. Asking children to discuss in
their stories or having them create inventions from various jects
are two good ways of provoking elaborative thinking. Children
might help in making elaborate and detailed plans for their birthday
parties or catalogue things in their rooms. It is also possible to
encourage elaboration by playing memory games at bedtime.
Opportunities to discuss the events,of the day become a challenge
to active young minds, especially when they are pressed for details
concerning their senses and feelings. -
Besides specific training in eachbf these four areas, there are other
creativity tools that can be easily used in the home. One of these is
creative problem solving. This technique, originated by Alex
Osborn and developed by Sidney Parnes and other members of the
Creative Education Foundation, follows the aspect of Torrance's
definition of creativity that relates to the sensing of problems and
gaps. The five main steps of problem solving can be applied to
almost any kind of problem and are fun and productive at the same
time. As outlined by Torrance and Myers (1970, pp. ,79:82), these
t Sensing the problem or challenge. This first step is usually
brought out by a specific incident or situation such as "How
-` s'.- -, 4.,;.. .1,Vr4. .P.; 4.
V.. '":: ;114,,N
shO,Fliperid My, ance?:' OF"How can I make sure Irget up
onlImifor slh -,. ,p
'''. .4 ..; . :,
2. 4halyzing toind the teal prbblem: This step involves finding
facts aboOt the problem, restating it in broader terms,
.f6lzma changing the wording, and finally breaking the proOlem down
.; inkiemallersubproblems. For the second question alpee,.this
:might mean askirig questions like' Why am I not geftite OA
time?," 'What don't') like about getting up?," or "By what 'means
.do I getmypelf up?"
3. Producing alternative solutions. The next step requires
brainstorming all the possible solutions to the problem, no
matter how off the track the suggestions might appear.
Criticism at this stage is absolutely forbidden. Alterlliktives for
'this problem might beanything froM "Use three alarm cldcks"
to "Buy a rooster" to "Drink lots of water so I'll have fo get up to
go to the bathroom" or "don't sleep at all." s
4. Evaluating ideas. At this stage comes the selection of criteria for
the most promising ideas generated in the previous steps. The
criteria for the sample problem might be expense, annoyance
to the family, physical space, or health.
.Preparing to put the ideas into use. This stage requires the
refinement of the selected solution. Questions such as "How
cant make the'salution attractive or appealing to other
people ?" or"VVhat will be the consequences of the solution?"
now become appropriate. In this case it might be "How can I
.convince my father that a rooster is better than an alarm clock?"
(Different aspects of this model may be adapted to fit theage of the
participants, making it usable for people. Otall ages and abilities. It
is exciting to see the process in action in any. variation. It is also an
excellent way to train creative thinking.
Anotbeeinteresting type of creative training is the SCAMPER
technique developed by Robert Eberle (1971, p, 14). The .
letters SCAM PE R represent seven types of cues for fluspt,
flexible, original, and elaborative thought. They are:
To have a perion or thing act or serve in the
.lace of another: Who else instead? What
else? Other place? Other time?
To bring together, unite: How about iblend,
an assortment? Combine purposes? Comtiine
To adjustior the purpOse of suiting .a condi-
tion or purpose: What else is like this? What.
other'ideas does this suggest?
To alter, to change the form or quality: Change
meaning, color, motion, sound, odor, taste, 1/4
To enlarge, make greater in form or quility:
What to add?'Greater frequency? Stronger?
To make smaller, lighter, slower, less frequent:
What to subtract? Smaller? Lighter? Slower?
Split up? Legs frequent?
Put to other New ways to use it? Other uses if modified?
Eliminate To remove, omit, or get rid of a part, quality,
or whole: What parts can be taken out? To
keep the same function? To change the
RReverse To placeopposite or contrary, to turn it
around: Opposites? Turn it backwards? Turn
it upside down? Turn it inside out?
Rearrange To change order or adjust, different plan, lay-
out, OF scheme: Other sequence? Change
The advantage of the SCAMPER method is that it can be applied
-to many situations with a minimum of materials. For example, as
simple an item as a toothbrush may become the object of a
If you needed a toothbrush and did not have one, what else could
could you use? (05stitute)
What could you make with six totithbruities and six feet of
'''string? (Combine) 4
: _ How wdtld you change a to tbrush for someone who had no
hands/ (Adapt) ,
)--4%..4.What would the Jolly Green Giant use for a toothbrush? .
-What else could you use a toothbrush for? (Put icy other uses)
What would happen if you relived the-bristles on a toothbrush?
How would a toothbrush functionsif the t2ristiGs were at the
SCAMPER has been known to fascinate children formany hours
and is highly recommended for the rainy Saturday afternoon blues.
It is also a helpful'technique because of the many exciting and
functional innovations that cant* produced in the name of fun.'
What about far out IdeaS?
In order to develop creative skills, children, must feel that they are
psychologically safe. This means thaethey must know they can
indulge in fantasy and take rikkAith their thinking and not be
judged harshly or punished. Statements like "Don't.be silly" or "You
should know better" should tie avoided at all costs because they
squelch imagination and playfulness. Comments like "Ydu have so
many ideas" or "What else can you think of?" or "Thai's really
different!" take about as much energy to say and are much more
conducive to a climate that breeds creativity. If children's ideas
seem potentially dangerous, a:gentle "How would that work?" or
"Can you explain that again?" or "Maybe you'd better get some
more facts" would encourage them to come to their own
conclusions. Statements like "That's terrible" or "What a ridiculous
idea" only kill the effort.
What about creative toys?
With so many "creative" toys and games on the market today, it is
no wonder parents get confused. Half of this probleal: is not so
much knowing which of the items to selectas understanding how to
make the selection. The best way a parent can judge produdts on
their creative value is to look at open-endedness. For example, a'set
of blocks with parts ttit interlock with only a few specific parts
would be less open-ended than a set with Ii itless possibilities fpr
,s Nrrangement. It is also possible to turn a stalpard product into a .
more creative one by applying the techniques th'at have been
discussed here. Forexample, questions such as "How would you
change that game so younger children could use it?" di' "What
would.happen if that doll were five feet tall:?" or "How many uses
can you think of for dice?" or "Can you invent new rules for that
game?' provide-Many opportunities for creative thinking and prove
that a parent does not have to buy new toys to get the job done well.
Most important, parents must know childien, their interests, how
they think and learn, the kindi of creative thinking they enjoy,and -
the kinds they need to develop. ThiS may be accomplished by
observing children,' but it is even more effectiveif parents
themselves begin to practic= eative thinking. As parents become
familiar with many poin of view and themselves experience more
enjoyment of Words, ages, colors, and senses, children will
naturally follow. Cr tivity training can be hard work, but it can also
bring happiness and productivity. It literally depends on how you
look at things.
... ... .
.SiDeqi0.p. Opieilis7of !tie:gifted
There is a poromon notion that gifted children ha'e feWer problems
than otheri because their intelligence and talents somehow exempt
them from the hasslei of daily life. According to this belief, children
with t greater number of abilities ace assuried to have a greater
number of coping mechanisms and therefor.e they can "make it on
their own." As parents ofgifted children know, however, this theory
,,,, is simply not true. Research has shown that gifted children are us-
ceptible to many everyday problems, ranging in'Compleity from ,.....
not being able fo find clean socks to dealinb with tKe rising cost Of
living and that like other groupswith special needs they have some
problems tharare uniquely their own.
Underachievement -that ismerformance below one's potential is
perhaps one of the mosttridely.discussed problems of the-gifted.
There are many signiand symptoms of underachievement and
'many different causes. It wouldpe an impossible task to attempt
one statement that would apply alt cases. There a however,
some findings about the. problem that can be present
It is known thkt underachievemept is relatedto what a child thinks
about himself is a leai-ner, as a child,.as a,person. Self concept is
developed in many ways bk..it is usually directly linked to a child's
reactions to his parents and °thew significantldults in his life. When
a child has a positive sejf concept, it means that he feels good about
himself and the way he believes other people see him. A poor self
concept, on the other hand. means that a child feels poorly about
himself and that he does not like the way he thinks other people see
him. Usually a child reacts tb the lattertituation with some hostility,
which can, and often does, show up in his school work, especially.if
his family sets overly rigid expectations and rules about high test
scores and good grades: This is not to say that a child actualjy plans
not to achieve, but that his poor performanceis a sign of resistance
stemming from his anger at the situation. In these cases, finding out
.and trying to remedy the causes of his poor self concept would be
one of the best methods for treating the problem.
it, is not always easy to discover an underachieving child's real
feelings about himself because there ustoilly is a gap between what
ahe says and what he feels. An underachiever may adopt a "What's
the use?" attitude to avoid unpleasant confrontations with his
problems. Gallagher (1975) has-listed some typical excuses that
underachievers use and some of the real meanings that Why be
implied frcirn these statements. While the words may vary from case
to case, the general outlook is common, as shown in Figure 1.
Since there is no one cause for e problem of underachievemeArt,
neither is there any one treatment. It is important to rememberthat re
an underachiever is a child who has lostfaith in himself. Any
opportunity for him to learn new skills or improve his abilities
should be encouraged. This does not mean simply praising a child,
because peaise is not enough. If Johnny feels that he cannot draw
well, a vague compliment like "Oh, yoii draw so wer.will not make
13im feel better about his drawing ability because the gap in
opinions seems too wide. Recognition of a small piece of his work
"I like the way you drew the house" or "You are really improving"
would seem to Johnny a much more realiitic passibility. In other
areas, such as helping around the house, a step by step plan for
recognition is also useful. Little successes, like setting the table
nicely or keeping a neat room for a day, are much more
meaningful to the underachiever than sweeping compliments and
have a greater and longer lasting effect.
The culturally different
Another category of problems of gifted children is that of cultural
difference. Culturally djfferent children are those'whose family
backgrounds are removed from the American White middle class
stereotype. This category carvinclude various ethnicitiessuchas
Black, Appalachian rural'. Spanish speaking, American Indian, or
groups which have little access to resources because of financial or
geographic limitations. Children of culturally different families
generally have a different set of life experiences from those of the
culturally dominant majority and have different opportunities for
the expression of their talents.
It is important for parents to recognize the values and abilities that
are prized by their culture and to identify their children's potential
accordingly. For example, in cultures where children do not play
with many mechanical toys, there still may bean opportunity for,
Protecting the Bruised Self Image of the.
Wpat He Sayi What He May Mean
School is terrible. Teactiers are
against me and_they aren't any good .
I think I would like to be a jet pilot or
amovie star or a. politician.
i really am ndt gifted
are crazy anyhow. and those lestsf. j
Some people are lucky and some
aren't. 1 wish I could hit it lucky for
once. I dream about breaking the
bartk at Las Vegas.
My old man is a grouch. He is from
Ilikti to get into a hopped up jalopy
and gd-go-go. Man, that really is
living. Give me some bennie and
watch me fly.
Future? What future? The "bomb"
will :ta0 care of our future. If not,
things will work out somehow.
The only time I feel at home is with
my buddies Atihen we ..go out
searching for kicks, I feel like a
If the system is bad, no real blame
can come to me if I don't succeed in
I want to do thrilling and glamorous
things but cannot stand a position
with a long period of training
preceding it or where sustained hard
work is needed (rarely choosing
surgeon, electronibs engineer, or
The label "gifted" puts pressurkcin
me to succeed. One way to take the
pressure off is to lose the label.
If life is a game of chance, I am less
personally responsible for my
ultimate success or failure.
My father and I don't understand
each other aniftannot communicate.
'I can't model myself afterAjm.
The excitement of peed and risk
makes me feel co petent. This is
something I can o without
sustained effort and it distracts me
from my unpleasant self-image.'
To'think of the future requires
planning'and effort. These are'too
painful since. I haye failed too'otten
before. I prefer to ignore it andtrust
to luck, etc., to make things come
The only time my self image is
bolstered is when I am with other
fellows who feel as I do and who
help me explain, away my problems.
Note:From Teaching the Gifted Child (2nd ed.), by James J. Gallagher, Boston: Allyn & Bacon,
Inc..1975, p 390. Copyright 1975 by Allyn & Bacon.' Inc. Reprinted by permission
them to demonstrate hie mechanical abilities in their use of the
resources that are reiliily available to them. Parents may wish to
encourage their children to use natural materials, scraps, or just"
plain junk in &creative way because exploring novel approaches to
familiar things is an ability that can iater be applied inadultroles.
The child who finds unusual uses for twigs, tubes, or junked cars
may someday utilize histalents in acareer in engineering or design.
In addition to those cultures listed above, gifted girls should be
mentioned as having somewhat different cultural experiences
because of female role expectations. It is important for parents to
provide gifted flirts the opportunity to test themselves in skills
mainlY attributed to boys, such as mechanics, science,
mathematics, or sports. Likewise, boys should be given support and
encouragement for theirinterests in traditionally female pursuits.
In either case, parents must be sensitive and open US-demonstrated
potential that goes beyond sex barriers to make sure that unusual
and unique talents do not go to waste.
Another strategy that culturally different parents can employ is
finding community resources to protide extra benefits for their
chil n. As parents become awarb of the special needs and talents
that valued in their own culture, they can channel their
chil n's abilities to strengthen- their community. FroM this, they
can extend service to the total school population and then ta the
community as a whole. For example,a parent whose child is
especially talented in social dancing may want to encourage him to
find others of similar interests and abilities to form a dance troupe.
The parents of the group might then locate a.teacher and find a
storefront or basement in whiCh they could practice. With such
organization from arents, the troupe could give performances in
the communityperhaps raise enough money to become self
sustaining. All it would take would be people who are.willing to stick
by their children and persist in the search for opportunities
it is also possible to.find local organi s to sponsor special
prograrps for groups who have specif interests. Museums, local
businesses, libraries, or civic organizations all have within their
ranks people who have time or skills to donate. Somdmay offer
rooms for meetings. Help may also be found within the schools, as
guidance counselors and other school personnel frequently, know
of occasions for scholarships, art lessons, and otheropportunities.
It is just a matter of making the right contacts in these
Once the doors are open, however, it is important forparents to
continue their support of their child's efforts as pressure from peers
may'become a hindrance to the realization of his dream. It is never
easy to be outstanding, but in the case of cUltuially different
groups, a chiles attempts to'follow special opportunities mast
him even further outside his circle of friends. His differences may
become more noticeable and therefore more difficult for,him to
tolerate. In such instances, however, the end results can often be
rewarding enough for the-child to overcome possible peer rejection,
especiallyif encouragement from home is consistent and strong.
A third problem that parents should understand is that of learning
difficulties among gifted children. This situation is one that
frustrates parents, teachers, and children alike because it is hard to
comprehend-how a child can be so outstanding at some things but
have such trouble with others. In schools this problem may be seen
as a lowered perfermande in a specific subjecf such as readingor
math, while at home it might be indicated by a short attention span;
easy distractability, temper flare-ups, or overactivity.
In-cases of specific learning difficulties, it may seem that the gifted
child is controlling and choosing the things he will or will not do. At
the same time, it may appear that he is.unwil ling to change bad
habits. Learning difficulties, however, are not determined by the
child himself but by a variety of circumstances rangingfrom poor
teaching to the child's lack of interest in a subject to a real disability
that needs educational or medical treatment. Especially in the latter
situation, it is essential for parents and children to understand and
accept that even the most gifted individual cannot excel in all areas
of performance. If too much pr ssure is put on the child to do what
he simply Cannot, emotional u sets might occur and make the
problem more difficult.
When unevenness of perfor ce sists either for a long time or
with extreme difference in abill ,t might be advisable to consult
with thechild's teacher, a physician, or with a trained specialist in
the school or in another educational setting. It is possible to plan
special programs that would allow the child's learning patterns to
become more steady or at least teach the child how to handle the
learning problem when itarises. Whenever possible,thechild should
be encouraged to accept his ups and downs and to apply the
strategies he learns for coping with his varying abilities.
There are, of course, other problems that arise with gifted children
on a day to day basis, many of which should be handled by parents
in the same way that they would handle the problems of any child.
In some instances, counseling may be indicated for the child and
for the whole family. In many cases, both comfort and practical.
suggestions may be derived from taycing with other parents of
gifted children. Some of the particular problems of the gifted have
been sdiecessfully managed by individual families who are eager to
discuss their findings. Many of these strategies are presented in the
`Parents view their children
As this publicati was being prepared and variouJfamilies were
interviewed abo problems they face with their gifted children,
certain themes dominated the responses. Problems such as
tellingftha child that he is gifted, encountering unsympathetic
teachers, dealing with sibling rivalry, and providing for many
interests were commonly mentioned. Listed below are some
comments that were obtained through questionnaires and
interviews with parents of gifted children in different sections of
the country. Although only certain problems are discussed, it is
hoped that other parents of gifted children will find-these
suggestions helpful and that they, will be able to use some of the
ideas expressed in handling their own situation.
What did you tell your child about 'being gifted?
"No speCial emphasis was made. It was apparent to the child from
comparing her performance with her classmates that she was a very
"God has given every person special and unique gifts to be
developed, strengthened, and shared. Some people have gifts
which make them athletes, artists, scholars, especially good with
people, et cetera. One of the many gifts God gave you is the ability
to reason, understand, and-learn rapidly.'
"I told him that since he had a lot of experience and exposure that
most children have not had, he could learn faster and better. I also -
told him that this fact had been verified by some tests at school."
"We told, him that his play is more complicated than most children's
and that sometimes his brain works a little faster."
"All children learn differently some faster than others. He must
learn to accept his own special abilities, both the pleasures and
,y responsibilities, and appreciate others for theirs. We asked him how
hei felt about his talents and what he thought he might like to do
In addition to these responses, many parents answer g that they
had told their child nothing about being gifted and tkaTthe child
simply accepted his abilities and the gifted prOgram as part of the
natural course of life.
How have you handled situations in which your child's)rades were not an
accurate reflection 'of his abilities?
"Our son does well in stibjects in which he is interested or in which
he is stimulated by the feacher. When he doesn't get enough
individualization, he becomes introverted andlurned off. In these
instances, we provide enrichment at home and try-to relate some of
our activities to the subjects in which he's having trouble. For .
example, when he was not doing well in math, we let him work out
the budget for his birthday party."
"In second grade, our daughter had a teacher who placed her in a
low reading group. This was such a blow to her ego that she
stopped performing in other subjects. During this very difficult
period, we tried tabolster her egoAother ways,-by praising her for
other little things she did well and nfoticingny improvement in her
schoolwork. Her motivation !coincidentally' returned when she was
later placed in a higher group!"
"Our son tends to work faster than most and sometimes doesn't
listen to directions; conseq-uently his grades suffeY. He also
occasionally reverses numbers or letters, which brings his marks.
down. I try to explain to him why his wrong, explaining
that I see his way, too. I emphasize that ther is more than one way
to be right but that his teacher seems to be impatient with his
reasons. I also try to help him understand that sometimes it is
important to'work slothly and carefully when people want you to do
something specific and that, at other times, you can do things the
way you want them,"
"When my.son began receiving poor grades, I raised 'quiet hell' by
getting involved in research on th gifted and then going to the
school to advise his teacher of his eeds."
"I try to be moderate in the limou t of pressure I use to encourage
our daughter's work/study habits. We spent time this summer on
math, her bottom subject last year and this year, it's one of her
28 33 '
How have you provided for your child's Many interests?
We buy lots of books,-make frequent visits to the library, and ask
lots of questions. For school, we review witb,rd assist her in her
subjects and stress research and outlining.)Ne play games with her
and constantly provide her with new stimuli."
"Most important, weprovide a special space kir her to work in
where she can be uninterrupted by othir members of the family.
She pretty much takes her own interestelrorn-there."
"We provide time for s aring our interests and he takes hitues from
there. We all take gen ine interest in each others' special talents."
"I never limited explor tory Opportunities, despite clutter, mess,
and general inconVeni nce. The only rules were about certain
things that he could no take apart."
"As often as possible, w try to use the resources in our community.
When our child expre an interest in something, we all
brainstorm ideas a to * ere in the town we could get help or
information. We o use, ur family times to play games that relate
to all our intere s such a 'How many different musical instruments
can you think f?' whenO r son was in orchestra."
What have you done when your child had interests for which you
could not provide?
"We encouraged him to spend more time with his teachert to get
their advice. When heswas very young, we worked it out with the
librarians to allow him to check out adult books."
"I encourage him to explain his interests to me and ask him honest
questions. Even though I myself cannot be a resource for him, my
.questions seem to give him some direction:"
"When our daughter had a special interest in ballet and there was
nothing in our town, I found parents of other gifted children who
had similar interests and we carpooled to the city to attend
performances. Later we organized a local chapter for parents of
"We snooped around in the community businesses, stores, school
personnel until we found someone who could help us. W6 always
"In instances where her needs could not be met, we suggested the
library, writing letters and finally, that she d_ irect her energies to
other topics related to her interests."
How have you handled a teacher who was unsympathetic. to the particular
needs of your gifted child?
"I tried to increase my efforts at home by going over lessons and
adding an elemenfof fun to schoolwork. I tried to get my daughter
to treat the situation with a sense of humor kind of like she had,a
secret, that the-teacher didn't know about that she could enjoy
learnin even though The teacher made it rough!"
"I tried t rig to the teacher to explain that my son was simply
marching to the tune of a different drummer. Whhis didn't,
work I made it a point to question the teacher andihe.school
administration about my child's 'problem' (which was his
giftedness) and stood up for him in alrhost every,instance. I also
read books on creativity so I. could explain some of his behavior to
his teacher who shOuld have been the o'ne to explain it to me."
"When our son's teacher constantly compared hiM to his brother, I
stepped up my efforts to remind him that he had his own talent6,
abilities, and interests so the joke was really on the teacher. (We
eventually reqUested a class change and got it.)"
"We had to grin and bear it most of the year gave here couple of
days off ('time out' we called itwhen she had an especially rough
week. On those days we would do something like take a trip to the
museum or just do walking in the woods. Those days proved to be
the most educational §f the year."
How did the wledge that your child Is gifted affect other children
in, your ily?
"When our younger son became jealous, we encouraged the older
brother to help him study. We also encouraged the younger one to
talk about his feelings directly to the older gifted sibling, This
brought the two much closer."
"Each of our children has special abilities and peculiar habits and
quirks. 'These are respected and recognized but have never been
allowed to disrupt family unity. Each personality and talent is
treated individually with emphasis on acbeptable behavior and
respect and compassion and understanding for others."
"We try to turn the jealousy into creative competitiori by having
family contests and brainstorming sessions."
"Throughfamily counseling we have made some progress in 6rac-
ticingour philosophy of recognizing that God gives gifts to all. We.
donot allow the children to compare themselves to anyone but
themselves.,Each is like a flower in a garden which must be
nourished into its fullest blossom. Wouldn't it be dreadful if all we
had were roses? Which is the most beautiful flower? There is none.
Each has its own special beauty and so it is with children."
"When competition and jealousy get to be too intense, we have a
faintly meeting and do problem solving on how to handle the
situation. Sometimes we simply have to encourage them to gel
involved in separate activities away from each other."
Most often,-parents responded to thisquestion by saying that there
was no observable jealousy or problems with siblings of.the gifted
child because the family had treated the giftedness as something
for the whole family to enjoy. Taking pride in each others'
achievements, no matter what the area, seemed to be the common
theme. .4 11,
How have you- enhanced your child's creativity at home?
"We spend a liat of time with our son because we love to and have
such fun doing it. When he was an infant, we provided a variety of
sights, sounds, tactile stimuli and never talked down to him. We
took him to a lot of different plases historical sights, field trips,
libraries, museums, concerts 'and talked about everything we did
as we were doing it and afterwards. We never forced him into
injellectu acIiiiitV, but picked up with enthusiasm whenever he
expresset an hest in something."
"I encoura ecreative thinking, creative play, and problem solving.
We frequently ask our childrerywhat they think we should do next or
ask their-advice on hfreve should approach a particular task or
problem, i.e., if it's raining ancrour picnic is cancelled, whatiphould
we do? Or if' heir bedrooms need cleaning, what should we do first?
For most problems we ask, 'Is there another solution?' By now, the
girls can come up with three or four answers for most problems."
"We read to-her, make up Storiesabout everything, ask a lot of
questions and encourage her to do the same. We let her help us in
our daily duties andiet her think up original ways to accomplish her
chores. We provide her with materials that do not demand specific
use like paper, building toys, paints, et cetera, instead of kits that
are preplanned. We also play a lot of word gahies and puzzles and
encourage her sense of humor making puns, rhymes, et cetera."
"I set up our home to allow for.exploration with as few 'don'ts' as
possible. We also respect our children's emotions knowing that
even though they don't think as we think, they feel as we feel: We
try, whenever possible, to exposé our children to all tite arts
through concerts, plays, exhibitions (some great things taking
Place in the community for free yet!) and by inviting creative
people to our home.'
In manycases, parents iemarked that they had not gone out of their
way to encour eir child's creativity and that they felt certain
the stimulation finias receiving at school was sufficient. Many also
felt that the impo-rtant factor was for parents just to be good
listeners and support the ideas that their child initiates.
Are there any areas in which you feel your child's giftedness is not
"We have noticed that our son lacks awareness of his immediate
surroundings andlime. We recently discussed this with him in an
intellectual way (used Maslow's theories) and found that he could
uoderstand the problem. Approaching him in this manner, he was
giverrtime to think about things, and from this processhe figures out
his own solutions."
"Our son has developed a Riglakegree of autonomy, which makes it
difficult for his teachers and for me. I try to emphasize to him thai
little conformity at times will be to Os advantage."
"Our daugliter lacks patience with herself and is supersensitive to
failure. I try to point out the positive aspects of failure that she
jearns from her mistakes. I have also made her aware of my own
failures in an effort,to make her see that we all make mistakes and
must be constructive in dealing with thefn. As for impatience, we -
have explained that this attitude breaks down friendships and that
she should use her intelligence to help others whenever she can.
We suggest that she be more selective in her involvements-so that
#her expectatiohs will not always be let down (for thiS we have to
import gifted children from other neighborhoods but it's worth
"When our son is sarcastic or when he doesn't take responsibility
for his things, we point out the consequences of hisactions. We try
to encourage him to do things for himself and respond with praist
when he does this successfully. For example, when he left his roon
Messy for two weeks, we suggested the possibility of bugs
attacking the old'cookie crumbs. When this finally did happen
(much to mother's agony), he had to spray his whole room and had
twice the work he would have had if he'd cleaned when he was
"Our daughter has learned to hate reading and is bored by many
other subjects in school. For the time being, I am ignoring this ,
behavior since she ig byno means behind her classmates.
Whenever she does express interest, I reinforce her and try to make
the experience fun in whatever way I can. Once the pain is over,
however, and this phase passes like all the others, I intend to apply
more strict standards (her teacher tends to accept half baked work).
This will be a gradual process, though, so it will not come as too
much of a shock."
Other answers to this question covered a great deal of ground fir
forgetfulness to lick of common sense to table manners. Most A
parents, however, emphasized that giftedness is not the same as
godliness and they did not expect perfection in all areas of
behavior. Many suggested reading general parenting type books for '
specific suggestions for handling common problems.
Do you hAve any advice for other parents of gifted children?
"The most important consideration is to allow the gifted child
considerable freedom to explore and to equip him for his chosen
explorations. Limitations should be set only insofar as safety and
damage to valuables or to the property of others is concerned.
Letting him work through his situatii is learning for him and his
selection of his own learning tasks is n indicator of his learning
needs. Parental guidance is important to enhance this process. In
some cases, structuring the task toward its successful completion
is required. I do not teach my child what I want him to learn but
instead I am his helper in his early years. I will help him to learn
ivhat he wants to learn in the manner he seems to learn it best."
'Show and Tell' is an excellent way to generate curiosity,
particularly if the child is the one doing the showing and telling.
Constant references to how things relate to one another, i.e.,an'
acorn is like a bean seed, facilitates this awareness. Also,accept.
Don't take the goofs or the achievements too seriously. The person
is more important than either. A parent must also not be afraid to let
go. Let a tulip be a tulip and a rose be a rose even if you thought
you were growing marigolds!"
"There is no way to intercede in the educational system. Simply
timdle positively all efforts as a parent from a 'Can I help?'
perspective. Teach the child the realiim of the educational system
and offer alternative approaches at home."
:'Be a parent. Help your child discover and practice personal
discipline, to love, understand, produce, create, express, think,
reflect, desire, fulfill, imagine_.m with your gifted
_phild and for your gifted ch. U are the m significant model in
"Try to give them the areness of the people and world
around them, and whil offer. Let them know that they
have valuable thoughts andbOni sand that they have a right to
standup for their beliefi. If t want to use their own methods, let
them as long aslhey do t Kin anyone. You'd be surprised how
often their.way of doing things opens your eyes."
"Public education about giftednessshould be more widespread -
not just the often publicized 'genius type."We must also understand
ourselves as parents. T gifted child is note possessidn or an ego
trip for aptrent. He is arson in his own right and should not be
used or expjoited on account of parents who have feelings of
inadequacy about themselves."
"Recognize that some of these children are supersensitive to other
people and other people's attitudes toward them. They need a great
deal of patience and encouragement in trying new things because .
they are so accustomed to succeeding that even a little failure-can
sometimes unglue them. I believe that schools are greatly
.respon6.ible for this because they do not adequately challenge the
children. The children may become complacent and develop the
feeling that they know everything, only to later find out harshly that
this is not so."
",Gifted kids' needs are the saml as all other,children justmore and
sooner. They'relg sensitive so many things can hurt. The
awareness is there long before the understanding, For those who
have 'gbne undercover' look stithisir-Sense of humor. And foolk-toi.
"Open up frank communications with the child. Dedicate a lot of
time -- it's a rewarding investment. Oqn't let the schools steamroller
you Stand up and fight back for youthild's specks! needs. Get
invoived with or start a local gifted chapter. You will need all the
help you can get. ".
"Try not to blow the gifted aspect of your child's personality out of
proportion. Treat the child as a person, talk to him, explain
actions, describe things, provide lots of experiences, let him alone
sometimes so he can just 'be.' Fight for their needs against strong
opposition. Never let them become obnoxious to others."
"Gifted kids never quit: They never stop thinking, don't sleep as
much as others, operate in more curious ways than peers. Thii
34 3 9.
often sets them apart and they can feeltonely. They need your hetp,
friendship, and support. Give it to .them:'
"My suggestion is to try to understand that your gifted child is one
whosees things differently. Find out that those ways are. Accept
him for what he is and refer often to khaki Gibran: 'Your children
are not your thildresi but the -sons and daughtert of life's longing for
itself. You may give them your love but not yobr thoughts. You may
house theirbodies but not their souls fortheir souls dwell in the.
house of tomorrow which you cannot visit, not evenin your dreams.
And though they are with you, they belong nottoyou.' "
There are as many means of coping, with the joys and troubles of .
dealing with gifted children as there are parents and children. While
thereis no cookbook recipe for guaranteed success in this
endeavor, it is certain that there are many people now trying various
Approaches. They are, as these responses indicate, willing and
wanting to share their methods. No one should feel that they have
to accomplish their child rearing. alone. Wise parents should heed
this and use the telephone, the doorbell the postal system, and the
PTA to find other parents who are in the same gifted boat. The old
saying about "united we stand" was never more true than in the
raising of a gifted child.
In a small town in Connecticut a father notices that his bright
daughter is not being challenged in her class. He contacts the
parents of seyeral other bright children and together they talk to the
superintendent about providing an enrichment program for gifted
children in the public schools. The following year the schookboard
approves a full time gifted program.
In Wisconsin a group otparents of gifted children enroll in a parent
training course and learriThe concepts and theories of gifted
education. When they go to the district office to request funds for
continuation of their children's special class, they give an articulate,
well informed presentation. The program receives funds for another
The mother of a gifted child in Okliihorila is having difficulty with
her son who will not do his homework because he finds It boring:
She talks to her friends abdut it but thtity have no suggestion,s
because their children are having trouble keeping up with even their
regular assignments. At the request of the school counselor, she
attends a meeting of the local gifted parent organization and learns
that other mothers are hiiving similar problems with their children.
She takes home valuable ideas for handling her situation and plans
to attend future meetings.
The success stories could go on and on. The number of
'organizations continues\ito grow as parents discoier that, for many
reasons, parent groups are orfe of the strongest means vailable for
stimulating action for the gifted and talented and allepne of thebest,
sources of help for individual parents.
What a parent group can do
There are an endless number of ways in which parent groups can
become involved in working for and with the gifted from fuild
raising to volunteering in the schools to providing information to
the whole community. Some parent groups, after having their
requests for help tabled by school boards for financial or other
reasons, have developed their ownenrichment programs. Some
have directed thek attention toward gettinqdfinancial aid for gifted
'education at the local, state, or national le*I. As in other aspects of
gifted elltucation, different needs in a community mean different
gOals and differenemeans of attaining thOm...
The California Parents for the Gifted, The Connecticut Association
for the Gifted, The Florida Association forthe Gifted, The
Asiociation for the Gifted and Talented Students intouraiana, The
Gifted Child. Society of New Jersey, Oklahomans for the Gifted and
Talented, andThe Minnesota Council for the Gifted'are a few
groups that represent a wide geographic, philosophical, and
rgrogrammatic span of parent involved organizations for the gifted.
Although each group began in its own way arid for its own purpose,
althave maga significant contributions to the field. Parents who are
thinking about starting an association would benefit from writing to
these successful organizations for their materialsnewsletters,
program descriptions, and the like. (Addresses for these organ-
izations may be found. in Appendix B.)
Locating community resources
For many of these groups and others like them, an important
beginning task was the identification of sympathetic persons within
the community and school. One good method that has been
suggested for discoverin the potential supporters of the gifted is
the graPevine technique. This strategy isnitiated by a felk people,
each contacting five friends about their cause. The contacts must in
turn agree to Contact five of their friends with the information, and
so' on. Records must be kept by all parties concerning:who was
contacted and by what means.. Although some people may react
negatively, it is important to continue the grapevine until each
person has received Eit least five favorable responses. While time
consuming, this method is a sure means of getting a diverse
representation of people involved in activities for the gifted:
The gripevine technique is best utilized for communicating a
specific piece of information an association meeting, a special
speaker, or a field event. However, it is also an effective tool f&
publicizing the'fact that an effort is being made on behalf of the
gifted. If groups or individuals are informed of this in the early
;stages of-the movement, they may consent to serve as resources for
special programs after the organization is fully functioning. Contact
persons at the library or museum may be able to lind rooms for
' research projects or the friend of a friend may volunteer to teach
drafting to vi interested child: Retired persons may be especially
receptive tcirsuch programs and should definitely be included inany
grapevine endeavor. /
How to structurthe organization
As an association builds its membership and formalizes its
organization (excellent documents on this phase of development
are available from many of the organizations named previousID, it is
crucial to select committees to perform the numerous tasks required
to keep the association alive. Some possible committees could be:
Publicity: To announce meetings and promote ongOing contact
with the local media.
Newsletter: To communicate to members events of local, state,
or national releVance.
Program: To plan and implement meaningful programs at
associaton meetings or special events at other occasions.
Community Resources: Ta identify community mernbers a
agencies who are willing to become involved with the gifted.
Library: To gather books about the gifted and information from
other parent associations.
Legislation: To organize lobbying for,legislation for the gifted at
all levels of government.
Others: Membership, odd jobs, school liaison, and so. forth.
In addition tocommittees, an advisory council of parents,
influential school and businesspersons, community leaders, and
university faculty is vital to the functioning of the organization. The
purpose -of this coup it is to advise the organization on many issues
and activities thatnescially need input from a variety of .
perspectives. Including many different participants on this council
more or less ensures broad support for the organization and its
purposes, especially if the demands made on the members are not,
How to get support for and from the schools
The idea of working with a community becomes extremely
important when it comes tlinoaching the schools. It is all too
easy for a parent group to e nothing but a power group and a
threat or burden to octiooladministration. Especially in the case
of the gifted, "threat" and "burden"-are not helpful labels for an
association to acquire. Even when the association must take on the
full responsibility for gifted programing in a town, it is essential that
the schools stay involved in and aware of theie efforts. All possible
attempts must be made to win the trust and respect of school
personnel so that the association remains a positive force.
Some groups have offered their services to provide clerical help for
teachers who need time to attend to the gifted; plan unique field
trips, summer workshops, and special events; or volunteer to test
children for gifted programs. Other groups have offered financial
assistance for scholarships or other opportunities for needy gifted
students. Irisdhools where so many pressures are being applied for
many different causes, parents who ask how they can donate ttieir
service and time can only be a welcome sight.
In short, a parent association for the gifted and talented is truly
necessary in any corrlMunity that is seriously, exploring alternatives
for children with special needs. As mentioned previously, the best
thihg interested parents can do is to contact some of the established
organizations to find out how they began and then adapt that
information to the needs of their own group. There are many people
now actively engaged in finding Support for the gifted. Their help is
therefor the asking--and the asking is well worth the time.
We were so happy to receive your letter about Danny and were.even
more excited abObtLyour phone call. I'm thrilled that you found
those other parents to back you in your meeting with the principal.
When will the program be starting? What will the children be
It sounds like you will have your hands full getting all the
information, but I know how important this is to you and to Danny. I
am sure you will enjoy the work even thoUgh it will take a lot of
energy, time, and persistence.
ease let me know if there is anything a proud g dmother'can
do like write to our congressman about funds liftedand
'talented education or find other sources of help for the cause. I wish
that this kind of opportunity had been available when you were a
child. Maybe this excitement will finally ease both our frustrations!
Keep us posted.
A final word
The theme of this publication, as readers have no douNt
understood, is that individual parents, school systemsAind
communities must develop plans and programs to suif their
children's particular needs. There is no way that any One book or
,strategy can apply to all. It is hoped that parents of gifted children
will have learned, as a result of their reading, a variaiy of methods,
facts and techniques to enhance the development of their young. If
they have learned new-ways to enrich their own approach to life,
theno much the better.
Watch for your child's interests and hobbies, his reading habits, his
special talents, his relationships with peers and adults. Take note of
his unusual accomplishrhents. Listen to his ideas. Observe him in
play. There is a lot to be learned both from and abou gifted child,
and you have a special opportunity for that experienC It may be
said that the future is in their hands, but for now they are in yours.
Let love, understanding, and nurturance be your greatest gift to
Eberle, R. Scamper: Games for imagination development. BuffaloNY:
D. O. K. Publishers, Inc., 1971.
Gallagher, J. J. Teaching the gifted child (2nd ed.) Boston: Allyn &
Bacon, Inc., 1975. c `z
Torrance, E. Creativity. Sioux Falls ND: Adapt Press, 1969.
Torrance, E. P. & Myers, R. F. Creative learning and teaching. New
York: Harper & Row, 1970.
Additional readings of special interest
Barbe, W., & Renzulli, J. Psychology and educatio of the gifted (2nd ed.).
New York: Halsted Press, 1975.
Research and commeptary on various aspects f giftedness, including
philosophical and.theoretical issues and practical suggestions.
Mainly for teachers, but helpful for parents who want to be well
informed about educational practices for the gifted.
BrUmbaugh, F., & Roscho, B. Your gifted child:A guide to parents. New
York: Henry Holt & Co., 1959.
Emphasis is on identification and training in the early years. Includes
guidelines for parent-school cooperation.
Cutts, N., & Moseley, N. Bright Children:A guide for parents. New York: G.
P. Putman's Sons, 1953.
Suggestions for helping the sifted child at home.
Delp, J., & Martinson, R. The gifted and talented: A handbook for parents.
Ventura CA: Ventura County Superintendent of Schools, 1975.
Written specifically for parenjs. Includes many practical suggestions
for parent organizations, identification and training in the home,
treatment of problems of the gifted, and interviews with parents.
Eberle, R. Scamper: Games for imagination development. Buffalo NY:
D. 0. K. Publishers, Inc., 1971.
A ccillection of imagination experiences for your children.
Fine, B. Stretching their minds. New York: E. P. Dutto! Co., Inc., 1964.
The author's discussion of his, experiences at a noted school for the-
Gallagher, J. J. Teaching the gifted child (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon,
A 'comprehensive treatment of gifted education with chapters on
problem solving, creativity, underachievement, and cultural difference
that will be especially relevant to parents.
Ginsberg, G. Is your child gifted? New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976.
A handbook for parents of gifted children. °
Gowan, J. C., & Bruch, C. The academically talented student and guidance.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1971.
A treatment of the special needs and problems of the gifted. Written
primaiily for educators but includes important suggestions for parents.
Gowan, J., & Torrance, E. P. (Eds.). Educating the ablest. Itasca II: P. E.
Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1971.
A book of readings on the education of gifted children, with a special
section directed to parents.
Groat, A. Genius in residence. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall, 1970.
A mother's description of her experiences with her highly gifted child.
Kaplan, S. Providing programs for the gifted and talented: A handbOok.
Reston.VA: The Council for Exceptional Children, 1976.
A guide for the design and imatementation of gifted programs in the
schools, which action oriented parents and parent orginizations will
Martinson; R. The identification of thegiftedand talented. Reston VA: The
Council for Exceptional Children, 1976.
A thorough presentation of many identification procedures, including
.Maynard, F. Guiding your child to a more creative /ifearifir City NY:
Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1973.
An ihvaluable Collection of suggestions for materials, toys, projects,
etc. that can especially bused at home.
Osborn, A. Applied imagination (3rd ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's
The original text on creative problem solving.
Parnes, S. J. Creative behavior guidebook. New York: Charles Scribner's
A reference and teaching manual for classtoom and home-study
development of creative behavior. .
Parnes, S. J. Creative behavior workbook. New York: Charles Scribner's
A workbook to accompariy Creative Behavior Guidebook.
Renzulli, J. New directions in creativity. New York: Harper & Row, 1973:
A collection of creative thinking exercises for school and home.
Sharp, E. Thinking is child's play. New York: E. P. Dutton 4 Co., Inc., 1969.
Information on how young children learn to reason. Includes a
collection of mind sharpening gamei.
Strang, R. Helping your gifted child. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.,
Information and practical advice for parents of gifted children.
Torrance, E. P. Creativity. Sioux Falls ND: Adapt Press, 1969..
An extremely helpful mondgraph on creativity, with many valuable
hints and directions for parents.
Torrance, E. P.,.& Myers, R. F. Creativeearning and teaching. New York:
Harper & Row, 1970.
Extensive treatment of classroom teaching strategies that can be
employed in the home.
Weinlander, A. Your child in a scientific world. Gorden City NY: Doubleday
& Co., Inc., 1959.
.Information on books, science clubs' experiments, and other science
related materials that, though,dated, are especially successful for home
Williams; F. Classroom ideas for encouraging thinking and feeling. Buffalo
NY: D. 0. K. Publishers, 1970.
A collection of classroom ideas that can also be used by parents.
The Gifted Child Quarterly
R. R. 5
Hot Springs, Arkansas 71901
The official journal of the National' Association for Gifted Children
(NAGC), the only journal published in its area. Includes current
research, as well as many practical suggestions for parents..
The Journal of Creatiyerehayior
State University College at Buffalo
1300 Elmwood Avenue
Buffalo, New York 14222
A quarterly journal that presents a variety of articles on creativity in
education, industry, and psychology.
Talents and Gifts
c/o The Department of Special Education
University of South Alabama
307 University Boulevard
Mobile, Alabama 36688
The quarterly newsletter of The Association of the Gifted (TAG)
contains information about many different aspects of and current
trendi in gifted 'education. Also includes regional conference
listings which parents may wish to consider.
fn addition to these references, parents might fiqd that many of the
avaglible math and logic puzzles, creative art, music, dance and d
books, and simulation games are excellent resources for the train i of.
productive thinking. Readers may wish to refer to the previous discussion
on selectiqn of enrichment activities and materials for more information on,
Parent involved organizations for the gifted
Alabama Association for Gifted and
Dr. Marvin Gold
Department of Special Education
University -of South Alabama
Mobile, Alabama 36688
Arizona Association for Gifted and
4131 North 51 Place
California Association for the Gifted
120 Via Lerida
-Greenbrae, California 94904
Gifted Children's Association of San
Fernando Valley, Inc.
6228 Jackie Avenue
Woodland Hills, California 91364
1San Diego Association for Gifted
3033 Governor Drive
San Diego, California 92122
Gifted Children's Association of
6962 Moonbeam Drive
Huntington Beach, California 92647
Sacramento Area Gifted Association
Robert E. Swain
3738 Walnut Avenue
Carmichael, California 95608
San Francisco Association for Gifted
345 Gonzalez Drive
San Francisco, California 94123
Interested Parents of MGM Student)___
Victor H. Steppan
126 Latham Street
Piedmont, California 94611
Parents for High Academic Potential
23926 Carland Drive
Newhall, California 91321
Association for Educational
Excellence of Albany
915 Key Route Boulevard
Albany, California, 94706
Northern California Council for the
Development of Programs for the
Carmel High School
P. 0. Box 600
Carmel, California 93921
Pasadena Association for the Gifted
998 Altapine Drive
Altadena, California 0001
Gifted Students Association of
Mrs. Illene Mittman
1801 Highland Oaks Drive
Arcadia, California 91006
Berkeleyans for Academic Excellence
1135 Fresno Avenue
Berkeley, Califomia 94707
Lyceum of Santa Cruz County
0. Box 696
Capitola, California 95010
Lyceum of the Monterey Peninsula
24945 Valley Way
Carmel, California 93921
Source: National Network Directory/
Newsletter of Statewide and Smaller Parent
and Advocate Groups for Gifted and Tal-
ented Children. Oakland NJ: The Gifted
Child Society, Inc., 1976.
Chula Vista Association for Gifted
P.O. Box 155
Chula Vista, California 92012
Coronado Association for Gifted
555 D Avenue
Coronado, California 92118
Central California Associt'clin for
Peter G. Fast
Fresno State College
Fresno, California 9374
1621 So. Orchard Hill Lane
Hacienda Heights, California 91745
Centinela Valley Association for
13530 Aviation Boulevard
Hawthorne, California 90250
College for Kids
Jessie L. Harsham, Coordinator
College of Marin
Kentfield, California 94904
Gifted Children's Association of Los
Los Angeles City College
855 N. Vermont
Los Angeles, California 90029
K. E. Y., Inc.
325 Bonhill Road
Los Angeles, California 90049
1440 Warner Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90024
Parent Enrichment Project
3504 Cazador Street
Los Angeles, California 90065
The Learning Circle
P. O. Box 34791
Los Angeles, California 90034
Westside Gifted Children's
12121 Wilshire Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90025
Malibu Association for Gifted
P.O. Box 191
Malibu, California 90265
A. C. E.
P.O. Box 831
Manhattan Beach, California 90266
Manhattan Beach Association for
Mrs. Betty Scott
1509 Wendy Way
Manhattan Beach, California 90266
Palos Verdes Peninsula Association
4108 Via Lep Vista
Palos Verdes Estates
P. E. P.
P. 0. Box 913
Palos Verdes Estates
Pomona Valley Association for Gifted
P. 0. Box 2055 -
Pomona, California 91766
Shasta County Association for
6185 Highland Circle
Redding, California 96001
Redland Gifted Children's
1615 Helena Lane
Redlands, California 92373
West bontra Cost_ociation for
2639 Bush Avenue
Richmond, California 94806
Parents Association for Gifted
1820 Santa Ysabela
Rowland Heights, California 91745
Gifted Children's Association of San
155 Montgomery Street
San Francieco, California 94104
Parents Association for Gifted*
Box 567 -
San Juan Capistrano
Harbor Association for Gifted and
Talented ChHdren 41
Mrs. V. F. Christensen
2109 Amelia Avenue
San Pedro, California 90731
Marin Association for Gifted
P.O. Box 3334
San Rafael, Califorpia 94902
Conflict Valley Gifted "Children's
Thousand 'iOakS, California 91360
Foothill Association for Gifted
Mrs. Fredric Kutner
.528 So. Charvers
West Covina, California 91791
Colorado Association for- Gifted and
Rita M. Diakinson
Route 7; Box 553
Evergreen; Colorado 80439
Connecticut Association -for the
,Thomas A. Jokubaiiis
'286 North Maih Street .
Naugatuck, Connecticut 0677
ELA (Extraordinary Learning Ability)
785 Park Avenue
Bloomfield, Connecticut 06002
Ms. Muriel Miller
1107 Linda Road
Wilmington, Delaware .19803
Florida Association for the Gifted
Dr. Dorothy Sisk
College of Education
University of South Florida
Tampa, Fldrida 33620,
Richmond` County Expansion of
Interested Parents Association
Diane Griffin. _
212 Avondale Drive
Augusta, Georgia 30907
Serteens Club of Hawaii
98-1240 Kulawai Street
Aiea, Hawaii 96701
Post Falls Chapter of NAGC
Past Falls, Idaho 83854. ,
Illinois Association for the 4_
Education of Gifted and Talented
2916' Grand. Avenue
Granite City, Illinois 62040
Central Indiana Association for.
Ms. Diane Dincold
3224 Albright Court
loaianipolis, Indiana 46268
slowsloia Association for the Gifted
3408 Woodland Avenue I.
West Des Moines, Iowa 50265
Cedar Palls - Waterloo TAG
516 West 8th Street
Cedar Falls, Iowa 5061'3-
'TAG' Gifted and Talented
Cedar Falls, Iowa 50613
Programs for Gifted/Talented/
State Education Department
Topeka, Kansas 66612
Hays Aisociation for Gifted/
Cheri Parks w
Hays, Kansas 6760/
1Manhattan Association for
---Talent five ,
1509 Universi rive
Manhattan, .KansD 66604
Topeka Association for Gifted/
Wichita Association for Gifted/
1022 Union Center
Wichita,, Kansas, e.7202
Association for Gifted and Talented,
.Students in Louisiana
Kay. Coffey ,
1627 Frankfort Street
New Orleans, Louisiana 70122
Salmon,' Fails School,
Elaine Crosby .
Salmoh falls School '
Hollis, Maine 640f$2
Prince George's County Association
of Parents for. Talented and Gifted
Students (PG, TAG)'
Heinz E. Blum
13020 Ingleside Drive .
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
Gifted Child Committee
Montgomery County PTA
Regina Greenspan .
6407 Dahlonega Road.
Bethesda, Maryland 20016
Franklin County Council for Gifted
'and Talented Children
Richard P. Renaud
Conway, Massachusetts 01341
Michigan Association for the
Nancy Skinner -
Garden City, Michigan 48135,
Minnesota Council for the Gifted
Mrs. Ruth Clifton
411 Rehhberg Place
West St. PSI, Minnesota 55118
Gifted Association,pf -Missouri
,Dr. Russ Johnson
1641 Westwood Drive
Cape GirardeaU, Miisouri 63701
Nebraska Association for Gifted
Lincoln Public Schools
Lincoln, Nebraska 68508
Parents of Gifted and Talented
255 Skyline Drive
Elko, Nevada 89801
Gifted Child Society, Inc.
59 Glen Gray Road
Qakland, New Jersey 07436
Albuquerque AssocifrtiOn for Gifted
and Talented Students
APS, P.O. Box 25714
Albuquerque, New MOxico 87125
New York State A.ssoci for the
Gifted and Talen
-628 Golf Drive
North Woodmere, New York 11181
Westchester Association for the
Gifted and Talented
Dr. James H. Boyd
18 Walworth Terrace
White Plains, New York 10606
Rockland Chapter, National
Association for Gifted Children
Jeanette Newman Rosenfeld
78 Hall Avenue
New City, New York 10956
American Association for. Gifted
Gramercy Place ,1+;;,/,,,
New York, New York 19003
Parents for the Adipncement of
5015 Glenwood Avenue
Raleigh, North Carolina 27612
The Association for High Potential
1334 Second Street North
'Fargo, North Cfakola 58102
OhioOhio Association fog Gifted Children
Ruth` B. Olson'
18960 CoffinbiOry BOulevard
Cleveland, Ohio 44126
Central Ohio Chapter of the Ohio
,Assbciation for' Gifted Children
4282 Colerain Avenue
Colurnbus, Ohio 43214 .1
Warren - Trumbull County
Association for Gifted Children
Helen Venetta ', fle,
275 WainWood, S. E.
Warren, Ohio 44400
Oklahomans for Gifted-Talented
1302 East Was
'Guthrie, Oklahoma 73044
Oklahomans for Gifted-Talented.
Ann M. Kerr
829 Nancy Lynn Ter?ace
Norman, Oklahoma 73069
Oregon'Association for Educational
Vista Post Office 3104
Salern, Oregon 97302 I.
Pennsylvania Association for the
Study and Education Of Mentally
Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18,01
NatioriEifFounglation for Gifted and
Warwick, Rhode Island 02886
Patricia O'Keefe Easton
1201 Crestview Drive
Vermillion, titith Dakttt 57069
Associationlifor Education of
**Gifted Stuckant =tr-
*Harry Krieger V:r.
139 tynnfield Street
41- Association for Gifted.education
1300 Spyglass #161
.UtahFortuna Parent Organization for
the Gifted and Talented
Colleen T. Morris
Salt-Lake City, Utah 84117
Programs for Enrichment of the
4514 Kingsley Road
Woodbridge, Virginia 22193
Supervisor of Gifted Programs
Gifted Task Force
Old Capitol Building
Olympia, Washington .8504
Wisconsin council for. Gifted and
6833 West Wells
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin 53213