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-EA 014 833

Technology and Education: Policy, Implementation,
Evaluation. Proceedings of the National Conference on
Technology and Education (January 26-28, 1981).
Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington,

328p.; For individual papers, see EA.014 834-843, EA
014 845, EA 014 848, EA 014 850-855, EA 014 857-864,
EA 014 866-872, ED 201 312, ED 205 197, ED 205 212,
ED 206 270-271, and ED 208 871.
Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc., 1001
Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036
($20.00, hardcover).

MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
Change Strategies; Computer Assisted Instruction;
*Computer Oriented Programs; Consortia; *Educational
Change; Educational Cooperation; Educational Radio;
*Educational Technology; *Educational Television;
Elementary Secondary Education; Government Role;
Instructional. Materials; *Material/DeVelopment;
Nontraditional Education; Postsecondary Education;
Teacher Attitudes; *Technological AdVancement;




Thirty-nine papers on the place of technology in
education are'collected in this volume of conference proceedings.
Several themes run through the collection, appearing in different
combinations in different papers. Among the major topics discussed
are the applications of computer technology to different aspects of
instruction and school administration; the uses of broadcast and
cable television and radio and of videostechnology in on-campus and
off-campus instruction; And the formation of,consortia of educational
institutions to share the costs and benefits4ssociated withcourseware development and disseminAtion. Other major issues
considered include the nature of the changes that technology will
bring about in,traditional and nontraditional education; the role of
the government-in developing educational technology; the concepts
Affecting the develoOment of effective courseware) and the effects of
educators' attitudes on the adoption of new equipment and methods.
The .1% ajority of the papers consist of informed opinions or
gaper' ized analyses of the status of educational technology, while
others Iscribe specific programs or suggest techniques for
implementing and applying technology. (PGD)

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reproduction mow,
Points of view or nioirions sailed in this document do not nocesserily represtnt Officio! NE
:weapon or policy.



(Proceedings olthe National Conference -on

Technology and Education'
January, 26.28, 1981)

$ponsored by:Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc.
In cooperation ISitk American Associatice of-Junior and
Community Coiloges; American Aiiciciation kr Higher
Education; Association for Educational-Communications
and Teclmoloey; American Association of State Colleges
and Universities; American Association of School Admini-

strators; Corporation kr Public Broadcasthw Emerson
College; Joint Council on EducationaaelecoMmuricitions;
National AssocifitiOnof State Universities and Land Grant
Colleges; National School Boards Association; National
Science Foundatiom-National Public Radio; PUblic Broadcasting Service; and National TelecomMunicatiorm aed
Information AdministratiOn.

Library of Congress-Catalog Card No. 81-81832

CopyrigM ° 1981 by. Inttittite for- EdUcational Leadership, Inc.
:All rights reserved.

For Information:
Institute for Educational Leadership, Ine
1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

Manufacturedin the United Slates of America

'Edited desiMed, and produiced by Information Dynamic:a, Ine.

Congressional Perspectives on Information Technology

George.g. Brown, Jr.
Developing Technology to Enhance the
Educational Process
Allan E. Hershfield
Educational TechnologyThe Congressional Perspective
Fred-W. Weingarten .
Technology and the Changing Ec8nomics of Education
Robert H. McCabe
Changing Organizational Structures to
Capitalize on Technology
Joseph I. Lipson
Public Telecommunications Policies and
Education's Options
Frank W. Norwood
Investing in Computer Technology:
Criteria and Procedures fa System Selection
Fred T. Hofstetter
New Public Broadcasting Programs and Services
Dee Brock
Computers/SoftwareMore for Less
Dorothy K. Deringer
Matching Educatibnal Neale with Available Technology:
What is HapPening in the Rest of the World
Clifford H. Block
Securing Teacher Acceptance of Technology
Doris K. Lidtke
Effeetiveness of Technology in the Schools
Public and Taxpayers Response
Catherine E. Morgan
The South Carolina Telecommunications System
Thomas L Stepp
Higher Education Uses of TV and Ridio
Peter J. Dirr














Making the Cue for Changing Public Policy
Norman E. Watson
Faculty, Response to the Use of Technology

Dello K. Beal


Evaluating the Use of' TeChnology in Education

Kuala Anandam


Managing Technological Change in the
Dallas Public Schools

Nolan Estes


Managing Technological Change fit
Montgomery County, Maryland

Homer Elseroad
Managing Technology Change "MECO
A Management History"
John E. Haugo
Managing the Development of the Public Telecommunications
Center, Spokane, Washington
Walter Schiar
The Consortium Approach. Preserving College
Philip C. Dolce
Accreditation and Technology Issues

Jerry W..Miller-4
Deploying Educational Technology at an Independent,
Urban Institution
S. A. Guralnick
The Central Educational Network's Postsecondary Service
Carol A. Koffarnus
Evaluating an Instructional System in Mathematics
Steven M. F*ankel
A Description of the DAVID Interactive Instructional
Television System and Its Application to
Post High School Education of Deaf
James R. vonFeldt
Saninole Community College Working.with
Twenty-Seven Other Institutions
Thomas W. Hobbs
Bridging the ChasM Between Telecommunications
and Higher Education
C. Gregory Van Camp


15 9







Cuniculum's Technology Lag (Curricula and
Television Literacy)
Robert L. -Hilliard


"The American Open UniversityOne Answer
to the Technology and Curriculum Lae'
Don McNeil


Using TV to Teach High Order Thinking Sldlls
M. Virginia Riggy


Computers and CurriculumPromises and Problems
Robert-M. Caldwell
How Can We Best Produce Courseware?
Howard Hitchent
How Can We_ Best-Produce Courseware?
(The Process of Courseware Development)
Pete!' J. Rizza, Jr.

TechnolOgy and'HumanismAre they ompatible?
Edward A. Fdedman-




New Directidns for Training Technology

J. D. Fletcher


The Influence of Instructional Technology on
Education: Certainties and Possibilities
Looking to the Future: What Business Are We In?
Elizabeth L. Young





Congressional Perspectives on


Information Technology


Congressman George E. Drown, Jr.
Committee on Science and Technology
Washington, D.C.


I am pleased to discuss a subject of considerable interest to me, both
personally and as a seniof member of the Committee on Science and
Technology of The House of Representatives.
There has been a long-standing involvement of the' Science _and
Technology Committee in efforts to improve the flow of scientific and

technical information and in the application of information technology to
education. I will spare you the ancient history and only summarize the
more recent activity for you.
In 1977 we held extensive hearings on Computers and the Learning
Society. These hearings served an iMportant educational function fOr
both the Congress and the public, raising in a liigh -visibility forum some
fundaniental question about the deVelopment and use of computer-aided
instmction. Partly as a result of these hearings, Congressmen Scheuer, a
senior member of the Committee, intzoduced a bill, H.R. 4326, calling

for the creation of a National Comthission to study the scientific and
technical implications of information technology in education. The
Science, Research, Technology Subcommittee held hearings in October
of 1979, to gather testimony on H.R. 4326 and more generally on the
Z,.. educational implications of such "new" information 'technologies as
An videodiscs, teletext, and cable and satellite broadcast television, as well
00 as computers.
These hearings made it clear to us that much had changed in the two

years Mowing our 1977 hearings. Not only had technology development

S: And application progressed rapidly, but there had also been an important
institutional changethe establishment ofa cabinet-level Department of
Education and the resulting reorganization of much of the federal
educational bureaucrady. (Of course, it now appears that this new
department may succumb to infant mortalitybut that's another story.)
As a result of our October 1979 hearings, we saw a need to bring




Congressional Perspectives

together educators, developers of infonnition technology and the
associated courseware, and policymakers, in a forum to share ideas and
to begin charting a course for what seems certain to be an increasing use
of information technology in the educational tuture. In April of 1980, the
SRT Subcommittee joined with the Subcommittee on Select Education
in two days of hearings, a workshop for 150 participants, aixf atechnology

demonstration. The testimony of those two days left little doubt that
rapid technological advance will continue, creating exciting possibilities
in education and elsewhere. The witnesses and participants also made it
clear that public planning in this area will need to take a broad view of
what constitutes "information technology," and that this technology will
have educational impacts going well beyond our traditional educational

The April hearings helped to catalyze a number of activities. The
Subcommittees forwatded a copy of the recommendations of the
discussion groups to the Secretary of Education, with the request that the

Department identify initiatives falling within its preview and indicate
proposed actions in these areas. Partly in response to this request, the
Secretary appointed a task force on educational technology charged with

analyzing the Department's current efforts in support of educational
technology and identifying promising areas for future efforts, including
any additional legislative authority that might be needeil. I prefer not to
venture any predictions of the uses the incoming Administration may
make of the task force report.

On another front, the Subcommittees requested that the Office of
Technology Assessment undertake a study of information technology in

education, including an assessment of current levels of activity and
projections of future use and its impacts on educational and social
institutions. This study, an 18-month effort, was approved by the
Technology Assessment Board and is now under way.
The Subcommittees responsible for the April program are in the fm
stages of preparing conclusions and recommendations to the ConeI s
and the Executive Branch. I cannot yet share these w!th you, but I ould

like to share some of my personal views and concerns regr6ing the
future of information technology, in education and elsew re.
I don't think anyone needs convincing that the Inform tion Revolution
is upon us. By one estimate, approximately. half of otVwork force is now

engaged in information-related occupations, r6adIy defmed. It is
already clear that the productivity and innova e capacity of American
industry, which is an important concern of e SRT Subcommittee and a
focus of much of our activity, depends ip 4 critical way on the generation,
processing, and transmission of intr.) ation. In the home or workplace of

1990 and 2000, information te,hnologies will have uses ranging from
routine services such as eleytronic mail and banking to sophisticated
industrial applications ofAmputer-aided design and robotics.

Congressipnal Peispectives

We cannot allow developments of this importance to take place willyfilly, without addressing some careful thought to what kind of society we
seek to build and what tools are appropriate in building it. Information is
an important national resource, and its impact on our lives has become so
great that we need to begin some serious planning of how best to use this

resource to advance our national goals.
Some of you are aware that I introduced a bill in the last Congress,

H.R. 8395, -aimed at stimulating this kind of planning. The bill
establishes an independent Institute for Information Policy and Reseal&
in the Executive Branch. I believe that the independence of the Institute

would allow it a broads and integrated perspective on such issues as
institutional structure and regulatory policy, a perspective rarely attainable within the btireaucratic constraints of the dispersed agencies, now

dealing with information issues. I view the Institute as a transitional
mechanism to facilitate our nation's evolution into an Information
Society. It would serve as a focal point for informationpolicy research

and analysis and would provide a forum for consideration of the
information interests of government, business, and education.

The ways in which information technology is usedor not usedin
our educational processes will have a great deal to do with how well we as

a society are able to cope with the Information Explosion. 'I" , issue of

compatibility of technology and humanism, and I -use the term to
encompass all systems of moral values, is significant. That issue should

be of concern to all of us, since inforznation technology raises some
particularly disturbing questions about these values.
When technological innovations are widely addpted, it is usually
because.they offer a demonstrated, or at least anticipated, enhancement
of productivity. InfOrmation technology is 'no exception to this rule. By
offering students both conceptual ind practical preparation in information

technology, we can help them to function more effectively in the
technology-rich environment of ten or twenty years hence. But in so
preparing them, we need to keep in mind the end goal of increasing
productivitya more humane, just, and equitable society for all. We
need to make a special effort to see that the benefits of these new
technologies are shared by all in our society, and that we do not end up
reinforcing current patterns of inequality. We need to develop in our
citizens the cognitive and social abilities that will enable them to adjust to
and thrive in an environment characterized by rapid change. And, not
least, we need to enhance the intrinsic value and sheer creative pleasure
of learning.

I doubt that any two would agree on the precise characteristics of
an educational- system that could accomplish all that I have just
described, let alone how to create it. It is very likely, however, that most
or even all of you will accord an important role to information technology
in your respective educational utopias.


Congressional Perspective^

Butit is an inescapable fact that, as of today, information technology
is less pervasive in formal education than in virteally any other social
arena. To get to Utopia from here, we need to understand why this is true.

In my view the main reason is that teachers, administrators, and
parents have not been convinced that information technology can
increase learner productivity or enhance educational quality at an
acceptable cost. In our April hearings, this failure was consistently
attributed mainly to the lack of good courseware. It is true that the
application of information technology to education has largely been a
technology-driven process, in the sense that educational needs have not
been a major impetus in hardware or software development. I think there
is reason to believe that equipment vendors and publishers are starting to
take edncational needs seriously and are on the verge of major initiatives
in courseware development and promotion. The hature and quality of
these initiatives will have considerable bearing on the future of information

technology in education, and it is of the greatest importance that
educators have early and continued involvement in these efforts. The
development of technology must be guided, and its applications shaped,
to make it work toward that end goal of a more humane and equitable
soc iety.

If education is ever to take full advantage of informatkin technology, I

think it's important to understand that fundamental technological
advances, almost by definition, have the capability to change the way we

think about the world. Taking advantage of the magic of information
technology forces us to think about new ways to organize and transmit
knowledge.-Real improvements in educational quality are not likely to
result from using shiny new technology to do the same old things just a
little better. The power of videodiscs, fer example, will be wasted ifwe
simply use them as surrogates for printed textbooks. I see great
educational potential in imaginative uses of telecommunications networks

to "wire" together schools, libraries, and governmental and industrial

centers and to make distant data bases, as well as distant new and
important environments, accessible to home users. With the construction
of sophisticated "knowledge bases," computers will be able to query a

studentperhaps in natural languageto ascertain his level of knowledge
and to guide his explorations, complete with advanced graphics, at an
appropriate level.

There are challenges aplenty in this vision of the futurefor
researchers in cognitive sciences, for courseware developers and educational administrators, and for policymakers in local, state, and national
government. I applaud your dedication to this important task and urge

you to keep up the fight. As for the federal government, one of the
witnesses at our April hearings suggested that the federal government
should either help in the appli'ation of information technology to
education, or else get out of the way. It is not yet clear to me whether the


Congressional Perspectives



new Ad Ministration makes a distinction between thise alternatives
but, as for the Contress, I continue to believe that we.can help.






Developing Technology to Enhance
the Educational Process
'Allan E. Hershfield
Notional University Consortium
College Parit, Maryland

Several thousand years ago, there was an island in the Mediterranean
on whiCh the people hactresched a very high !evel of civilization. One
of the unusual characeiristics of this society was that it had no formal
system of education. Parents "educated' their childreis;in an informal
way, passing ilong the wisdom and history of their society in the course
of day-to-day activitiei.
Lace many other city states of that time, this island state had a large
central market that was both a commercial and social gathering place.

One day, a number of the adults who came to the market. regularly
noticed a fairly large iroup of children had assembled around a young
man named "Thok," and Were listening Avidly to everything Thok had
to say. They witnessed the children ask Thok questions and were most
impressed by the wisdom of Thok's answers to these questions, and by
the question he, in turn, posed to the-Children.
Attic talking among themselves, these adults agreed Thok was so
smart, and Potsessed so much wisdom, all the childfen in their country
should be eiposed to his brilliance. They approached Tholc,_and told
him they would all chip in to pay him a daily fee if he would share his

wisdom with all the children in the societythe children to be
assembled in the market place Monday through Friday from 9 Lm. to
5 p.m. Thok agreed and began to meet with the children daily. As the
adults continued to ao about their business in pie market place, some of
them listened with some enre to Tholes discussion with the yoanpiers,
and they diacovered- that Thok lied a great many thins; to say that
would benefit adults. So, they went to him and asked him if he would
meet with the adults in tha same way he was meeting with the children.
Thok agreed, ind the adults began to meet with Thok in the_ market
place froin 7 p.m. to 9:30 p m._ fives nights a week. (The market was,
of children t tie the daytime hours.)
This arrangement was
successful; and went on undisturbed for
many years. As Thok got older, his voice began to weaken, and one
night, as he was speaking to the adults, a voice from the rear of the



Enhance the EducationalProcess

market place shouted, "Speak louder, we can'thear you back here."
Thok's voice was weak and he couldn't sPeak louder, but he was quitk
witted. He walked over to a nearby palm tree, took off a long flat leaf,

rolled it up to form a mejaphone-Iike amplifir, and continued his
Presentation using the leaf. This -innovation worked very well. The
rolled leaf amplified Thok's voice and he was able to continue has
This-innovation, the use of the rolled leaf as an amplifier,hecame


routine and no one thought anything about it until one day, the island
received a visitora teacher from a neighboring city State. This visiting
scholar watched Thok speaking with the children in the daytime and
the adults at night, and noted the leaf: In his society, no one used a leaf
to teach, and so he began to ask the question, "Can tbe leaf teach."
Being an inqnisitive soul, and:after gaining the full cooperation of the
adults and the children of-the society, he submitted a grant propaal
to one ,of the country's largest, and wealthiest olive merchants. The
proposal laid out an ambitious research project intended to answer the

question, "Can the leaf teach?" The merchant was taken with the
question and funded the research project.
the visiting scholar theh divided the children, who assembled in the
market dyring the day, into two groups. He did the same thing with the
adults who, assembled in the market place at night to hear Thok. Then,
Thok Addressd each group separately. During the day, and one group
hear him through the leaf and the other listened to him without the leaf,
and the experiment was repeated at night. After using an abacus, and

conducting a lengthr- inulti-factoraj analysia, the visiting scholar
- _conchsded_there_ were no significant diflferences betweeh Thók and the


The moral of this story is that most . of the- people interested in
instructional technology have focused their attention on the leaf; and not
on Tbok and the students. If we are going to make effective-use of
teZhablogY for educational purposesAT must move away with this
simPlistic faith in technology, and understand how to help Thok learn to
'use technology to imprOve tfie education delivered to studenti. To do
this, we must dome to understand the past and make iealistic plans for the

Vnderstanding Past-.Realistic Future Plans
Breathless 'technologists andfutUrists have been predicting a technological revolution in education, at, all levels, ever since Motion pictures

appearea more than eighty years. ago. When radio broadcasting
developed in thel 920s, it too was supposed to bring about basic changes

in our educational systems. Then,leaching machines, television and
computers were seen by many as technological innovations that would
bting aboUt fundamental changes in the teaching-learning process.
Having received Ty own formal elementary, secondary and college
education from the 1930s through the 1960sr in a number of different
Is And, systems, ,l_can_state categolically. ihat,..apart_fronLan


Enhance-the Educational Process


occasional Encyclopaedia Brittanica film, my contemporaries and I saw
no evidence of this so-called revolution. The educational process through

which we went was very much like the process most young people
experience, today. Although, I daresay, it may have been somewhat
more rigorous.

Undaunted by the gross inaccuracy of previous predictions of
technologically diiven change in elementary, secondary, and higher
education, contemporary oracles are now forecasting video cassettes,
video-discs, lasers, communications satellites and two-way cable systems

will, at last, bring us to the educational millenium.

In spite of the extraordinary impact all of these technological
innovations have had (and are likely to have in the future) on American
societY in general, they have had little influence on what happens in the

average American classroombe it in an elementary or secondary
school or on a university campus. If we looked in on the average
American classroom, today, we would find one teacher of professor
standing in front of a group of students, presenting materials. At the
elementary and secondary school levelS, we might also find the teacher
'posing questions, and accepting responses from students with up-raised

hands. Thus, the educational process in the average classroom has
changed little since before the invention of m6vable type in 1448. Until
books could be reproduced speedily and inexpensively, the only way a

teacher could cojrnunicate knowledge to large numbers of students
rather quickly was to sttnd in front of them and read his or her own hand-

written notes. The students could then make their own notes foi later
study. When Johann Gutenberg began printing books, more than 400
years ago, he made this type of instniction obsolete. ?et, this approach to
education is Still the dominant mode of,classroom instruction, and the
classroom is the place in which most formal education takes place in the
United States'.
Thus, we have a single model of the way formal education takes place,
and the administration of cur schools and universities, with. a few minor

exceptions, is based on this model, as are state and federal policies
related to education. Educational approaches that depart from this model

have little chance of success because they don't fit the preconceived
notions of faculty, administrators, students, legislators, and staff personnel in

departments of education, statewide educational coordinating bodies,
and the-federallovernrnent.
Current Model

Before describing some of the impediments, systemic and otherwise,

that block of effective use, of instnictional technology in American
eduCation, it might be useful to sketch 'out some of the assumptions
implicit in our current model of education about what a professor or
teacher does in preparing to teach a class and in actually teaching it.




Enhance the Educational Pmcess

Generally, educators do essentially the same thing no matter the level at
which they teach: They plan the course; present the material and make
outside work assignments; stimulate and motivate the students; assess
bow much the students have learned, report the information on how
much the students have learned to a central record keeper and to the
students, and most important, they provide an example to the students of
the way authority figures behave towards .stndents and towards one
another. Most of the_ teacher's time for a given course is deVoted to
planning and preparing the course and presenting material to students. It
is, therefore, imponant to think about whit we really expect of a good
teacher who performs these tasks extremely well.
Firct of all, the teacher should have mastery ofthe subject matter he or
she is supposed to teach. While the levelsef required mastery will vary
according to the level Of instruction, there is no doubt ourmodel teacher
should be able to select from all the information he or she knows, that
material which is most appropriate for the type of students he or she will
be teaching. Since knowledge changes rapidly in so many fields, this
means the teacher must keep up witk the latest discoveries in his or her
subject area, and must revise his or her course to take into account these
changes, every time the course is taught.
Secant-the superb teacher must- determine now best to structure and
deliver the course so Ihe students will learn not only the material, but alsna.,
learn -how to solve: pmblems and how to be creative and use thee,
iMaiinatic td.
Effective teaching, then is a coinplex series of activities involving
many very different skills. Our traditional model ot education assumes
all teachers have all these sldlls and use them to near perfection. Yet, if
each of us were to reflect back on our own experiences in elementary and
secondary school and in colleges and universities, I suspect most of us
would be hard put to remember more than one teacher who stimulated
and motivated us, as well as helping us learn the latest knowledge in his or
her subject area.
From personal experience, r can say when a student has the great good
foMme to come in contact with one such teacher during the course of his

or her education, that teacher usually mikes a permanent, positive

impact on a studenes life. In twenty years of schooling, I have been lucky
enough to have two such teachersboth of whom taught at the university
level. While I am extraordinarily grateful for having had the opportunity
to sit at the feet, so to speak, of two such great teachers, I ask myself what
about the other approximately 113 teachers who instructed me from
grammar school through two master's degrees and a Ph.D." Very few of
them possessed all the skills our traditional model of education assumes
each teacher to have.

Enhance the Educational Process


The Promise of Instructional Technology
The great promise of instructional technology is that it, at last, offers an
opportunity to develop models of education far different from the current
dominant one, and in so doing, make major improvements in the quality
and effectiveness of education. We may also be able to use technology to
improve educational efficiency. There is, however, nothing inherent in
thenature ofinstructional technology that guarantees these outcomes.
Instructional television, for example, is used frequently to do nothing
more than transmit What happens in the classroom. When that is done,
the televised lesson usually combines the worst 'aspects of the classroom
experience with the worst aspects of television, without the benefits of
either form of instruction.

The perplexing issue with which all of us interested in improving
education must deal is, given the existence of new communication and

instructional technology, why haven't we been able to use these

technologies to make major improvements in our traditional educational
Why hasn't the mere existence of innovations in communication and
instructional technology brought about the same kinds , of sweeping
changes in the educational process that the invention of the steam engine

and its precursor inventions wrought when the Industrial Revolution
swept across England and then, much of the rest of the world? Critics,

searching for the answer to this question, frequently point their fingers at

teachers and faculty members, charging them with unwarranted conservatism, doworight recalcitrance, and being the major obstacle to
technolOgical innovation in education.
While no description ofimpediments to the use of technology would be
complete without an explanation of the fundamental basis for general
faculty conservatism, let me sketch out some of the systemic characteris,
tics and other types of barriers that make it most impossible for even

those few faculty members who might wish to use instructional
technology to do so effectively.

Comparing the Course Developmeit Processes

A good way to begin is to compare the course development process in
the traditional institution of higher education with the procedures
used to
create courses (instructional software) that make full use of instructional
The course development prdCess in a traditional college or university
is basically labor intensive, involving a single faculty member in the
development of a particular course. Usually, no major capital investment
is requiredexcept that originally needed for buildings, laboratories,
libraries, etc. Apart from an occasional sumnier grant to support a faculty
member while he or she develops a new course, there are no major costs

Enhance the EducatiOnal Process

associated with such-an activity. Most new courses are developed as
they are taughtwhile the faculty member is teaching other courses,
engaged in research, advising students, participating in committee work
and carrying on whatever public service activities can be fitted into a
busy schedule. Faculty are, in effect, being paid a single sum of money to

develop and to deliver a course.
Unlike the traditional course creation process just described, courses
developed to use technology effectively often involve recording an entire
course of much of the material in advance, in one or more formsfilms,
videOs pes, computer programs, programmed texts, audio-taPes, slides,
carefiilly-structured printed materials; etc. The development process for

thisAype of course is different from the one just described, and is not
corsistent with common institutional practice, state policy, faculty and

administrative values and behavior, and the traditional model of
Imagine the reception a group of foreign language faculty members
from three different universities in one state would receive from their
department chairpersons, their deans, or vice chancellors, or the head of
the state's postsecondary commission or chair of the legislature's finance

cpmmittee, if they mtde the following request
Atter careful study and thought, we believe we can make a major
improvernent in the teaching of French by developing a technologically-

based pagan% to be used at our universities, and other universities in,
the state which might wish to buy or rent our materials for on-campus
use, or for off-campus, adult education. We plan to begin by developing
an introductory French course for first-year students. Here L what we
need to create this course.
We (ill three of us) need afull year of released time at- learning
theorist; and instnwtional technologist, two graduate assistants and a

full-time secretary, all at a total coit of $124,000. OW group,
functioning as a course developnieht team, will develop and test an
introductory French course. When we have completed this development work, we will need another $150,000 to produce color video
cassettes, audio_ cassettes, computer-based programmed texts and
examinations, controlled vocabulary reading materials and adiagnostic
entry examination to be administered to all entering students. We will
also need $10,000 to hire as consultants the three senior experts in this
field in the United States, as well as several of our colleagues from
other universities in this state. When the course had been completed
and is ready for delivery, our three universities will each have to spend
$50,000 to deliver this course. Moreover, because the students will be
spending a great deal of time working independently with the materialS

produced for this course, and less tithe listening M us live in the
classrootn, our nwnber of student contact hours will be reduced
substantially, but because this course will be used to teach many more
students than we could have taught in the traditional mode, we should
havemduced course loads. If these materials are sold or used outiide of

Enhance the Educational Process


our universities, we should receive residual payments similar to those
paid to film and television performers. Finally, we'll need to provide

$15,000 per year for possible annual rvision of a portion of the

Although this approach to course development may seem over blown,

it is very similar (although not identical) to the development process
used by the British Open University to develop superb, internationally
acclaimed courses that are used by adults who cannot attend a college or
univeriity, on campus as full-time students. The development of one of
these British Open University courses costs more than $500,000.
The example just presented demonstrates only one of many ways of
creating course materials to Make effective use of instmctional technology.

Other somewhat less complex and expensive approaches can be used
with good results. This example is pirticularly useful, however, because

it provides such a stark contrast to the traditional model of course

Now, let me describe some of the barriers that make it ll but
impossible to use a sophisticated course development process similar to

the one just described to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of
higher education.
Current administrative practice makes it impossible to consider
fiffiding eourse development in the high technology mode. Funds are
allocated to departments, and the largest proportion of the budget, 70 to
86 percent, is used to pay salaries. Ideas which do not fit this "bits and
pieces" resource allocation system areexcluded from consideration.
The full-scale, technologically-based course development process is
heavily capital intensivewith very large amSunts of resources being
required to develop a single course or unit. Capital is needed to produce
Ind.test the software: to set up and operate* system to deliver the course,
and to provide funds to update the twenty-percent of the soffirare °Ivan
annual basis.
Few, if 'any, American states, C011eges or universities have any regular
mechanism for funding course development activities of this nature on a
large scale. Development of this type, to the .extent that it does occur,

almost always takes place Is anunusualuception to existing practice.
The only way such heavy capital investments can be justified is for the

course or its various components to be used by very large numbers of

studentsmany more than a single faculty member would normally
teach during one academic term. Let us pursue this point further by
analyzing the situation of one of the three faculty members mentioned in
our earlier example.

Assume a faculty member normally teaches three different three-

credit courses per term, and the average enrollment in each course is 30
students. Using current adminlitrative terminology, the faculty member
would have "generated 270 student credit-hi:Airsninety for each course
(3 credit hours X 30 students @ 90 student credft hours 3 courses @
270)." If the faculty member's salary were S26,000 per year, for a ninemonth contract, and the academic year had two semesters, the direct cost


Enhance the Educational Process

of instruction in the traditionatmode is almost $39 per student credit

hour ($26,000 V 2.semesters$13,000 per semester V 270 student
credit hours$48.15).
Looking at the high technology model, the costs mentioned
come tq:

Recurring annual costs

$344,000 for software development
and equipment

$ 15,000 updating and deliVery, of

, This does not include the -facultY
member's salary that is-treated
below. Since the average faculty member would seldom teach
sections of the same con:* driring

one sernester, let us assume two of the
three sections he or she teaches are of the same course, and this is the
which will be produced using the technological approach to development
In two sections of this course, Lwith 30 students each, the faculty

will generate 180 student credit hours. The cost for his or hermember
. apportioned by student credit hours, is still $48.15.1f thetechnoloecallybased course were to be used
only once to teach two sections of

the class,
the additional costs per student credit hour generated would
$1,855.55. The faculty member's salary added to that would bring

overall cost to $1,903.70 per student credit hour generated. Uwe
the course will be used five years, without major modifications,
$15,000 budget for recurring costs is for minor modifications)
two sections per semester,or four sections per academic
year, the faculty
member would generate 1,800 student credit hours, and the
capital cost would be $78,800 derived as follows:

One Time
Capital Cost

Cost at $15,000 peryr.

+ $60,000 = 394,000


Total Annual
Capital Cost
5 yr.
5 yrs. @ $78,800

* No reyision required during the first year:
The cost of course development would be $218.88 per student
hour. Adding the cost of the faculty member's salary, we arrive at a cost

of ahnost $267.03 per student credit-hour generated, if the
developed is used only to teach those students the individual course

member would have taught anyway. The cost for this form of delivery
would be mcire than 5.5 times that of instruction in the traditional
The course would have to be used to teach 3,416 students over a fiveyear period, rather than the 600 who would normally be taught, to get the
cost per student credit hour down to $38.44, not counting the added
of the faculty member's salary. This analysis makes it clear that
the full
scale use of technology cannot result in the more efficient delivery

educational services within a few univeisities and colleges unless
technology unless technology is used to displacefacully membvs. This
paes 4.M.ciaTental dilemma.

Enhance the Educational Process


The Dilemma of Development
If One were the president of a large manufacturing firm, interested in
increasing .the Productivity of the manufacturing operation, he or she
could- call upOn the research and development section to develop or
aiquire new, and More efficient machines or processes. Once these were
available, management would make the decision to install them in the
factory (assuming there westno legal obstacles such as union contracts);
the workers would be instrult.W on how to operate the new machines;
they wbuld begin- tci operate IfferN and the coinpany *mid benefit from
increased produCtivity, and in most instances, so would the workers.
Unlike the fact*, it is the University's "workers," the faculty, who
mtist develop the software to be used on the computer, the television set,

the teaching- machine, etc. Thus, even those -few -individual faculty
members who might be willing to tryto develop new, More _effective and
efficient-approaches to delivering educational services, would stop very
quickly once they perceived they were being asked to invent the means
by which to put themselves and many of their colleagues out of a job.

Many individuals who push for the wider use of inatructional

technology seldom-Aake into account student attitudes .toward auch
developments. In an Urban-industrial society, increasingly depersonalized

by the use of technology in alrnott every -phase of life, university
students are not.likely to be pleased with an approach to instn4ction
they perceive will qlford -them less face-to-face contact with their
professors. Indeed, there is some anecdotal evidence ,to suggest
substantial numbers of older adults may enroll in exterision courses
primarily to be with other peopleand to have an opportunity to interact
with the professor.
Faculty, too, generally react negatively to what they perceive to be the
depersonalization of the educational process that may result from- the
increased use of instructional technology.
There- are those both within and outside of our institutions of higher
-education who appear to be.breathless_enthusiasts for mediated instruction as an end in itself. Such individuals take on a variety of formsallof
which with good reason, tend to alienate the faculty.
Absence oj Technology Objectivity

Itiadifficult to find, within most Amerkan universities and colleges,
trained instructional technologigis whOein deal with a -wide- variety -of
technological and non-technological approaches to education with equal

competence, -professionalism and ease. One tends to fmd exPetts in
instructional television, computer-basedinstruction, And audio-visual
equipment such as film and overhead projectors, etc. Each of these
individuag is a devotee of his or her particular form of technology,
andrectimmends -it- vigorously to resolve every pedagogical problem.
"Experts" such as these often lose sight of studenta as the beneficiaries of
the educational process.
Moreover, faculty, administrators and students have all-t000ften been

frustrated by the failure or inadequacy of both the equipment and the


Enhance the Educational Process

software provided by these "experts," and this too eontributes to the
reinforcement of negative attitudes towards the use of technology.
A second, but no less vexing, aspect of the instructional technology.
panacea is frequently demonstrated by a politician, state agency official,
or self-styled-expert who sometimes exhibits a bid case of "mediaitis."
This illness takes at least two forms. A symptom of Type A Mediaitis is a
suggestion that gobs of money could be saved if only "we would putone
faculty member on television, somewhere in the state, and broadcast that
faculty member's sterling lectures to thousands of exPectant and eager
--students." Typt-BsMediaitis is-someWhat-different InthisfOrth of the
illness, an expert spends a great deal of time expoimding upon the need
for a particular type of technologically-based delivery system, e.g.,
broadcast, closed circuit TV, satellite, videodisc, etc.

Faculty Conservatism

-Having described many of the systemic barriers to the use of
technology to improve educational effectiveness and efficieridY, if nav

seems wise to attempt to understand the basis for the university and
college facultY's general conservatism towards new approaches to
instructionboth-technological Mid non-technological.
Because the selection of instructional techniques iS almost always a
matter of free choice by each individual faculty menilier, new approachei
to instruction will onlY be adopted widely if each faculty member is made

aware of a particular innovation, becomes interested in it, tries it,
evaluates the results of this trial, and if pleased with the results, adopts the

approach 'More or less permanently. Very few university and college
faculty Members go through this proceSs of adopting newapproaches to
instruction because their training and experience do not move them in
this direetion.
This is the case because there is a single more or less pervasive model
of excellence in higher educationthe prestigious research university:
Faculty members. who are successfid in such institutior..; emphasize
certain activities and patterns of behavior which are antithetical to
seeking out and using-Information on new approaches to instruction.
These Patterni of ficUltY behavior are also not- consistent-with- the
requirement that the development of high technology education software
is, of necessity, a team effort requiring the close, collegial cooperation of
a variety of professionals.

As graduate students, most doctoral candidates focus their attention

on becoming competent in one or more sub-fields of an academic
discipline and on acquiring the skills needed to do research within that

sub-field. They, also learn, from their faculty mentors, that the primazy
function of university faculty members is to push forward the boundarita
of knowledge in their choSen speciality by doing original researchthe
results of which will contribute to the development of a body of theory
will be publishable in the most respected scholarly journals in
their discipline. A closely related function is that of communicating the
knowledge they acquire to graduate and undergraduate students.
The emphasis, then, is on highly individualistic, creative, intellectual

Enhance the Educational Process


work focused on problems defined by an academic discipline. Judgments
of the quality and quantity of a faculty member's published work are
made largely on the basis of evaluations made by specialists in his or her
disciplinary sub-fields, many of whom are at other institutions of higher

educatipli. These judgments and those of his or her departmental
colleagues are of primary importance in decisions on promotion and
tenure, and to a lesser extent, annual salary increases based on merit. A
faculty member's performance will bejudged by the extent to which he or
she conforms successfully to the behavior pattern described above.
Departures form that, pattern will be punished by negative evaluations.
The reward structure in prestigious,research universities reinforca the
highly individualistic, creative intellectual behavior patterns learned in
graduate school.
The pattern of faculty behavior just described is dominant in most
research universities. It is, indeed, one of the primary reasons for the
preeminent status of our mt5st prestigious universities. Faculty at these
institutions have made extraordinary contributions, to the gowth and
development of human knowledge, and these contributions have been
stimulated by the system just described.
Another major aspect of individualistic faculty behavior and institutional practice is that a single faculty member usually teaches a single

course. This is neither the most efficient nor most effective way to

develop packages of mediated materials which will be used widely. With

respect to the use of mediated materials, it usually leads to "the notinvented-here syndrome" often expressed by an individual faculty
member not involved in the development of the mediated materials as

"those materials are not of sufficiently high 'quality to meet the

educational needs of my students." (Translation: 'That isn't the way I
would do-it, therefore, it doesn't meet my quality standards.")
Hone cannot expect a technological revolution in higher education to
begin at prestigious universities, is it then possible that other, different

types of American institutions of higher education will make the changes

necessary to move in new directionST-With the possible exception of
some community colleges, the prospects for this sort of change are not
good. The reason for this is that even though there are relatively few
prestigious research universities, *there is a single model of excellence,
in the minds of most faculty members and administrators, and many of
them exhibit all the patterns offaculty behavior found-in die research
institutionswithout producing the quantity, or quality ofpublications

produced by their counterparts at Harvar4 YaleStanfor4 Berkeley,
Wisconsin, Michigan, etc.
These less prestigious American institutions are, the ones which might
be expected to adopt more effective and efficient approaches to
instruction and learning. Most of them have not done so, however, and
All facuk9 members, regardless of the type of institution in which they teach, must be
actively engaged in the pursuit of knowledge. This is the only way they can be sure they are
providing current, accurate information to their students. This does not, however, mean

they must be involved in "state of the art" research in their discipline.

Enhance the Educational Process


will not do so Until alternative models of excellence emerge and are
awarded sOcietal recognition. Unless and until that happens Most of
these colleges and universities will continde to emulate the research
institutions in behavior and values. if not in high quality scholarly output.
The suggestions which folio* are intended to help these colleges and

uniYersities wishing to use the high technology mode of instructionovercome many of the foregeing barriers.

Policies and Practices Intended to Facilitate
the Use of Instructional Technology
A number of changes -in institutional policies and procedures can
activate faculty to become= involved in the development and use of
instructional technology_ and at the same time, protect their jobs, and
reward them for their efforts. Here are some general stateMents which
might be included in a policy designed to attain the goal:
1. The faculty, students and administration of
commit themselves to develop and use instructional technology
whenever there is sound reason to believe such technology can
improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of education. Since the

-centetif and-the pedagogical_objectives of all courses do not
necessarily lend, thems&es- to a technOfogicalSteatment-major-development efforts will:be undertaken only after.discussion by the
-parties involved and general agreement that such efforis-should be

2. No faculty member currently employed will be displaced by
instructional technology.
3. Within the frameWork of #2 above, technological approaches to
education will be used to:


a. Extend- the capaeity of faculty to ser7 larger numbers of
students More effectively; and
13: Where jiossible and appropriate, to substitute for facultymembers who are planning on leaving the instinition voluntarily; to fill-vacancies created by death; and to begin new
programs or courses for which new faculty would normally be

4. Productivity gains derived ftom the development and use of

-instnictional_technology, if any, will be shared with:
a. The faculty members who jiittieipate-in-coursadevelopment
and delivery;

b. The-academic departMent of schools to Which the faculty
mentioned in "a" are assigned; tInd
c. The main funding source for'the instituton (e.g., the state, for
public colleges or universities, and the trustees of independent

5. The faculty and the administration will, together, develop an


Enhance the Educational Process


institutional policy on ownership and use of mediated materials,
the development of which have been completed .With substantial
institutional resources. This policy will define and protect both
the institutioni's and the faculty member's rights and obligations.

Among these are:
a. The institution's right to recoup funds committed to development, in the event there is a substantial external market for the
material produced;

b. The faculty member's right to additional remuneration from
external distribution, after the institution's capital investment
is recouped;
c. The conditions under which the materials may be used bY the
institution in the event the faculty member terminates his or
her employMent;
d. The faculty thember's right to ensure the continued accuracy

and utility of the materials by the regular provision of
institutional resources for annual revision of a specified
percentage of the material (ten to twenty percent);
6. The extent, character and quality of a faculty member's contributions to- the development of mediated materials will be given

substantial weight in the tenure, promotion and merit review
process; and
7. New means will be developed for assessing the efficiency of

instructional techniques making heavy use of instructional
While any one who has ever taught in a classrciOm-w6uld have grave
doubts about the utility of the number of student contact hours* as a valid
measure of anything, it is clear such commonly-used measures can be
major impediments to faculty members who might wish to develop and
use high quality instructional software. To do so could reduce markedly
their number of student contact hours.

Obtaining Development Capital and Measuring Efficiency
State and nitional goveinment officials and individuals in the private
sector, interested in stimulating the use of instructional technology, must
create some regular funding mechanism to provide the capital necessary
to develop and deliver instructional software, and they must be willing to
re-examine and discard those measures of efficiency that prevent faculty-

and administrators from developing and using technologically-based
approaches to instruction.
Many American public universities are reouired to reoort the number of student contact

1%ours (the measure of students X the number of credits for each course) to state
\ governments. This statistic is used as a measure of efficiency.


Enhance the-Educational Process

Encouraging =Wider Use of Instructional technology and Avoiding
"The Not-Invented-Here Syndrome"
. Individual faculty members generally have different
areas of expertise
within the same discipline, and one is likely to get a mediated course or
unitin which the content is accurate and current if different faculty
members handle that part of a codrse in whiCh they five the greatest
expertise. _A second reason for actively- involving as many faculty as
possible in the development of-a single course is that by doing so, one

greatly increases the probabilitY each of the facultY members will
approve the use of the course: This should increase markedly thenumber
of students who will use the course. Another way to expand even further
the numbers of students and institutions using a course, is to leave out
certain segments or sections of the course, but to suggest some ways that
faculty in other institutions and departments might prepare materials for
a these segmentstluis personaliiing the course and, increasing the
probability these faculty and dePartments will use it Using this "blank

spam" technique is one way of mitigating "the not-invented-here

syndrome," and encouraging creative and individualistic faculty to give
their own personal touch to software developed elsewhere.
To get ab individualistic faculty member to become a full participant in
a group of professionals Working on a common Project, one probably has
to make it possible for that faculty member to work with the group on a
full-time basis, long enough to complete work on the group project Poing

this shout& remove the faculty member from his or her workday

university world and the system which reinforces individualistic behavior.
An explicit orientation may also help the faculty member understand the
difference& between the normal pattern of faculty behavior and-that
required to develop packages of mediated -materials successfully.
Such an orientation might explain that the effective development and
useof instructional-technology is basically a_ team effort which requires
careful planning and the close cooperatian of highly skilled professionals
in several fields. First and foremost among these is, of course;the faculty

member. The faculty member is, the content expert responsible for
ensuring that the course goals are realistic in terms of the entry level
=knowledge of the Students; that the content is appropriate to both die
students' entry knowledge level and the goals of the course, and that the
content is both current and aecurate.
While the faculty member mustbe treated as the first among equals,
someone must be put in charge who hit a firm understandingof the entire
process, and can activate Cboperative effort and who can resolve disputes

in a creative abd non-destructive manner. Whichever member of the
'team can best carry out this sophisticated leadership function, stiould be
put in charge of the project In any event, the faculty member must have
the find word on content


Enhance the Educational Process


An orientation program during which the points just stated lire made
would help the faculty member adjust quickly to the new circumstances.
This adjustment would be facilitated further if sooperative efforts were
reinforced by group processes and financial rewards.

Both students and faculty must come to understand the advantages
they can derive froni the effective use of instructional technology; what
the limits uf this technology are; and when it should not be used.
The high technology4 capital intensive, mode of couise development
described earlier can best be used for those courses and parts of courses

in which the content is relatively stable, and the teaching-learning
objectives -are fairly clew'. Basic, introductory courses in almost any
discipline other than performance courses in theater arts, music and art
are genirally appropriate for this type of development work.
In these types of courses, the professor's role should be changed, by
use of the high technology mode, to that of a tutor in comparatively small

group, face-to-face interaction, rather than a presenter of material to
hundreds of students assembled in Massive lecture sections.. The
advantages of this type of faculty and graduate assistant role change
should be obvious tO both students and faculty.
The high 4echnology mode probaply should not be used for.those

courses or parts of courses in which the content is changing rapidly, or in
which students and faculty are studying-or doing research on problems
for which there are no known answers. These would include someiunior

and senior courses and a- good many graduate seminars. One could,
however, probably make a very good case for the high technology
development of introductory research methods and statistics dourses
normally required in many graduate programs in the physical, biological,
and social sciences, and the full range of courses in Many professional
masters programs.

Akhough sOme univelsity-level instruction may not be suited- to the
development of sophisticated packages of mediated materials, American

educators are maids% little effort to use instructional technology
effectively, in their regular programs, in those areas that show great
promise. The problems I've described are not insurmountable. They can
and will be overcome, given initiative, imagination, commitment- and
cooperation on the part of the faculty, administration, students and those
governmental institutions that supervise and provide ftmding for education.

The 'technology to improve both educational effectiveness and
efficiency is now available. If educators do uot reorient themselves
quickly to take advantage of this technology, private industry and new
types of non-profit educational organizations will do so.


Educational Technologr-


The Congressional Perspective
Fred W. Weingarten
Office of Technology Auessment
Washington, D.C.

Even in the Most stable political times, a person would be pletumptuous,

indeed, to attempt to present a Congressional perspective on any topic.
:Who Could speak for more , thin five hundred highly, independent men
and women? And theie- are anything but-stable times on the HU The
Federal role in many, areas of donsestic life is likely to be reasseued, and,

in the view of many observers, education will receive its share of
Sensing that use of-information teChnology in edema:on:is going to

-present new oppatunities and problems for Federal pahoy makers,
-Congress -has reqUested that the Office of TechnologY Assessment
(OTA)Prepare for it a report on information tecinriogy and education.
This assessment has just started. A report on its initial directionsmight



givesenne sense of how Cengress may choose to look at education policy
in light Of new information technologies, and that task is -the one I will

undestakelhis morning.

The Office of TechnologY Assessment
The Office Of Technology Assessment is an agency of the Congress. It

is -responsible to both houses of Congress and is dirented by a


Technology- Asiessment Bowl connoting of three members fiun each
party, Atom each chamber. Its role is to examine the long term effects of

% -*they dui** regarding technological issues.


OTA' studio,- generally last from severalmonths to:a few years, in
contrast to the generally shorter,' mote tightly focussed studiet conducted

by -the Congressional Researth Service -cc the General Amounting
Office. The agency does not make policy recommendations to Congress,

bht rate; trim to ptoject -as objectively as possible the available


The Congressional Perspective


decisions afict their social, etonomic- and political effects. Each study
Must be requested by at least on6 fiat- committee and approved by the


The StudyPwpose

what has heen said so far:
The Federal Governinent has nothing to de with education.,,it's.

The Defense Department- spends an estimated twelve billion
-dollars on manpewer training.
-The Federal GoVernment has never done anything with the
express intent of aidingeducation per sebut to achieve other
social goals.
The Federal Government pays over ten percent orthe budgets of
local- schixit disocts.
These are just a few, of the eminent: I have colleded in the first few
months of the study, iiictthey illustrate the paradoxes in U.S. attitudes
toward-a Federal educaVon policy that mikes a study such as this so
complex and undertaking
It is clearly possible _that_tbe_new information teehnology_ holds great

prom* kir' traditional edueation. This same technology, coupled with
our evolution into an "Information Society," is also changihg the very
_meaning of educatien, the mechanins for providing it, and the nature of
societal demands for it.
The purPose of this study is to examine these technological trends,
assessmhat they have to offer the educational process, determine how
their are likely to be used, and explore how the Federal Government
might respond'HoPefully, the study will answer the follov4ing questions.
Are there policies that will encourage the use of infonnatidi technology,
are Ihere legislative or regulatory barriers, and est there potential
problems stemming from educational use of infornition technology that
may call for legislative-remedy?
Comniunicating this aisessment to Congress it complicated by the
problem that educational policy is not made solely_ hy,Committees with
the word "Education" in their titles. The Armed Services Committees
must wotrY about manpower, the Civil Service Committees- about the
competence .of Government workers, the= Commerce Committees are
concerned with copyright and the Science and Technology Committees
are concerned with communication policy and R&D. This type of crosstutting issue isi-theoretically, a particular specialty of OTA. in reality, it
is hird to focus ind communicate such a study.
Study G.Oals

The study has four major goals:
Assess Existing Federal Interest and Roles: The Federal GovernMent,


The Congressional Perspective

even-though not directly responsible for the -schools of this nation, has
many programs that affect them and many interests_ in_ the quality of
education in the United States. What are reasonable objectives for the
Federal GoVernment that may shape policy strategies?
Determine Opportunities and Barriers for Use inthe Schoolr-Many
experts think that the new developments in information technology hold
great promise fertile schools. Tileprcblems ;acing the schools have been_
cataloged in many places. Theyinchide the following:
A declining support, from taxpayers as the percentage Of the
taxpaying population with children in school drops and as the
support- of the middle class for public "education declines.
Increasing pressure -from the Government and the Courts 'to
provide equal access to education for all types of students, racial
minorities, non-Eng,fish,speaking groups, the handicapped, and
other 'such groups. In addition pressures to -sery, more varied

student groups in the traditional sectors oeducation, new
demands for education by women, by the elderly, and by those,
trying to adapt to a changingjob Market, are also creating new
demands on the education establishment.
The increase in labor costs as experienced in all service sectors.

Productivity inereases often depend upon the substitution of
capital for labor. Those activities that haVe not traditionally been

subject- to productivity improvements are squeezed by the
inflationary prestures of labor costs increasing faster than the
overall inflation, rate.
The need to train more proactive and technologically sophisti-

cated citizens, to help the U.S. economy and to Provide more
effective citizens in an informatiOn society.
Faced with these pressures, it is only natural that education decision_

makers woukl ask whether the neW advances in information technology
cotild contribute to solving their problems. Can inforMation technology
improve the quality of education? Can it improve access to education on
the parts of those for whom it is difficult because of physical restrictions
or geographical separation? Can it provide better productivity offering an
improved product at lower cost'? At the least, this report should be able to
summarize for The Congress what is known about the potential benefits
and costs of information technology:
Assuming that a set of policy options might be intended to encourage

the use of information technology, it is also important to describe the
barriers that exist to such use. Many have been proposed in the literature
-and ta me in preliminary conversations with exper's. Among them, the
need for teacher training might be pointed out, along with the lack of
sufficient support in the way -of training and service, the existence of

overly restrictive purchasing policies, and ignorance at the higher
Nwdministrative levels of the school bureaucracy.


The Congressional Perspective


A number _of problems that could be characterized as societal, or
Constitutional, in nature need to .be examined. _Many experts have
expressed concern about the long term effects on learners, particirlarlY
children, of rePlacing the classrOom experience by television or cornptiters.

As another example, the use of infonnation iechnology may greatly
increase the amount of record-keeping on students. More records .of
traditional types of information -such as-test scores or other types of
claisroom performance will be stored in machine readable form for !Ong

periods of time. In addition, new ,types of information conderning
thinking processes, psychological diagnoses, and so on inay be collected

and retained. What will be the privacy rights of students under these
circumstances, and what will be the-responsibilities of the schools in
handling this.data. An analogy may be seen in the area of medical recordkeeping, in which hospitals and doctors have been deluged with a
plethora of new legislation and regtilation at both the state and Federal
Anotherissue will be equity. As information services become a major
industry, information is becoming a significant marketable commodity.
An important question Will concern the degree to which access to some
basic threshold of information literacy is a basic right of U.S. citizenry.
One scenario would hold that the benefits (if they exist) stemming from
the use of information technology in education may accrue only to the

private providers and, perhaps, to the well-off public school districts.
This trend would leave the poorer schools, those serving the poor of
society, in the lurch. Should such a scenario come to pass, the schools
could serve to increase rather than_to narrow the bridge between groups
irr this society,-to provide barriers rather than bridges.
A final-example is the-problem of Federalism. The schools, as the
quote at the start of this paper suggests, have traditionally been regarded
as the preserve of local government. One of the general observations that
have been made about high technology it that it tends to centralize, to
Place a value on thelarge operations, as opposed to the small. True, this
tendency is the subject of endless argument about whether this iinperative
is necessary, but one can observe that most automated systems to date
seem to centralize control. Any Federal policy toward use of information
technology must take into, consideration the possibility that more

national conticol and less local choice over the content and style of
education will result. This centralization may not be only on the part of
the Govenuirent, but reflect the influence oflarge publishers, broadcasters,
program_ produCers, and the like. Choice of curricular material may

simply be restricted.

The-Changing Role of Education


Evidence mounts that in the firture information society edudation will
be provided by a much wirkr spectrum of agents. Historians of education V



The Congressional Perspective

such its Lawrence Cremin have point out that education has, for a long
time, been provided in a number Of environments other than sehools.
These -other providers may be in-a position to exploit the technology,
more quickly and effectively than can traditional schools. The following
examples come to mind:
The investment by industry in training and employee education is
not well-known, but estimates range from $40 billion to $100
billion. We do know that the number is large and growing rapidly,
Surely faster than the budget of the schools. More important than
size, the type of eduCation offered by employers is also changing,
moving toward topics, such as writing skills, that have traditionally

been considered the preserve of the education establishment
The recent White HOUseConference on the Library spent much
time discussing _the importanCe of the library in an informationsotiety is a purveyor of knowledge rather than an archive, a role

that, again, borders closely on that of the schools.
Many museums, partieularly the relatively new science and
technology museums and the even newer children's musetuns,_
are developing -public setvices that are clearly educational in

Public broadcasting, radio and television, whose recent emphasis
on cultural programming may be under strong challenge in light

of new cable and broadcast satellite technologies, may return

more closely to their original interest in education. Several
proposals have been floating around that show revived interest in
a- nationwide, broadcast-based educational service.

In the microcornputer market, manufacturers are starting tO
attack the home consumer market directly with educational
devices such as "Speak and Spell" and software packages for
personal computers such as.the Apple and the TRS 80 that are
starting to appear in the home. Videodisks, if a large constimer
market develops, could stimulate a similar trend.
These trends affect Federal policy in a number of wayi. In the
first place, they may- offer opportunities, provided the markets
can be guided or encouraged to develop.
However, these developments may also cause difficult poliCy problems
for The Congress. The public schools may be under even greater streises
than they are today, if an economic, more effective, and more convenient
ilternative source of education is available to the middle class. To the
extent that the alternative is available to those who can afford it, the role
of the public schools as the educational system of the last resort becomes
vital. And the Federal Government may be called upon to provide the
funds to support that role.


-Thai CohgressionalPerspective


Federal Policy
The principal aim of this part of the study will be to determine whatt
Congress may wish to achieve, and to decide what policy levers exist to
accomplish those goals.
-The assessment will develop a limited number of policy scenarios that
appear to befessible and responsive to the various probteiris discussed
above. Among them, expanded in detail, with substantial fme structure to
be added, might be the followinx

A laissez-faire policy that keeps a strict distance between the
Federal Government and developments in education, save for a
few efforts to remove unintended barriers to the developing
educational use of information technology.
Some form of a VoucherAystem-may be adopted that removes
Federal support of the schools directly, but that recognizes the
developing choices of educational style and provider.
The Federal Government could direcdy subsidize the schools in
order to sustain a free public education system and to enable
schools to obtain the new technology they used.
The Government could directly fund the creation of educational
materials, curriculum, television programs, and soon, thitWould
be available to all users.
Agencies such as NSF could greatly expand support for research

and development on information technology for education.
These efforts could include dissemination programs to help
schools get access to the knowledge developed by the projects.


The Assessment will consist of three stages. The first, nearly
complete,' is a study planning phase. Second, there will be data
collection and analysis, and, finally, apolicy assessment will be done.
An advisory panel of distinguished experts in the field ot education is
being assafibled and will meet shortly to kick-off the data collection and
analysis effort: This work will be conducted by in-house research staff
and outside contractors and consultants,.

I will close by saying that the success of an assessment such as this will

depend greatly on the quality of help that is provided by die interested
communities,. From experience with other projects at OTA, I can state
with certainty that the report will probably not fully satisfy anyone. It
must present the full possible spectrum of actions for Congress, and

represent the interests of all stakeholders. However, it is the active
involvement of those stakehoklers that assures that their interests are
fairly and completely represented.




Technology and the Changing
Economics of Education
Robert H. McCabe

President Miami-Dade Community College
Miami, Florida

After years of faltering progress, it is_ now reasonable to forecast



substantial growth in the use of technology in-postsecondary education.
Colleges and universities will change dramatically in the decade ahead.
A series of factors, incuding operational econoMics, will stimulate
greater use of communications technology. As a basis foç discussing
changes in the'Use of technology, it is important to take a brief look at the
changing clientele and services, Public attitudes towards higher education,
and some considerations in financing
By the end of this decade, the successful postsecondary institutions
will be very different from the present: For one thing there will be more'
older students. For a number Of years state "legislatures have been
awaiting the widely forecastdecines in highereducation enrollment. All
were aware that there are 20 percent fewer eight-year olds than eighteenyear olds in America today, and that high school enrollments were
already declining Yet, the decline has not materialized. The reason is
that growing numbers of older Americans are beginning college careers,
or returning for continued educational servies on a lifelong basis. For the
first time in _the fall of 1980, there were fewer first-time-1n college
students who came directly froni high school than those who did nota
considerable and important-change. More individuals are coming back
on a continuing basis to upgrade _their skills often simply to, keep their
anfields continued education is being required to
'present jobs. In my
maintain certification or licensure. The paramedical fields are a very

good example. The average American has three careers during th
worklife, and many students_ return to college to facilitate c
career:Many others return for personal development. This is part*



Chinging Economics


important to the substantial number of Americans who have jobs that are
not personally fidfdling.
Another major change will be the continued diversification in every
attribute. The older students have more life-experience and:necessarily

more varied, competencies, knowledge, and attitudes. There are more
part-time students; more from previously under-served Minorities; and,
most importantly, more with less academic skill. We are now in _the
thirteenth conseeutive year of decline in -academic skill for American
"-high school graduates as measured by standardized tests. If one uses
1975 norms on standardized academic-tests -with 1980 high _school
graduates, the median score is tenth gildeeixth month. This decline in
skills has profpund impact on colleges, especially cOmifilinitycalleges. It

has brought public concern for the quality of our work, and with it
growing dentand for standardized testing competency-based programs,
and increesed use of assessment and standardized measurement This in
turn is requiring a more directive approach to the educational program,
and the-need for increased information concerning progress for students
and staff'.

Less Academic Skills
Students are coming with less academic skill, and colleges are being
asked to upgrade expectations and raise standards. Thus, colleges are
faced with a critical dilemma which will be very difficult to resolve, but
some tliings are clear. For one, the application of a standard amount of
educational services will not bring a student who is considerably behind

academically to the expected standards. Further, the tremendous
diversity among students will require time variable and individualized
programs. The programs must be more directive, with considerable

control of student flow. Only through the use of communications
technology will these necessary changes take place. I seeno prospect that
appropriations to colleges will be increased sufficient!), to achieve these
ends through the use of additional personnel. Even if funds were
provided, it is doubtful that the-necessary changes in program could be

achieved without utilization of the capabilities of the improved
communications technOlogy.

There are so many important changes in communications technology,
that for this presentation I will select only a few on which to comment.
There will be many new ways to deliver television to the home, but most
imisattant for education are the growing cable networks. Unlile open
circuit broadcasts,lcable delivery can present specialized fare for low
volume listenership. Even the public television open circuit broadcasters

worry about the impact on programs before and after educational
programs which draw small audiences. Audiences that are practical for



Changing EcOnontics

delivery from the standpoint of the educational institution are often
viewed negatively by open circult broadcasters. Cable operators have an
entirely different view. Thus, the spread of cable systems may resolve the
serious broadcast access problems of the colleges.

The growth in videotape recorders and the adient of videodisc plaxers,

of course, have important implications for education. At this time -in
Miami there are seven videotape purchase and exchange-operationi
-within a ten minute drive of my home, and prices for exchange are
dropping rapidly. Already more than 4,500,000 homes have videotape

recorders. With the beginning of sales of videodisc players, some
educational discs are being offered for as little as $5.95, and disc players

have fascinating flexibility, particularly for information, storage, and

random access. With regard .to equipment, it is important to us in
education to follow the home market development, as the volume sales
will reduce prices to the minimum, and in the long run it would be well to
think of the equipment in individuals' homes as part of our educational
delivery system.

-011 the computer front there are two developments that arecf special
interest One is the tremendous gain in power of microcomputers. The
impact is well illustrated with the .Miami-Dade Community College
RSVP system, a combination of CMI/CAI systems which is operated on
a $2 millionmain frame configuration. We are currently worldni with
other institutions to redevelop this system with limited compromiies on
scale, and added capabilities. The new system will requie an $8,000
microcomputer configuration. This will not only make the system more
available in Miami-Dade, but will make it practical for the smallest
institutiOn. This is a major economic breakthrough, not only because of
the reduction in the cost of the hardware, but, even more importantly, the
potential-for reduction of per-student cost for software. The number of
students who will benefit from a software package (course) both dictates
the financial feasibility of the development of the software and the level of

that development If many institutions have similar equipment, the
number of potential users imreases, and more dollars can be allocated 'for
the software deyelopmentand quality software is costly. The very large

institutions have always been able to develop some course software,
while small institutions have had limited capability. Now small institutions

-*ill be able to afford to acquire quality computer-based courses for their
students from the large institutions, and the large institutions can have
software for a larger spread of their curriculum, as they can draw from so

many sources. Tliis should result in a boom in development of high
quality computer-supported learnink programs. When we reach the



Changing Economics


point of volume utilization thatwill permit modest charges per student to

amortize development costs, institutions with very few students and
small facilities will be able to access broadly diversified learning
programs. From the standpoint of economics, what is created in effect is
a situation similar to a very large lecture section with supporting faculty

The other development in computers that interests me is what I call
"Christman games" computersthe very small processers that utilize
the television receiver as a screen, operate interactive games, and sell for

lets than $200.. I an intrigued by the possibility that such a microprocesser, particularly the type that utilize cassettes, could be in typical
homes by the end of the decade. The possibilities of combining such a
processer, a videodisc player, and a television receiver are fascinating.
With this configuration, colleges could easily deliver quite sophisticated
branching programming with interactive learning arrangements, particu-

larly where drill is essential; From the standpoint of economics, it is
important that the eqnipment is in the home. Not only because of the cost
of acquisition, but also from the standpoint of maintenance of equipment.
The discs themselves are very inexpensive to reproduce, although high

volume is necessaiy. If this part of the work occurred at home, there
would be no investment in plant or equipment for that part of the
individual's educational program. There is investment only in software
development and/or purchase. The discs, which are quite durable, and
the cassettes, which are very inexpensive, .could be checked out to
Another important application of the use.of videodiscs, cassettes, or
telecasts relates to the growing need for recertification and the learning of
neviskills and information to maintain current positions. While in urban
areas it might be practical to configure sufficient individuals to operate
standard classes, these services must be delivered on a location variable
basis. Many individuals live in areas where there are not enough persons
with the same need to operate a standard class arrangement; thus, only
methods using video appear to be practical. Further, the developments in
many fields today are so rapid, and in some occupations the number of
specialists so few, that it will be necessary to develop such programs for
use throughout the country, or at least throughout a state. It would be
impactical for each institution to attempt such programs independently.

Impact of Student Financial Aid
One change which has taken place during the past five years and has
important future impact is in the area of student financial aid. Begkining
with the post World War II G.I. Bill, the federal government has used
financial aid to student& as a principal vehicle for expanding access to




postsecondary education. It has left the fmancing of operations to state

and private sources. In recent years the expansion of the Basic
Educational -OpPortunity -Grants (noW -the Pell Grants) -and other
fmancial-aid increases in many institutions -resulted-in-a-majorityof the
fulkinieStirdents receiving financial aid. Thus, most of the students are
being paid to go to college. This has brought with it a growing concern
the the -people -who-receive- this aid-benefit- demonstrably frofir-the
services, and-make progress toward achieving,the objectives for which
the grants are given.-Without question this further contributes to the need
for more measurement and more inforritation about student progress for

-the institutions, the government, and the student. The institution's
approach to students must be more directive. This type of feedback and
control cannot be achieved without the use of communications technology,
and there is clear evidence that much headway is being made. There are
at least five national guidancer-sytemS utilizing interactive computer
applications, and many institutions are developing other applications to
take greater control-of the student-flow process.

-Monitoring Student Progress
Progress based on the concepts that students can-take any courses that

they want at any time, have a right to fail; should get credit for any
coursesdevelcipmental or not, are dead. At Miami-Dade Community
College-the student's progress through the institution is now monitored
from point of entry to exit:There is assessment, placement, competency
requirements to move into collegelevel courses, restrictions on load as
early as seven credits attempted, required intervention courses as earlyas fifteen credits, individualized letters to all 45,000 students after six

weeks of each term concerning their progress in each course, and
computerized information at the end of every term concerning progress
toward graduation and towards meeting the requirements of the institution
to which they are planning to transfer. All of this is at increased cost to the
institution, but is an absolutely necessary part of the cost Of a student's
education, and only affordable because of the use of communications
The key in the econoinics of education is massing. Simpli put, if large
numbers of people want to do the same thing (take the same course), it is

easy to develop traditional classroom delivery methods that meet
economic expectations. A well run student scheduling and registration
procedure should tie able to handle class siie for large enrollment courses
almost like an assembly line filling milk bottles to the proper level. But,
where the numbers of perions taking a single course is small, class size
ccntrol is lost and costs rise. Where the number of persons with the same
goal begin with considerably varied skills traditional methods break
down, and individualization through the use of personnel, is clearly
beyond our fmancial capability.

Changing Economics


There are a number of things that can and should be done that involve
technology, and that are economically feasible. However, one should
never forget most students, especially Older students, are anxious to have
a personal interactive experience, and the number of students who work
well completely without such interaction is relatively small. One of the

purposes of the controlled student flow system at Miami-Dade
Community College is to reduce the student diversity in the broad
spectrum of courses, so that there is reduced diversity in academic skills

in the classes. In that way, faculty can deal more effectively using
traditional methods. In this case, technology, is utilized to make
traditional practices more economically feasible and more effective.
Individualiz a tion

When a learning program utilizes technology so that a faculty member
does not deal with students in a class group, individualization, rather than
being more expensive, becomes less expensive. A result is produce4that
economically is similar to large group instruction. The new technologils
provide tremendous capability for individualization that seem not only
desirable, but absolutely essential if we are to deal with our much more

diverse student body, and preserve the opportunities for students to
interact with faculty and staff.

Sharing-Deyelopmental Costs
One important key, and perhaps the most difficult hurdle for academic

institutions, is cooperation. Technically, the improved capability of
microcomputers and the new developments in video -have made: the
sharing of materials among institutions very feasible. TO reducethe cost

.per student for development, it is absolutely essential to share the
development cost, and good software is expensive. None of us,
regardless of size, can expect to develop all of our ownit is, simply not
economically possible. The teohnical developments that have made
sharing practical, and the experience of the cooperation of a number of
institutions over the past decade have provided important steps- in the
right direction. In terms'of academic attitudes,- there is still kway to go.

Faculty-like to do their own thing in their own wayit is part of the
academic tradition. While progtess is being made toward necessary
collaboration, it is also important to provide for manipulation of softiVare
so that faculty in each institution, and, if pasible, each faculty member in
an institution, have some way to make the materials their own. Yet, there
is no escaping the need for faculty to workin collaboration if educational
services are to be delivered in the most efficient and effective way for the

;. One advantage in the introduction of technology into the institutions in-



Changing Economics

am& is that it appears certain that the reeistance among faculty Will
der** for use of techcoloiy is no linger unusual The gosvth in the use
of Computers and video in- every lield, and -the daily interaction with

tsclaricigy in the lives ofstudents airclfircuky will =keit seem/gra* in
_the Mars if the- initihkions do not 'Use communciatiOns

The Mire growth _in the use of technology in higher' edwationis
cat*. It holds great hope far us in corninunily collegetto finally match
our keg heidaspiration to help each student succeed through realistic,
affordable, and effective educational programs.





' NI

Changing Organizational Structures
to Capitalize on Technology


ibseph I. Upson
Notion& Sdence Foundation

t c%)


Watthington, D.C..

Most observers ogee that educational teclmology has na lived up to
its promise. Many &mons for thii havi been paposecL I would hIce to
explortjte possiblity that an important reason is the following
We have tried to bnplement new technologies with a school organization that evolved in taconite to an older teclmologythe technology of
the clissroom, the blackboard and the textbook. The effective use of

educadonel- technology wil'iequie the Mrolution or design of new
orpnizational sbuctures.

If this is tnie, it *lies thit 'schools should be re-organized to help
people to be productive with the new inforaation technologies such IS

the coaputer, the videafisc, and the ccamunications netwak. By
orgadizational structure I mean simple, rraxlsne things such as who
roports to whom, how the budget is Allocated, hovi .the budnet is
organized, who must sign-off before various decisions or purcksAl are
Made, the names given to organizational units, unit descriptione
goali, job desotiptions; how people are hired, who can ask whom to any
out a task, and who must apprOve requests fir Fork by a given unit or

Ratted ideas are that as educational technology "becomes more


co.iplex and chimps more rapidly, I); our organizational structure must
-become more adaptable, less rigid, and 2). we must invest more of our
effort in the design ind maintenance of the orianization,that helps us to
use this technology.3. 4

Challenge of Innovation
. .
is, it that established organizations such. u the hotels, the

railroads, the steel Wish'', the auto induitry; and sobools have so much


difficulty raponding to the opportunities of new technologiel? Why is it
that innovations are so difficult to institutionalize? Perhaps the stay is

something hie this: Laup.established organiations tart a life of their

Z. 1 0


Organisational &roams

own. They do stable and suecessful. Presumably they are successful
because their organizatibnal structure was, during their time of growth,
well-suited to the tools of their operaticin. Their organizational structure
was appropriate. They were well-organized to enable people to be
productive ,with the technology them available.
Their very suet:els and stabilityis what getsiong-lived organizations



place by a set of, eprinp, a small disturbance bringi forces into play that
return the ball tO the bottom of the bowl or return the spring-held object to
its original position. Similarly, when& stable organization is disturbed by
an innOvation, forces come into plpy to resist the innovation and to return

the siMation to normal. The status quo is the condition of stable

equilibrium. All departures from the statio ,quo are resisted.,
In a personal conVersaticii, Rob Spaulding used the analogy of
residence to infectibn. If we think of the school or School systern as an

organism, an innovation is analogoug to an infection. The school systein
immediately:responds to maintain its character Ind its integrity, to resist
the infection of change. Etch individual in the system thinks that s/he is
acting autonothOusly and intelligently, not realizing the myriad ways that
the organizational structure Ind procedures are encouraging hini/her to
act so as to reject the innovation. There is some evidence that awareness

of the forces ope4ting on us helps us to resist thern, to -be more
discriminating in our actions and decisions; and if our consciousness is
raised with regard to the subtle ways our organizations, influence us, we
may-learn to modify our traditional reactions.

I have seep the following haPpen several times: An individual
Proibuor will become intereated in using sonie form of educational
technology.Tor a while s/he it able to resist the fbrees that encourage a
rettirn tothe status, quo. If energy in the form ofresources (e.g., money,

released dine) is allocated to the innovation, then for a while a tenuous
stability cab be breated.bf all the innovations that are tried, a few may
even be coMPitible with the existing structure and such innovations may
survive and be institutionalized (e.g., the research institute, the use &the
Xerox mabhine). However, the more common courie of events is that
evendially the professor gets tired, lives or is simply forced to Ore up the
innovation and the system. The schoOl returns to the status quo.
At the microscopic level of detailed human interiCtions, many causes
am Observed and offered as reasons for the failure of an innovation: The
faculty member feels that his/her efforts are MX adequately considered in
the promotion/tenure process. /slot enough help is provided. &federal'.
grant runs out and there are 'no replacement resources made Available,
and so on.6 HoWeVer, after observing the process of attempted and failed
or limited institMiOnalization several times, I have come to the hypothesis
that the prob)im lies deeper than the surface events imply and that the
solution must dealwith the deeper relationships betweeirbrganizational



Organizational Structuies


structure and the way -we- use the tools available to us.
Put another way, we need social- and organizational- inventions to
enable us to effectiVely use new hardware-and software inventions. As
Dobrov3, 4 states,
without technology, society is disarmed; without technical knowledge and people ivho can manipulate it, technology is stillborn; without

social organization enabling- tedmological systems to be rationally
used and developed, those systems are oflittle Use and can even 1*

The Existing Technology
If cine looks at mod schools and colleges, one sees that our curriculum

and the activities that we assign to students are -largely limited and
controlled by our reliance and commitzneat to word and symbol oriented
technologies. These technologies are the classroom, pencil and paper,

the blackboard; and the textbookin contrast to the held trip or
laboratory, and the TV/computer screen or direct observation. The
existing technologies are used because a.) words and symbols are to
important to the educational -process tind.b.) tlfeY ire reliliiieffehetii
The result is that studen(activities with objects, photographic images,
and equipment are not well represented in the curricullith. As a further
result we have the recUrrincomplaint that students can repeat word and
symbol strings' but:that *.:ty do not have the skill needed foractually
doing things. This distinetfon is characterized as the difference between
knowing what and knowing hOw, the difference between declarative sus;
procedural knowledge. Examples of the differetice are a.) being ?Ile to
describe the operation of an auto engine vs: being able to design, build, or

repair an engine and b.) being able to state mathematical rules or
theorems vs. being able to solve problems with those rule*. (Note.
Another technolOgy that hat seriously influenced education is the
nidtiple choke test. There is evidence that students who are preparing
for a multiple choke test engage in different kinds of study activities than

those who are preparing for essay or problem tests. In general, the
anticipated form of aisessment [e.g., having to make an oral presentation,

having to teach a class while , being obseived, having to carry out an
experiment or construct a work dart] modifies the activities students use
to prepare. The cOnclUsion is that a technology that allows a wider range
of assessment procedures to be carried out economicak and reliably will

modify the -learning experiences of students. The computer is such a

Departments and Clastroom Teachers
The organizational siructure that has evolved to effectively use the
existing technologies is a realtively flat one (i.e., a group of peers
repotting to a department chairperson) that tends to focus on the teacher
:in the classroom as the basic operational unit with the subject-based



Organistuional Structures

department as the basic-organizational unit. Services, administration,
budgeting practices, promotion and tenure, etc., all tend to sipport the
classrOom teachers in their standard role of developing knowledge using
words and symbols. I know that many teachers would disagree with this
and exiress dissatisfaetion with the degree of support- they get. I would
propose that their divatisfactica with anything except direct support of
their role in front ofthe class is one ofthe forces that tends to maintain the

current structure. Teachers resist anr.new organizational arrangement
that drains resourdee from traditional classroom activity. In my view, this
is correct is lceg as the principal sources ofproductive woric in the school
is the teacher-led class. The question is, can we invent new technology-

based arrangements .ffiat, with different combinations of roles, tasks,
reporting lines, schedules, etc. an more productive and more satisfying
to both faculty and students? There are interesting examples in medical
education and in the case of the British Open University that suggest but
do not prove or conclusively demonitrate that this may be possible.

The Failed Technologies
The motion picture, television, radio, the LP record, the electric
typeivritir, the audio-cusette player, the video-cassette player, and kits
of laboratory materialihave not had a signifiCant knpact upon the nature
of the currAculum and the qUality of foaml school education. In order for
them to hair had a greater effect many inter-related steps to modify the

organizational system would have had to be taken: -new purchasing_

regulations, new federal, state, and local arrangements to support
curriculum development, new organizational support units, _new inservice and pre-service training programs, new budget formulation
Procedures, etc. would have had to-be developed.
For example, hecaustof its new organizational structure, the British
Open University has the largest publishing operation in the United
Kingdom and the docnments they print are widely used throughout the
higher iducation aystem. In this case an organization modification was
required to enable higher education to serve the distant, isolated learner,
and a resuk has been the creation of a hUge organizational subsystem to
exploit the existing print technology. A similar story holds for their TV
production. However, Oen the British O.U. has difficulties in using new
media because of the fact that they have, a matrix organization of course

teams combined with academic departments of the Open University.

The academic departmeats seem to_ be the culprits that create a
reeistance to innovation and may eVen be a force for reversion to a
campus' system with classes, etc.

The New Technologies
The compuer, telecommunications networks, and image devices such
as the videodisc offer a wide range of instructional options.1, 2,5 Even on

4 3,

Organizotional Structures


a Straight economic basis the continuing reduction in the cost of
computing combined with the increasing cost of printed materials
suguests that electronic publishing will compete directly with printing
within the decade of the 80's (Evans, 1979). The question is, can we reorganize otir educational systemat all levelsto make effectiie use of
these new information teehnologies?
At the national level; can we coOrdinate the resourde allocation and
decision procedures to have needed equipment standards, inforination
and dissemination networks, and courseware development?
At the local and state levels, can we create support units such as the

science teacher suppott centers that Doug Lapp has designed and
implemented in Virginia? Can We develop -nevt training provims for
teachers to use the new technologies and for authors who are needed to
create the new materilli?
At the achool level, can we create new organizational arrangements
that move away from the cottage industry format of the classroom and
that allocate resources to the purchase, maintenance, and improvement
of educational technology systems? And can we do these things in a cost
effective way ,that makes the schooling experience more interesting for
both faculty and. students?

The Likely Scenario
If the above questions are to have a pesitive response, their urgency
needs to be recognized si every level of the system. Decisions are drilien

by emotions, and until the problem of educational technology has
emotiOnal and political Rome, little is 'tidy to happen. One of our tasks is

to find the arguments, images, anecdotes and demonstrations that give
the issue tbe needed-force. Some of our best arguments will be Oen
during this conference and also are listed in existing documents?, a My
expectationis that the new technologies will begin fo take root outside of
the formal systeth through home learning, through industrial training
programs, through medical training programs, and through militaty
'training programs. When they are sufficiently established outside of the
colleges and public schools, smite schools and colleges will respond to
the thallenge and try new organizational schemes to use the technologies
and some new schools,and colleges willhesres4_! d scifically to make
use of the new technologies. Oral Roberts University is a .posSible
example of the latter case. The use oftechnology is built into the structure

of Oral Roberts; and the contracts of all faculty require that they learn

about educational technologies, contribute as authors, and use the
Knowledge and skill are so critical to a modern society that eventually
'inter-national pressure will require the organizational changes needed.
Forethought and planning can make the transition easier, can minimize

the pain of change; but the change is inevitable. Failure to make the



Organizational Structures

investment of human talent and ingenuity will cause much greater misery
and dislocation at some future time. To paraphrase Ann Landers:Unless
we take the steps to renew the quality of our schools, we will become a
fourth-rate nation without a shot being fired. I propose that the intelligent

and 'humane use of educational technology is, a necessary part of any
program of improvement.

1. Atkinson, Richard C. and Joseph I. Lipeon,Instructional Technologies qf the Future
paper delivered at the APA 886 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada,

3, 1980. (Copies available from Lipson, National Science Feundation, W=Z
D.C. M550.)
2. Brown, Gone E., Jr., Chairman, Information Technology in Education, Joint
Hearmps bekre the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology if the
Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommitteeon Select Education of
the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Rewesentatives, 96th Congress,
Apr98il 2, 3, 1980, No. 134, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,


3. Dobrov, Geimady M., Technolog, as a Form qf Organization, inint. Soc. Sci.
Journal, Vol. =CI, Nri. 4, 1979: pp. 585-605.
4. Dobrov, Gennady, M., The Strategy*. Organized Technology in the Lightqfl ad:
Se-, and Org-ware Intenwtion, in Long Range Planning, Vol. 12, August, 1979:
S. Evans, Christopher, The Micro Millenium, The Vildng press: New York, 1979.
6. Hershfield, Alan F., Education's Technological Revolution: An Event in Search qf
Leaders, m Change, Vol 12, No. 8. November-Decemixr, 1980: pp, 48-52.

7. Uspon, 3.1., Instructional Technology and Organizational Structure in Higher

Education, in Fraley, LE. & Vargas, B.A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Third National
Conference on Behavior Research and Technology in Higher Education; Society for
Behavioral Technology and Engineerjog. 1976: pp. 215-220.
8. Lipson, J.L, Technology in Science E
n: The Nat 10 Years, in Con;puter,
Vol. 13, No. 7, July, 1980: pp. 23-30.

9. National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Education for the 1980's
and Beyond Report to the President q fthe Unued States, subm;tted by Hufirtedler,
S.H. and Langenberg, D.N., 1980.
10. Molnar, Andrew R., Understanding How to Use Machina to Work Smarter in an
IrOrmatian Society, in T.H.E. Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, January, 1980: pp. 42-46.
(Note: Dr. Molnar has written a large number of important articles that represent
advanced thinking and planning for educational technology. A list ofthese articles may
be obtained from Dr. Molnar, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Public Telecommunications Policies and
Education's Options
Frank W. Norwood
Joint Coundl on Educational
Washington, D.C-

Of the numberless public policy decisions which impact on
schools and coileges, few are farther from the educator's focus of
attention than those Which shape communications policy. The school

superintendent or the university chancellor may know that the Federal

Communications Commission grants licenses to cothmercial and
noncommercial radio and television stations, but it is not likely to occur
to either that that has much to do with education or with education's use

of technology. What may happen in Geneva, Switzerland, at the
International Telecommunications Union's World Administrative
Radio Conferegce, cc how the work of CCIR Study Gmup 10/11B or a
Joint Government/Industry Committee might open or close education's
doors to a future full of satellites, computerized data bases, interactive
cable television systems and the like are questions not even formulated.
With or without the participation of educatms, decisions are made.
With or without their knowledege of the war, the battles for
canununications policy advantage go on. And their results impact schools
and colleges-- and the options for ofkampus learners as surely and as

seerely as if the superintendent and the chancellor understood the
demonstrable fact that other parties lire deciding their future for them.

Historical Perspective



The JCET is concerned with this interaction of communieations policy
and educationid policy because it was born in response to a policy making
crisis. In 1950, the Federal Communications Commission struggled with
a dilemma. The post-war public successs of the infant television medium

had demonstrated that the demand by potential broadcasters and eager
viewers for the new medium would require more stations than could be
accommodated in the twelve Very High Frequency (VHF) channels that




Public Polic4s

nad been allocated to television broadcasting before World War IL

Rather than a rich man's toy, limited to well-to-do urban areas, television
-promised to be a medium of news and entertainment for all.
The Commission's pioblem was that of finding a way to create enough
new channels_ for television broadcasting to make possible a variety of
services for substantially all of the American public. Adding additional
channels in the VHF spectrum was not possible. Other services already
occupied those frequencies. The next available spectrum was in the
untested Ultra High Frequencies (UHF) for which no television hardware
had yet been developed, or even tested. To seek out the technical solution§
to the problem, the FCC in 1948 called a halt to the construction of allnew TV stations for what was to be a period of six months. But difficult
technical problems sometimes refuse to conform to bureaucratic schedules.
The six month "freeze" lasted four years.
For the oneLhundred-nine "pre-freeze" stations which had television all

to themselves from 1948-1952, it was a period of financial bonanza
beyond the wildest dreams of avarice. For the educational community it
was a fortuitous opportunity.

The very speed at which television was making a central place for itself
in American life convinced a handful of alert educational leaders that
something must be done to exploit TV's power for more than Mass
entertainment and the sale of consuMer products, or the opportunity
would be lost forever. After the passage of the 1934 Commimications
Act, the Congress had held an inquiry to determine whether 25 percent of

the frequencies for AM radio broadcasting should be reserved for

education, but the- educational interests failed to press the case, and
private sector broadcasters assured all concerned that school and college
interests would always find-a warm welcome and plenty of free air time
from the commercial stations.
The following decade saw the number of noncommercial radio stations

shrink from more than 300 to about thirty, and leaders like Arthur Adams,
then president of the American Council on Education, we're determined

that the promise of television would not be lost
The Joint Committee on Educational Television included the ACE, the
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, the
Association of State Universities, the National Education Association,

the American Association of School Administrators, the Council of

Chief Pate School Officers, and the National Association of Educational
broadcasters. Its mission was simple ahd direct to persuade the Federal
Communications Commission that when the freexe was ended, some of
the channels should be set aside for education. When the Commission
issued its Sixth Report and Order in 1952, the Table of Allocations
which matched channels with cities and towns across the nation marked
reserved for noncommercial TV, some 242 assignmentssome in the
VHF band, the rest in the new UHF 41.


learning concepts, delivered by programmed instruction, radio, teleyisiokirafteacher=led exercises, while thousands of Korean adults will
highlchool degree through Korea's High School of the Air.
erlater, in Thailand, students will be studying primary -school
milhentratios provided by radio to their classrooms, and they will be
learrinyift well. In the Ivory Coati of Africa tomorrow morning 580,000
students throughout the mtenor of that country will be Studying through
41ssrbonkelevision in almost eVery subject In England, of course, tht;
litatiorlalsiiiiit university will be operating using the postal system ant
:the ficilifiei Of the BBC to bring higher education of estimable quality to
65,000litudentsoneinwhile, in our own hemisphere a similar system is
Pnividingrefief to Venezuela's bulging university classrooms, While even
in SkIfilfed El Salvador education is being provided for niost of that
cciii#5,4 junior-high school stUdents through classroom television.
'-we in 'this country are part of a fabric of experimentation and
commitment- to. new -ways to provide the best educational opportunity


iwatching Needs

that can, be' afforded to pur children and to ourselves, no matter the
material; political and cultural differences among Os. 'Fiero issome merit

to the thought that we can learn together from somEof these experiencesas well as_ pro!ide a boost our collective morale, as- innovation
wends its-rocky way through the very testing trials of reality.

World Trends
would- like to give you= some sense of the trends -in educational
technOlogy throughout the world, at least at I see them from my vantage

uoint, where mY job is to _select promising, approaches and concepts
Worldwide and to work with spec& developing countries to -generate

applications to their Problems. It is tettiPtingvery tempting .-7-to
speculate abbtit the new world that we see coming into reality in the next
few years: Whole libraries available on a handful ofyideodisOc students
of all ages learning at home through microcomputers linked by phone

with vast edudational data bases; instant access -by satellite to an
unlimited variety of televised information. But4, like many of the other

contactors believe we have learned that those fundamental changes
will- come to realization, An most cases, only in a gradual and often

evolutionary *ayrather than by soine instantaneous sea change.
Educational institutions, and those within them who learn, and teach,
and adminiiter; need time and experience to incotporate these new ways

of leaning into their individual, social and economic._ patterns of
behavior. The organizational changes to which Many of this book's papets

have referred will take some time, -some fits and starts, and many
adaptive processes ip order to become viable. So instead of speculating
about what could come to pass, I would like to examine cunently existing
trends in the rest Of the wórld; it is these existing trends which are most
likely to condition the educational alternatives of the near future.
I see four basiotrends that now have a firm basis. The best established
is that embodied by the concept of the open universitythat is, "teaching
at a distanec," for motivated adults. The second is an increasing use of

broadCasting to Meet basic -edutitidial nee& within primary and
secondary schools,-particularly the emerging rediscovery of/Indio as a
Rawer* in-school educational Medium, When appropriately programmed. The third is the now familiar world-wide use of televisionfor early
'Ackildhoodeducation as pioneered by the Children's Television WorkihoP in -its Sesanie Street and Electrie Company efforts. And finally,
serving as die intellectual underpinning of many of educational tech-

Woe's sisecess stories in the world's educational marketplade is the
slow but steady growth offastructional systems delign, used as a formal
methodology for developing the content of instruction. 7EACHINGAT

:Elierivhere_itt the world, as-in our own country, innovations succeed
when--theY are able to combine effective instnictional methods- with

Matching Needs


delivery systems that are cheap, reliable and simple for the users to
operate. Even then, they persist only when such innovations become
incorporated into institutions that themselves are stronginstitutions
which are viable because they serve important social needs.

The Open University
The Open University movement fits all these criteria. The British

Government of the late 1960'S and '70's was deeply, politiCally
committed to expanded higher educational opportunity beyond the
selective and indeed elitist university system extant in the United
Kingdom.By using television; radio, and the post, the production skill of

the BBC, the instructional, design skill of its superb educational
technology group, and the content expertise of a first-rate faculty, the
British Open University has grown to more than 65,000 students, by all
odds the largest universityin- Britain and one of the larger ones-in the

World. Its graduates have acquitted themselves so well, and their
intellectual standards are So high, that an Open University degree means

a good deal oven in status-conscious Britain. The model has quickly

become transplanted to other nations where university entance is
difficult to achieve. The Bavarian Open University now enrolls thousands of German students; the model has been extended to Venezuela, to

Pakistan, to at least a dozen other-countries including, of course, the
,United States. We can expect some of the particulars to change from
place to place and to evolvein Britain, for example, the use of the audio
emends creasingly viewed as having advantages for some purposes
over both te1èison 'and radio, and is rapidly becoming a Major element
in the media knix. In _the South Pacificwhere Mailing cassettes or
documents mejns in manyinstances takingthem over dangerous reefs by

longboatitb adcist _techniques are predominate, and there is now
serious experimentation willi slow-scan teleVision.
But the basic elements__ of the Open UniversitS, model remain the
sarneworking adults 4udy in their own homes, or in some countries in
Community centers, using some form of audio or visual instrudtion; their
performance is: Monitored and guided ihrough correspondence, telephone or sony .other means; and in most cases, instructional- systems
design techniqües frame thedevelopment of anstruction content. These
systems generally wOrk well. They are econothically attractive be-Causestadents ,can -still-be_ employed, and they fill a tremendons need for

servical& new populations.
In some develoPing countries, theselsystems,are being used,also to
eitend the societal usefigness of the university. In the South Pacific, for
emnPle, with -cantle help through AID., university faculty in such
fields Is agronokvi pUb1c health,!and economic policy am providing '
spedialyzed in-service courses to_ development Wórkersttl'tinughout the

regionto nurse-inidwives, to r,grieultural_ extension agents, -to :plannersthrough Satellite radio. In the pmcess,incidentally, these faculty



Matching Needs

are being profoundly influenced in their regular academic teaching by
their two-way comrnunicatiOn- with those who are facing real-world
problems, on the job. So I expect these open universities
to continue to
function, to giow, and to become even more sophisticated educationally.
Because the); are now permanent and important institutions in
countries or regions, they can take on that task of continued, steady,
instructional improvement, through new instructional techniques and
better testingone of the great promises of educational technology that
has so rarely been fulfilled.

InstrUctional Broadcasting: The Re-Discovery of Radio

Let Ine turn now to basic education and the expanding role of
instvictional broadcasting, increasingly by radio in the developing world.

By basic education I mean the fundamental language and

skills one is supposed to acquire in primary and junior secondary school.
Here the developing nations are facing even greater burdens then
we are,
because of their rapid population growth. Although school enrollments

have risep dramatically in the last two decades, in many African

countries fewer than half the children are in school; in India a majority of
school-age children fail to complete the fifth grade; and in Brazil just a
few years ago fully half the school children in the country were in first
grade classrooms, many of them repeating the first giade because of

failure, or simply the absence of schools with higher grade levels

available. In India last month, a noted Indian educator observed to
that-if India were to keep up educationally with its entirely predictable,
indeed quite certain, population growth over the next twenty
years, a new
school would have to be built every ten minutes. In addition, of

trained teachers would need to be recruited to live in the difficult

conditions of village India, and to be paid by a very poor nation.

'With conditions like these, some countries have been working

seriously at using the educational technologies to carry a major

part of the

instructional-burden. To planners in some countries it seems almost
inevitable, and the-only practical hope of coping with the

explosion, let alone improving educational quality and capitalizing
on the
vast human potential in Third World narions. We at A.I.D. have had
privilege of working with several such countries as they seek out basic

educational alternatives. In at least a few of these countries there
been the, recognition that fairly fimdamental organizational change will

be a requisite to meeting their needs. Starting a dozen years ago,
television was the chosen medium, and it is those systems which

are now

the most mature. When they were developed, the use of instructional
design methods was rarely used in educational broadcasting;
Street and the Open University had yet to emerge as successful hybrids
of these two approaches to educational technology. Thus, the quality of
these systems might have been limited, to some degree, by their early


Matching Needs


birth. But they have had considerable achievements: in El Salvador, for
example, a doubling ofjunior high school enrollment without diminishing

quality (in fact, with significant learning gains) was made possible
through double sessions supported-by classroom television, television
closely integrated with daily teachers' guided and intensive teacher
retraining. At the same time, the curriculum was entirely overhauled.
The system continues. In the Ivory Coast, something of an educational
miracle has taken place. From I WO to 1977, primary school enrollment
expanded from under 80,000 (almost entirely in the cities) to 560,000;
again daily television lessons in every key classroom subject have made
this expansion possible, while teachers have-been giadually trained, in
part by television progiams for that purpose.
But television=based systems are perceived as too costly -by many.

Therefore, we at A.I.D. and later others, such as UNESC6 and the
World Bank, began some years ago to work with selected developing
countries to develop radio as a key medium for distributing much of the
core of instruction. Because radio ha: been around a long time, it was

initially very difficult to interest educational planners in using it in a
significant way. Our strategy has been to try to make it so effective
educationally that people would have to sit up and take notice. In this
enterprise we have had the great advantage of having the leadership of
Professor Patrick Suppes of Stanford and his very able colleagues,
Barbara Searle, Jamesine Friend, and-Klaus Galda, to carry out the
initial efforts.
The first result of this new commitment to radio education has been the,
creation ,of a complete, daily, radio7based curriculum for all of primary
school mathematics, widely usable in schools where teachers themselves
are inadequate in mathematics teaching. This curriculum, tested in daily

broadcasting over several years, has shown learning gains over traditional rural schools ranging from 20 percent to 35 percent per year. The
method was first developed and tested in Nicaragua; it is now showing

equal success in the very different culture of Thailand, and is being
examined for possible adoption by several other nations throughout the

world. Its power -derives, incidentally, from adapting many of the
instructional principles associated with computer-assisted instruction to
the mass medium of radio. The progiams, for example, are filled with
' elicktations of active responses by the childrenworking out sums with
bottle caps on their desks, shouting out answers, singing mathematical
songs. The schedule of repetition of drills in particular skills, such as twodigit multiplication or three-digit subtraction, is deternined by fine-tuned
principles of distributed practice, based in part on students' performance.
And feedback on performance is rapid, frequent and non:perjorative. All

this, plus some creative radio formats that are culturally sensitive and
warm-hearted, has created a system that is a delight, welcomed in the
classroom as a lively guest each day, and that succeeds educationally.



Matching Needr

When one sees this system operating in otherwise dreary and sleepy rural
classroOms, it is a jorto see the electric aliveness it can bringmuch of it
deriving from the delight that is inherent in active learning. If one ever
wanted to puncture the mYth of passivity associated with instructional
broadcasting, these-are the classes to see.

Many of these same' techniques are now being used by A.LD. to
develop a curriculum in the language arts by radio, initially in Kenya. We

soon will be testing elsewhere a complete primary school system for
rethote rural schools, where family members of community volunteers
can play many of the roles of the teacherthe classroom organizer, the
nurturer, the interest-stimulator, while the radio lessons provide a core of

instruction. So, while just out of its infancyor perhaps its second
childhoodinstructional radio is being rediscovered throughout the

world, with significant new uses now emerging in such countries as the
Philippines, India, Korea,- and several Latin American countries.
I must also ,rnention some of the-extraordinary uses to which radio is

being Put to reach adults with both basic edueation and practical
inforntation. In almost every Latin American country, radio schools
daily_ teach tens of thousands of largely illiterate or semi-illiterate farmers

the basics of education, as WelLas a wealth of practical information on
health, agriculture and family economics. There are now 34 such
systems, most of them initiated by the Catholic Church; One of thenvinColombia,' has a regular newSpaper for new literates, the "Campesino,"

with a circu litiorrof-6430;000-

The U.S. has-assisted a number of these effort:s
-throughA.I.D., is helping develop new techniques for making-eadio_a full-scale
information and educational service- for rural people.: We areAssisting
projects which are teaching basic nutritiOnal skills to families by radio,
providing daily detailed agricultural information, and teaching mothers
themselves to deal -.:ven with severe health problems being faced by their
infant children. Fci radio is increasingly educating, informing, training
and even savir g ',lives in the developing world, using techniques
entertaining enc ugh to attract listeners and useful enough to retainThem.

Television for Pre-School Education
The third trend I alluded to earlier, the= adoption of Seiathe Streettypes of television programs for the pre-school instruction, is so well
known I need not dwell upon it. More than thirty countries are using
Sesame Street Or the Electric Company._-Even more importantly, the
Children's Television Workahop has dene a i7eat service by engaging in
co-productions with cOuntries as diverse is Mexico, Germany, and
Saudi Arabia (a total of 6) and so has left these nations with basic skills
on which to build future activities themselves. Since pre-school education is generating increased interest in many nations,as it way to
ilnprove school' -success and to overcome intellectually deadening

Matching Needs


environments in many of the poorest householdsthe use of this model
will, I am confident, continue to thrive, especially as television becomes
more widespread.

Instructional Systems Design
Now, a word on the fourth trend, the one that underlies, I think the
success of most of the othersthe growing acceptance of instructional
systems design as the framework for developing instructional content, no

matter what the medium. Here, I think, we can take pride in this
peculiarly American intellectual export that is beginningto take root and
flower, and that is of enormous importance to the future of education.

The systems design approach to empirically based instruction, which
grew out of programmed instruction, basic psychological research on
learning, and the use of computers, is in a way the essence of American

pragmatism, as at Avery point in developing a lessonor a systemit
says, "Go see what is really being learned; if it doesn't work, try it again
until it does work." I cannot emphasize enough how radically different

that underlying attitude is from the methods still extant in so many
places"copyrreeite, repeat the knowledge exactly as it is in my head,
or fail;" an approach, incidentally, that seems to work reasonable well for

the few, and seldom works well for the many.
As we have begun to combine these methods of instructional systems
desigg with the wide access provided by the mass media, substantial
movement has begun to occur. One of the most impressive achievements
in this area, incidentally, has been in the Republic of Korea. Eight years

ago, with the help of U.S. A.I.D. and experts from the Florida State
University, led by Professor Rpbert Morgan, Korea set in motion a
-complete-overhaul of its school system, a reform based on instructional
design concepts, esiiialYr-bil mastery-learning,_an on the use of radio,
television and programmed texts. Here, gieat attention has en p-aid
also to chancing clasSroom and school system organization. It_is an
extraordinarily ambitious effort, and one of the few where the instruc-tional technologists have been put in charge of the reform of an entire
school system. Last year a near-fmal test of the system in 200 schools
showed major learning gains; the model systern now has begun its
national scale adoption.
Satellite Communications

Finally, I must briefly mention the revolution that satellite communications promises and that is at its beginning overseas, as it is in this
country. After years of worldwide speculation about the possible use of
satellites to enhance education in the developing world, India in 1975-76

used a NASA experimental satellite, ATS-6, to bring community
educational television to almost 2,400 remote villages throughout India.
It broadcast science lessons: it reaches hundreds of thousands of adults



Matching Need.s .

with health .and agricultural information, news, and cultural programming; and it provided in7Service training to 48,000 rural school teachers.

This was the same satellite that in the U.S. spa*ned that nowblossoming Appalachian Community Service Network and a variety of
educational and health uses in Alaska, and that also served the Rocky
Mountain states. In India, too, the experience encouraged the nation to
develop an operational system; in 1982 India will have its own satellite
(U.S.-made and launched, by the way, and fully paid for by,India) which
among other things will bring educational broadcasts in ten languages
into schools throughont rural India. China has declared its intention to do
the same (although just recently delayed by budgetary constraints), in an
effort to Tapidly overcome the deficits in basic and technical education
produced by .the Cultural Revolution.
The power of newly available satellite communication systems derives

fnihr two factorstheir ability to reach rural people economically, and
their capacity to aggregate learners in any specialized field, without

regard to distant. These capacities will find many applications.
The United States is associated with developing these new opportunities through the new AID. Rural Satellite Program, which -will
provide both radio broadcasting and community telephones to rural
freas in several countries, in an effort to show that educational and twoway communications can, in fact,ebe a catalyst to social and ecmomic
development in the rural areas of the worldwhere, after all, majority of
the people on this planet live. We are working in developing this program
with Peru, Senegal, several Caribbean nations, and soon, we expect, with
the Philippines and several additional countries. Among other things, we
expect, to making some dramatic new uses of another "old" technology,

the telephone, a "feedback" medium of great flexibility, as well as a
means of access to many sources of information.
Briefly, these projects will use small earth stations to bring radio and
telephone communications to rural towns. We will be assisting local
agencies such as agricultural extension and health provider systems to
fio-47-so"utilize-these-media-to.improve their effectivenessi and we

will be evaluating very carefully their cost, revenues, andeffeels:

So, in this panorama I hope you've gathered that some important seeds
of productive change are sprouting in education around the world. New,

more educationally powerful, uses of old media such as radio and

telephones are emergin& and instructional methods based On learning
effectiveness are beginning to make difference. Some new institutions,
such as Britain's Open University and Korea's Educational Develop-

ment Institute, have arisen to give some permanence to these new

There is still a very, very long way to go, however, to. effect



Matching Needs


fundamental improvements in the basic educational opportunities

available to most of the world's people. In attempting to go that long way,
I look to a lively interchange with the many in the United States who are
?aiming at some of the same objectives, and I also hope that the people oC

this nation will continue to support this effort through the AID.

program. We in this country have a special,professional contribution to

make to this effort because of our well-rooted pragmatism and our

leadership in the new learning technologies. In turn we can perhaps be
inspired by the efforts of other countries to ourselves take bolder and
more rapid steps to overcome our own difficulties. We are now realistic
enough about our own educational constraints that we can have the very

genuine satisfaction of learning together during this next decade, a
decade which should be exciting and which, together, we can make

Securing Teacher Acceptance
of Technology
Doris-K. Lidthe
Towson State Unlversity
Baltimore, Maryland

When addressing the topic of securing teacher acceptance of technology in schools, a great number of educators today are talking about

bringing computers and computing into the ichools and this means
.change. Bringing computers into schools some years ago might have
been considered a minor change and could have affected only 'a few
teachers, particularly the mathematics teachers, some business teachers,
and those few teachers using Computer Aided Instruction (CIA), since
CIA was too expensive for most schools. Today, however, there is a new

problem. Computers pervade all aspects of our lives. Everyone in our
society needs to know about computers in order to function in the society.

Joseph Lipson in a 1979 report for the National Science Foundation
(NSF) said, "Failure of the Federal Government to move swiftly to
facilitate educational uses of the new technologies will endanger the
economic-and, eventually,-the military security of the country. If our
democratic institutions are to remah stable, we must welcome, rather
than fear or ignore, the imperatives of technological change. It is unlikely

that we can do this without firmly weaving advanced information
technologies into the fabric of our educational system."1
He continued by saying we need a major program to train specialists in
this areacomputer specialists and people with artistic arld instructional
design talent. And herein lies one of our major problems, there are not
and will not in the foreseeable future be sufficient trained personnel for

the-schools-unless-some near miracle occurs.2
Further Lipson said,-"We
evr dice-that-only-with-an-inforrned,
public, can the nation hope to move into a computer age with the speed

and sense of purpose required. The adoption of a new technology is
incredibly complex. At almost every stage there is strong intereaction-I


Teacher Acceptance


with public attitudes and public understanding. Investments, markets,
legislative positions, enrollment in courses, and selection of careers will
all vary with public awareness and knowledge."3
-Beyond consideration of these problems,_the acquisition ofhardware,
software and courseware for use in the schools must be addressed:"The
dramatic change in capability, and the cost of inr.wmation and image
machines will touch every aspect of our personal lives and health as a
society. And science education . . will face a unique challenge in
responding to the opportunity. Newinowledge and skills can be taught
through new forms of learning experience. Concepts and procedures can
be more, effectively taught to a wide range of students."4
The returns are great if a real commitment is made. The teachers'
commitment is important, but is only one part. For "the acceptance by
teachers of an educational program is a necessary precondition for its
success."5 However, "a school district must have a strong commitment
from the Board of Education add the administration in order to provide
the policies and resources needed to establish goals and implement
systematic_ curriculum change."6 Does this commitment exist to allow
teachers to incorporate the needed technological change?

Aspects. to Consider
There are several aspects that must be examined with regard to teacher
acceptance of technology in the schools. It seems appropriate to consider
the reasons that teachers may not accept technology, the reasons that will
persuade teachers to use technology, and fmally to look at the methods

and means that may minimize those factors which inhibit the use of
technology and those that maximize the acceptance of such technology.
Before examining these factors a brief look at history seems appropriate.
Historically there has been only minimal acceptance of technology
and innovation in schools. There has actually been only incremental
change when the long term is considered. Today there is still a great deal
of teacher explanation [lecture presentation], student listening, students
doing assignments and reading from textbooks, and students writing

examinations about the material presented to them.7 That is, there is
great reliance on lecture, text, and test. This is not to say that there has
not been considerable emphasis at times on the use of media other than
blackboard, chalk, and textbooks, but these older materials -irmain
dominant in the majority of classrooms. Dr. Andrew Molnar cites a 1975
National Science Board report stating, "that over half of all science and

social studies and two-thirds of all mathematics classes use a single
textbook and many teachers use no supplementary aids other than the
chalkboard."8 The question' is why is this so? Why are television
-teaching, programmed learning materials, films, direct-dial access
systems, and language laboratories- not more dominant? There is no
single answer. Some of the explanations for the failure to use these



Teacher A cceptance

technologies in schools include: little concrete evidence of the effective-

ness of the use of these..media, teacher resistance to change,
lack of
training in the use of eqiiiphient, the lack of adequate hardware,
and courseware, the deed to change teaching style to use the technology,
and thaact that extra time_ ahd preparation are required to use these
technologies. Acceptance,
the other hand, occurs when the teacher

feels 'that the technology is effective with students, the
teacher has

adequate training to effectively and efficiently use the technology,
there is
adequate hardware, softWare and courseware, and the technology fits the
teaching stYl-e.Of the teacher.
Almost parenthetically it seems appropriate to mention that one of the

technologies that has succeeded is the language laboratory.
Here the
special feature seems to be the active rather than passive
involvement of

the learner.9 This and the experienceof most teachers seems to agree that
active involvement of the learner in the learning process is more effective
than passive involvement..

Classroom Effectiveness
The primary factor most teachers consider in relation to the
use of
technology in the classroom is its effectiveness in the teaching.learning
environment. Nearly all technology will requite an investment
of time
and effort on the part of the teacher, if they are to use it in their
Unless the teacher is thorougly convinced that this is Worthwhile for
students, the teacher will not be motivated to expend time and/or
effort in
preparing for the use of the technology.
Today, the technology that seems Paramount in the minds of
educators is computers, more particularly microcomputers, and most
microcomputers with videodisks. In terms of schools this is a very recent
development. Computers were unheard of in the schools in
Indeed, there were only 15 computers in the United States in 195010
in 1951 the first commercial computer, a UNIVAC, was delivered and
to the
Census Bureau.11 It was 1954 before a commercial
delivered to other than a governmental agency. But computer
developed rapidlY and by the late fifties there were alitady many
"second generation" computers.12 These comPuters were
more reliable,
faster and less expensive. At that time many schools acquired their
computers, business and induStry recognized the need for computer
specialists, and the general interest in this new technolou
spurred the
development of courses in programming and the useofthe computer. A
.few experimental programs were developed in the late
fifties and a
scattering of credit and non-credit courses appeared at various educational levels. The problems of the emerging new discipline

from the beginningequipment, teaching staff, texts andwere
On the secondary level a pilot program in Livermore, California
1957-9 was one of the _earliest reportethcourses.14 This_successful


Teacher Acceptance


program led- to the introduction of a regular course in computer

programming in 1958. Designed for mathematics and science students,
the purpose was enlightenment and,enrichrnent of their programs. Local

business and industry provided computer facilities, materials, and

instructors. It should be noted that this was one of the few areas of the
country where firms hal computers at this early date and where they

were willing to donate so generously of their time, facilities and

personnel. This cooperation between sehool and industry was present in
the early states of many programs.15
Until the mid-sixties progress was slow. In 1963 the PIP Newsletter
listed all the courses and programs known to the Project on Information
Processing, a committee of the National Science Teachers Associatidn.
The report showed that only a scatteringof courses were being offered:
There was evidence of a lack of equipment and of trained personnelfor
teaching. The lists of available texts and visual aids revealed a dearth of
suitable materials. Many non-credit courses were offered by business
and professional associations16 for the enrichment of the regular Ihigh
school program. Significantly, two distinct varieties of programs were
reported, the one with a mathematical scientific orientation and the other
with a business orientation. Hard facts as to the number of secondary
schools teaching data processing are not available, but one estimte is
that in 1966 one-fifth of all high schools had access to data processing
equipment for instructional purposes, though most of the equipment was


unit record equipment.17 Another report at that time indicated that
nationwide about 400 secondary schools were psing computers for

programming scientific problems.18 Throughout the sixties the problems
were still:cquipment, teachers, texts, and curricula. But.some schools
were finding solutions.19 Time-Sharing services provided the equipment
at a price many could afford. Some teachers obtained training at local

colleges or attended summer institutes sponsored by the National

Science Foundation. Some texts were appearing, though not always of
good quality, and the results of experimental and early course offerings of
a few schools provided the basis for curriculum development.
The situation ai the seventies began is well summarized by Warren
Stenberg of the University of Minnesota:
Computer science courses have not as yet played a major role in

computer use at the secondary scene but they now seem to be coming

up fast ... [Even tough no standard curriculum has yet been

developed ...(and] textbooks are not generally used.20
Courses in data processing"are still in the category of pipe dreams since
the teaching personnel just does not exist."21

Computer Acceptance
But events in the seventies changedlthis picture. Today there is a

sudden increase in the numt er of schools across the nation which are



Teacher Acceptance

beginning to use computers or are considering the use of computers in

claisroom. There are two major forces behind this
movement. First,
computers are, with the advent of the microcomputer, relatively
inexpensive. Second, the computer has become such a pervaiive
in our daily lives that nearly every citizen must have some knowledge
computers to function in the society. This means that schools

educate students to function in a society where they will interact, airectly
or indirectly, with comptfters.

Surveys of teachers indicate that most teachers believeta
ar all

students should learn about the computer. Not all teachers are cOnvinced
that they should use computers in their own classrooms,
and §ome of
those who are not interested in using computers indicate that they
unaware of the possible uses of the computer in the classrook22
Other factors which cause teachers to be reluctant to
use computers
include earlier claims that the computer will replace
the teacher, their
own lack of knowledge about computers, the feeling that computers
deliver a less personalized education for the student,
a lack of under-

standing of the adVantages and modes of use of
computers in the
classroom, being ill-at-ease when ,using computers, and having,
examples of problems with the uie of computers in
various school
administration applications.
For those teachers who are convinced that computers are an important
part of the classroom, there May remain some reluctance
computers. This reluctance comes from anxiety in dealing with to use
equipment, .a feeling of loss of control of the teaching-learning
inadequate hardware, software, courseware, and support, or because of
the considerable time and effort required to obtain adequate
training, to
remain current in the field and to use computers in appropriate
ways in
the classroom.

Training Needed
What will persuade teachers to use computers?
First appropriate training is essential. Through pre-service,
and professional development the leaders in education need in-service
to see that

teachers understand that the computer is to be viewed not as a
replacement of the teacher, but

rather as a sophisticated tool to be-used
by the teacher to allow the teacher to do a better job in the
This means that teachers must realizeThe potential of the
computer in the,
classroom, that the computer can be used in many modes,
as a tutor to
provide information- and-drill and practice, as a tool in
require a calculator or information retrieval device, and
as a machine to
be instructed. Teachers should be given ample, opportunity to see
computers used in all these ways and to see how they may effectively be

. used in their own classroom. Seeing examples of

quality uses of

computers should allay misgivings and motivate teachers-to consider


Teacher Acceptance



using computers in their own classrooms.


support must be assured. At
Second, adequate hardware, software and
schools face tight budgets and this naturally means
the present time many
and support. There are
strict limitations on funds for hardware, sOftware
for the use of computers
areas Which are trying innovatiVe programs
using the microcomputer for a
through sharing of facilities, one school
school. This is certainly
few weeks and then passing it on to another
adequate. In fact for
preferable to no computer at all, but.it is
for a classroom is inadequate. While
most usesone computer
supports the use of one rnicrocompuer or terminalstudents, one computer
twenty toihirty
one- time,23 in a classroom` of
the students using the computer and
means that the
in the room. Ideally, a computer
negleet the vast majority of the students single laboratory in the school,
for every four students is suggested. A
might be a good solution.
where students may go to use the computer, various classes could be
The teacher could accompany the students and might'function in much
scheduled to use the loboratory, or the laboratory
it is being suggested at Carnegie
the same wr, as thelibrary. Even now
have his/her own microMellon University that each student should public secondary schools,
computer.24 This is certainly a long way off professional
educators about
but gives sortie idea
the importance of computers for
in schools. At the present
Software is beginning to be developed for use
used hasibeen developed by the
time much of the software that is being
them by friends and
teachers who are using it, or has been givin to A current projeci of
acquaintances, or swapped
Portland, Oregon, headedby Dr.
the North West Regional Laboratory in is evaluating and cataloging
Judith Edwards and funded by NSF,
primarily for use in higher
software for use in schools. Other materials,
through"CONDUIT at the UniversiV of Iowa.
education, are available
in the
vendors are also active in assisting
Several microcomputer
exchange of software among their users. WI,"e are being taken in the
time an abundance of software,_positive ..,eps
software. This is an area
development and dessimination of quality
which needs continued attention.
realization that the classroom
There must, at least for the present, bb a
or computers in "the.
teacher requires support
especially in the initial stages, are unfamiliar
classroom. Many teachers,
problems as hooking up and
with computers and fmd such smalltightening up a connection, and
adjusting the _color monitor or TV, functioning to be overwhelming.
checking out the machine' for proper
into the classroom the teaCher
For some time after the initial introduction
of a malfunction, someone to be a
needs someone to whoin to turn in case



Teacher Acceptance

resource when questions arise in the use of software and for lesson

planning.This seems essential if the transition into the classroom is to be
smooth. One "expert" in the schooi blinding who has the time, expertise',

and assignment fo assist other teachers seems to alleviate many

Third, teachers must be given time for training to use a cornputer with
ease in the classroom, time is also needed to remain current in this rapidly
changing field. The amount and type of traMing that an individual teacher
needS will vary considerably. depending on the previous training of the
teacher and the mode and extent to which the computer is to be used in
the classroom. For those teachers who will use only prewritten software,

'the training need not be extensive. However, for teachers who are
teaching computer literacy and computer programming much more

training will be necessary and frequent updating will be necessary since
the field is so dynamic.

Encouraging Usage
What can administrators and educational leaders do to encourage the
use of computers in classrooms?
There are no simple answers to bringing computers into the classroom.
Indeed it has been a long process and it will not occur imMediately.
However, it is crucial that the process of bringing computers into the
classroom be addressed in this decade. Dr. Andrew Molnar of NSF sees
this as a critical issue for schools. Change .cannot be -mandated, but
leaders can persuade. This is an appropriate time because the public is
aware of-the importance of compiners,-Nrents are-seeking; in-many
cases, for computers to be introduced-into schools. News magazines,

such as TIME, indicate that the USA is falling behind Japan in

technology, particularly in computerized robots. Many leadars point
to the need for better science training, which means training in the use of
cOmputers. With this stimulus, it is time to aevelop a plan of action which
should include:
1. Provide teachers with an opportunity to learn about appropriate
uses of computers in the classroom.
2. Provide pre-service and in-service training for teachers.
3. Provide adequate, not token, equipment for the classroom.
4. Provide software packages for use in classrooms.
5. Provide auxiliary teaching resourceifilms, texts, lesson plans,
and curriculum guides.
6. Provide a specialLt tO consult with classroom teachers concerning
hardware, software and classroom usage of the computer.
7. Reward good teaching with cOmputers.

8. Provide examples of teachers doing superior teaching with


Teacher Acceptance


Though this lists seems long, and some items involve considerable
expense, we must consider the cost of not providing these items for our
teachers and students. Because "the computer has, today had an impact
on the lives of each and every one of us; already, most-of our financial
affairs and many of our social affairs are subtly controlled or structured
by the computer, and the future promises only more of the same,"25 we
must see that every student has a "basic understanding of the computer

. a critical component of the knowledge of any educated man or

woman., ,26

We must realize that the status of computer literacy among the
students in our schools today is woefully low, Dr. Ronald E. Andersonof
the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) reported
in December 1980 at the National Computer Literacy Goals for 1985
Conference in Reston, Virginia that
In brief; the best data we have suggest that few students in either senior
or junior high school have opportunities for computer eperience; few
have algorithmic problem-solving skills;and many lack an awareness
of the role and value of computers, Since these findings are true for 17
year old students, most of whom were in 1 1th grade, we would

speculate. that many students are graduating from high school and
perhaps from college without a minimal level of computer literacy.
What is equally disturbing is the evidence in the data that what little
literacy exists in the nation's students is unequally distributed .across

social groups. Computer experience is much less common among
minorities, womenoind those living in the Southeastern U.S. or ruF1
areas. Not only is computer experience lw common among these
groups but there is good evidence that computer knowledge and skills

are lowerarwell:26

All students must become computer literate. We must see to-it-thatcomputer education is equitable and that we do not develop a gronp that
is information and computation rich and a group that is information and
computation poor. For information and computational ability are power
and these belong to all.

Learning from the Successes
Finally, it is instructive to look at some examples of computers in
schools and to try to determine how they came about and why they
succeeded. There are many examples that should be considered and here
only a few are mentioned. One of the earliest known programs in a pulic
schOol was in Livermore, California in 1957. Here parents wanted their
children to learn about computers and programming. Some ofthe parents
and local professionals taught the course and the programs were taken to

local facilities to be run. There are many similar examples of parents
teaching a course or courses, providing adcess to equipment and giving
excellent support to the classroom teacher. A program of this type can
work in the initial phases, but eventually it must become a regular part of



Teacher Acceptance

the curriculum and be handled bya regular teacher.

One of the important examples of an entire state taking
the initiative in
bringing computing into the schools is in Minnesota. nit
Educational Computing Consortium has been very successful
in this
respect They began by using a system of time-shared computers
terminals in the schools and now are also using microcomputers. with
provide- teacher training, software, group purchase
of hardware,
curriculum guidelines and support. State and local school
other areas can gain considerable expertise from publicationssystems
You will be able to learn more about this in the next session
John Haugo, Director -of MECC, talks in the session when Dr.
Technological Change in the Schools."
The, impressive work in the Philadelphia Public
Schools under the
direction of Ms. Sylvia Charp is an excellent example
on a local level.
People from around the world visit this project and
many of the
fine parts of this program
Many, of the secondary schools in New England
owe much of their
succesi to Dartmouth College which not onlY made
available to these schools, through their time-sharing
-Dartmouth also trained teachers and encouraged-the development
exchange cf software.

The early and successful programs in computing in Oregon

to Dr. David Moursund who obtained NSF grants to fundowe much
training sessions for secondary school teachers at the
University of
Oregon. ArL outgrowth of this was the establishment of the
Council on Computer Education and the Publication
The Oregon
Computing Teacher which has recently become The
Teacher and is distributed nationally.

SUMMARYThese are but a few of the projects that have had
an effect on the local
or state schools, but they are important and we can learn much
them. In every case there was at least one very dedicated individual from
gave guidance to the project, there was training of teachers, there who
involvement in acquiring of hardware, there was development was
dissemination of software, and there was ongoing support for
in the classroom. These are the essential ingredients to
teachers to use computers effectively in their classrooms. encourage

1. Josephl. Lipton, "Technology Program Recomthendisticins,"
Technology in Science
Education: The Next 10 Years (Report for NSF , July
1979, ISE-79-57)), p. 32.
2. Peter J.
" U.S. Productivity in Crisis," Communications
ofACM (November,
1980), pp. 617-619.
3. Lipeon, p. 33.
4. Lipson, pp. 36-36,

' Teacher Acceptance


5. Mar lo Leyton Soto, "Teachers, Parents and Community Data Sources," Handbook
of Curriculum Evaluation. Aneh Lewy, ed. (New York: Longman, Inc., 1977), p.
Literacy Into the K8

6. Beverly Hunter, An Approach to Integrating Computer
Curriculum (Alexandria, Virginia: HurnRRO, 1980), p. 8.

7. A.E. Conord, "How the Computer Can Bring Teacher andStudent Closer Together,"

AEDS JournaL (Fall, 1973), pp.11.

8. Andrew Molnar, "The Next Great Crisis in American Education: Computer
Literacy," AEDS Journal, (Fall, 1978), p. 12.
9. A. Kent Morton, "Provoking Educational Change Within Existing Academic

Structures," AEDS Journal, (Spring, 1975), pp. 19-81.
10. Eric A. Weiss (ed.), Computer Usage/Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill,
Inc., 1969), p. 10.
11. Richard N. Schmidt and William E. Meyers,Introduction to Computer Science and
.Data Processing, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1965), p. 25.

12. Carl F eingold,Introduct ion to Data Processi g , (Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown
Company Publishers, 1971), pp. 26:27.
in Computers, (eds.)
13. Howard E. Topmkins, "Computer Education," in Advances
Franz L. Alt and Morns Rubinoff (New York: Academic Press, 1963), Vol. 4, pp.

14. Darrel G. Littlefield, "Computer Programming for High Sctools and Junior
Colleges," in The Mathematics Teacher, LIV (April, 1961), pp. 220-223.
15. Reports of experimental programs appear in several sources. See particularly PIP

Newsletter, 1963-1965. Curricula for programs at all levels exist in fakabundance in
several ,volumes of AFIPS Conference Proceedings and SIGCSE Bulktin. Many
articles from these sources were compared to formulate the statements of this paper.
16. George C. Heller, "KCiimputer Curriculum for the High School,"Dataniation,VIII

(May, 1962), pp. 23-26.
17. C.B.S. Grant, "Data Processing Instruction Predicted for Most High Schools Within
5 Years," Business Automation, XIV (Septimber, 1967);- pp: 36-37.
18. Charles H. McCoach, "Computers in the Classroom," Software Age, III (April,
1969), p. 44.

19. Ibid., pp. 46, 48.

20. Warren Stenberg, "Computing in the High Schools-Past, Present and Future-and
Its Unreasonable Effectiveness in the Teachingof Mathematics,"AFIPS Conference
Proceedbrgs, XL (Montvale, New Jersey: AFIPS Press, 1972), p. 1052.

21. Dorothy Jo Stevens, "How, Educators Perceive Computers in the Classroom,"
AEDS Journal (Spring, 1980) jip. 221-232.
22. Doris K..Lidtke, "Paired and Individual Learning in Computer Programmins An

Evaluation of Student Achievement and Cost Effectiveness," Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Oregon, 1979.
is Urged for College
23. Jack Magarrell, "Universal Access to Personal Computers
Students, Professors," Chronicle of Higher EduCation, (January, 1981) pp. 1, 14.
24. William S. Davis and Allison McCormacic, The Information Age (Rea&g, MA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing 'Company, 1979) p. 15.
25. Ronald E. Anderson, "National Computer Literaq, 1985." A paper presented at the
"National Computer Literacy Grials for 1985," Reston, Virginia, December18-20,





Effectiveness of Technology in the Schools
Public and, Taxpayers Response
Catherine E. Morgan
Edikational Consultant
Kensington; Maryland



Tradition is defmed as "the passing aownof elements of a culture from
generation to generation" of" a mode of thought or behavior followed
a people continuously froni generation to generation" or "a set of such

customs viewed as a coherent body of precedents influencing the

present" These defmitions provide justifications for what is taught and

how it is taught. Any field or method which has the aura oftradition

no justification for inclusion in the school program. As an example of

tradition, consider that although metric measurements and decimal


notations are almost universally used, we continue to spend
an inordinate
amount of time on common fractions and English measurements iu
elementary schools. These traditional emphases appear to need little
no justification and are, in fact, difficult to drop from the curriculum.
On the othei hand, innovation means "something new or different."
Where does non-traditional technology fit into the schools?
and r:ompuers represent innovative instructional subjects
and tools
which are nbt accepted readily by educators or the public. Interestingli
eneugh, these twg media are of recent vintage but are well accepted
media for entertainment and business. Television has been part of most
of our entertainment lives since the late 1940s. Computers have infringed
on our business and economic lives since the late 50s and now are
making their way into our homes.
However, in education, the use,of computers and television requires
that it be "sold" to a variety ofconstituencies. These
groups include: (1)

the decision-makers the guperintendents, members of Boards of
Education, curriculum specialists; (2) the implementorsprincipals
teachers; (3) the publicparent and non-parent taxpayers; and (4) and
clientelethe students.



Effectiveness in the Schools


Uses of Computers in Education
Let's l;egin by examining where computers are used in education and
how they got into the schools.

For Administration
In almost every public school, as well as the college and university, a

computer was leased or purchased for business applicationsouch as

payroll and accounting. In that capacity, the computer is firmly
entrenched in our educational institutions.

As a Subject of Instruction
A second area is that in which the computer is The actual subject of
instruction. Vocational data processing in high schools began in the
1960s and was justified as job preparation. Most of the equipment was
called unit record equipment and young men and women learned such
skills as key punching and sorting. At the same time, colleges and
universities began teaching computer science and their graduates had no
difficulty setting employment in a rapidly growing field.

During and since that period of time, certian public schools and
particularly certain teachers began to recognize the need for all students
to acquire a new literacycomputer literacy. The subject teachers, who
were most likely to be interested, were mathematics teachers. Here is
where the idea that improved problem solving skills results when students
are taught to program the computer. I recall believing this to be u fact and
stating it unequivocally at a board of education meeting in 1973. My gut
feel still is that it is true but we couldn t prove it and no one else to date has
proved it, despite many past and on-going studies. I'm grateful that we no

longer need to prove it. Universal computer-knowledge is a legitimate
goal in itself. School systems should develop policies under which they
support computer experience fotall students. The computer is here to
stay; our children will use computers in their work and in their homes.
They need to know how to access information from a variety of data
bases; how to read documentation and run computer programs; and how
to make judgments and decisions about computer uses. Many of our
students will need to know how to program a computer. All will need to
know how to exploit and control their uses.

Fortunately, technology has changed the ermomics of acquiring
-computer equipment for literacy and programming. The microcomputers

available for several hundred dollars can be used by many students to
learn a, programming language and Acquire the necessary degree of
computer literacy to function in the modem world. The languages are
part of the machines and the students write their own programs in the
available language to solve problems. Their programs can be stored on
inexpensive reusable cassette tapes. If a school system now is doing
little or nothing with computers, this area should be its fust thrust.



Effectiveness in the Schools

As a Source of Instruction
The most controversial area for the student use of computers is when it
is the source of the instruction. Since the early 1960s, educators have
been experimenting with the use of the computer as a direct aid to
instruction: computer-assisted instruction. In this mode, the computer
takes on all or part of the teacher's role. Instructional programs may
provide the actual teaching dialogue. The student interacts with the
machine in a primitive tutor/student relationship. More commonly, the
machine supports the normal classroom instruction by providing drill
and practice, remedial instiuction or a simulation. This latter mode may
be used when a classroom laboratory experience may be too lengthy, too
expensive or too dangerous.°
Adyocates of computer-assisted instructionstress that the need exists
to individualize instruction and make student and teacher time more
productive. A student who only needs ten practice problems before
progressing to a new level will get only ten while a classmate may need 50

or more before,attaining the same proficiency. A student who cannot
factor a polynomial would not progress to solving quadratic equations
which require factoring Nationally known experts made statements
assessing that computer instruction for remediation would go far toward
overcoming educational deficiencies and inequalities. Computer equipment and supporting instructional materials were purchased with monies
for disadvantaged students. The city of Chicago bought hundreds of
computer terminals to be used by deprived students using Title I funds.
Now let's look at the economics of this type of instruction. In the past
and, even today with large computers and teleprocessing, the equipment
and supports-needed for computer-assisted instruction represented addon cost of $108 per year per student for drill and practice in arithmetic.
school system decision-makers were familiar. Justifiably, these people
want io know: Does this new type of instruction make a difference in
achievement? Is the difference worth the cost?-Are we able to do some
things the- an not be done without computers? Are there any side-

effects? Are the niachines dehumanizing? All of these legitimate
questions need to be answered.
The costs have decreased` at a startling rate. For example, in 1974, in
Montgamery County, we provided the Board of Education with an addon,cost of $108 per year per student for drill and practive in arithmetic.
This $10.8 figure gave each student one-half hour ofCA I per week during
the regular school year. A major portion of that cost was for computer
and communciations equipment. The $108 figures was predicated on
involving approximately 4,000 children in the program.
Today using the same parameters and assuming that the costs of a
fairly elaborate microcomputer at $3,000 plus maintenance over a fouryear period, the cost of providing the same half-hour per week over a

1 03


Effectiveness in the Schools


school year.would be less than $18 for equipment. The equipment cost
would be constant if there were one or 50 computers. Obviously, if a
large number of micros were purchased at the same time, the cost would


be reduced.
A more important question to ask about computer-assisted instruction .
is that ofeffectiveness. Are there differences in achievement when CAI is
employed? Many research reports describing the use of drill and practice
CAI programs have shown that student achievement increases sigpificandy. Favorable results were shown in Chicago, Illinois, with Title I
children, in Los Nietos, California, with Mexican-American students
and in Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, with mostly
middle class students.
Other examples can be cited, such as those reported by the Pennsylvania State Univeisity, an early leader in the field of computerrassisted
instruction. The two Professors Cartwright developed a series of courses
called CARE, which provided classroom teachers with information on
how to accommodate blind, deaf and other handicapped children into the
regular classroom. At registration, students were placed randomly into
the conventional college lecture course or into the CAI laboratory to
work at a computer terminal with an individuSlized program. The
content of the ,course, Introduction to the Education of Exceptional
Children, was identical. Only the mode of instruction differed. The
course time under conventional methods was 37.5 hours while the mean

time for completion of the CAI program was 25.2 hours. The fmal
examination contained 75 items with the conventional class having a

mean of 52.78 with a standard deviation of 4.68 while the CAI group had
a mean of 65.89 with a-standard deviation of 5.89the difference was
significant at the .001 level. These results represent a 24 percent higher
mean grade on the final examination and 35 percent less time required for
course completion. Similar studies in the military and in industry show
significant differences in training time when all trainees are required to
meet a standard level of competency.

In the area of special education, the use of the computer has been
particularly intriguing. Students in special education, unique in many
respects, require remediation and attention unlike that needed by other
students. For exampie, maintenance of skills by mentally retarded high
schooi age students is difficult and an actual increase in achievement is

highly unusual. Yet, for selected students, the computer has been a
remarkable motivational and teaching tool. In a Montgomery County,
Maryland, study 10 mentally retarded adolescents, with an average IQ
of 74, participated in a CAI arithmetic program once a week from
January to June, 1972, and made an average gain score of 7.6 months in
arithmetic achievement with a standard deviation of .4. In spite of their
low mean IQ, their gains which ranged from 3 months to 1.7 years, were

analyzed as though ihey were normal.



Electiveness in the Schools

Currently, computers are being used with deaf, blind,
handicapped, learning disabled, mentally retarded andorthopedically
disturbed children. Enhancements for computers include emotionally
audio, color,
graphics, touch panels, light pens and other devices. These
additions to an already motivational tool increase its
teaching special student groups and for the presentation of
subjects like
music, art and foreign languages.

Is the difference worth the cost? This question is
a valid one and should
be asked of all programs. For example, in the
same year that the $108
add-on figures was cited for CAL\ the cost of providing
prescriptive tutoring for a single chikkwas approximately diagnostic$500 yearly.
No proof existed that this program made
any difference but the timehonored tradition of one-to-one tutoring comes down
from the Greeks,
and as such needs no justification.
A cost/benefit analysis can be made for industry where the
less time
required for training places the employee into
production earlier. If the
training normally occurs at another city, travel and
per diem expenses are
actual cash savings'. However, in public education, the
cost/benefits of
saving student time is not of immediate value
to the school system. IF
fact, it may raise pew complications. What happens
is 5 students finish
Algebral in March, 8 in April, 10 in May and 4 the
Similar difficulties exist in public education for
costing out effectiveness.
What does a month's gain in achievement normally
cost? If a student
makes a half-year grain during a school year, is his education
twice as
expensive as that of the child who makes a year's growth?
effects of poor school achievement are well-known The long range
and may cost
taxpayers millions of dollars for maintaining people
welfare and in

Are there some things

that cannot be done without a computer?
Management of instruction may be one. This type of
the classroom teacher with profiles of the students inprogram provided
concepts and keeps these records uP to date. Thesemany skills and
individual and group needs and strengths assisting thereports reflect
planning If records were kept in 25 areas of two subjects, teacher with
and reading, the teacher would have 1,250 pieces of
on each
child! And when a parent wants to know
can Johnny add; measure and
solve problems, the teacher has information supported
by data.
Another area in which schools can prcivide
new services may be when
insufficient enrollment in a course causes it to be cancelled.
Latin IV for two students? Could students in different What about
schools study
Statistics at computer terminals

three days a week and
teacher once a week to discuss problems and go over difficult meet with a
Will, in the future, students

work on most skill areas at computer
terminals in their own homes and attend schools much
currently? Alvin Tofler suggests this possibility in his less time than
latest book.


Effectiveness in the Schools


Are 'the machines dehumanizing? Not in my experience, In fact,
students say, "The computer says the same thing to me that it says to
everyone else." Students in Montgomery County wrote personal and
endearing notes to "Dear Computer." Studies in Los Nietos, California
showed that Mexican-American students made significant gains in selfconcept after using computer mathematics programs. Children are not
only engrossed in their interactive computer work but they are loath to
give the terminals up when their turns are over. There is an old English
proverb which states that "when kids stand quiet, they have done some
'harm." Computer kids don't stand quiet.
The computer situation in public schools has changed radically during
the past year or two. Prior to 1978, educational technologists in public
schools were begging to retain whatever equipment they had in place.

Today large numbers of microcomputers are being purchased and
installed in schools; many times into situations in which no one in the
systems knows what to do with them. Monies from general funds, yearend surpluses and PTA's are being expended and no planning for their
use has been made.

Current gational Situation
A recent report published by the Task Force on Computer Assisted
Learning Subcommittee in the Secondary/Elementary Schools
Association for Computing Machinery (July 1980), stated that they had

surveyed 974 school districts and had a 62.3 percent return. The
association determined that the response was balanced as to geographic

and urban/rural districts. Analysis indicated that 74 percent of the
districts used the computer for instruction with projections to 87 percent
by 1985, and 54 percent reported usage in the form of computer-assisted,
instruction with projections to 74 percent by 1985.
Further the report stated that major impediments to increased use were
fmancial, lack of knowledge about computers and their use in instruction,

attitudes of faculty and the need for more and better instructional

If your school system is a novice in the computer field or would like to
increase its usage but presently has no plan as to how to proceed, I would
recommend the following steps:

I. Key school personnel and board members should become

knowledgeable about computers and their uses in instruction.
This can be accomplished by attending workshops or seminars
which are given by national organizations or by planning for inhouse presentations.
2. A careful I.Jeds assessment should be undertaken. An analysis of

what equipment and expertise exists within the district. This



Rffectiveness in the Schools

needs assessmen,. should begin to delineate where the district
would like to be to, 1985. At the same time, an examination of
academic areis id which students are having difficulty should be

undertaken. The literature in the computer field should be

researched to learn if any areas of deficiency can be addressed by
computer-assisted instruction.

3. The school system should formulate a policy *ting to instructional uses of computers.
4. The school system should designate an instructional leader to
develop short and long-range plans for the implementation of the

policy. Care should be given to acquisition of equipment,

guidelines for selecting or developing instructional materials,
staff development needs and the process for implementation.
One goal of each school system '.tiould be Computer literacy for. all
graduating students by 198$.
Let' s prepare kids to function in an information rich world remembering

the words of Elbert Hubbard when he said, "The object of teaching
child is to enable hini to get along without a teacher."


The South Caroling TelecommUnications
Thomas L Stepp
Deputy ManagPr
South Carolina Educational Television Networic
tolumbia, South Carolina

I would like to address the topic of technology in schools, not from a
broad, superficial point of view, but rather from the point of view of local
impact in local schools.
The reason that this perspective is important (from my experience) is

that all of the applications of educational technology which exist are

completely moot if individual students and teacheis in schools and other
educationalinstitutiors are not motivated to use the product which those
of us who are program distributors provide. We can engage in a lot of
planning. We can engage in a lot of sophisticated instructional design.
We can spend vast sums of money producing highly attractive radio and

television courses. We can provide tape recorders in classrooms to
improve the smooth integration of our product into overall instructional
plans. But if our products do net suit the educational needs of individual

students and teachers they are valueless. The grandest scheme for
production and distribution is worthless if it is not utilized.

South Carolina System
In South Carolina we transmit signals hundreds of miles. Our national
programs travel 22,300 miles to a satellite half-way point, returning to
earth over wide geographic terrain. None of that is of any merit if a onequarter inch, off-on button on a tel visioa screen or radio receiver
students for whom they are
negates the use of our s Orvices by
ology in schools without
intended. It is impossible to consider t
contiidering the impact of an individual program on an individual student
.inii splxific classroom under the supervision of a dedicated teacher in a
school system devoted to principles of improving instruction for all of its







The South Carolina System

I don't want to bore

you bydescribing the South Carolini Educational
Telecommunications System. I think perhaps many of you 'know

something about what we do. For those of you who do not, let me briefly
state that within South Carolina weAhe South Carolina ETV Network
operate 10 television transmitting stations, 6 FM radio stations and
extremely Complicated closed circuit, statewide network made --u-p of
leased cable, ITF S, state-owned microwave, and the physical delivery

tape. In South Carolina,.Ave apply this technologir to all of the

--educational-needs-oftheState-.-Weprodutetriddittiginte prograMs for
preschoolers, for the elenientary grades, for secondary schools, for
college credit (in fact, offering more courses for college credit than
other institution in the world, more than 60 last year), for post-graduate
education (including two dynamically unique programs through which a

student can achieve a Masters Degree in either Business Administration
or Engineering during evening hours from any geographic location in the

State). We extend our college credit to home viewers, in an "open

university concept." And, of course, we provide the entire array of public
television and radio programming for, all of South Carolina.
In .cooperation with NOAA, we operate the State's comprehensive
twenty-four hour weather and emergency weather services. And I an
very, Very proud of the efforts we make in providing 12 hows per day of
special programming for the visually handicapped broadcast on the
4subcerriers of our FM radio stations.

ImpactMany times, when discussing my trade in public, I speak from three
rhijor points bf reference and they -generally deal with, fitit, the inipact of
electronic telecommunciations 'on the lives of each of us. The second
point is the information explosion and the usefulness of telecommunica-

tions delivery in meeting the- demands for increased educational

opportunities and needs. And, third, both at home and out of the state, I
like to talk about die economy of telecommunications as
an important
and significanf new means of providing educational opportunity
to all
citizens no matter how remote they might be in socioeconomic status or
geography from the traditional centers of learning.
I think .that you will probably join me in understanding the now
traditiceal concept that the application of man's most powerful communications tooltelevision--to our daily lives his changed the way we live.
-My late friend and colleague, Marshall Mciiihan, was the proponent of

"probes" dating from the early '50s about the flow of electronit
communications into our daily lives and the resultant impact on us.
We're lila fish who are not aware of the water hi which they live, in that

we live in an'electronic ecology and are not always, I think, aware of the
impact of that ecology on us day by day. Parents often tell me they
:startled to learn that, according to recent Nelson data, children under

the South Carolina System


five watch television 2314 hours a week. I don't know why they're
surprised. The same data reflects that they watch television 44 hours a
Arthur Clark, creator of 2001 said, "The single greatest industry of the
future is going to be education. For every person, education will have tocontinue throughout life. That will be essential in a world where half the
things a man knows at 40 hadn't even been discovered when he was 20;
and half the things he knows at 20 are no longer true by the time heis 40."

Ninety percent of the scientists who have ever lived are alive today.
Our task in educational communications is to try to make just coping
with the information explosion even possible.

To put our efforts in perspective, I would like to make a few points
about the impact of the South Carolina System in areas other than the
public schools before turning directly to the specifics that you have asked

me to present today. A major arid most exciting development in our
operation is that we have moved actively into a significant degree of
statewide teleconferencing. We are pioneering in this area, which is going

to become increasingly important as state agencies are forced by the
pressures of inflation to become more cost conscious. Teleconferencing

is a way forwoups to meet and receive essential training without
expensive travel to a central location. The very best experts on any
subject can be brought in to provide information and to conduct meetings.

Their audience can be at any of SouthCarolina's technical education

__centers University of South Carolina regional campuses, health care
centers, hospitals and many high scholls. Through teleconferences, state
agencies have been conducting training, making surveys and meeting
other management communciations needs. Viewers in the field talk to
experts at the ETV Center in Columbia by way of telephone talkback

The State of South Carolina saves per diem, mileage, lodging costs,
training costs, lost time from the job, and wear and tear on vehicles by
meeting through teleconferences. ETV saves money for the State by
moving information to peopleelectmnicallyrather than by transporting

peopleat great cost--to the traditional information centers. This is a
nut* basis ofjustification of our System to policy makers and decision
makers. I do not mean just teleconferencing; I mean the presentation of

the advantages of economy and efficiency of telecommunications
services. When a comprehensive telecommunciations center exists, the
economics of scale of its operation are the most dynamic and forceful
reasons by which to explain its importance. It is certainly-a mainstay of
how we justify our institution to the State of South Carolina.



The South Carolina System

Now, quickly, I must insert that, yes, it is most importaThtat
speak to the quality of product which we deliver and
to the quality of
educatigtal opportunities that we provide to students of all
ages, in all
areas oreducation.
However, in these harsh economic times it is crucial
that we also
justify ourselves on the scale of economic efficiency.
is what we
Take teleconferencing, fOr example. In the last three
years ETV has
conducted 319..teleconferences-forour fellovrstateageitief,
specialized training for 74,000 people. The use of our closed circuit
network for teleconferences during that period of time
has provided
services that could have cost the State eight to nine million
dollars by
traditional methods. That figure is equal to the total
cost for the entire closed circuit system, with only a small
the time of the closed circuit being required for
the teleconferencing
activities which achieve these savings. The remainder
of the time is
available for, and heavily used for, in-school instruction, higher
medical education, and many other services.
Le me give you just one spe/1fic example of the economic
inipact of
teleconferencing. Prior to each general election the State of SoUth
Carolina has some .8,000 poll workers who must
undergo mandatory
training by the State Election Commission. Prior
to the last three
elections, these 8,000

workers have received their

two days Of
training through ETV at a savings to the State and to the
involved (who are volunteers) in lost time from the job,
mileage, lodging
per diem and instructor costs of over $1,300,000 per statewide election.
That is a total savings of nearly $4 million during
a six-year period.
That is language that legislative leaders, school
boards, college
trustees, governors and citizens understand,
There is no longer any question that it is much
more economical to
take education to people than .to take people to education.
McLuhan, to whom I referred earlier, once said that ". . . when
seemingly disparate situations are placed in opposition, often startling
results occur." So it is with the energy crisis and increased telecommunications capacity.
A central argument for the

existence of the South Carolina Educational
Telecommunications System fellows art economic theme. In 1961,
shortly after we began serving schools in South Carolina,
we taught
3,300 students at a cost per student of $19485. By.
1919, Ave-were
serving 1,691,069 course enmllees-at a Coit of $5.83
per course
-deliveredld it student. Let me repeat the dollar numbers
: 1961$195,


Let's look at that in a slightly different way. Ten
years ago the delivery
of a television course to a school in South Carolina cost
roughtly $10 per

course per student. In those ten years, the cost of that delivery of

The South Carolina System


television instruction has dropped to $5.83, a drop of 47.3 percent. At
the same time, the average cost of a school textbook in South Carolina
increased approximately 300 percent A $2.59 textbook in 1975 now
costs $7.38.

Justify telecommunciations education? Why not use a dollars and
cents approach? The entire South Carolina Educational Telecommunications System, which_has one out of every seven South Carolinians
enrolled in at least one of the 346 courses of instruction offered through

oursystern;-costr only-1-1-percenrofthe-State'swduatit5frbudthlt is the cost of th z. entire delivery system and progams for public
television and radio viewers and listeners, progams for children in
school, programs for college credit, for continuing professional education,

for technical education, for doctors, lawyers, ,nurses, the visually
handicapped and others.



For 1.2 percent of the South Carolina *edlication budget, we deliver
lessons in a typical school day. Yes, on our multi-channel
system that amounts to over 80 hours per day of instructional television
delivery. And, don't forget radio in addition.
Thus, I have no trouble in looking toward the future to predict that
telecommuilications will play an increasingly major role in education
particularly as adapted, specialized and particularized for local educa-:
tional needs. Telecommunications improves the quality of instruction. It .
imparts knowledge skillfully and permits one to learn wherever he is in
the-educational process. And it permits him to learn equally with others
no matter where he is in a geographic sense. Educational telecommunications is like a beam oflight It provides illumination to help us cut through
176 television

the fog of change that could otherwise obscure the world ahead.
Telecommunications allows us to more quickly and ably move from one

point to another as we strive to generate creative worth from our
intellectual enterprise. Communications technology is an integral part of
the process transforining our lives and shaping our destiny.
But in a more overriding sense, it is economics which will compel the
use of telecommunciations in education. Our system in South Carolina
has shown this clearly. There are many other justifications. But rather

014n_ki9k arcAndfor means to justify our existence; I am proud of the fact
thif, in iouth C irolina, we have taken a strong stand on the usefulness of

television and radio in education and have proceeded to put those
dynamic-tools-to-work. In putting them-to-work-we have found that one
service stacks naturally on top of another service and additional services

compound the efficiency of delivery geometrically: -Herein lie vast
economies of scale which make use of the system compelling.



The South Carolina System

Significant Enrollment
No user has to use any program which we provide. Therefore, the
statistics concerning the enrollment in our courses are very significant to
us in that enrollment is voluntary and engaged in solely at the discretion
of the user. Increases in in-school utilization alone are indicative of a

great dear of success in what we have accomplished. Innovations in
providing new services are equally impressive andjuideed,hambeguato-become part of our basic justification of the System.
I think we need to be careful, however, that we do not let the need to
justify the system control its purpose, direction, or the motivations for its
use. The South Carolina System was created to enhance the educational
opportunities for every citizen in the State. We are beginning, after 22
years of hard effort, to work our way toward doing that. The capacity
required for delivery of our services was virtually unpredictable. Each
new service generates another. The number of users we serve is startling,
compared to two decades ago.

Serving these people is the reaso:. we are in existence. Edward R.
Murrow once said that "The trouble with television is that it is like a
sword rusting in the scabbard during a battle for survival." Frequently,
however, I confess that the more pragmatic way to explain the impact of

what we do must include both economies as well as philosophy and
educaticial accomplishment.
In South Carolina I sincerely believe that with the support of teachers,
superintendents, State education officials, boards of education, colleges,

universities, legislatures and goyernors, we havethrough the years
proved that there is a major place and a major role for a significant
educational broadcasting system to impact on the educational progress
of in entire state.

11 3

Higher Education Uses of TV andikadio_
Peteri. Dirr
Corporation For Public Broadcasting
Washington, D.C.

For years, colleges and universities have used television and radii.) for
instruction but until recently we had little systematic data on the nature or
extent of those uses. Since 1978, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
has been working with the National Center for Education Statistics
(NCES) andthe national higher education associations to document the
extent of use and to explore factors which were thought to affect use.

The information which I will discuss is drawn from two studies
conducted by the Corporation in eonjunction with NCES and the
following education associations: American Association of Community

and Junior Colleges, American Association of State Colleges and
Universities, Association of American Colleges, Association of American
Universities, National Association of State Universitiesand Land Grant
Colleges, National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities.

The information was gathered in two phases: the first, conducted in
1979, was a universe study of all 3,000 colleges and universities in the
countrybut looked only at television and involved only one administrator
at each institution; the second, conducted in 1980, included radio/audio

as well as television and involved a 'sample of 120 institutions, 960
faculty members, and 1,920 students. Together, these two studies

provide a wealth of information about current uses of television and radio
as well as a wide variety of opinion about the factors that most affect


Institution al Level
More than 70 percent of all institutions of higher education (IHEs)
make some use of television: 10 percent use it only for non-instructional

purposes such as promotion/recruitment or staff development; 61
percent use it for instruction, including 25 percent which offer courses

1:1 4


Higher Education Uses

over television and 36 percent which use it to supplement existing
Looking only at the instructional uses, the greatest portion of the effort
is spent for on-campus credit offerings (66 percent), followed by offcampus credit offerings (17 percent), then on-campus non-credit offerings
(12 percent). So, while many contend that television is a way to reach

o ge o campus, we fmd that 78 percent of the
instructional television effort at colleges is devoted to on-campus uses of
the medium. -'

Tracking the exact number or students enrolled in courses using
television is complicated by problems of defmition and unavailability of

adequate data. However, from the data we have obtained, we are
confident in estimating that in 1979, about 1/2 million students were
enrolled in more than 6,000 courses offered over television. While some
colleges and universities make extensive instructional use of television,
the most common experience is for a college to offer one course per year

over television and to enroll 20 students in that course.
Technology for delivering television progremming seems to fall into
four categories by the extent wo which they are used: more than 90
percent of the institutions reported using self-contained video tape units;
approximately 75 percent reported using public and commercial tele-

vision stations; about 50 percent reported cable and closed circuit
systems; and 10Ipercent reported using satellite ,distribution and
Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS).
More than one in four IHEs (28 percent) is a member of a formal
consortium offering or producing televised courses. Another 17 percent
are members of informal consortia. The services most often provided by
the formal consortia include: program previews (77 percent), progam
exchanges (74 percent), and goup buys and/or acquisition of program

rights (63 percent). Three out of four members of formal consortia
expressed satisfaction with the services provided by the consortia and 86

percent planned to remain members of those consortia for at least the
next three years'.
The television equipment resources of colleges and universities vary
greatly: 94 percent of those that use television have TV cameras but only
58 percent have control rooms or studio facilities. (This seems to indicate
that mobile production is more prevalent than fixed studio equipment.)

7.4..percent,of TV-userspro_duce their-own programs. Abouttallhave
closed circuit or master antenna
sets are about ,equally available.
Institutional expenditures for television seems to be increasing or level
but not decreasing: funds for equipment and staff have increased over the

past 3 years (in 55 percent of the cases) or remained the same (30
percent) and will continue to grow (45 percent) or remain the same (35

percent) over the next 3 years. Projected increases are geater for


Higher Education Uses


equipment than for staff.
These studies have identified the major barriers to the use of television
for instruction at IHEs as the following:
Lack of institutional funds and support




Cost and availability "of courses
Lack of trained support personnel
Lack of record rights
Poor broadcast times
Insufficient advance notice
Data on the use of radio tie just beginning to be available. ThOse data
indicate that 53 percent of all IHEs used radio/audio for instructional

purposes in 1979. Those colleges and universities offered a total of
almost 10,000 courses involving substantial use of radio/audio and
enrolled almost 1/2 million students in those courses.
Eighty-four percent of IHEs which used radio/audio for instruction
had on-campus production facilities. Seventy-six percent used available
facilities to produce original programming for instruction.
The barriers to the use of radio/audio for instruction are exactly the
same as those for televisionlack ofinstitutional funds and support, lack
of faculty commitment, cost and availability of courses, lack of trained

support personnel, lack of record rights, poor broadcast times and
insufficient notice. These findings, as well as the use patterns, suggest
that radio/audio's use is more like than unlike television's use.

Faculty Level
More than half of all faculty members reported using television for
educational purposes either in 1979 (43 percent) or prior to the 1978-79

academic year (22 percent). Those who had used the medium for
educational purposes averaged 6 years of Use. Most reported having
videotape playback units available (85 percent), as well as TV cameras
(84 percent), TV receivers (73 percent with color receivers and 71
percent with black-and-white receivers), and control room and studio
facilities (62 percent). Most reported using videotape playback units (82
percent) and TV receivers (58 percent color and 48 percent black-andwhite).
The delivery system most often iffedW facultY- wife: Self-CO-ntated
videotape playback units (73 percent), public television stations (57
percent), commercial television stations (37 percent) and campus closed
Funds for the acquisition of television equipmc--ilre
come from non-departmental accounts whereas Kinds for the acquisition
of instructional programs is likely to come from departmental accounts.

Eight-five percent of faculty members who used television for
educational purposes repotted that production facilities were available



Higher Education Uses

for their use. Fifty-six percent reported having participated in a

production at their institutions.

Twenty-nine percent of those using television for educational purposes
haft had formal training for such use. Fitly-seven percent reported that

they had taken_a_college_course-in


role. When those faculty members used television in their own courses,
the dominant production modes were lecture/monologue and demonstration techniques.

Even in courses where television was reported to have played a
substantial role, only 12 percent of the course hours were televised.
Faculty members reported the folloc.ving factors as major hindrances
to their use of television for instruction:
Lack of adequate departmental funds
Programs do not meet adademic needs
and/or standards
Cost of available courses
Poor broadcast times
Insufficient advance notice
It was the opinion of many faculty member respondents, the
use of
television for educational purposes is not readily accepted by the
profession or the institution. They view their course framework

unadaptable.to television, maintain that the-use of television adds to their
work, and feel that the institutional and professional reward
structures do
not recognize efforts spent in developing and using television course
materials. Interestingly, faculty members see none of their major barriers
coming from the students.
More than one out of four faculty members (28 percent) reported that

they used or assigned radio/audio for educational purposes in 1979;
percent of all faculty members reported tLit they used radio/audio in an
average of 2 courses each, enrolling an average of 27 students in each.
Ninety-two percent of all faculty members reported that radio/audio
production facilities were available to them.
The barriers to the use of radio/audio for instruction
are exactly the
same as those for television: lack of departmental funds, unsuitability
available courses, cost of available courses, poor broadcast

Student Level

Almost all students have used or expect to use television for
educational purposes during their college careers; 47 percent, or 5.5
million students used TV as part of their college programs in 1979;
an6thTF3:51MIkiii hId used TV prior föl 979-add1:5-ttilliotrap-etta
to use it within the next three years.
Slightly more than one in four students (28 perent) who used

11 7


.44611igher Education Uses


in 079 used college-owned equipment, especially videocassette playback units (88 percent) and color TV sets (44 percent) and black-andwhite TV sets (39 percent). Most of the use was in traditional college
classrooms (70 percent) asopposed to non-college housing (29 percent).
e evision in I 979Teported that such use was

voluntary (63 percent), did not.constitute a substantial portion of the
course (76 percent):and that the courses which used television cost the
same as courses which did not (82 percent).
The major barriers to the use of television for instruction as reported by
the students were:
Poor broadcast times
Inadequate equipment
Insufficient advance notice
Inadequate courses

Students did not view the use of television in courses as too

burdensome, depersonalizing, or an easy way to get credit. Neither did
they see courses with television as being particularly more relevant and

informative than other courses. In general, they viewed courses with
television as worthwhile and appropriate for their areas of study.
More than one out of three students (35 percent) reported that they had

used radio/audio for some of their courses in 1979; 13 percent of all
students reported that radio/audio was used for a substantial portion of
one or more of their courses.
The major barriers to the use of radio/audio reported by the student

respondents were:
Lack of appropriate radio/aUdio courses
Inadequate courses available


Poor radio/audio reception
Poor broadcast times
Insufficient advance notice
In all other opinions about the suitability ot radio/audio for college
instruction, the student resrionses closely paralleled their opinions on
television's suitability.

-- These data-and-the limhed-analyses-alreadyperfonnedorithenibtginto provide use with an appreciation for the roles of television and
radio/audio in college and university instruction. Analyses will continue
and the implications of these findings will be carefully examined over the
next 12 months. For instance, we already know that differences exist in
the ways in which different types of colleges use television for instruction.
Further analyses might disclose some of the reasOns for those differences.
At least they should help to further describe the nature and magnitude of
-the differences.




" Making the Case for Changing Public Policy
Normr E. Watson
Coast Communky Colleges
Costa Mesa, C3l1fornia

The community college today, as an institution, is entering a period of
extremely rapid and sudden change. During the decade of the 70's, the
community college was an institution in transition. It was learning to
become a "matUre" institution, one which had experienced significant

growth in numbers, in facilities, and in students served. During the
decade of the SO's, the community college will be an institution in
transformation, moving from the traditionally accepted goals of its early

years to a heightened and expanded mission to, provide lifelong
Some of the critical problems that will face community colleges as they
move into a new era will be public policy, state laws, and administrative
regulations. In times of rapid change,,the old rules and social arrangements can become rigid barriers standing in the way of adaptations and
modifications.to new environmental conditions.
Teclmological developments in delivery systems that are laking place
today have immense potential for the community colleges in connection
with their ability to fulfill the mission of lifelong education. Already,

hundreds of community Colleges throughout the United States are
utilizing broadcasting to offer additional opportunities for learning to the
adults they serve. An mcreasing number are using cable to make learning

opportunities more available. And, as the technology develops, tape
cassettes, discs, teletext, the satellite, and the computer will see greater
In order to fully utilize much of the new technology, traditional ways of

dealing with personnel, with reporting procedures, and with funding
mechanisms will require close study and scrutiny in order to ascertain the
extent to which they assist or obstruct an institution's ability to meet neiv



Changing Public Policy


Without entering into a long and dusty discourse on the origin and
listorical development of the community colleges in California, I would
like to select by means of chronological timelines, a few examples
policy, and administrative difficulties
addressed in allowing institutions to cha-lirWeilthihrtimeb.

Public Education Regulations

To betem, community colleges in California evolved from the 13th
school, or K-12 segments of
and 14th grade appendage to the K-12 segment and for many years were

tied administratively, legally, and by funding mechanisms to
Of the
sesment of public education.
regulations that the community college was required to enforce were
regulations that were developed over a period of time as appropriate for
the K-12 segment but that had little relev,ance or worth for community

One such definition which existed in administrativc: regulations was
the definition of "immediate supervision." For attendance accounting
purposes, "immediate supervision" was defined as having a
was taking
instructor physically present
place. Only those hours of
could be certified were eligible for state support. Such a
boys and
obviously, was admirably suited to
girls under reasonable control in a standard size box-like
had serious deficiencies when
tutorial labs, television, etc.
The first movement away from the strict construction of the
"immediate supervision" was
allowing cooperative work experience to be funded by state

Including Technology

Riding on the coattails of the success of the vocational educators
had necessitated both changes
regulations,a number of us in the community colleges set out to broaden
further the meaning of "immediate supervision" by permitting the use of
modem technology. A task force was formed, a research committee was

all in an
put in motion, and in advisory- coinmittee was activated-- activity,
attempt to open the door a
signed off by the
years of research and study, resulted in a report,

California Junior College Association, which became a position paper to
support legislation modifying one provision of Education Code Section
11251. We created a new temi called "Coordinated Jnstmction SyStems"
to describe the process being advocated. The paper's purpose was to
attention to the critical need

instrudion systems which combine classroom lecture with modem
technoiogy to improve the effectiveness and ef&iency of instructional
colleges; and to identify a problem area in the
programs in community



Changing Public Policy

_California Education Code which serves as a deterrent to progress
toward that goal."
The paper went on to point out that 'coordinated instruction systems,
combining the resources of modern technology with traditional proce.1.






iAstruction. Television instruction, computer-assisted instruction, automated slide-sound tapes, single-concept film loops, and other technical

resources serve to strengthen the teaching process."
Ever aware of the watchful eyes of the professional teachers' gyoups,
the paper painstakingly pointed out that "the role of the community
college instructor is expanded with coordinated instruction systems to
encompass more instructional development, learning management, and
evaluation of student progress. Instruction is more flexible with greater
opportunity for student success. Educational progress and competenty
of students are coordinated and evaluated by professional community

college instructors." The paper documented research on the effectiveness
of such instruction, pointed out that there would be no increase in cost,
and concluded that "legislation is needed to provide the same Average
Daily Attendance (ADA) apportionment for, students earning credit
through community college coordinated instruCtion systems techniques
as though traditional programs limited toClassroom lecture techniques.

The paper was comprehensive in thes.overage of the problems that
existing legislation posed, and the necessity for modification of code

requirements,"Developinent of adequate coordinated instruction systems
in California community colleges will not occur until changes,are made
in the procedure of ADA apportionment for students enrolled in these

kinds of classes. Programs must have an adequate base of fmancial
support within the school budget if they are to exist."
Next came the immense task of mobilizing the support of the many

diverse educational and professional Organizations for the new legislation,
finding an author for the bill, presenting testimony at various.hearings,

and making nIcessary changes in the legislation in order to obtain the
support needed for its passage.
Years of effort, and many work hours of input later, the two following
miniscule changes made it possible for the community.colleges to move
into the Twentieth Century. I will remid you that "Ws oecurred as
recently as 1970. '
1. "One student contact hour is to be counted for each unit ofCoordinated

Instruction Systems credit in which a community college student is
enrolled during any census period."
2. "For purposes of community college Coordinated Instruction
System, 'immediate supervision' of instruction should be defmed as
student participation in approved Coordinated Instruction Systems
programs of instruction using such modem technology as television,



Changing Public Policy


computer-assisted instruction, automated slide-tape systems. and programmed learning materials under the coordination and evaluation of
certified college instruction."
All was well thus far. However, it then became necessary, in order to
and guarantees which were to be elaborated in Title V, Administrative
Regulations. These, in themselves, barely escaped throttling the new
code provision with rigid requirements which colleges were compelled to
meet. Rather than treating Coordinated Instruction Systems on the same

level as lecture courses, the regulations required such things as: prior
state approval course by course, a proof of credentialed supervision, a
rigid interpretation as to what could be considered as current costs, a
restrictive limitation on the amount of state support (only 50 percent of

current cost), the elimination of anrcapital expenditure, and the
requirement of detailed evaluation reports to the state for each cerse
offered at the-close of each semester.
Is it any wonder, then, that television instniction was extremely slow in

taking off in California, even after the new legislation allowed it to be
offered'in the early 70's. For many districts, and for many administrators,
the added paper work and bureaucratic requirements were just too much,
added to the Already heavy burden of acquiring hardware and software,

and of attempting.to fend off the attacks of a considerable body of
But the door was ajar,,ever so slightly, and with great-effort.

Modification-of Regulations
The next hurdle that had to be overcome was the interpretation by the

state office that a specified number of hours of television broadcast
material would have to equate with each upit of credit offered: Such an
interpretation, of course, overlooked all elements of the coordinated
instructional system except those which actually went over the air, and
did-not, address, in any-fashion at all, eie rigor of the materials or the
learning objectives, At this stage of the game, the state office was willing
to "buy" fifteen one-half hourlelevision programs for one hour of credit,

but no less that that, accepting the principle that there was a certain
amount of compression in television-courses, and that other le4rning
activities took place in some, fashion.

The Modification of that regulation set the stage for an entire reexamination of Coordinated Instructional Systems., A task force ws set

up by llie state office in 1976. With the goal that "The Board of
Governors shall encourage the development of instructional technologies, varied learning modes, and resources to-more adequately meet
the diversity of student characteristics and learning styies," the task force

was charged with identifying problems, recommending revisions in
Atatutes and/or regulations, and developng a prospectus report.



Changhig Public-Pcilicy

The task force considered whether the defmition should be broadened
:to-includeodietbistmctional Method514*i than hardware and software
whether developmental costs should be reimbursed, whether the 50
percent cost factor should be eliminated, and whether only current costs
should be reimbursed.
As a result of the report of the task force, the definition broadened. As a
Matter- Of hict; Coordinated Instruction System, with all its good points
and bad points,- was eliminated from statutes and replaced with a neW
piece of legislatien entitled "independent study."
With the amendment of -the law in 1978 setting up ".independent
studif," it was necessary -to formulate and adopt a new set of Title 5

regulations for its administration. Once again the battle heated up

between those who were attempting to move community colleges into an
innovative and changing direction, and those who would hope to prevent
the community colleges from doing anything that was not traditional.

The following proposali were Made to the Board of Governors as
needing to be included in the new regulations::
1. State apportionment would be based on passing grades at the end of
the -ternia completely -different standard from that imposed on any
2. The number of students assigned to any one instructor should not
exceed ten perceig more than -the average number-Of students per
instructor at the college unless exempted -by waiver from the State
The number of independent-Study courses at a college shall not
exceed 4.en percent of ,the credit couries. certified for transfer unless
exempted by waiver from the State Chancellor.
Obvionsly,,the adoption of suchregriations, in the face of the fact that
television courses- were accepted4Or transfer by all state and private

colleges in California 'for full tredit, would have been a giant step
Then followed the long series of hearings, the testimony, the written
arguments, the counter proposals at the state level in an attempt to
prevent the loss of all the ground that had been gained since the original
legislation in 1970.
A new task force was formed and issued the following statement:
In general, these regulations would discourage the offering of
independent study, specifically CIS courses, in community colleges.
They assume that students all learn the same way, in avlassrooti with
a lecture and texts. They would freeze community colleges into one
form of instruction and an "average faculty-student ratio. Btit, in a time
of financial limitations, there is a need to encourage fleXibility and

innovation as well as continur the standards of quility instruction

which have distinguished community colleges in this state up to now.
Under the proponed regulation community colleges will,- for all
practical purposes, find it impossible to continiie to offer alternative

1 23

Changing Public Policy


modes of education. The nontraditional student, many of whom-are
unable to attend a regular academic program, will not be able to earn
academic credit.This.ineani that a direct and foreseeabk.resuliof the
regulation will be discrimination against the nontraditional and often
disadvantage student including homebound, seniors, and handicapped
student. It is ironic and unfortunate thatthe Board of Governors would
consider cutting back on such programs at the very-time that society
has recognized the need for such programs."

The Edlication Policy Committee of the Board of Governors, in turn,

requested that proposed regulations be "tightened up" to reduce the

potential for abuse and/or misunderstanding. The staff was also
requested to put a ceiling on the student-teacher ratio for independent
study courses, although no ceiling exists for any other type of course.

The new regulations were adopted, willi some softening of the
language. The college must certify to a number of requireMents with
regard to independent study courses. The restrictions on the number of
students in the course and the number of courses which may be offered
remaAn in the regulations and we have been forced to request a waiver, as

permitted by the regulations, from the State ,Chancellor.

What conclusions can we draw from the California case studies
beyond the obvioils one that "it ain't easy to get from here to there"? We
can probably come up with three rather important conclusions:
1. Our laws and regulations are beset by countless archaic provisions
which now thwart and will continue to impede progress toward meeting
new environmental demands.
2. Public policy can be changed and must continue to be modified if
the community colleges _are ta continue --to -be the innovati-ve, flexibie

institutions of postsemiaafy education.
3: External vigilance is essential in order that simple-minded solutions
to complex. questions do not become'part and parcel of our bureicratic

Our community colleges, in our fifty states, function in highly
differentiated environments. Although we share many common goals
and are -influenced by broad and pervasive changes in society and by
developments in technology, we exist in different structures with varying
legislative frameworks. It is essential that we exercise our influence, to
the strongest extent possible, in interpreting the traneormation which
must take place in the xommunity college during the coming decades.
Local boards, state boards, accrediting commissions, state commissions
on higher education, departments of finance, and state legislators must be
brought to See what it is the community colleges are attempting to achieve
and what must be done in order that they can fulfill their function. In this

connection, the Coast Community Colleges are currently attempting
through membership on the Telecommunications Advisory Committee



Changing Public-Policy

and the California Postsecondary Education Commission, to influence
the direction of future public policy. Included as a special category of
society'5on:going needs for education identified by the Commission are
the needs- of significant portions of the populations that have special

problems or barriers. These include the imprisoned, the physically
handicapped, the homebound with dependents, displaced homemakers,

and mid-career people pressed to change careers. The Commission
states, "Providing reasonable access to education for these groups of

adults mast be seen as another dimension of publici.e. societal

needs."_California possesso vast resources in the area of telecOmmunnications to meet the changintsocietal needs of the state. The community
colleges are equipped by inclination and experience to coordinate such
activities. It is vital that we give close and continuing attention to evolving
public policy.

Faculty Response to the Use of Technology
Dallas K. Deal
President State Univershy College
Fredonia, New York

I will begin this paper with a qualification diat requires expression, one

whichis_4_re.statement of_the obvicusitis-asimpossible-to-reference
"a!_facultyresponse to the use of technology as itis to characterizea"
faculty on almost any matter or issue you may care to mention. For
example, on my own faculty, a recently retired political science professor
reliably cast a single opposing vote on any occasion where unaMmity

prevailed on the principle of retaining the "purity" of a persitent
minority viewpoint as a benchmark characteristic of true faculty loyalty
to the. academy.

Of course, there are faculty responses to the use of technology for
instructional purposes as you might well expect; clearly, the liters:tare on
the subject documents a range of views not unlike the response io the use

of anything else except perhaps the book, or the library. But keep in

mindLineberry is quoted in Willett's Modernizing the Little Red
.School House as saying, "the antitechnologists of antiquity were
convinced that even the book, by downgrading memory, could produce
only a race of imbeciles."

The safer and more creditable reference to Make about faculty
response is that it is best seen by the current instructional Methodologies
they emtiloy. Our planners should be pleased to know that the evidence

in surveys and studies by Stern, Evans, Kozma, Cogan, and others
clearly warrants the convening of a National Conference on Technology
and Education. But for a pitifully few college and university exceptions,

the collegiate response to technology fits the discomforting view
expressed by C.P. Snow almost twenty years ago (Evans):
"In a society like ours, academic patterns change more slowly than any
others. In my lifetime, in England, they have crystallized rather than
loosened. I used to think that it would be about as hard to change say,




Faculty Response

the Oxford and Cambridge scholarship examinations as to conduct a
major revolution. I now believe that I was over optimistic."

My own belief is that progress is being madehowever slowly and
there is reason'to-believe that the-pace-of progress will accelerate in the
years ahead if the academy wills that it be given high priority.
I would like to touch upon a few of the available research studies which

deal with faculty response to innovation; the 'technology currently
available to colleget and universities in the public sector; a set of
assumptions which to me set in place the principal guideposts for charting
the course of progress; and, I shall conclude with a brief description of a

Major proposal to spur progress jointly sponsored by AASCU and
Selected Studies
Although the study is along in years (1967), the comprehensive study
by Evans and Lippman reported in their book, Resistance to Innovation
in Higher Education is classic and is really quite relevant and topical.
The a-uthui exaniffled an academic czmmunity's response to Instruc-

onal-Televisiosing-a-mmther-of-variablEs=and-obtained data on
the general beliefs and the personality orientation of the faculty of nine
colleges- and universities which they visited. Among their observations
and findings are the following which are pertinent to our discussion at this

To put our work in perspective we are reminded:

"As early as 1965, the textbook committee of a state legislatUre
holding hearings on high school biology texts was confronted by an
impressive group of literate citizens who bitterly opposed the teaching of
evolution in the public schools. When we consider furthermore, that in

our own research case historyone of the respondents, a college
professor, remarked that television is the 'invention of the devil,' we might
indeed predict that Copernicus would have had a hard time introducing
some innovations to our generation as he did in his own time." (Evans)

Evans and Lippman go on the declare, and in my view, quite
"The greatest resistance to change will be found in those institutions

whose traditional primary function has been the perpetuation of a
society's folkways, mores, and values, such as religious and educational
r-Indeed, beyond being no surprise to the student of higher education,
there is in this resistance to change a needed sense of dependabi lity which
society in general must feel and appreciate and which is referred to by the

authors when they state:

"Educational institutions would be derelict in their &ligation to
society if they were totally responsive to fads and fashions of the
surrounding community."


Faculty Response


What was learned about faculty response to the use of technology?
Evans and LipPman report:
"There is little empirical evidence to support the assumption that
faculty and administratorseven though they carry the responsibility of
imparting both old and new knowledge and are viewed as experts-in
evaluating new developmentswill choose methodological innovations
which seem to provide the greatest potential for learning."
They go onto say:
"It is undoubtedly clear by now that the present study proceeded from
the assumption that the attitudes which most of our faculty members held
toward ITV did not exist in isolation but were often inter-connected in

varying degrees with other attitudes, such as those -toward teaching
machines and teaching methods versus content. They were even interconnected with the respondent's attitude toward himself and his general
philosophy- of -life."

In the above connection andfurther from the analysis of attitudes and
beliefs of profesw

"Forty perceulofthevgessors believedthaledge-efeontent-is
a sUfficient prerequisite for university teaching, thirty-five percent felt
that method is of some importance, and only ten percent felt they were of
equal importance." (Evans)

And a very significant and humbling clue to any of us who dares
'believe he or she is destined to be a significant agent of instructional
change, is the discovery that
"In effect Professors were saying, 'The machine cannot provide those
ingredients which I, myself, can provide. I am personal and provide
discussion; I Inotivate students, and I am creative.' Therefore:
"The college professor sees himself in the traditional role of standing
before a class, delivering a lecture on which his students take notes
notes he expects them to commit to memory, supplemented by readings
in their textbooks and some additional work in the library."
Even the more negative responses in this study (Evans) take on at times

humorous incongruities such as:
"ITV is a fine instructional medium and should be encouraged for all
to improve instruction, but not for my subject area," and
"ITV is the best means of teaching in the long run, but/ would leave
college teaching if / had to use it."
However, it is interesting to note that there also surfaces in the survey
literature, professional types who are pro-IV and they can be described
and I presume identified on our faculties.
The study by Evans pictures them as being "more adventuresome,
flexible, and mobile in thinking and teaching ... who see the university as
asocial as well as academic community ... mbre free to experiment with
new methods and techniques."

And although such categorical typing may be useful early in the



Faculty Response

development of strategy for innovation and implementation, it is
important to teep in mind that:
"Although we have given evidence to show that some professors have
consistent attitudes toward innovation in general, we think it quite likely
that other professors are very selective about the kind of innovation they
are willing to accept." (Evans)
The research findings do not altogether present a bleak picture about
the current readiness of faculty to climb aboard technological vehicles
which may hold promise for the improvement in and the satisfaction faculty

seek to gain from teaching. What seems clear iS the evidence that
approaches to faculty have not been well designed, showed a lack of
concem for readiness, and have too frequently not given sufficient
attention to the importance of self-motivation toward tangible rewards
provided by the "system." For example:
"To utilize ITV many professors stemed to think that much training,
aching goals and activities
Avould-be-requiredevidence-seemed-to-intliaTe-thirif a complex
innovation can be broken down into palatable bitsat least partial
acceptance will be more rapidly affected." And, further:
" ... evidence suggests that the degree of acceptance of an innovation
by professors may partly depend on whether they viewed the innovation
as being instituted by the university administration or.... within their own
dcademic departments as a result of their own planning."
" ... evidence suggests also a reversion effect occurs most often where

reinforcers are not programmed beyond certain minimum


reinforcers include salary increments, promotions, and overt administra-

tive approval" and it is:
" . . . highly plausible that an individual's position in the university
(rankjob security) bears some relation to receptivity to innovation."
A point so often overlooked in the context of effecting change is
mentioned by Cogan:
"Any plan that seeks to rationalize the process of innovation in our
schools will perforce be slowed down by the imperative necessity to train
the men affd-women who will be centrally involved. And that delay will
be a blessing if it serves to educate us to understand that the phases of
education are long, longer than the phases of a fad, style and local and
national politics."
Telling it more stridently, Stem and Keislar in reporting their survey of
five thousand references on teacher attitudes conclude:
"The success of any broad-based educational innovation is not simply
a result of whether the proper procedures have been technically carried
out; rather, if innovation is imposed authoritatively on the teacher, with
no attempt to understand and enlist support, it yill not succeed."




The above surveyors suggest six categories of guidelines for considerstiorrin the development- ofra, strategy for-innovation:
1. Accepting environmentlargely an administrative responsibility.
2. Assurance of personal involvement.
3. Acceptance of personal responsibility.

4. Role models.
5. Incentives for change.
6. Preparation.
A more recent experiment dealing withFaculty Development and the
AdoptiOn and Diplision of Classroom Innovations by Kozma and
funded by FIPSE is reported in- the Journal of Higher Education.
In a faculty fellowship project at the University of Michigan the
findings showed that the incentive of fellowship_grants. increased
significantly the fellows use of innovations as compared to a random

fellowships had relatively little success in influencing fellow faculty
members to adopt instructional innovations as a result of discussions.
I suppose any examination of research fmdings should end on a note of
caution and in this instance, a bit more pithy than the typical dissertation
conclusion which concludes the need for more study.

Willett, Swanson and Nelson say in Modernizing the Little Red
School House bring into view a rather fascinating comparison between
thefeaSibility and the logic of change as itapplies to the introduction of
educational hardware.
"The feasibility of change to man-machine systems of education is
clearly seen in the dollar savings . . . the logic for change is another

matter . . . the educational establishment represents an intrenced
moving to man-machine systems of education will receive quick
moving to man-machine systems of education will receive quick acceptance

should be viewed with reservations."

Availability of Technology

Until recently those of us concerned with expanding the use of
instructional technology in the public sector of higher education had
available as evidence of its availability only isolated reports of commitments by campuses across the country.

In the late 70's, AASCU and NASULGC cpnducted the first
national survey of existing technology available to the faculties in over
four hundred member colleges and universities. The results of this survey
may be known to some of you; however, its highlights should serve an
important documentary purpose of this conference.
The survey covered three major areas: availability and description of

present communications technology facilities, the instructional use
served by this technology, and the plans for expansion. Responses to the
national survey indicate that member institutions of both associations




exhibit a strong commitment to the use of cornmunications technology in

their educational programs. Many institutions in the study operate

television and radio broadcasting stations whicfi are used for educational
programming. In fact AASCU and NASULGC institutions constitute
approximately one,third_ of -the station membership of the Public
Broadcasting System.
Seventy-nine percent of the NASULGC institutions in the survey
operated non-commercial broadcasting and fifty-four percent of the
AASCU members carried-non-commercial radio programming. FM
frequencies were licensed by seventy-five percent of the NASULGC
and fifty-tWo percent of the AASCU institutions.
Closed cirduit television systems were found to bequite coMmon and
in addition,"the public colleges and universities in the two associations
produced educational programs for the broadcasting stati
. percent). They utilized
Cable TV to distribute even more progrants. NASULGC cable utilizers
totalled fifty-two percent and AASCU responders totalled forty percent
in "the Cable TV category.

The survey covered also the provision for faculty utilization of

telecommunication facilities for instructional purposes. In excess of
ninety percent of the member institutions stated media services were
available to faculty and staff and over eighty percent reported the
availability of telecommunications facilities to the adult public. Instructional programs include credit and non-credit courses, continuing
education units and open learning and external e.tgree programs.
With a view toward expansion, member institutions who operate
telecommunications systems in both associations, as well as those who
do not, indicated expansion plans especially in the areas of instructional
media facilities, radio broadcasting and cable television.
It seems reasonable to conclude from this nationwide survey of public

colleges and universities that a surprising array of educational technology
is presently available to faculty for their 11S4, and the awareness of the
emerging significance of this technology as a means of enhancing-and
extending outward the teaching boundaries of the campus is of concern
and importance.to these public institutions. With this advantage clearly
in view, there is reason to hope that with proper trainingand inducement,

faculty in increasing numbers will rise to form the critical linkage
between the communication., technology found to be in place with the
needs of students in a variety of educational settings.

Some Working Assumptions(Six, in Fact)
From the standpoint of a working administrator who has spent some
time immersed in the process of learning and thinimg about the current
state of instructional technology, and who also has endeavored to bring
into being a small amount of change, I have drawn assumptions,


FOeul0 Response


of which I hope you will fmd worthy of consideration and perhaps even

Assumption Number I

There rentains ab-road in the land a legacy of unfilled promises
promulgated by hardware advocates who, during the sixties, in
particular, convincingly influenced the purchase of vast amaunts of
instrUctional equipment with the promise of relieving the then shortage
of faculty and at the-aame rime reducing the cost of instruction.

State budget analysts and, indeed, many, legislators make painful
reference to the millions "wasted" in purchasing educational hardware to

equip new buildings during the sixties. The space utilization studies
which yearly demonstrate our failure to make sufficient use of large
!whirr halls and inventoreis of dial access equipment. TV studios and the
like are too often silent and also_unfortunatelestimony against proposed
new initiatives at a time when higher education is strapped for funds.

It is my view that any progress we hope to make toward the goal of
more effective use of new technology in teaching, even with faculty
motivation at a high peak, must be calculated within the existing
constraints of continuing inflation, unfriendly budget examiners and
public policies which reflect an attitude on the part of decision makers
that higher education has had its =tient on the stage and now must make
way for other pressing societal needs.
Our requirements for new equipment, if met at all, will be drawn from a

convincing demonstration of yearly savings through more efficient
management and the never ending search for dollars which must flow
from gifts and grants.

We can, I believe, overcome the unfortunate legacy of our past
stewardship of instructional technology. It is not unrealistic to suggest
that the necessity of such a struggle is after all our best insurance that
progress will be more sustainable because it will have been so hard won.

Assumption Number 2

Most college faculty have insufficient experience as learners via
technology for us to expect them to be advocates of Vie implementation

of available communications technology eller as a teaching tool or a
mom comprehensive teaching methodology.
There is little or no evidence to suggest that graduate students
preparing for careers in teaching have been taught other than the lessons
of scholarship and research. Whatever teaching methods they adopted
came as a result of imitation of their mentors or by trial and error, rather
than studied examination of the teaching process. From this direction as,
a starting point -is where we must begin as we introduce also into the

current equation faculties which are unionized and who are forced to
pereeiv depreiging immobility as a carrer reality.




Faculty Response

An exaggeration, perhaps, but our overly sanguine

assumptions in the

pastwhich overlooked the critical necessity to begin where faculty
areresulted frequently in the wrongheaded purchase of "hardware

_methodology" -far ahead:of-any attention-to- the needs, expeditions,
abilities and realities of our faculties.
Faculty development initiatives generated largely by faculty
themselves, and primed and sustained by administrators whd
role of "facilitator" hold the plonnse of bringing about
a gradual, ierhaps
even an assuredly sustainable involvement of faculty in the
array of new and more available educational technology. use of a vast
Assumption Number 3
The pervasive and fewful spectre of broad exposure
to the risk of
failure, before de eyes of watc4ful colleagues is
and 'a
retaniant obstacle in the oath uf the mosrsecure
Itis-the-rare-faculty-meMberwho-would spearniolEeTthin fearless
tones about the educational value of an occasional
failure. Usually in this
context of failure our reference point is the students
whom we instruct
The .carryover of this belief into the
and personal risk
context of teaching methodology
demonstrates clearly a considerably
different and largely hesitant faculty responseat the
us interested in building a strategy for change shouldvery least those of
The intramurals of peer evaluation for reappointment,assume so.
promotion, and
retrenchinent mechanisms engaged as a result of
shortages of funds and
reduCtion in generated student hours in the latter
instance surface
resistance factors even from faculty who have
themselves to be secure in their positions. The
perceived exposure to
criticism felt by even the best professors
sometimes_ easily sets in .
motion subtle and curiously
rather than acts of courage. department-wide episodes of resistance
Overcoming the anxieties married to potential failure
fully accoinplished in a general sense by the recognitionis most successof its presence.
Steps which follow are largely situation specific
better locally
planned and constructed,

except for the all-impiitant

confidence building that comes from early if only modest necessity of
success and
followed by deserved recognition.

As'sumption Number 4

The sanguine declaration that excellence through
resource enrichment is hardly creditable during the current and
prolonged era of the
equivalent.ofzero-based budgets, faculty retrenchmcn4 and
fiscal ex4enctes.
The sooner we engage the operational assumption
enrichment belongs to a bygone era of educational finance, that resource
the better will
be the operational design of instructional schemes
which make use of
instructional innovation.




Priorities will of necessity require reordering. Programs and earlier
mibsions may be called into question and consequently', be repleced by
current plans for instructional improvement which require the shifting of
resources. Indeed, there may emerge a new "art" ofcreative management
that allows, for a process ofsubStitUtion rather than addition.
We should not fail to recognize that higher education management
requires the similar challenge of rethinking and reassessment of attitudes
and methodologies as does the instructional process; indeed, it is not
presumptuous to recommend such a process as a beginning expectation

of any plan designed to change substantially instructional modes of

Assumption NuMber 5

Promotion workload considerations, financial, and success inre high on the list of reward factors which spur faculty

If we dream of a world of change absent of thesecompelling factors we

dream of a time that will never be. They are, indeed, stituational and
often personal, but they persist as perceived and real expectations. They
are for the faculty, the tangible outcomes that make the effort worthy.
They are for the faculty, outcomes related to ego fillfillment which outdistance institutional goals atid expectations. They can bf.1 silent killers of

change or the very real difference between the success and failure of a

strategy. At the very least; faculty must perceive an administration
involved in and willing to articulate with conviction and to document with

creditability, positive action that the university reward system is
responsive to faculty willing to make substantive commitments to
instructional change.

Assumption Numter 6
There is no foreseeable technological substitute for the creative,
learner oriented andhighly knowledgeable "director" of the learning
enterpriserather, there exists a mounting array of workable instructional tools aroundwhich to surround and assist those prepared and
motivated to use them.
In eariier times evea some thoughtfill educationists took the highly
questionable leap from the knowledge base directly to the learner via.
available handware. Witness, for example,- the dismal failure and
regression that accompanied the wholesale distribution of the "teaching

machine.", One is reminded of the earlier experiments in man's
fascination with flight, and the do-it-yourself contraptions which were
fastened to arms and legseach in its own way destined to fail because of
a lack of knowledgeable application of correct theory and creatively
directed into practice.

It is my view that effective utilization and progress in the use of



Faculty Responsi


technology will succeed to the extent that the process remains directly in

the hands of the teacher with prior knowledge of le subject and
compassidnately aware of the needs of the learners.
A -model- of =the.director- of- learnintset forth 'by -tonic media pto-

fessionals places the professor within a centerpiece similar to the role of a

nightly newscaster. He or she directs the conduct of the enterprise,

selects the content, chooses from an array of sources and resources and is

responsible for a format design which is appropriate to the viewing
audience orlearners as the case may be. Portions may be altogether precast. Other segments are flexibly utilized to meet the changing deltoids
of the situation.
The point to keep in mind is the requirement of a, learner-oriented
knowledgeable manager of the process to_ have resources of his choosing
available on demand, and appropriatelymatched to the broadly based
needs of students. The achievement of a systeni-that responds to these
complerand demanding challenge and cannOt be viewed as

anyeconomy-measurerorrwoffible subst'ildlIedWessionals.

However, the degree to which it may be more expensive over the longer
run than present instruction requires much more study and experience.

The Response of Two As-Sociations (AASCUNASULGC)
The American Association of State Colleges and Universities and the
Nztional Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges
have given increasing concern to proposals which may result, in the
establishment of an gn-going system with the potential .of dealing


effectively with the potential of faculties to exploit instructional enhancement through technology., It is their belief that progress has been retarded

and can be pttributable to:

(.1) the lack of understanding among most faculty of appropriate and
pedagogical applications of technology, and

(2) the fear of losing creatiVe control of their classes and course
work by using the materials developed by others.

The proposal set forth through the combined efforts of the associations
has the potential of involving some seventeen member institutions and

over one hundred sixty instructional fpOulty, academic deans, and

-instructional supportstaff. Essential to the success of the proPosal is the
requirement that institutions as well as faculty commit themselves to a
continuing involvement in the project throughout its duration through the
allocation of a portion of the support c&ts of the proposal, the remaining
cosisqo be covered by an outside agency.
Following* each orientation Conference, faculty will be required to
"formulate their own ideas for applications 4 technology to aCademic
,subjects which they teach. irti their own. institutions. Delegations from
institutions chbsen to participate also will be *encouraged to work as a
"team" ddring the training institutes.


As an ultimate outcome and beyond the hoped-for advantages to
Partici Paling faculty will be the dissemination of what has been learned
ind achieved to Other colleges and universities.

I chose to end on a bright note of hope. for reasons which go well
beyond dmy own involvement ia the advancement of instructional
improvement Indeed, the fact of our generally low morele, the
doomsayer piedictions of.the future and our failures in the past can, I
believe, be tailed to productive use. We have perhaps come of age. We
are hard headed, more So than in tile put, not so easily led and curiously
demanding more accoUntability of ourselves.
It niay very well come to piss that the 80's will bring forth a faculty
"iespOnse" to technology that surpasses our imagination in part because
---wearepoorer-,-yerwiser; butdue in part also ta the- understanding and

etous-througlrreunionsmedepossible bTthisT

I. Evans, Richa:d I., Resistance to Innovation in Higher Edueatian Jasey-Bass, Inc.
' ,
2. Journal of kesearch and Development in Education, Vol. 10, Number 2, Winter '77:
"1"eachr Attitudes arid Attitudes Change: A Research Review by Stern and Keislar.
3. Thozny Into Practice; Vol. XV, Number 3, June '76.' "Educational Innovation:
Educational Workload" by Cog,an.
4. Willett, Swanson and Nein:in, Modemiring the Little Red Sehaol House, Educational
Teclmology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1979.






Difector, Corn

the Use of Technology
in Education
Kamaka Anandom
Dosed Instructional Development
and Research
J. Terence Kelly
President for Education

mi-Dode Cwnmunity College
MlgmL Florida

There are probably few, if any, assignments more difficult or evasive
than esiiluating the use of technology, in education. The impondefables
could fill up pages. Therefore, one must immediately ask: "What do we
mean by technology?" "Whit is a logical classification system for the
various technologies that cunently exist?" The same types of questions

must be asked about the meaning of evaluation. Bufeven beyond the
definition stage, one must consider other elements associated with
evaluation, such as the philosophy of an institution and the goals of
particular instrUctional programs, in order to determine what is to be
evaluated and how it is to be evaluated
Frustration and aggravation mount when legislators and others who
are-outside-the bducational-arena-ask the question: "Is technology cost
effective?" Frankly, we have never understood those terms, and are not
sole whether those who ask the question fiilly comprehend the complexities associated with-what appears to be a rather simple and straightforward

question. Overall, one might even make an argument that perhaps
education by itself is not cost effective, whatever that might mean.
However, if a price tag can be computed for ignorance and its impact on
society, one might have a different perspective regarding education's cost
effectiveness at all levels throughout the, country.
This preamble is not intended in any way to suggest that one cannot


13 7

Evaluating the Use


discuss the topic of evaluating technology or to simply say that there are

no answers. Answers I can be found, but one must be cautious and
understand precisely what it is we are trying to evaluate. Often we think
of how educational television was nearly doomed' by its uses in the fifties
and the sixties. Part of the reason for those early failures centered around
some of the misunderstandings of what its capabilities were and what it
was attempting to,do. In certain instructional settings, it simply mas an
instrument to increase productivity in terms of ficulty-teaCher ratios, nr$
necessarily to improve learning. It is not surprising, therefore that we
found huge auditoriums with thousands of students listening ;to a TV

lecture given by one faculty member. If one were evaluating the
prOductivity of its use, it would he rated as a rousing success. However, if
Students' satisfaction and learning were_ considered, thosetarly educational TV days might well deserve tcy be classified as a dismal failure.

This, for the purPose of this paper at least, let us defme the framework
within which the present topic will be discussed.
Technology that is used in education can:be divided into five major
Categories: 1) Print technology is the most widely used technology


thotigh it is not always thought of as one. 2) Telecommunications include
telephones, radios, and twomay communication systems which are just
barely beginning to make their mark in variout instructional applications.

3)-M-6tion piettire.altd vide?, technology reptegents-a-combinatitin-of
visual, 'motkit, animation, and audio components. 4) Computer technology is exploding with unbelievable dimensions into every phase of our

lives. 5) Biological mamPulation, perhaps the most frightening of ali,
links all the other technologies to modify human behavior.

'The single most decisive observation that' one can make about

technology todey as it relates to educatiOnal use is that the hardware
developments far out-distance the -human and software developments,
< thus making it impoisible to capitalize on the hardware capabilities. If
one agrees with this preinise, which we think can be demonstrated
thout much difficulty, one can better understand the results of the
,evaluation of technology in education. Fot example, the studies on two
popular computer interactive syttems, PLATO- and 77CCIr, did not
bear out the .high expectatiOns for their effect on student learning

therefore, theiruse-inithe-community-colleges-failed-taexpane-These
results occurred because the most imp( eant facetsthe human and
software developmentswere not attended to in a manner that would
have permitted the entire technological innovation to be fully implemented
and fairly evaluated..

Benjamin Bltiom2 discusses two roles of evaluationformative and
summative. Fonnative evaluation pertains to the process of developing a
program, while summation evaluetion focuses bn the completed program.

The former is "the Use of systematic evaluation in the process of
curriculum construction, teaching and learning for the purpose of



Evaluating the Use

improving any of these three processes" (p. 117). Most evaluations with
respect to technological innovations failed to include formative evaluation
and are thus beset with mixed fmdings. Rather than be discouraged by

this situation, we should relentlessly explore the numerous ways to
exploit the capabilities of the technological innovations in order to
momplish our educational goals.
Evaluative studies_ focus_on different objectiveseconomics, faculty
acceptance, number of students reached, their motivation and performance. All of them are valid objectives worthy., of independent
evaluation, but they wit.provide meaningful information of practical
significance only if they are considered together. In reviewing the

research literature on the use of technology in education, we would like
to introduce the concept of the three E'sExtensiveness, Effectiveness,
and Endurance. Extensiveness refers to how widespread is the use of
technology in education; effectiveness refers to improvement in human
(faculty and student) satisfaction, student motivation, retention, and
learning and endurance refers to the long-lasting continuation of an

What has become of the ,1Q.1.1.gas5aillt ortilighpreducation bvnedia.and-

technology enthusiasts? Do traditional systems of teaching prevail

against all odds? Based on approximately 1,000 in-depth interviews with
state commissioners, administrators, faculty, students, and alumni in six
states, the question is raised: "Does Education Want What Technology
Can Delivell"3 This study concluded that what is generally in. use
(meaningwhat more than three-quarters'of the educational institutions of
a particular type are using) is not very much different from what was
generally in use'in the 50'schalkboard, a piece of chalk, some books,

filmstrips, audio cassettes, projector of some sort, or an occasional
computer terminal. 'Examined from a different perspective, in the late
70's, expenditure for technology constituted 0.3-0.5 percent of total
expenditures at the elementary and secondary schools, 0.2-0.4 percent
in vocational and 2-year colleges, and 0.5-1.1 percent in 4-year colleges
and universities. In other words, the technological innovation that has
skyrocketed in industry is rather limited and isolated in education. This is
not surprising because technological innovation in education was mostly
prompted by what technology could offer rather than what educators
wanted. Even though media andlechnology enthusiasts oversell their
products, the capabilities of technology will not in and of themselves
create or even prompt changes in our educational activities. It is the
people who are going to make a difference.
In terms of extensiveness, printed materials have outscored every
other technology. Although they have become second nature to use in
education, they also had their day of being rejected and resisted. At the



Evaluating the Use


time.when the printing press was introduced, people's objections rallied
around much the same themes as they do today against computersloss
ot human factors, loss of jobs, necessity to learn new skills, discarding of
traditionally cherished values, etc. Decades passed before the potentials
of the printing press were acknowledged, utilized, and appreciated. The
text and the printed word have endured in higher education for so long
that no one cwill dream of questioning its effectiveness. Ironically, the
computer technology that is resisted so much today will perhaps see the
demise of the printing press, although new print technologies hold far-

reaching promises. It has been estimated that by the end 'of the 80's,
computer information transfer will be less expensive than print technology
and will allow us to store whole libraries roughly the size of the Library of
Congress in a computer.4 I.itoponents of video-disc claim that they can do

the same or better with their discs.
Telephone and radio, although widespread in their use for personal
and commercial purposes, are rarely used in education. There are some
isolated trials going on with this technology that require our consideration

and exploration. These are the Satellite Tele Education Program

( STEP), Roche Laboratories, experiment on teleconferencing, the Cono

Educational Network (CEN) in lows, and American Issues Radio
Forum. Because the application of the telephone and radio in education

is rather Ili-lilt-4ft is premature to discuss theiF effeetiveness and

How extensive is the use of television in education? Next to the
printing press, television perhaps enjoys an extensiveness of use that is
worthy of being evaluated. With the initiation of distance learning (or
open learning, as it is sometimes called), we can truly say that television

has come of age. A 1980 report prepared for The Station College
Executive Project in Adult Learning5 states that more than 1,800 of the
nations' 2,993 colleges and universities use broadcast and nonbroadcast
television for instruction. In 1978-79, 735 institutions offered more than

2,300 courses over television, enrolling 500,000 students in those
courses. At the community college level, 789 out of 1,088 institutions
(75 percent) make use of television for instruction. Of these, 349 colleges

offered courses over broadcast television enrolling approximately
162,000 students in 1978-79.6
Intitast of colfiptirerre-elfirology,-the Unite-d-Statesis-the prime user
and major exporter of computers. The report by the American Federation
of Information Processing Societies7 mentioned that approximately 60
percent of the world's computers are used in this country. How does the
use of computers in education measure up to this phenomegal growth of

computers in industry? The Fourth Inventory of Computers in U.S.
Higher Education and a servey conduced by CONDUII8 ( a national
organization that evaluates and distributes computer-based instructional

software) covering 3,595 departments and 4,489 faculty reveal the



Evaluating the yse

following and we quote:
The computer_ is an integral part of higher education only in the

disciplines where it is a required skill for post-baccalaureate

The computer Ls a teaching aid-is not widely used in higher
education, but interest in applications such as tutorial materials
in mathematics is growing

A significant number of schools make little or no use of
computing in the undergraduate institution.

Computing equipment and software currently in place for
instructional use is barely adequate for moderate use and

inadequate for extensive use.
Effective instructional soft.ware is increasingly the major factor
in using the computeM in teaching
Among those institutions not using the computer today, lack of
faculty training is cited as the most important reason.

Despite seridus baniers to the use of instructional computing
an overwhelming number of department heads and instructors
see their use of instructional computing increasing in the figure.

Effectiveness of Instructionil Television
ItiolFiNfill*-emnsiveness- of the use Cif technology in
education is not exhilarating, the topic of effectiveness' is somewhat
distressing. In the first place, research is available only in the areas 'of
television and computers. The best results we can bring to your attention
on instructional television (ITV) are by way of extensive review reports

published periodically. One of these reviews9 published in 1967

summarizes the results of 421 comparisons between ITV andiraditional
instruction (TI).


No $ignificant

ITV More






22 ,




TI More




Another review10 examined 191 comparisons at the college level and
reported that 102 of these comparisons favored ITV and 89 favored TI,
although most of the differences were not significant When attitlides
were considered, administratm were more likely to befavorable to ITV

than teachers. At the college level, students seemed to prefer small
discussion closes to television classes, and television classes to large
lecture classes. In general, students were more favorable toward ITV


Evaluating' the Use

13 1

after they experienCed it than before. Unfortunately, liking ITV was not
always correlated with learning from it.
In the 70's, similar reviews were available. For instance, one review! I
discussed approximately 862 studies that compared the effectiveness of
ITV and TI and concluded that there was strong evidence that ITV which
closely simulates TI was as effective as TI. Although there was very little
evidence concerning the effectiveness of ITV used in ways that utilized

-the unique capabilities of the medium, at least the uniqueness of the
medium was recognized as an important factor. A number of students
and teached had an unfavorable attitude to ITV, but the incidence of
such attitude diminished as *institutions gained experience with the_
ITV in distance learning programs seems to have yielded somewhat
different results. Research conducted by the University of Mid America12

pointed but that ITV in distade learning perhaps acted as a pacer,

motivating the students to keep up with their work. The completion rate
was markedly improved for courses that included television broadcasts.
Correspondence courses that did not use any television had an average
completion rate of 25 percent, whereas those with broadcast television
Jegistered an average completion rate of 65 percent. More spectacular was
e cise in w -c 361 sufents-enrolleciln a diita-riceliaiiiiiig-Ebtide
television .broadcasts were compared to 185 enrollees in a non-television
course. The completion rates were 74 percent and 44 percent respectively.

Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education
There is-no simple uniform conclusion that can be drawn about the

effectiveness of computer-based instruction. The instructional uses of the
computer can be classified as: 1) learning about the computer, 2) learning

through the computer, 3) learning with the computer, and 4) learning
with oomputer support.13 Learning about the computer is the most
rapidly growing aiea of instructional computing commonly known as
data processing. Learning through the computer is more popularly called

CAI (Computer Assisted /nstruction) and is represented by a student
directly interacting with the computer for drill and practice. diaznostic
'testing, and tutorials. PLATO is a good example of this classification.
gwiththecomputerrepresents-thecomputer-as-an-aid to learning
and as an adjunct for the learner. Practical uses include simulation,
gaming, problem solving, etc. Learning with computer support is
probably the most expanding aspect of instructional computing within
higher education. This is known as CMI (ComputerManaged/nstruction)
and the expansion is taking place quietly and often without any notice of
the computer's role. A significant percentage of colleges are using
computer systems to aid in classroom management.
In a summary of the studies conducted in the late 60!s and early 70's
by institutions such as Florida State University, State University of New



Evaluating the We

YOrk, University of Illinois, Univetsity of TeXas, and

Stanford University,
a conservative conclusion was that CAI is about
as effective as
traditional instruction when used as
a replacement.14 The review
concluded that the pattern of no significant
depressing, to say the least. This is an uncomfortablein achievement is
one hand, it is almost inevitable that the colleges will position. On the
technology if they wish to increase productivity. On require the use of
spite of considerable expenditures on educational the other hand, in
technology, we have
yet to find positive evidence of its impact
on productivity. If cost

. reduction (productivity) were the goal oftechnology rather than learning,
there might be a greater chance of utilizing
technology ana doing it well.
In 1977,15 another reyiew article presented
research of the 70's on
CAI. Despite the large number of CAI projectsthe
in existence, the number
of methodologically sound evaluations
was -quite meager, the results
were conflicting, and what exists leads to the
conclusion that CAI was at
least as good as, if not better than, traditional
ornon-traditional methods
in terms of performance
scores. However, nearly in all cases, there were
time savings with CAL One can conclude, then,
that research has shown
CAI as a possible alternative
to the, other methods but has
'Vet another review of research On instructional
computing published
by the Florida Commissioner of Education Advisory
Board on Instructional Computing16 examined the most recent studies-36
on CAI, half
of which were experimental, 20 on CMI, and 12
Guidance (CAG). This

report also included three major reviews

published in 1974, 1975, and.1979. What the
"In summary, results of research on CAI, report has to say is this:
CMI, and CAG seem to
indicate that computerized methods of all kinds
are either better than or
at least as effective as notl-computerized- methods
in bringing about
learning gains" (p. B-12). The report
that computermanaged learning seems to make a greater difference
lqprning and is more acceptable to teachers
than computer-assisted

One of the problems with CAI is its simplistic
approach to learning,
Applications of CAI have not
attemptediotonsider-studentvharattenstics-andliibjecfffiatter tiiiqueness. The frame-oriented
approach in CAI
develops a data base of lessons and expects the
to transfer this,
frame by frame, to the student. The student is
This passive view of students is a legacy routed through the lesson.
that CAI inheritedfrom the
stimtilus-respOnse theory. The current trend is
orientation towards the development of generative away from frame
CAI systems in which

algorithms are used to generate problems,
questions, answers, and
diagnostics. This approach is influenced by cognitive
theories. In this
area lies the challenge of the 80's for the use of
technology in



Evaluating the Use



Individualization of learning is a necessity worthy of our attention and
effort. Note that we have used the term "learning" instead of"instruction."
We have done it deliberately to make our point that our attention and

effort should focus OQ student learning. If the researsh of the"60's and

70's has a message for .us, 'it is that the capabilities of computer
technology need to be exploited by the ingenuity of facility to create
educationally sound environments for learning. Kearsley" describes
four levels of individualization as follows: 1) arranging a predetermined
instructional sequence conditional on different responses to pre-specified

questions (the emphasis is on immediate feedback); 2) choosing
subsequent instructiombased on a dynamic measure of performance on
previous materials; 3) providing different presentation modes or instruc-

tional sequences based on individual differences such as aptitudes,
interests, or personality; 4) hypothesizing a 'Model of learning for each
student consisting of procedures for presentation of instructional materials

and assessment of performance (as learning occurs, the model is
modified; this level enables the student to learn the material and gain



What do these levels mean for us in education? Although a vast

majority of the existing CAI programs belong in Level I , we have to raise

the question: "Is it economically and educatiOnally sensible to computerize programmed texts?" We should also raise the question: "Is
immediate feedback necessary and sufficient for all types of learning?"
We think not. "Is there a need to promote reflective learning (selfcorrection learning) prior to providing feedback?" If your answer is
"yes" (which of course is the case with us), then perhaps the effectiveness
ofCMI at Levels 2 and 3 should be explored. This leaves us with Level 4

which, m our estimate, should be the subject for CAI programs.

Miami-Dade's Experience
For the pase 10 years, the faculty, advisors, and administrators at
Miami-Dade CoMmunity College are using a multipurpose flexible
CM1 system called RSVP (Response System with Variable Prescriptions).

In the world of iiWP, you will not see stuaents sitting at the terminals
interacting directly with the computer. In fact, there is nothing we can
show you about the computer. Instead, we will show you faculty who are

quitely redesigning their curriculum plans in order to provide individualized instruction for their students. The not-so-obyious changes that

are taking place in this setup have led to collaborative work among
educational technologists and content specialists, peer review and
revision of curriculum design, learning activities and assessment tools,
well thought out individualized and prescriptive feedback, and formative
and summative evaluation.
At the administrative level, the management of individualized learning

the accuracy of record-keeping, the availability of research data for


Evaluating the Use

evaluating and improving instruction, the, generation of statistics for
federal and state reports, and the sharing of quality work among faculty
are chief among the benefits mentioned for RSVP.
At the faculty level, the possibilities for creating innovative RSVP
coursewares, for providing necessary individual attention and response
to snodents when they need reinforcement rather than when the faculty
are reedy to give it, for making efficient and meaningful use of the time

when f'aculty interact with their students, for being analytical about
evaluating the RSVP coursewares, and for becoming expansive in their
conceptualization of the teaching-learning pi ocess are frequently mentioned by the faculty who are using RSVP.
At the student level, RSVP is a decisive winner. Whether RSVPois
used in the lab or classroom or remote setting, the students endorse the
RSVP system of instruction unequivocally. They cherish the privacy in

becoming aware of their errors and the personalized feedback for
correcting their errors, appreciate the "caring" shown by their faculty,
and like the provision for self-paced learning.
Tnational---and--international-recognition- earned-by=RS-VP-is-best--illustrated by the following two quotations. Particia Cross18 says:

The Miami-Dade experience with the use of computers to manage
individualization is pulling the rug out from under the defense of group

instruction and semesters on grounds of fiscal and administrative
necessitywhich is not necessarily to deny that group instruction may
have its own contributions to Make to some forms of student learning.

But the fact is that it is no longer necessary for economic or
administrative reasons to organize education into semester-long
courses taught to groups of students. We now have the freedom and the
obligation to reassess the usefulness of our organization of education
for its contribution to student learning (p. 17).

Based on their study of the users of computer technology in higher
education in the United States, Great Britain, and the European
countries, McMahon and others19 state:
We have chosen to include a short study of RSVP and its use at MiamiDade because it is probably the most extensive, and in many ways the
most effective, compute rrmanaged open learning system now oeprating
in the workL.. The RSVP System at Miami-Dade Community College
is more effectively institutionalized than any date CML systems now

operational in the United Kingdom (pp. 21, 25).

Often people ask: "What is the payoff for Miami-Dade in using
RSVP? Is retention improved? Are grades improved?" Although we
cannot answer many of these questions in the affirmative with any degree
of certainty, and clearly not with hard-core data, except in a few cases,

we have found indications that RSVP improves student attitude and
motivation and thereby their retention and performance. In one applica-

tion in which RSVP is used to provide individualized prescriptive

Evaluating the Use


feedback on students' writing, a significant difference between RSVP
ahd non-RSVP groups was observed in the objective testComparative
Guidance and Placement Program: Written English Expression. Since
the completion of the experimental study in Winter, 1979, the RSVP
writing program has continued to be used by more faculty for a greater
number of students."

Summary of Effectiveness
Most ofthe studies on educational technology engaged in sumrnative
evaluation without proper formative evaluation. Consequently, the notso-positiVe results should not,be viewed with alarm but reflected upon

carefully. It is common knowledge that a variety of technologies is
available for communication. What is ignored, however, is that each of
the technologies has developed a quality and character of its own.
Flexibility and selectivity are the cornerstones for buildirg a technologyam.21 Flexibility provides various avenues for
based instructional

learning The student population is as heterogeneous as the nation's
pdople;thiffpriorleathing-arid-exPectationsvaryikdiitheit thaTitteris--


tics. What one can learn from an ITV, another might learn equally well, if
not better, from print materials. Although.group-based delivery systems
.generally do not cater to the individual student's needs, the potential to

meet these learning preferences by virtue nf the use of multi-media
adaptations exists.
Each medium has its strengths and weaknesses. From the learners'
perspectives, the medii can arouse their einOtionalinvolvement; pace
their efforts, transmit information, highlight significant ideas, illustrate
abstract concepts, clarify complex themes, stimulate thinking, foster
problem-solving skills, and provide feedback. Selectivity means selecting
a purpose for learning and selecting the medium that best matches the

purpose for a particular student.

Which of these techniques will endure in the future? In answering this
question, we can present some speculations and forecasting. Christopher
Dede,22 professor at the University of Houston, Texas, and President of

the Education Section of the World Future Society, claims (in fact
recommends) that the following avenues should be explored: 4) home

TV, 2) portable _computers, 3) home terminals hooked to large
computers, 4) videodiscs and personal compuers, 5) electronic communication and information processing.
Future Survey, a publication of the World Future Society, provides us
some forecasti that are also worthy of our consideration. For instance, in
the November, 1980 issue,23 we fmd the following projections frail the
.review of the most recent books: 1) Compiners will become dramatically

smaller, the amount of information they can hold will continue to



Evalitating the Use

increase, and costs will decline. In the early 1980's, computers will
become the leading industry in the world. 2) Books will be compressed
into chip form, with the new computerized version of a book available at

something like 204, as raw material and distribution costs reduce
sensationally with miniaturiz
The long-term future will be
dominated by the evolutio of machine intelligence to the UltraIntelligent Machine: a comp ter programmed to perform anyintellectual
activity at least marginally better than man. 4) By the end of 1981, three
incompatible videodisc systems will be battling for a U.S. consumer

market that promises to outstrip the $65 billion annual color TV

business. The array of incompatible players Will slow the market down at
first But eventually, coupled with computer poOier, videodiscs promise
to change the way that employees are trained, equipment is maintained,

students are taught, and products are sold. 5) The convergence of the
telephone, video, and print indsutries is now at hand, bringing changes,
dismptions, threats, and opportunities to all of the major participants in
these industries. Key.catalysts in this convergence include the develop-

-services, and partial deregulation of the telephone and cable TV
With all these exuberadt projections, we need.to remember that the
traditional classroom instruction and fixed time frame for assessment
have prevailed in higher education. Beyond the chalkboard, the overhead
projector is more often used in the classroom than all the other visual
equipment A classic example of "old habits die hard': is the Dvorak vs.
Qwerty typewriter keyboards. Despite the fact that the rearrangement of

the keys in the Dvorak keyboard reduced training time by half and

increased typing speed by 60 percent, the standard Qwerty keyboard has
persisted because of tradition.

The major decision of new technology in education will be shaped by
economic, social, and political factors. However, the benefits of changes
tan be enhanced through careful attention to desirable faculty roles,
student preparation, and more humane applications of technology.
Technology is neVer independent of people. In fact, it is worthy of our
concern only because it touches our lives Ls we create, understand, and
use it. As we enter the 80's we are fortunate that the research Of the 60's
and 70's has given us the realization thit the chip arid the transistor are
no more than physical objects until their properties are realized by one or
more human beings. Therefore, a true study of technology is the study of
its relationship with those who create it and use. 124
As writers in this field note, the technology is moving ahead quickly
with or without the planning of the educational community. Immediate
action in planning f6r the future appears to be a general recommendation.


Evaluating the Use


If, in our preoccupation with itjqorclay responsiblities, we fail to
reanhize the pervasive impact of technoligihl revolution and actively
neglecting our
plan for its-proper Utilization in education, we will be

mission to shape the society whichdepends on quality outcomes from its
educational system. It is a mind-boggling challenge. As we have stated
have a vision beyond the learning

elsewhere, "Those educators who
environment of today, a receptive attitude toward change, and a
shaping and
pioneering spirit to persevere will have the privilege of
controlling the technological inn6yations in education for
and imaginative forms of learning. Conversely, fear, insecurity
anxiety will prevail for those Who
5 (p: 80).fu

I. Alderman. D.L, Appel, LR.,ina Murphy,
Evaluation of CAI in the Community College," Educational Technology,
1978, pp. 40-45.
LT and Madams, G.F. Handbook on Formative and
Summative EvaTuation-qrSlitarerit-Lidiftirtg;-Neve--York:ApicGraW=HillCompany, 1971, pp. 61-86.
Technology Can Deliver?" in Computers
3. Ali, D.H. "Does Education Want What
for Education (Eds) Seidel, R.J. and Rubin;
and Communications-Implications
M.L, New York: Academic Pmss Inc., 1977.
Technology Efforts in Science
4. Molnar, A.R. "Viable Goals for New Educational
pp. 16-22.
Education," Edicatiorial Technology,
Corporation for
5. Munshi, KS. Telecourses: Reflections '80, Washington, D.C.:
Public,Broadcasting, 1980.
Washington, D.C.:
6. Kressel, M. (Ed) Adult Learning and Public Broadcasting,
American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1980.
Processing EquiPment, New Jersey:(the
7. World Markets for Electronic DataProcessing
Societies, 1971.
American Federation of Information
Computing in
8. Johnson, J.W. "Getting from HeretoThere: The Status of Instructional December
Higher Edueation," Technobgical
1980, pp. 48-53, 57.
from Television: What the Research Says.
9. Chu, G.C. and Schramm, W. Learning
Stanfoni, California: Institute for Communications Rematch,the
Message College
10. -Dubrm, R. and Hadley, RA. The Medium May Be Related to
Instruction by TY. Eugene: University of Oregon Press,of1969.
S. "The Effectiveness Alternative Instxuctional
11. Jamison, D., Suppea, P., aml Wells,
Educational Research, 1974, 44: pp. 1-68.
Media: A Survey," Review of
A Report on the University of Mid12. Lipson, J. "Technology and Adult Education:
America Experiment," Technological Horizons in Education Journal,
1977, pp. 36-38.
of Computers in Higher Education," in The Fourth
13. Zinn, K.L "Instructional Uses
Inventory qf Compufers in Higher:Education: An Intetpretive Report,
New Jersey: EDUCDM, 1979.
14. Jamison, D. et aL, Op. cit.
15. Kearaley, G.P. "Sonic
Instruction, August 1977, 4: pp.'8-16.
Journal of Computer-Based
Commissioner's Advisory
16. State of Florida. More Hands for Teachers, Report of the
of Education, Tallahassee,
- Committee on .Instructional Computing. Department
February 1980.
17. Keasley, G.P. "Sane Conceptual Issues in Computer-Assisted
Journal of Compiger-Based Instruction,




Evaluating the Use


18. Cross, P.K. "What Woulsd
Happen if ...?" A paper presented at the
the League fee Inrielation in the
Community College, Newport Beach,conference
Match 1979.

19. McMahon, H.F., Anderson, LS.A., and Anderson, T.H.
The Cornputer in the
Management of Open Learning Systems, Report of the Council
for Educational
Technology, United Kingdom, 1979.
20. Anandam, K., Eisel, E., and Kotler, L "Effectiveness
of a Computer-Based
Feedback System for WritirVJournal
ofComputer:Based Instructionp 1980,6: pp.
21. Kelly., J.T. and Anandam,
"Communicating with Distant Learners," in Using
Mate Media for Learn*K.(Ed)
Yarrington, IL Washington, D.C.: American
Association of Community and Junior Colleges, 1979,
pp. 71-80.
22. Dale, C.J. "Educational Technology: The Next Ten
Years,"Instructional Innovator,
March 1980, pp. 17-23.
23. Marien, M. (Ed) Future Suivey, Wa:ihington, D.C.:
World Future Society,
November 1980.
24. Meals, D.W. "Strategies for Human Resource Development
Supporting Technology
Transfer," Journal of Educational
Technology Systems, 1980, 8: pp. 343-354.
25. Kelly, J.T. and Anandam, K. Op. cit.




Managing Technohnical Change in the
Deis Public Schools_


Nolan Estes

The Universityof Texas at Austin
Austin, Texas

ihettle of this-paper strongly suggests that there may have been,
something magic about the'teCiiniiiiigiCal Chiiiges

.theDallas achools (hereafter, DISD) during the 1970's. Grantetthat
many technological changes did occur is -indréated by at -least the
following hard evidence, DISD, as much as- any urban school system:
has more micro-computers in operation
has produced more original computerized curricula courseware
(Math, reading, bilingual)
, has operationalized aflexible system for delivering state of the art
instruetional television
has integrate& large third generation computer information
systems for administrative support with main frame instructional
surort and with mini-computers, and
has operationalized a total media instructioruil Stipoort systrA mom; others too r.umerous to mention here.
'This-paper focuses onaome of these suceesses with special mention
regarding the processes which work...NI-is well as the failures whiCh
sparked ideas for new technological change,thrusts. Of necessity, the
order of presentation herein is somewhat atuned to the chronology of the
1975-80 period and the generalizations which are:thought to be useful in
the 1980's maybe tempered with impending techkologice, educational
and political changes which cannot be fully identified and assessed at this

- iime.

However, suffice it to say thatlechnological change in the schools
was, and is, facilitated directly in proportion to which problems ire
anticipated and solved efficiently and effectiyely. Problf4n areas which
impact technological change include but arnot
1. Political



Managing Change-Dallas

2. Fiscal
3. Technical
4. Instructional
5. Policy, Board and administrative
6. Managerial/administrative
These will be .dealt with here in turn, with emphasis on the human
relationships that are needed to facilitate the desired changes.
Political Context
first, consider the political context which is imperative. In 1915,
DallAs was searching for a solution to its desegregation problems.


"Quality Education" was the mission and taxpayers as well as educators
were ready to "buy into" technology as one strategy to attain that desired
quality. The organized education profession posed no major obstacles
once it understood that technology would not replace teachers but rather
would complement and extend their competencies. The student readiness
for new technology was exceptionally high; they were searching for new

avenues of expressionmagnet schools, computers and ETV were

already among their expectations.
DISD had a favorable political climate for technological change and
this greatly facilitated the technological improvements enumerated
earlier. No doubt, the poli6cal cliniate of the 1980's will be substantially
different and should be assessed carefully and thoughtfully as new
changes are planned. Among the things which will need to be addressed

students will be, accustomed to computer chip applications

through toys, games and the like. They should be'readier" for

many intelligent parents and citizens will be using microprocessors in home and work and demand this and other


technology in their schools.
the organized education profession will have a larger and louaer
voice in educational methodologysometimes for, sometimes
against technological change.'

Fiscal M atters

And now to fiscal matters which affect technological change, let's
review the DISD story. During 1973=79 particularly,, DISD had some
limited local, state and federal resources above those needed to maintain
i minimum education program. The local Board appointed funds

suppOrt a small cadre of technology development

programmers, analysts, systems planners end others. This local support,
coupled with an aggressive search for outside funds (state and federal)
enabledthe District to amass a technology development effort calculated
'to make a difference. It did, and the results are impressive! However,



Managing Change-Dallas


- those in the 1980's who expect to mount such an effort be aware of or
atuned to:
the taxpayer's dollar is buying less-and less,
technology start-up costs ire escalating eve% though the technologies are improving by leaps and bounds,k
labor intensive education's days or years may be numberedrand

the watchword of the 1980's will be "productivity" and the
asseisment guide will be student addevement
All is not amiss here; it may very well be that the micro-computer and
other new technologies will soon have their fmest day in court..



And now for the third area of problems in technological changes, the
technical. Someone said that "the worse thing that can happen usually
does." This is especially true when new technologies are introduced
before they have been bebugged. DI SD had numerous Successes and
failures here. Among the successes were the excellent technicians who
were already aboard with several person-years of experience in working

with educators. Another success was the technology development
protocol and process already in place. Among the failures were several
administrative and instructional support computer programs which were
not cost-effective (they tied up the computer main frame so that no other
users could obtain access). Altogether, a great deal was learned from
these successes' and failures, notably:

the Most valuable resource in technology change is trained
, technicians need to have and/or develop ability to interact and
communicate vith educators, parents and students,
be absolutely certain that new technology hardware and software
are restricted to pilot test settings until thoroughly debugged and
o specify the technology development protocol and adhere strictly

to this plan,
don't buy any technological "pig in a poke" just to be counted
iniong the "in" group, and
encourage staff technicians to assess continuously the state of the
art technology .developments.

'No doubt, -there are other technical problems which will emerge;
however, let's review some of the educational and instructional problem

-areas. In DISD we were fortunate to have already developed a
curriculum framework in 1975, a "Baseline Curriculuin," before we,
entered substantially into technology curriculum applications develop, ment. this is highly essential. A great resource brought forward by this



Managing Change-Dadas

activity was the corps of principals, teachers and parents who had
participated. Also, a better defmition Of what the District expected of
students in each grade and subject area emerged. Much later, as we


understood the sytemitic process for computerizing these curricula, we
realized that the two development processes are complementarythe
computer analysis of curriculum content tended to validate the efficacy
of the prior curriculum decisions.
Instructional problems do not end with curriculum decisions being
made, rather they just begin. It is in the implementation of curriculum
through technology applications that the knotty problems emerged.
Again, it is highly essential that the new technology works without a
glitch or hitch. Listed below are some of the strengths and/or problem
areas to address:
i. curriculum developers, especially curriculum writers, consultants
and supervisors need to know and/or be thoroughly trained
regarding the potential and limitations of-the new technology
being utilized,
retain new technology based instruction in tightly managed and
controlled pilot test settings until it is sufficiently refmed to be
reasonably successful with users throughout the district. Use two
or more cycles of pilot testing and refining as necessary.
at an early stage of the new technology development process
begin to bring in the ultimate users (teachers, principals, parents
and students) for orientation to the new technology and feedback
to the initial developers. This helps train the users while keeping
the developers honest and on-target,
conduct continuous product evaluation and cost-effectiveness
studies of the new techndlogy bgfore it is released for widespread
dissemination. Remember, the goal should be to increase
productivity while simultaneously reducing costs, and
always specify Avhat is to be taught in the beginning, then, and
only then, specify how technology may aid the teaching of that
content. Later in the development process, the "how to" step
mai, be .expected to cause changes in the original curriculum

And now, let's examine the fifth area of concern affecting technological

change, that of Board and Administrative policy. We could have

discussed this area first, however, policies tend to focus on the four areas

of concern already addressed and therefore, they were presented for
background information. In DISD, we fortunately entered into major
new technological changes by demonstrating to the Board that technology

was the only way to supply information the Board needed for making
informed decisions. This included a comprehensive computerized data

1 53

Managing Change:Dallas


base for each of school finance, teacher personnel, student personnel,
school faciliteis and later purchasing. Once the Board was committed to
its own information needs, the general policy framework was established
and it was easy to extend these policies to instructional needs and to the
schools. Some general administrative policies and regulations emerged
as the administration saw the benefits which technology could bring;

however, a few such administrator negotiations emerged only after
various departments became convinced that hand processing was an
artifact of the horse and buggy days.and that the computer's day had
arrived. Some guidelines for developing Board and administrative
policies which will facilitate technological changes include:
focus Board policies on the broad arena ofwhat needs to`be done;
administrative policies or regulations on the-how it is to be done,
address the Board's needs in policies first, the administration's
needs later,introduce the Board to new technology by demonstration (not
telling about); provide hands-on experience wherever practicable,
update Board policies periodically to encompass new technologies which may require such modifications, and
cause the Board to reference each future action to a previously

Lastly, this presentation would be remiss without proper reference to
the management and administration of technological change. If one
accepts management as "causing desirable eyents and activities to
happen," then the role of management, and therefore, the administration,
is critical in the change process. In DISD, we established the administrative position that the management of technological change was one of the
primary missions of administration. The administrative team concept of

leadership, including all levels of administrators, was thoroughly indoctrinated with this administrative position. We literally "lived with"
new technological applications as they emerged and made them an
integral part of our daily lives. We lived and breathed computerized class
scheduling, grade reporting, attendance accounting, fiscal accounting,
student assessment, teacher personnel records and others too numerous
to mention. Out of this effort grew a great deal of management expertise
which can be couched in the following suggestions:
administration at all levels must demonstrate reliance on and
confidence in new technologies,
each administrator must "get dirty with the data out with the
troops," as technological changes Are implemented,
complex technological changes require new management 15rocesses in order to coordinate the efforts of various departments

and to monitor and assess continuously the effects of the



Managing Change-Dallas

changes, and
the management of technological change may very well be the
most effective strategy available to administration for improving
schooling and schools.



Managing Technological Change in

Montrmery County, Maryland
Homer Elseroad
ljamsville, Mar)land

Over the past fifteen years several applications of computer technology
to edueation have been implemented in the Montgothery County Public
Schools. My task, for this meeting has been to review that experience to
find what lessons we can glean from it that might guide our efforts at
implementing technolog;cal change in education in the future.
Fifteen years ago this selcocil system leased a small computer. It was
operated by a staff of nineteen. This staff, organizationally placed in the
finance department, supported certain fmancial functions. Their reportt
were used by central office administrators and auditors. The rest of the
several thousand staff menbers in the school system were unawake of and
unaffected by these computer applications. Now the school system has
outgrown its 371-58 computer operated full time 24 hours per day. There
are 128 central office staff members working on computer applications.
They collect data from and provide services anti reports to virtually every
central office. The computer is also used in loccl school application such
control of school funds, and reporting pupil

as scheduling attendance,
progress. Instructional uses of computers include computer assisted
instruction (CAI), computer 'Managed instruction (CMI), teaching of
computer literacy and computer operation, and terminals or small
computers placed in individual schools for a range of scfiool administration and instruction uses. Thus, today I estimate that 3,000 staff
members in the school system offices and 182 schools are using
computers directly for part of their work. All 12,000 employees, state
and federal officials and Montgomery County citizens are directly
affected by computer applications because of the services and reports
now provided with computer technology.



Managing Change-Montgomery County

Planning/Managing Change
Change in eduation comes slowly and sometimes
painfully. If real
change is to occur it must be planned and
managed with a keen

awareness of the behavior of staff and the public, both
affected by the
contemplated changes.
In preparing for my paper, I reviewed documents
and interviewed
people directly involved in developing and
implementing applications of
computer technology in education in Montgomery County
over the past
fifteen yews. Let me describe briefly four of the
events that
influenced these developments.

Task Force Appointed
In 1965 a Board ofEducation appointed task
application of computer technology. Fourteen force studied education
County residents with
professional experience and knowledge in computer
technology studied
what *as happening in other places, examined
computer technology for administrative andcost effectivenestof using
identified new services that computer technology management
could provide, evaluated
the worth of those services, and studied the cost of
different computer
This task force met frequently with the Board
of Education for public
discussion. Interim reports were provided for staff
fmal report of the task force laid out a master and public study. The
plan for development of
computer applications in the school system.
Through this process staff, the Board and interested
citizens became
knoWledgeable about applications of computer technology
to education.
The long range plan provided a basis for
recommendations for Board action.

R/D Project in Instruction

A second major step in the evolving
of computer technology in
education in Montgomery County was a use
six year research and development project in computer

assisted instruction (CAI)
managed instruction (CMI). This project, which began and computer
in July 1968,

responded to four concerns of the Board of Education
and various citizen
groups. Those concerns were:
1) Disappointing levels of pupil achievement
in computation skills.
With "new math" pupils were doing exceptionally well in

concepts, but drill had largely disappeared from books
teacher practice. Mastery of computational skills
had declined
2) Special education. Special education
was expanding. Handi-capped children and youth formerly not in public schools
being enrolled A deeply felt unwillingness to


accept the low level

of progress and achievement experienced by
many special


'Managing Change-Montgomery County


education pupils prompted a search for better teaching methods
for this population.
3) Greater individualization of instruction. Ten years of progress in
reducing class size and emphasizing individualizing of instruction

had not made much difference. The quest for better ways to
individualize instruction and unlock pupils from progress by
time blocks continued.

4) Search for economies. In a effort to off-set the high cost of
reducing class size, various methods were sought to give teachers
support and assistance. If non-teaching duties and routine tasks,

that consumed teacher time and energy cduld be handled in
another way, could teachers then successfully teach larger
During this same period of time certain other events were occurring
which ultimately helped determine the strategy to be used by the school
system in addressing the four concerns cited above. Those other events
1) Title III of ESEA enacted in 1965 provided money for research
and innovation.
2) IBM was interested in field testing its newly developed 1500
series computer.
3) Following the 1965 Task Force Report there was a receptive
climate for consideration of the use of computer technology in
Given these circumstances, it's not surprising that the idea evolved
that the four education concerns cited above might be addressed through
CAI. A search of the literature revealed considerable evidence that such
an approach held promise. Staff papers were prepared suggesting CAP
programs that might bc implemented. These were discussed at Board
meetings and given wide public distribution. As support developed and
with Board approval, a proposal was submitted to the Title III office and
negotiation begun with IBM.
Program and funding approvals were received, detailed plans developed, and the research and development projeCt started.
Its purposes were to:
1) Develop and test CAL instruction materials to be used in several
aspects of the instructional program including: basic skills in
math, math for retarded adolescents, individualizing instruction,
and increased teacher efficiency.
2) Develop staff capability for effective use of CAI.
3) Identify and validate effective application of CAI.
Actual instruction was conducted by teachers in the four CAI schools.
A project staff of twelve prepared instructional materials, wrote computer
programs, operated the computer, trained classroom teachers, helped
with evaluation, proposed and developed additional CAI applications,



Managing Change-Montgomery County

reported on the project, and maintained communications with board,

staff and citizens. This staffdeveloped a high level of expertise, excellent
morale, good rapport with school staff and earned the respect of school
officials, board members and interested citizens.
By the middle of the sixth year research and development phase, 16
modular instructional packages had been developed. Programs included
elementary arithmetic-diagnostic and instructional, junior high arithmetic-

diagnostic and drill, special education-arithmetic, and senior high
algebra I and II, and geometry. In subsequent years a range of additional

packages were developed from grade one phonics to elementary
language arts to high school mechanical drawing, chemistry and French.

During this same period computer literacy and vocational data
processing were taught- in many high schools. Computer assisted
counseling began. A Penn State University graduate course in early
identification was used extensively in teacher training.
Evaluating Researrh Results
Research results were used to help guide program development.

41/2.chievernent gains for pupils and attitudes of pupils and teachers were

very positive for most programs. Where this was not so, programs were
modified or dropped. Generally, research results showed significantly

greater achievement gains by CAI pupils over non-CAI pupils in

elementary arithmetic. Special education results were the most dramatic.
Teachers were able to provide more individualized instruction with

computer support and CAI .geometry classes with 40 percent more
pupils, did as well as smaller non-CAI classes.
A CAI Project Advisory Council composed of representatives from
the computer and instruction departments, CAI schools and interestid
citizens played a significant role in coordinating this work among
departments and school's. It also designed strategies for frequent Board
and citizen reports and discussions throughout the life of the project. A
reservoir of public and staff support resulted.

Developing a Model MIS
A third major event that influenced the development of computer
technologyjn education in Montgomery County was ajoint MCPS-IBM
Task Force to develop a model Comprehensive Educational Managerial

Information System for a school district. This task force brought

computer and education experts together for two years of work. Their

model consisted of seven subsystems: Finance, Personnel, Pupil,
Facilities, Material, CAI and CMI. With the benefit of this "model" a
master plan for a total Information System for Montgomery County
Schools was adopted by the Board. Organizational and equipment
changes wyre made to facilitate implementation of the master plan. A
Users Council composed of the five Associate Superintendents in the

5- 9

Managing Change-Montgomery County


school system met regularly to decide on priorities for subsystem
applicition development and to assure good cooperation and coordination

across departmentsa condition of utmost importance to success.

Institutionalizing CAI and CMI
The fourth major event was-the institutionalizing of the CAI and CMI
applications which flowed from the six year (1968-1974) research and
developthent project. This occurred in two phases. First, in 1974 the
hard wire, limited capacity, 1500 computer was discontinued and all
adMinistrative and instructional applications were brought together info
a large computer operating with a common data base. At the same time,
the Board adopted an implementation plan for moving CAI and CMI
providing for moving programs into 13 elementary and 7 secondary
schools in 1974-75. The second implementation phase adopted in 1975

called_for variations of CMr application for math instruction in all
elementary schools, By 1979-80 this program, known as Instructional
SysteM in Math (ISM), was in place in 77 schools.

Are there any lessons to be learned; generalizations to be made from

this fifteen years of expereince that might help point the way for
successful application of computer technology in the future? I think so.
Of course the applications may be quite different, but the management
strategies for accomplishing change may not be. Some of those strategies
I think are:
1. Efforts to make changes In curriculum and instruction priorities .

should grow out of real problems that have been identified
through research, analysis, opinion polling and other, reliable
techniques for collecting and evaluating data. Changes that
produce visible relief to these well defmed problems are likely to

maintain the kind of support necessary to sustain them.
2. Have written objectives to be achieved by proposed changes.
These objectives should be simply stated so they are under-

standable and meaningful to the average staff person and
parent. They should be achievable. Nothh2gis more damaging
to effecting long term change than making overly ambitious

claims and then trying to explain away why they were not
achieved; objective setting should be both long and short range.
When short range objectives represent measurable increments
of Progress and when evaluation data shows that those objectives

are being 2chieved, confidence builds in both the managers of
the process and the practices being implemented.
3. Research proposed changes to determine if they will in fact
achieve the objectives. Search the literature for good data mi

.6 0


Managing Change-Montgomery County

relevant research and experience elsewhere. Change in educa-

tion, especially change as complex as melding computer
technology and education, is expensive and draining of staff
energy "and time. It should not be undertaken unless there is

powerful evidence to show that it is very likely to be successful.

4. Prepare a comprehensive plan for building understanding

for introduction and management of the change. It's best to have
a broad base of participation in preparing this plan. This step is

especially critical when applying computer technology to
education. People are reluctant to give up their paper records.
Teachers, who typically work alone, must learn to function as
part of a team. All must acquire some degree of computer
literacy. Training is required. Constant capacitytime, access,
and prograMming must be built into the plan. Management
procedures need to assure prompt resolution of disputes.
5. Too often efforts to change education have failed because they
were sustained by one dynamic person and when that person

left, or condifence in that individual eroded, the program collapsed. Applications of computer technology in education
require major changes in staff behaviors and usually cost extra

start-up money. They won't Succeed unless there is understanding
and.commitment by staff and citizens. Take time to write up the

plan. Meet with staff and interested citizens. Make sure the
Board really believes in the undertaking. Involve staff and
citizenslike Montgomery County's CAI Advisory
Committeein guiding the new procedures. Keep a constant
flow of information going to staff and citizens. Their

Support will

atrophy if it is not nurtured through the years of planning,

introduction and institutionalization.
6. Project cost realistically and report regularly on actual


tures. Distrust will develop if administrators are forever
explaining why new programs cost more than was prpjected.

Cost effectivéhess is an increasingly significant factor in

education. Unless a proposed educational change has real longterm potential for saving money or increasing learning, it should

not be undertaken.
7. Provide the management support system necessary to maintain
the program. This is especially important in applying computer
technology to education. In Montgomery County The Users
Councils of the five associate superintendents which controlled
allocation of computer time was critical. At one point, 90
percent of computer time during the work day was required to
support CAI/CMI. Without this high level decision making
authority, that would not have happened. Administrative tasks
that have deadlines, like getting checks out, will pre-empt

Managing Change-Monigomery Counly


computer time unless there is authority to control and allocate it.

8. Training, where computer applications are involved, requires
special attention. 'For many the change will require an entirely
new way of thinking and working. The technology is mysterious

to most people. Giving up the security of old systems whether
files of hard copy documents or the use of text book and paper
and pencil learning activities comes hard. Thus, training must
also help people cope with the personal behavior changes they

9. Staff the nes;qechnology application to education with a leader
knowledgeabl8 in both fields, and who is also a good manager,
teacher and motivator and has the respect of colleagues. Any
change designed to be instittitionalized should not be staffed in
start-up phases with only "super people." Such practice may
lead to disappointment when the application is extended to the
regular staff.
10. Begin any change in instruction or management procedures in a

research mode. ewcumulate and evaluate data to determine
how well tJplan is working. Make changes as necessary-Ito

accompIijjanned activities.
tdiscuss progress several times per year. Relate
11. Report
progress to short and long term objectives established- in the
master plan. Parents and staff are especially concerned where
computer applications involve pupils and instruction.
12. Move through planned steps to full implementation. Each step
should be manageable. Progress should move forward boldly
with constant momentum, but never more in any one year than
can be well staffed, supported and Managed.

In summary, the most significant observation to be made in looking
back over 15 years of applications of coMputer technology to education
in one school system is that it evolved in a rather orderly, rational way
with each new step building upon the expanded knowledge base and
successes of earlier steps. The technology is ever changing. Specific
applications to education therefore, will be different tomorrow than they
were yesterday. The process, however, of effecting change for greater
economy and/or effectiveness through deliberate steps that are attainable,
well planned and well managed is still sound and still applicable.



M3naging Technology 'Change
"MEcC: A Management History'




John E. Haugo
President, Edusystems Incorporated
St. Paul, Minnesota


The Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC).

is an
system: htMindesota
to coordinate and provide compter services to students,
teaehers and
educational administrators throughout the state. MECC
draws upon the
resources of member systems and 75 professional staff in providing
overall review of computing plans and budgets;
a statewide instnictional
timesharing system; the support for microcomputers
purchased through
a state contract; the development of regionally:based
information systems; and support to a variety of special
MECC transcends the various organizational levels of education,
serving elementary, secondozy,
vocationakechnics4 and higher educational institutions. MECC is organized under the I
'statute which permits governmental units to form oint 'Powers Lay, a
organization which
cooperalively exercises the powers common taarteach
of the entities
forming th. organization: In the case of MECC,
the entities who formed
the consortium in 1973 are: the.Minnesota State University
System (7
camputm), the Minnesota Community College System
(18 campuses),
the University of Minnesota (5 campuses), the
State Department of
Education (433 school districts), and the State
tration. The latter agency serves as a member because
authority relative to the State Univeraity and C
organization created by the four pcblic educational

MECC has the dual 'roles of coordination and

In its
coordination role, it maintains a long range master planservice.
and a biennial
plan for educational computing in the state, and
reviews and assists
institutions in developing their annual computer plans. In
its service role,

16 3


Managing Change-MECC


develops and im'MECC operates 'a Statewide timesharing network, systems, acts as a
plements computer-based,
supports the
broker (or sirrilar SerViCCII from- member institutions,
andcontracti for computer
acquisition aed operation of Microcomputers,
tqiiipment that can be used by its members.

Governance, of MECC
MECC is goVerned by a

sixteen-member Board of Direet;rs. The

Board representing
State Board of Education appoints six members tb the
The three systems of
"eleeientary, secondary,

These members
higher education each appoint two Board members.
members. The
include high ivel administrators and governing
appoints one member and the Governor
Commissioner ofAdministation
Tradilionally; one. of _the
ippoints -three Meliiberi to the Baia
college sector. The
Governoes sPpointees has been from the private
overall policy and governs the operation
Boantef Directori establishes
of the ivnsortium.
structure consisting of a Planning
The consortium also has an advisory
and Services Review
and Budgeting Committee and a Facilities,
ieview of all proposals for
Committee. The latier group
Additionally, there are a- number of standing user
compute? services.
idvisory committees, and periodic ad,boc tatik



state sources. Almost all

Funding for MECC his come pritearily from edecstional systems or
appropriated to the four
of the budget is either
signs an annual agreement with
comes from the school districts. MECC

services-The leyel of servicbs
fiinding reqUest
snr1 amount of the contract are fixed prior to the system's
provides around eighty percent.,
tO the legislature. This type of agreement MECC- Also provides instrub- of MECC's total budget requirements_
districts. , These
Willa time-sharing services to the independent school
are billed to the school districts at a fixed

the *cationsl systems to provide specific

slightly less tllin twenty.

access. This source of fielding represents
for special projetts
percent of MECC's total bpsiget:.Pther support
comes from sources external to the State.



is responsible for its own operational plan.
Each membei of,MECC
installation of computing
For the seven regions this includes the
staff works closely

equipment uncler the master contract The mEcc
with the members'.ataffs in the vlevelopment of theseol the legislature,
Beginning in Febtesry before each Iienniatsession
interactively with ,theMECC
the members assess their needs and work
plan for the State. It is
staff to develop



Managing Change-MECC

intended that die two staffs can igree on an operational plan for the next
biennium before the members' staff takes takes its recommendations to
its advisory committees. The members present their plans to their own
advisory groups before they are officially transmitted to MECC. The

MECC staff receives the plan as recommended by the members:.
advisory grdup. They review .this verSion of the plan and make
recominefidations -to-the Facilities and Services Review Committee.
This standing-committee consists of a technically qualified peer group.
After the review by the MECCstaff and the Facilities Committee, the plan
is transmitted with recOmmendation to the mgcc Board of Directors
for final approNial.

S ervices

MECC is divided into three operating divisions. The Instructional
Services Division manages and operates the mgcc Timeshare System
(MTS), a Control Data CYBER 73 with 425 user ports. At present,
approximately 2,000 MTS computer terminals are located across the

state in most public schools, all community colleges and pithlic

uniirersities, and many of Minnesota's private schools. MECC also
supports the acquisition, installation, an'd software support for approxi,
mately 2000
Apple II microcomputers. User Services personnel serve
the users at all levels by conducting workshops, producing curriculum

materials, training teachers and teaching courses on instructional
compuing. They also make available written materials ranging from
periodic newsletters to curriculum .guides that can be used to help
implement computer use in the classroom. A large multiplexing

communications netCyork provides the means by which users access the,

MTS computer. The computer has a progam library of over 950

timeshare and microcomputer programs that supplements curricula at
the elementary, secondary and college levels. Progranlls in the library
have been developed and/or contributed by MECC staff and -users.

The Management Information Services Division performs tasks
related td the development and imPlementation of management information or administrative data processing service; for elementary, secondary
and vocational school districts. The services are provided through seven
regionally-based service- centers located throughout the state. Comprehensive and flexible software haibeen developed and is being supported

and maintained to scuPport the school district manager-nen:, data
processing, and reporting needs in the areas of personnel, finance,
student and instructional management. This Software operates on
Burroughs B6800 series computers.
The Special Projects Division initiates, implements, facilitates, and
manages a wide range of activities related td the use of computers in
education. In carrying out Its responsibility for project development,
Special Projects staff become involved in activities ranging from the


Managing Change-MECC


initial exploration of a potential computer use to the implementation of
,major outside funded prcdects. iteseatch projects designed to explore a

wide range of hypotheses related to computer use in education are
conducted by the Division. Primary support for recent research lips come

from the National Stience Foundation and- the National Institute of

Progress Towards Goals
When MECC was established in 1973, a number of goals were
identified for the Organization. The foremost goals and related MECC
accomplishments are:
1. To achieve economy ofscale in computer hardware utilization
and acquisition: There are a number of examples regarding the
attainment of this goal. Perhaps the most significant economies
have been gained in the acquisition of Management Information
Services (MIS) host computers for the Elementary.Secondary
Vocational (ESV) regional processing centers. To date, seven
major host computer systems with total monthly costs of approximately $140,000 have been acquired at a 40 percent discount

through a state master contract established by MECC. Additionally, various terminals and over 2,000 microcomputers have
been acquired thmugh state contracts. In addition to price breaks
associated with these acquisitions, the compatibility of equipment
and time savings associated with procurement have Also benefited
the state. In terms of the economy of use, the MIS systems as well
as the MIS host computer all achieve high utilization and are
permitting significant savings to users.
2. To achieve cost-effective.communications networking: MECO

and its member systems currently provide instructional umesharing service to all the higher education institutions and 350
school districts throughout the state. The annual cost of this
network is approximately a million afid a halfdollars. Because of
the economies ofjoint use of the telecommunications systems as
.well as the optimization of the configuration, it is estimated that
this cost is Oproximately one-third of what it woukl have been
had the network been established independent of the MECC
planning,fictivity. Similar economies are also realized through
the regionally-based MIS telecoMmunications networks.
3. To minimize system design-and development costs: There-are
two major developments Which have helped minimize the costs
associated with computers. The first is the statewide system
development and support-of the elementary, secondary, voca-

tional information system (ESV-IS). The software is being
implemented at the regional ESV service, centers. The second
major savings in software has been with the MIS system where


,Managing Change-MEG-6

over 900 instructional cfmputer programs are part of timesharing
and microcomputer libraries. They have been jointly
and made accessible for all users throughout the state.
4. To share expertise and
successful applications: Many computer
programs, systems, triming materials, and usage models have
been adapted .from Major service centers that existed
prior to
MECC. Most notable among these are the TIES regional
the University of Minnegota MERITS5sYStem, and the
Minnesota School Computer Project based at Mankato
University. It is difficult to quantify in terms of dollarsState
attainments related to this goal. Additionally, there has been
significant amount of"cross-fertilization" among various
educational useis be,cause of participation in MECC services
advisory activities.
5. To assure uniformity and
compatibility of data: The development and use of standard software utilized by all regional ESV
centers is the most significant
example of attainment of this goal.
The information reported to, local school districts,
regionalservice units, state and federal government are uniform in terms
of definition and compatible terms of the mode in which the
data tare transmitted. The higher education institutions
consolidated their administrative data processing or MIS services
on major computers and as such have also achieved significant
uniformity and compatibility of data.
6. To facilitate training of
educators in regard to educational

In regard to instructional computing, over 500

workshops arid presentations are made annuallS, throughout the
state. School and college users are typically visited
basis to promote use of the computer as an effective on an annual
tool. A significant amount of training related to the instructional
MI'S system
has also been conducted

by MECCMECC staff' has worked

closely with higher education faculty in deVelopingtheir cur'riculum

course materials related to instructional and MIS computing


Management and Governance Problems
Inherent in the establishment of any organization
are a number of
economic, political, and technical problems. MECC,
because of its
unique nature as a statewide computer Service
.encountered its share. The following include some of the
have been encountered by the organization during its first problems that
seven years of

1. "Turf' concerns: At the time MECC

was established, the larger
educational entities had the most on-going computing activity.

They had the least to gain from a statewide


Managing Change-MECC


computing activity. The maiority of the political probjems which
MECC has had to deal with were because of the reluctance of the

existing providers of computing services to participate in developments which were beneficial to the state as a whole. In
addition, a number of newly created computer services groups
have had difficulty identifying their role and, as such, have not
always recognized the significance of the roles of MECC and the
member systems.

2. Rejection oforiginal MTS host computer Because of a series of
technical and political considerations, the original host computer
used for the support of the statewide timesharing netWork did not
meet acceptance requirements. This failure caused considerable
concern among users, staff, and the legislature. Fortunately, the

replacement system was installed with a minimal amount of
problems and the network is nationally recognized for both the
quality and quantity of services.
3. Overlapping governance structures: Along with the problems
associated with role delineation is the fact that there currently are
a number of governing boards with authority related to educational computing which include: the MECC Board, the member
systems' governing Wards, regional governing boards, and local

school district boards. Although there is rationale for the

existence of each of these boards, the fact is that many
governance issues are dealt with in a cumbersome, time consuming Manner because of the number and, in some cases,
overlap of responsibility of these boards in regard to educational

4. MECC review and services responsibilities: At times, concern
has been raised about MECC's responsibility for coordination
planning on one hand, and the.provision of services, on the other.
Where MECC itself is one alternative as a provider of services, it
has been felt that its review authority is somewhat inappropriate.
The Board has chose to deal with this by having, separate
advisory structures, namely, the Facilitiei and Services Review
Committee and the Planning and Budgeting Council, to advise
the Board on matters related to its regulatory and serVices roles.
It is also felt that because of the composition of the Board (high
level administrators and lay representatives), it is in a position to

thake decisions regarding a potential area of conflict
5. Uniqueness of the orgaaization: Although it is true that there are
regional and educational system cooperatives throughout the
nation, there is no other state that has a statewide educational
computing services cooperative for alr levels of education. As
such, many of the problems that are encountered by MECC are
unique and there are no other models to follow. This fact has




Managing Change-MECC

made the management tasks of the MECC Board and staff
challenging. Hopefully, it will enable MECC to serve as a

prototype statewide computing services cooperative.
6. Difficulty with administrative procedures: When MECC
initially established, they had adopted administrative personnel,
accounting, payroll, etc. from the state and/or University of
Minnesota. Legislation passed in the 1977 session required that
IttECC become a part of State Civil Service. Because of the
uniqueness of the organization, the high demand for data
processing staff, and the need for_ flexibility because of changing
annual goals, many frustrations in the administrative operations

of MECC have been realized by staff Problems associated with
cumbersome administrative procedures have impacted the timely
completion of some of its annual objectives.

It can be said that MECC has met primary goals and that it has been
successful in terms of the overall purposes for which it was created. It

should be pointed out, however,

that this particular, approach to
statewide coordination and delivery of services worked in Minnesota in a
given point in time. It sould not be assumed that the WC C model
work for other states with different fmancial, political, and geographic
considerations. Also, rapidly changing computer technology will require
that the MECC services model, as well as other cooperative computing
centers, be reevaluated periodically.
Most of the problems that MECC has encountered have not been

economic or technical, they have been political or human problems. As
many individuals or organizations are involved in a cooperative decision
process, it follows that conflicting interests sometimes affect decision
making processes. Hopefully, MECC has achieved a balance of power,
so to speak, in the manner in which decisions are made. If there is any
one area in terms of governance that could
be improved, it would be in the
streamlining of the accountability to the rest of the state government.
In summary, it slems that the need for cooperatively
specialized educational services is going to increase at the same time that
enrollment and funds for education decrease. Hopefully, MECC will
continue to provide the means by which one type of educational
educational computing, can be eiTectively made available to

1 63


Managing thePevelopment of the Public

Telecommunications Center,
Spokane, Washington
Wolter Schoor
General Manager, KSPS-TV
Spokane, Washington

The plain and simple fact is the Public Telecommunications Center
began with two people struggling to- fmd a solution to an inherited
problem. The two people were the Director of Engineering and myself,
General Manager of KSPS-TV, a public television stationlicensed to the
public schools of Spokane. The problem was to fmd a way to deliver

instructional television programs to junior and senior high school
classrooms. As manager of KS PS-TV and a school district employee, I
was taking a great amount of criticism from teachers and administrators
of junior and senior high schools over the station's "inability" to deliver
any services to grades 7 through 12. In contrast, kindergarten through 6th
grade classes were utilizing the over-the-air chiumel nicely.
Responding to this problem, the KSPS-TV engineering department
designed a closed-circuit cable system to interconnect all of the buildings
in the Spokane schools. Just as the finishing estimates and design work
were being completed, an announcement was made that the city council
was going to consider an "emergency ordinance" to establish a cable

One must keep in mind that in 1971 cable franchising was less
competitive and less politically oriented..The city council realized that it


wu not going to be able to "give the franchise" away. Commercial
television stations, local business leaders, and public broadcasters
(KSPS7TV) requested that the cable issue be turned over to a committee
of interested citizens. This committee would study the cable question and
produce a reasonable set of specifications for potential cable bidders.

Preparing for Cable
I was appointed by the Superintendent of SchOols to represent School




Spokane, Washington

District 81 and KSPS-TV in those discussions. During 1972, meetings
to develop cable specifications were regular and well publicized. It is
interesting to note that only one of the institutions of higher. education
attended any of these meetings or showed any particular interest in cable.
It is important to focus briefly on this point because some of the higher

educational institutions felt that Spokane Schools and KSPS-TV
dominated educational channel capacitylater this attitude was a major
management problem to overcome. After a year, the specifications were

ready. The cable companies prepared proposals and the selection
process began. (Having now lived on both sides ofthefranchising fence, I

have seen some educational institutions shy away from the selection
process apparently-because of its political nature. Other institutions
openly and wholeheartedly embrace the process (not a particular
company) and they will, in the long run, be the winner.)
After Cox Cable was awarded the Spokane franchise, the higher

educational institutions became fully aware of the progress that had been

made in the educational arena by KSPS-TV and the public schools.
These institutions began to get into the actsome through resentment
and others through enthusiasm. The city council had already begun
pressuring educational entities to cooperate, essentially saying, "Get
your act together or forget it. We will not include you at all if you can't
agree." At that time cable companies had to have letters of compliance

fro'm the FCC before corstruction could be started. And, because
Spokane was the first system to request five educational channels, it was

necessary for all the educational parties to work together to show the
FCC that five channels could be programmed effectively.
Utilization Clause

A portion of the Spokane cable ordinance deals with this issue of
utilization; it was called the "use it or lose it clause."
Excerpt from eity of Spokane cable ordinance:
That a grantee shall reserve an initial five (5) channels, or such

number as the F.C.C. shall allow, solely for education on a

development basis. Upon completion of the basic trunk line, if it is
found that 80% of the week days from September through May, both

months inclusive, during any consecutive three (3) hour period for six (6)

consecutive weeks, the number of these channels may be reduced to
the extent necessary to meet this less than 80% level of usage. If it is
also found that 80% of these channels are being used 80% of the week
days from September through May, both months inclusive, during any
consecutive three (3) hour period for six (6) weeks, additional channels
may be requested to meet this more than 80% level of usage. These
channels will all remain available to the schools without charge for a
period of five (5) years beginning from the completion of the basic trunk
line of the system, provided, however, that said channels shall be
furnished without charge subsequent to-said five-year period if F.C.C.
rules and regulations allow.

1 7i

Spokane, Washington


With the utilization clause, the city council pressure for cooperation,
and all of our- collective educational reputations on the line, it became
evident that a cooperative venture was the proper way to proceed. The
fortunate circumstances of having a strong public TV station licensed to a
public school district with well over 10 years of television experience,
carried the group along for the first few years while the cable system was
being constructed. In addition, there was .considerable television interest
at one of the community colleges and one private four-year institution. Inthe early stage of the Spokane system between 1973 and-1975; KSPSTV personnel abandoned the plans for a closed Circuit system since cable
was imminent.

Implementing Action Plan
I unofficially assumed management of the Spokane consortium to
begin to put into action what we had promised. The plan of action
involved managing two distinct developing programs:
One program involved designing a total public telecommunications center, including equipment acquisition.
The other program involved the ifse of cable in the stcondary

schools of Spokane. Let's discuss the secondary schools and
cable first.
The Spokane secondary school program had two beginning objectives:
1. Cite enthusiasm among secondary people (i.e., teachers and
nts where there was little.
2. Develop a step-by-step construction program which included
bot.'i hardware and software in eachjunior and senior high school.
Spokane schools were fortunate to have educators and aeuninistrators
who were interested and willing to saörifice time to start the program
planning process. The pilot prOject, funded in part by the Corporation for

Public Broadcasting, began in the part of town where cable was first
initiated. The project grew from four schools during the 1976-1977
school year, to eight schools during the 1977-1978 school year, and then

eventually to all 13 secondary schools in 1978-1979.
The management of the Spokane project meant balancing software
acquisition and production with hardware acquisition and installation.
Many l`chicken or egg" decisions threw the balance of progress one way
or the other. Using any television in a school district requires making

programming decisions, but using cable televiskin requires making
programming, equipment and facility decisions.
Almost every decision is going to cost money in both the short and long

term. Television software and hardware both have very short lifetimes
and are reoccurring expenses. Very few school administrators know that
or want to admit it.
The first step is to clearly identify how cable in the classroom will be



Spokane,' Washington

_1. Transmitting prerecorded sequential TV programs for student
2. Nonzoqucntial Listractiov iv classroom.
3. Teacher training programs.
4. Locally produced outreach programs to dm community.
.5. Additional training opportunities for students.
The first two priorities were to deliver educational programs to the
classroom. All the other uses together would not equal 10 percent of this.
The second decision was a plan to equip classrooms and buildings
properly so cable could be received in each classroom. We knew that was
going to require a sizable capital expenditure. And, we knew that the
school administration and the School Board were going to need some
options. More importantly, we knew above all that nothing was going to
happen all at once.

Establishing Capital Expenditures
In order to document a detailed capital expenditure program, we had
to establish:
1. What the total package should be.
2. The timing of the project.
3. How many dollars would need to be spent to accomplish the task.
4. What would the acquisition of this type of equipment mean to the
day to day operating expenses.
5. How would equipment be replaced as it wore out.
6. What were the'Sources of funds for the immediate expenditures.
7. What were the long run sources of funds for maintenance and
There were several unique elements
-ntend with in the cise of
capital expenditures for cable and the c assroom:
All students and teachers need to be treated similarly as fast as
possible. Any long term (more than 3 years) proposal would
never fly.
Inflation being what it is, the quicker the better.
If however all the hardware is installed and software is not ready
there will be charges of misuse of dollars for "unused toys."
We would have to proceed quickly on a broad basis to assure
"something for everyone" or we would lack the support necessary
to acquire administrative and board approval.
A total plant design was worked out. The ultimate goal
was to:
Wire every full-time teaching station in the Spokane School


Place a color, wall-mounted or otherwise permanent TV set at
each teaching station.
Provide each building with one channel "internal" closed circuit.

1 73

Spokane, Washington


Build a headend distribution cen r with:

- 5 modulators
- 7 time base correctors

A routing switcher capable of simu eously:
- Feeding all five channels
Dubbing at least 2 separate progr
- Recording at least 4 incoming sign s i.e., upstream from

various studios throughout the syste , from Westar and
Satcom satellites, from channel 7 mas r control, or studio

A computer capable of a:
- Library function, including program right end dates, etc.
- Machine control function
- Programming function
Once that plan was put in place, putting the sequen e together was a
matter of finding possible sources of funding and defining a time schedule

for the entire project.

Planning Options
What follows are planning options presented at regular intervals to the
administration and board. These options provided both groups not only
with close control of the progress dcthe system but also required them to

become involved and interested in how the project was moving.
Recommendations for the cable television program for 1980-el and
1981-82 include:

Recommendation *1: Television Sets and Wiring of School Buildings
Each of the following three proposals contain_ the recornmendatfons;
however, the implementation schedule varies which affects the expenditure required.

Proposal *1 (Spring 1980)
Purchase TV sets to serve 65% of all secondary school
$ 55,000
teaching stations-100 sets @ $550 =
Purchase TV sets to serve 90% of all elementary school
teaching stations-483 @ $550 =
Wire all classrooms in all schools-462 @ $250
AdvantagesTV set prices are now lower then any time before this,

and lower than they will probably be next year.A
bulk buy should save money.

The television sets and wiring can be used now.
The price to wire all schools at once, especially
during the summer, will be better.



Spokane, Washington

Disadvantages$436,150 is a large expenditure for one year.
Pruposal *2. (Sprint,. _1980_
Purchase TV sets to Serve 60% of all secondary school

_teaching stations-45 sets @ $550 =
$ 24,750
purchase TV sets to serve 90% of all elementary school
teaching stations-483 @ $550 =
(Fall/Winter 1980)
Wire classrooms at Adams, Franklin,'Hamblen,
Indian Trail,Logan, Madison, Pratt and
Linwood-172@ $250
AdvantagesTV set prices are low now.

The TV sets can

used now.

We have reduced out per-year expenditure requirement.

DisadvantagesSome schools need wiring now.
Wiring would have to be done during school time.
Proposal *3 (1980-81)
Purchase TV sets to serve 60% of all school
classrooms-310 @ $550
Wire classrooms at Adams, Franklin, Hamblen, Indian Trail,
Logan, Madison, Pratt and Linwood-172 @ $250 =-43,000
Purchase 218 TV sets to bring all elementary classrooms
to 90% =
Wire remaining schools-290 rooms @ $250 =
AdvantagesTV sets Would be improved at all levels.
Schools with impaired reception would be helped.
The expenditure is divided over a two-year period.
DisadvantagesIt will cost more in the long run.
Recommendation *2: Closed Circuit Television

No decisions should be made regarding secondary school use of
originating equipment and the intern program until the comprehensive
study now under way is completed by the Basic Education Department,

in cooperation with KSPS-TV, I.M.C., and Vocational Education.

When this study is completed, May 1, 1980, consideration will have
be given to the recommendations.


Spokane, Washington


Recommendation *3: Maintenance

icsps-!rv personnel continue to provide maintenance on district
television equipment
Recommendation #4: Play-Back Units at School

'In March of 1979, equipment was installed in all secondary schools to
provide a basic one channel of local school playback capability This is
working very well. Many requests have been received for additional
pieces of equipment such as cameras and switchers to improve school
production .of television programs.
It is recommended that the single channel concept be continued for
school playback capability. It is further recommended that no decision be

made regarding purchases of additional cameras, tape recorders and
other equipment until the Basic Education report (see Recommendation

*2) is completed.
The district purchased three portable color camera VTEcombinations
for schools to be used on a check-out basis from KSPS-TV. The
equipment has just arrived and is being checked out to schools. The
results of this experiment will be reflected in the comprehensive report
Seed Money

The most obvious problem was an initial large amount of money
would be necessary to put togetlblpet;,the headend origination center. This

was not something that could done on a piecemeal basis.
Cox Cable construction plans also had to be taken into consideration.
We requested that Cox exceed their original channel capacity commitment and install seven-mile institutional cable from the Public Telecommunications Center to the Cox Master Terminal Center. Frankly,
the Cox construction schedule gave us the necessary excuse to sequence
our purchases and thus give the financing of the prqect breathing room.
Fortunately a small demonstration program, the Telecommunication

Demonstration Grant Program administered by Ann Erdman, was
available through the Office of Education, Health, Education and
Welfare. The maximum amount supposedly available for any particular

demonstration was to be no more than $50,000.
The timing of the grant requested, the grant maximum, and a more
clearly defined cable construction schedule made it all the more
necessary to get the total educational community better organized.

Designing a Total Public Communications Center
ihe loosely knit consortium hid been meeting only occasionally since

the outset of the construction. No* that a significant portion of the
system was built and cable connection penetration had reached a large



Spokane, Washington

enough level, colleges were starting to think in terms of delivery of
instructional materiallo subscriber's homes.
The next stepthe most difficuk of the entire processwas convincing
all of the colleges that a cohsortium was a much more effective and
efficient way to operate a cable origilation center.
With convincing the colleges accomplished, the consortium put

collective strength and clout behind the' grant request to the Telecommunications Demonstration GrarkProgram. The grant request was
for $169,000 rather dun $50,000, with 13 institutions co-signing the
request. The result was a successful $169,000 grant to equip the

origination center for use by all the institutions. The grant forced the issue
of establishing long term goals ofthe consortium and devising a method
qf financing the long term Operating costs. The consortium or C.A .B.LE:

(Cable Advisory Board for Learning and Education) clearly defined
these goals:
1. Work as the main organization representing all levels of public
and private education and the public to establish guidelines for
access to educational channels authorized by the City of
Spokane and operated by the franshisee of the city-authorized
CATV system;
2. Act as a "clearing house" for all educational constithencies to
reduce Wasteful duplication of effort and resources in providing
programming for the CATV system;
3. Encourage cooperation and sharing of resources among boardrepresented institutions and districts and other educational
4. Help members impress their own administrations.with the many
advantages inherent in thoroughly-planned, constructive use of
CATV channels; and
5. Communicate to the community at Nrge the educitional and


public affairs potential of CATV and to encourage their

judicious use of available channels.
6. Develop specific programs, courses, workshops, seminars
and/or other software to be presented on the CATV educational
channels by Board-represented members, other educational/
instructional groups and organizations, and/or individuals, or
any cooperative agreements among these constituencies;
7. Establish policy guidelines for priorities in the processing of all
applications for access and use of the CATV channels set aside
for educational development;
8. Develop specific recommendations, including suggested fees,
when applicable, for the use of TV production facilities by
Board representatives and the public;
9. Establish a procedure for considering all applications for access
and to include in such procedure some mithod of appeal to


Spokane, Washington


,thase applicants who think their material warrants higher
priority or whose request has been rejected;


10. Develop a "Procedural Guideline and TV Production and
Preparation Recommendations" for all prospective users of the
CATV educational channels; and
11. Through the medium of the Board established by this Agreement, seek cooperative agreements .with other institutions,
consortia and public agencies in order to further the objectives
of the Member institutions.

In addition, the agreement established a managing institution to
operate the center ahd maintain the equipment and provide administrative
and paVroll structure. The agreement al,so outlined some general-policies
that helped maintain a degree of professionalism and program continuity
concerriing Use of all the channels fOr education. (Copies ofthe complete

agreement can be obtained -by writing Walter Schaar, Director of
Education and Information Services, Cox Cable Communications, Inc.)
With the advent of the consortium agreement and the establishment of

KSPS-TV/Schooi-District 81 as the managing institution, the major
hurdles to organization were over. As of June, 1980, the managing
institution is School District 81. The center einploys a manager, two full-



time operatOra, one schedu1m, and uses at least one half perion for
maintenance froM the KSPS-TV engineering stafr.
The general manager of KSPS-TV is the chief executive officer of the

operation. The director of telecommunications of KSPS-TV is
sponsible f9r the maintenance acd equipment replacement procedures
for the center.
At this siage of the development, the center is just entoringinto itsfirst
pure operational year. However, operations are running so smoothlythat
organizations who are members of the consortium bvtAte.physically

outside of the francliise- 'area are accessing funds to interconnect
ffiernselves with microwave on a two-way basis. Figure 1-shoWS those
interconnecting institutions with it dotted line interconnected.
.° ':-.Cox Cable and the Ctmsortium have akso devslopedi.the upstream
§apacity of Spokane's 35-channel systems so that 4. channels can be fed

-siMultaneously up td the Public Telecommunications Center. This
illoWs for two-way.use between institutions.
146i4o1ement of Center
' e management of the total center is now divided into two distinet
,elements. First, is the ongoing operations including ectimating yearly

usagefand fees to be charged to cover thosefiours of use. Those estimates
t ,mdst not only cover the hourly operating costs but also take into account
,.egilipment replacement: And secondly, encouraging all Consortium
;...,-members to develop original programs.
'The Consortium nOw operates much like a board of directors, electing



Spoiane, Washingion















C .,.
,Ct ,,,,,:/..

Z..,-Ct,, Coo..


.... 1to....cww

1 ,...


nrce No.,


':.,,',... ' 7' r "17 t";;;;"

S ,et:::,..e.
,N,:'''.:, A *V'Z', "
, ',<, s:',.. 1,,r7$,,,,,,,
rr :, ter "' .,,"
,n, I,, kers
01, ^. ,..*.: ,



- , :s

.ta -



Figure 1
a chairmen- who -is responsible for bringing the directors together to
Conduct business. He or she also is the chief lialson with the manager of
the Managing institution. The Consortium manager and the CEO of the
managmg institution cooperate in the selection of personnel for the
Cellar. The Consortium, tO this point, does not deal with either *grain
production or acquisition as a group. Each institutiori is responsible to
their own. The cable manager, howeyer does eupply each member
institution with, pmgrain source liiforination and 41 _responsible for
seeking new fundingsairces -for programs. At the present tithe -the
Consortium Ihurds only the operation of the telecoMmunications center.




Spokane, Washington


The cable Consortium has generated a high degree of cooperation. The
two-year and foUr-year schools using telecouises have:
Started to schedule in such a way to allow steady progress by a

TV student.
Hastened the establishment of credit transfers.
Eliminated almost all duplication of programs.
In addition, all members of the Consortium have started sharing
equipment for special needs. When the final agreethent was signed in
June, 1980; a survey was taken to see just what we had Managed to
interconnect For a community of approximately 280,0001people, the
resulti ót ihat survey were staggering:
two 40' X 50' fully equipped studios
four 30' X 40' fully equipped studios
one 35' X 80' fully equipped. studio
three instructional media centers at two 4-year institutions
and one, two-year institution
10' Salor studio cameras $45,000 to $120,000
. 14 ENG cameras $18,000 to

-Over 200 .W VTR's
twelve 2" Quad VTR's
six post production studios
And, the managers of this mass quantity of equipment and facilities
meet once a month and willingly loan to other institutions.
Several members of the Consortium are in the TV production and
technician training business. Spokane Schools/KSPS-TV have an aotive
high school intern program. Spokane Falls Community College his a
well-established broadcast curriculum and GonzagaEastem
Washingiqn University and Washington State University all have fourYear programs in broadcasting. One of the goals of the Consertium is to
sequence these educational programs sp a young person could graduate
from collegewith 6 to 8 years of both academic and hands-on experience.
The management of the Consortium activities are really shared by the
Consortium chairman,- the manager of the managing institutiOn, and the
cable manager, who is hired by the first two. In contrast, the management
of the use of cable by Spokane public schools is quite a different process
and involves a geater number of people.

The manager of the public TV station is responsible for the use of cable
by Spokane public schools. The manager of KSPS-TV sets aSide all the'
operational aspects of the center and is heavily involved in programming,
production, acquisitiori, utilization, and maintenance, and operation of
that equipment used .solely 13j, School District 81 personnel.

Prc ;ram Content
Program content is decided by the inatructional department. The
instructional television coordinator reports to the superintendent of




Spokane, Washi4ton

instructiOn for coMent and to the general
manager for logistic support
i.e., production, proinotion, etc. Maintenance of the TV
sets and interior
wiring of the schools is under the direction of the TV
station engineering
department, with help from the school district physical plant
This team of 21/2 people is responsible for 1,500 color
TV sets, twenty

VTR's and all the building and construction equipment
in 13
secondary schools and 38 elementary schools. This
to be
projected in the original total plan as additional operation
and beyond the TV station maintenance. And,production
of any kind
whether it be in studio or done with remote truck
on ENG including all
post production editing is coordinated by the operational
Each of these three department heads are responsible formanager.

estimated budgets on a year-by-year basis. The total
the use of the cable origination center by School operating budget of
District 81 and the
exclusive costs of school programming, production, and
maintenance are
combined by the general manager and shown as a separate
progam in the total KSPS-TV operating budget.

The manager of KSPS-TV is the center of focus for the
TV station and
the entire telecommunications center. It is pethaps this that,has
the center to acquire its unique nature.
Through the years of good faith in negotiating, all of the
institutions in the area are convinced that the Public
Telecommunication Center and an organization like C.A.B.L.E.
is the most logical,
effective, and efficient

way to use multi-channel cable.


The Consortium Approach:
Preserving Colle-ge-Decision=iMaking

Philip C. Dolce

Director, Center for Public MediciProgromming
Bergen Comihunity CoIlge

--Paromus, New Jersey

The subject of this book, technology and education, is most timely for
it implies a partnerihip between a series of sophisticated methodologies

and those established institutions charged with fulfilling the nation's
formal instructional mission. The major question today is not the..
acceptance of technology, but rather its organized and systematized use
in education.. Even the . most elementary textbook will reveal that
organization and system (with the political and economic poWer which
naturally flows from it) are as important as the machines in the actual
application of any technology.

A case in point is the use of media-based instruction in higher
education. In an earlier era, advocates of this methodology were usually
forced to deal -with such issues as the mere acceptance of the notion of
media-based instruction; proving that this methodology was as valid as

more traditional methods of instruction; and refuting the notion that

teachers wouldIose their jobs or suffer a reduction in function or prestige
if this technology were:accepted.

While some of these questions linger on, there is no doubt that our

major focus now must be concentrated not on acceptance but on


organized use. To be specific, what role will established institutions of
higher education have in employing nrss media instruction and howyill
these institutions assist in the future direction of the entire field. These

questions are based on an assumption that colleges and universitiet
should have a substantial role in determining any matter pertaining to
higher education. However, this assumption is not shared universally.
Robert L. Hilliard, who is presently on leave as chief of the Educational
Broadcasting Branch of the Federal Communications Commission, is



The Consortium Approach

one of a number of individuals who have advocated an Open University
for America. However, he believes that the administration of an Open
University "should not be in the hands of such traditional institutions as
existing colleges and universities w,hich, on the whole, haye done little to

show that they understand the relationship between media and


Master Plans
In general, institutions of higher education have suffered a loss-of

power and prestige for the last ten or fifteen years. In the 1960's, master

plans for higher education were rapidly put in place so that by 1970
virtually no state was without one. Under such master plans, decisionmaking power over such issues as admissions, budgets, tuition, and
programs were removed from local control and placed in the hands of
state officials. Reduced enrollments, combined with increased questions
about the relationship between higher education and potential employment opportunities, contributed to a decline in prestige for institutions of

higher learning. Ernest L. Boyer, Jr., President of the Carnegie
Foundation, recently stated that "there is evidence abroad that the
nation's colleges and universities are no longer the creative institutions
they could be. They are tired, living on the intellectual legacy of the past."
Media-Based Instruction

Such attitudes and criticisms, no doubt, will affect organizational plans

for media-based instruction. There is a tendencY to believe that
established institutions cannot support the implementation of new
concepts arid that an idea cannot be fostered unless it is nurtured in.an
entirely different organizational structure. This has been reinforced by

the fact that some of the most active opposition to media-based
instruction in particular, and technology in general, was found on college
campuses. It also is true that tradition and democratic participation
usually slow down the centralized direction, efficiency, and speed under
which new techniques can be deployed. While all of these statements
have some basis in reality, they tend to ignore the remarkably adaptive
nature of American higher education in general and the history of mediabased instruction in particular.
Despite its technological base, media-based instruction in the United

States is not a centralized movement. Instead, the strength of the
movement was marked by voluntary local and regional efforts of

institutions of higher education located in different parts of the country.
One of the major reasons decision-inaking power was left tojndividual
*colleges is that most state educational master plans ignored this field

entirely. Similarly, those who controlled the nationwide radio and
television network delivery systems were not overly concerned-about
attemOing to organize what appeared to be such a marginal market.

18 3


The Consortium Approach


Therefore, unlike the British Open University or even elementary
education in this country, media-based instruction struggled to find its
own organizational base.
In a number of areas around the country, media-based instruction was
quitely fostered along naturarand rational lines of development. In many
cases, institutions of higher education banded together to form
constituency-based consortia which then utilized available technological
delivery systems. Such an approach superseded local, county and in
some cases state boundaries. Each region, therefore, was self-defined by
the forces of geography, technology, and voluntary institutional alliance.
These consortia served a number of functions. They allowed colleges
to pool resources and expertise while deriving cost-sharing benefits for
the leasing and administration of media-based instructional material.
Consortia provided a forum for democratic participation in decisionmaking and an organization for mutual support. They served as a bridge
between two-year and four-year public and private colleges, thus
reducing competition and resolving issues of territoriality. Membership
in such organizations gave colleges the flexibility of participating in some
projects but not in others without the threat of total exclusion. In many
cases, the voluntary and gradual development of media-based instruction
reduced ,the fear of technology on college campuses. It allowed
institutions of higher learning to adjust their programs and procedures to
accommodate the new technology.

Consortia also enabled colleges to rationalize technological delivery
systems which not only cross traditional college boundaries_but political
ones as weli. This, of course, encouraged local commercial, cable and
public television stations to provide broadcast time which would not have
been forthcoming otherwise. As Elton Rule, President of.ABC, noted:
The consortiuM concept not only enables broadcasters to respond
more effectively to the zducational needs of the communities, but helps

us to allocate the fmite amount of time. we have to offer on a more
equitable basis for all.

Regional consortia, therefore, have successfidly demonstrated an
ability to merge educational autonomy with a technological base which
can serve all its members. Thomas W. Hobbs, of Seminole Community
College, might have been describing most of these organizations when he
stated that the Florida Consortium "was 'designed to meet the needs of
the individual colleges and was not superimposed upon the system at the
state level."

The lack of imposed structure and uniformity allowed for wide
experimentation to improve the learning experience of students who
utilized media-based instruction. The absence of bureaucratic rules
fostered innovation and imagination on local college campuses to recruit

1'8 4


The Consortium Approach

and then service "nontraditional" students. These efforts
were encouraged and enhanced by consortia activities. A series of recent
seminars entitled "Working with Telecourses," sponsored by the
National Association of Educational Broadcasters (NAEB), found a
consistent belief that consortium activities fostered better services to
The importance of regional consortia cannot be overstated. They
represent the grassroots movement that characterize media-based
instruction in this country. Today, there are over a dozen major


in the United States. No two of these consortia are exactly
Examples of various types of regional consortia include:

The Capital Area Higher Education Mass Media Council
The Capitol Area Higher Education Mass Media Council is a newly
formed organization which represents the interests of eleven two-year
and four-year public and prii,ate instinitions of higher learning in
Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. The Council seeks
to act as a systematic liaison with public and commercial broadcasters,
cable companies, and radio stations. WETA and WVET and the
Consortiuth for Continuing Education of Northern Virginia already

are working with CAHEMIK.

The Tri-State College Consortium
The Tri-State Consortium, (soon to be renamed the Eastern Educational Consortium), was founded in 1973 and consisted of
colleges working with one PBS station. Today the organization is
second largest media-based consortium in the United States with fiftyfive two-year and four-year public and private colleges in New
Connecticut, New Jersey, and parts of Pennsylvania and Delaware.
Its unique organizational configuration is due to long-standing historic
trends in higher education and the overlap of technological delivery
systems. The consortium has reached the limits of its geographic
service area and currently works cooperatively with commercial
television (ABC affiliates in New York and Philadelphia, and
public television (New Jersey Public Television and members of the
New York network of PBS stations), and cable television (over 20
companies' including UA Columbia, Cablevision, Suburban Cable,
etc.). The Consortium offers four telecourses a year and provides
video duplication and other support services to members.
The Southern California Consortium

The Southern California Consortium for Community College

Television, a cooperative liaison of 34 Community colleges and six

counties in the Los Angeles area, was formed in 1970 as an


The Consortium Approach


organization dedicated to the.production and distribution of collegecredit courses via broadcast television. Two hundred seventyLfive
thousand students have enrolled in courses that the Consortium has
offered. Currently ten broadcast television stations are involved in this

effort: major network affiliates (ABC, CBS, NBC), independent
broadcasters, and both community-based and college-licensed public
television stations. At least 25 courses are offered for credit each year.
Courses produced by the consortium are marketed nationally.

The Florida State Consortium
The Florida Community College Radio and Television Consortium
was formed in 1973: to provide channels for users of media-based
instructional programs; to share ideas, experiences, and costs; and to

reduce the costs incurred by individual institutions in the use of
television-based instruction. The state of Florida is broken up into six
regions based on broadcast signal coverage areas. The courses offered
vary within the legion.
It is true that active opposition to media-based instruction was most

vocal on college campuses. However, we should also recognize that
whatever success this field has enjoyed has been due to the innovative
role certain individual colleges (such as Coast, Dallas, Chicago, MiamiDade and the University of Maryland) have played. It is also due to the
strong efforts of regional consortia including those previously mentioned
plus others that come to mind, such as The University of Mid-America
and the Appalachian regional consortium. Not surprisingly, many of the
innovative colleges cited above also belong to regional consortia which
service their geographic areas. Success in this field has been substantial

since approximately 500,000 students annually enroll in organized
instructional experiences designed for delivery by mass media.
These results were achieved within an organizational plan which has
been naturally emerging for almost a decade and is rooted in the full
participation of existing institutions of higher .education. The AACJC
Mass Media Task Force has strenuously encouraged national cooperation, but recognized that the strength of media-based instruction
"lies in the optimal use of local distribution outlets and provision of
services tailored to the needs of local learners."

Organizational Alternatives
Due to the current level of success of media-based instruction, new
opportunities have emerged for massive funding and national distribution

of material. There is a defmite feeling that we are on the brink of a
tremendous breakthrough in the use of technology. This has naturally led
to discussions about the organization or rather the reorganization of the

field. Perhaps state or federal officials should be charged with the
responsibilities of implementing mass-media instruction? Perhaps a



The Consortium Approach

series of experimental colleges should be entrusted with responsibilities
for serving student needs or a national university should be established?

Perhaps the delivery of all Ostructional material should be funneled
through one agency to maiiaie impact? Such ideas deserve careful
Hopefully, we also will carefully consider the successful pattern of
development which has emerged over the last decade. This pattern has

united innovation with tradition by preserving the decision-making
power of existing institutions of higher learning through constituency- based regional consortia. National programs, including technologicallybased ones, do not necessarily imply the need for a highly centralized
decision-making apparatus, especially in America. Professional planners
have long recognized that a regional approach to certain crucial public
policy Matters is highly desirable, especially if they transcend political

boundaries. For instance, housing, transportation, and open space
utilization were all considered to be the responsibility of local and state
officials. Yet these officials could not cope with such problems which
extended beyond their jurisdiction because of natural geographic and

technological factors. A frequently used alternative was to impose
tiniform national solutions to offset local and state parochialism.
However, many federal officials have come to recognize that highly
centralized decision-making employs a strategy which completely
disregards established practices and traditions. In addition, national
decision-making also fails to recognize local and regional differences and
imposes a uniformity of practice which cannot be sustained in certain
geographic regions. Most importantly, such actions usually fail to build a
consensus based on meaningful participation of representative institutions.
Therefore, the federal government has tried to counteract these negative

effects by establishing regional planning authorities which transcend
local political boundaries, but recognize the natural and historic forces
which helped to shape a geographic area. Interestingly, media-based
consortia have acted in much the same way as regional planning
A common sense solution is to build on the organization pattern which
has already .emerged. The idea of preserving the college's decisionmaking power in media-based instruction should not be viewed as a gift
to institutions of higher education. In fact, jt was their work and that of

their voluntary organizations which gave life to this field. Regional
consortia have already begun to cooperate on a number of issues and this
effort should be encouraged. It is not too difficult to iniagine that this
dialogue might lead to a national association of consortia. Such an'
organization would help determine those issues which traverse the entire
countiy. Thus local, regional and national concerns would be accounted

for in an organizational pattern based on the real participation of
-institutions of higher learning. In order to insure this organizational

54 7

7he Consortium Approach


pattern, regional consortia have and will continue to assume the
following responsibilities:
I ) To provide an administrative framework that permits democratic
participation from its membership while also providing a strong
regional voice for higher edw:dion:

2) To provide support services to member colleges.
3) To assure that all technological delivery systems (public and
commercial broadcast, cable, radio, newspapers and self-paced
home study) are open and available to its membership.
4) To pool fmancial resources to make media-based instruction cost

5) To pool expertise and experience to Continually improve the
state of media-based instruction.
6) To work collectively with other regional consortia in order to

effectively influence and develop national policy on telecommunications.

7) To encourage the development of similar regional groups in
areas of the country where they do not presently exist, in order to

insure that all geographic areas receive constituency-based
direction and are fairly represented in national decision-making.

Educational technology necessarily involves a concept of partnership.
Those who control the means of mass distribution on a local or regional

level such as cable companies, radio and television stations (both
commercial and public), as well as newspapers always have been
essential to the success of the field. These long-standing partnerihips
between colleges and local stations are beginning to be formalized in
consortia arrangements. Similarly, state educational authorities and
regional planning agencies have an important role to play in the
utilization of educational technology. T'..7.; diverse interests of so many
groups can only be accommodated in a regional configuration in which
all have a strong sense of responsibility.
Mass media is only one aspect of the technological revolution whIch

will impact on higher education. The home computer, the video disc,
teletext, and other microelectronic methodobgies are rapidly gaining
attention. We will soombe facing the same problems of their organized
and systematized use. It is evident that the academic community must be
heavily involvE0 in these activities. Individually, colleges are not strong
enough to control or even influence this movement. On the other hand, a
national organization which claims to represent the interests of all

institutions of higher education cannot provide access for meaningful
participation by its membership. However, the collective strength of
regional consortia combines the power of a national organization with the

full participation inherent in local assemblies. In addition, consortia
could expand their role to include many different types of technologies.
Thus, these., organizations should evolve into regional learning centgs
within easy access of member colleges.




The Cons() lium Approach

Too often technology has been associated closely with efficiency
centralized direction in its brganized use. Older organizational concepts

such as voluntarism, tradition, local control, and participation
confuses means with ends and gives technology a life of an
reality, technology should provide a service to help improve own. In
condition. This service is enriched rather i.han limited the human
by the full
participation of those institutions
thought to undermine the effectiveness of technology. Such

destiny of the nation.


already entrusted with the educational

Accreditation and Technology Issues
Director, Division of Academic Affairs
qnd lnsiNtional Relations
American council on Education
Washington, D.C.



Accreditation issues raised by the use of educational technology are
not substantially different from those raised during the decade of the
seventies by the nontraditional education movement.* Simply put, with
the coming of nontraditional pducation, of which instruction by technology is a part, judgmenta about quality now have to be made on the
basii of considerations that go beyond educational and decision-making
processes, educational resources, and qualifications of faculty to focus
More on educational outcomes.
The nontraditional educational movement pit accreditaticgtmto a role
th at it has not historically savored. The accreditation frati ity through
the years has preferred to emphasize the improvenient of quality fiinction
of Accreditation over providing assurances about the validity of creden-

tials awarded by colleges and universities. This latter function of
accreditation embodies the consumer protection concern that4came to
the fore in the early seventies and which now may be receding as the
primary raison d'etre.of accreditation.

In elaborating these points, it is necessary to review some key
historical aspects of accreditation and some of its fundamental assptions: Only then can the accreditation issues raised by nontraditional
education be understood.

Meaning of Accreditation
Acciedited status awarded by a recognized accrediting agency is a
For Purpoees _of this presentation, instruction by technology is referred to Ls


19 0



public expression of confidence in the expertise and integrity of the
accredited institution 'in meetingthe-minimum standards of educational
quality. But that status meant many thingt to many people.
its most common meaning to the public at large, although rarely lever
itated so _directly or franldy by an accrediting agency, hinges on the
question of Whether the degree or course credits earned at the institution

in question are any good. How does the degree compare in the
marketplace with degrees conferred by other institutions? Will it be
4plued and rewarded by employers and other educational institutions?
QUeStiOILS regarding the validity of recognition conferred for educational accomplishment by an educational institution stem from the uses
of educational CredeAtials in our society. Credentials is a broadly used

term, Often expressed in common parlance as he or she "has the
credentials for the job." Ile speaker of such a phrase most often is
referring to formal recognition of educational accomplishment conferred

'by an accredited institution, although successful work experience is
sometimes a factor. The frequency with which the reference is made
points up the central role of credentials in a complex, highly mobile, and
technological society. Firms, clients, or patients in need of esoteric
services, when left solely to their own devices, are often unable or
unWilling to make judgments about the qualifications of a person to do a
competent job: Formal Credeetialing, therefore; becomes ail important
social service and is likely:to besomeeven more important as society and
the economy becomes tnore complex and specialized. Thus, the validity

of educational credentials, or educational standards as some might
prefer, will likely .be a continuing public concern. Tq emphasize a point
Made earlier, accreditation will likely remain important in assuring the

validity of degiees and other recognition, such as course credits,
conferred by educational institutions:

Accreditation Considerations


With particular reference to the validity of recognition for educational
accomplishment, accreditation has sought to assure the following: ( I)
that there is a faculty that is expert in the requisite fields of knowledge
and skills, (2) that the facility has defined the requirements for the award
of the degree, (3) thafthe faculty has determined how these requirements
can be met by the student seeking to qualify, and (4) that reliable and
valid processes are in place and used to test the knowledge and to
measure the skills certified by the degree. if such stepsliave been taken,
there should be a high correlation between the award and the competence
of the holder.
Before the days of nontraditional education life was much more simple

for the accreditation community. The evidence it required in order to
make a public expression of confidence in an institution was more straight-

forward Azcrediting concerns were manifested differently by the




several agencies in the way they wrote,Their standards. Generally and
somewhat over simplified here for purposes of brevity, the standards,
however stated, dealt with the following concerns: qualifications of the
faculty; resources available to the faculty and student body (classrooms,
laboratories, lihpry); proper decision-making processes `and organizational consideration; essential to support the educational process; and
qualifications of stUdents admitted to undertake study. Edudational
outcomes that speak to the validity of the degrees awarded, while not
ignored, were not the focus of the accreditation. To a very,great extent,
accreditation twined satisfactory educational outcomes dell the othir
considerations were met. And those easumptions hr.:i a great deal of

Accreditors lives bebame a great dee more complicated with the

advent of nontraditional education. Interest in nontraditionaladnation .

was accompained by a movement to accelerate the practices and to
improve the piocedbres by .which educational-institutions could, with
confidence and validity, award credit for learning that was achieved
outaide the formal sponsorship of accredited colleges and universities.
All the traditional benchmarks on which accreditation has relied for so
long were not as sacrosanct now, if indeed they were valid considerations
al all.
It was in the seventies that the term "educational outcomes" came to

the fore not onlY for curriculum designers but also for accreditors.
Fducational proofs:, organizational structure, resourceile obviously
still important to a quality educational experiencewere nonetheless
becoming loss critical benchmarks to support the accreditation decision.
Accreditation still tilts ia the direction ofits traditional considerations

but it has made great strides philosophically aid technically in accommOdating the nontraditional educational movement. But with that desirable
shift,* accreditation has fueled its critics, 'a substantial body of which has

always been around to yelp at the heels of the accreditors but few of
whom offer constructive suggestions.fO'r improvement Many critics say
accreditation has gone too far 31 aCcomModating nootradOonal educa-

tional approaches and as ai ,rult educational standards in the great

majority of institutions are sliming.
Many astute educational 'lenders agree the standards are slipping. But
to blame it all on nontraditional'education goes fir beyond reasonThere
is as much evidence of educadonal malpractice in the traditional
classroom on the traditional camput using traditional faculty And
traditional methods as there is in the nontraditional sector. Thvachool

board which announced that it would administer a basic test to

prospective teachers to assure they could handle the language atthe 10th
"trade level said a greatdeal about standards in the traditional classroom.
Those prospective teacher hireswere not likely to have been enrolled in a
-nontraditional English composition, course or to have been taught




Eng lig: composition by the school of education, to cite another whipping

Role of Faculty
The gatekeeper of standards for student accomplishment is the testing

and certification function of faculty, whether it be traditional or
nontraditional education. Expert judgment, given the nature of the
educational process and the limitations of education measurement, is
essential. And the greatest critical mass of expert judgment resides in a

qualified faculty.
How a qualified faculty spends its time may shift substantially as it
becomes more involved in nontraditional education. Faculty traditionally
have performed these tasks: course and curriculum design, instnicting,
testing and certifying counseling, and, in some cases, research. With
nontraditional education approaches, faculty may need to spend more

time testing and evaluating learning (including that attained outside

institutional sponsorship), certifying, and counseling students on ways to
achieve their educational objectives through nontraditional means.
The major* of faculty, many believe, are uncomfortable with their

teiting and certifying responsibilities. Although always a critically

important responsibility in terms of the student interests and welfare, and
the maintenance of academic standards, few faculty have been formally
trained in this highly complex function. They are most comfortable in
carrying out the testing and certifying responsibility when they also have
first-hand knowledge of and aie in control of the subject mattes materials
in which the student is being tested and accomplishments certified.
In dealing with accreditation issues relevant to edutational technology,
it is important to mention two Other forms of "accreditation" which are
known by other terms so as not to confuse them with the activities of
accrediting agencies. The two are course equivalency evaluations and
standardized testing.
The American Council on Education has since 1945 evaluated formal
military training using teams of faculty from accredited institutions who
teach comparable subject matter on their home campuses, to establish a
formal military course's credit equivalency in the college curriculum.
These judgments rendered by faculty under guidelines and procedures
approved by the Council become ACE's credit recommendations. This

process was extended in 1975 to courses .offered by business and
industry. The recommendations, accepted by the majority &colleges

and universities, are a useful and valid means of providing recognition for
learning attained in such settings. In this manner, students can combine
such learning with further study at colleges and universities to achieve
their educational otjective, usually a degree.
The Educational Testing Service and the College Entrance Examina-

tion Board have for several years combined their resources to make




available the College Level Examination Program. A high percentage of

institutions use the examinations to evaluate learning attained in a
variety of ways and apply the satisfactomresults of such testing towards
degree requirements.

To return to an earlier point, a key consideration in both the ACE
programs and the ETS-College Board effort is the use of faculty experts
in making the evaluative judgments and in designing and reviewing the

What is the significance of the above background for accredation
issues in educational technology? What lessons can be learned by
educational technology from the nontraditional education movement?
Several are .suggested:

I. Credentialing and accreditation issues are inseparable. The
major concern of accrediting should address the question of
whether the recognition conferreda degree, certificate, or
course creditsactually are a proxy for validated learning.
2. If the educational outcomes of instruction by educational*
technology are intended to be credit applicable towards a deree,
testing and certification should go hand-in-hand with course and
curriculum design. This involves qualified faculty.

3. Assuming not all instruction available through educational
technology will be sponsored by colleges and universities,
thought should be given to adapting the ACE credit equivalency
recommendation process or the CLEP model to help the learners
achieve recognition by accredited colleges and universities. Even
in cases where it is sponsored by an institution but it is also open

broadcast some may participate who later want to earn credit
4. The beneficial aspects of formal recognition for learning shoUld
not be overlooked. Degiees, and even course credits, are a social
accolade for learning which motivate people to learn. Testing and
grading are also important because many learners want to be
assured they. have accomplished something worthwhile.

In summary, the use of qualified faculty in making educational policy

for instructional technology ,and in testing and certifying learning
outcomes is essential. Given proper attention to that concern, there
Should be no other insurmountable accreditation issues.

1. Andrews, G.J.,A sussing Nontraditional Education,4 Volumes, Washington, D.C.:
Council on Postsecondary Accreditation, 1979.
2. Miller, JW. and Mills, Olive,. Credentialing Educational Accomplishment,
Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1978.



Deploying Educational Technology
at an Independent, Urban Institution
S. A. Guralnick
Illinois Institute of Technology
Chicago, Illinois



As I'm sure you are all well aware, educational technology is, front
purely institutional point of view, a means to an end not an end in itself. It

is, therefore crucially important to a successful deployment of a new

technology to carefully define the institution's goals as well as to carefully
investigate the merits of various strattgies and tactics to achieve these
goals. In this paper I shall first outline some of the issues that must be
faced and effectvely dealt with to successfully accomplish the rather
large sof& changes thst are inevitably associated with the institute-wide
deployment of educational technology. Second, I shall describe the
deployment-of an interactive, instructional television system at Illinois
Institute of Technology in Chicago as a case study. Third, and last, I shall
briefly touch upon some of the aspects of financing the interactive,
instructional television network at

Related Issues


or the purpose of this paper, I shall define educational technology as
any hardware and/or software system delivering instructional material
which is capable of general deployment throughout the entire institution.
The forces that are driving most colleges and universities to at least
consider the employment of new technologies are thoee which insistently
demand greater effectiveness as well u greater efficiency. Educational
technology does offer the promise that greater effectiveness and greater
efficiencies can be achieved. The realization of this promise, however,
requires careful attention to a series of issues that may be grouped under
the rubrics: goals, strategies and tactics. The isxues that I believe are of
greatest significance are treated as a list of questions in the next three
segments of this paper.


1 9,0

Deploying at an Urban Institution


I. What is the mission of your college or university?
2. What kinds of students do you now attract?
3. What lemds of students do you wisk to attract that you are not
now attracting?
4. What kinds of programs and courses do you nOw offer?
5. What lemds of programs and courses do you wish to offer that
you are not now offering?
6. What constituencies other than students do you now serve?
7. What constituencies other than your students do you wish to
serve that you are not now serving?
8. What are your current sources of revenue?
9. Are there sources of revenue that you wish to tap that you do not
now ha41 access to?
10: Do you wish to improve the, quality of the learning opportunities

that you now providet
11. Ale there external constituencies of your institution (alumni,
local residents, local businesses, local industrial corporations,

etc.) that dernand new or expanded services? If so, what
individuals and groups comprise these constituencies and whet
new or expanded services do they require?

Strategies are long-term courses of action designed to accomplish one
or more goals.

I. What is the best way or -ways- that your services can be
improved and/or expanded?
2. Is educational technology to be used to expand your mission, to
expand your constituency and/or to improve the quality of the
learning opportunities offered to your current students?
3. What changes or innovations do you wish to introduce soon, in
the next three to five years and in the uext five to.ten years?

,4. What opportunities exist that may lead .to success in a new
venture that will require substantial outlays of capital and
substantial institutional change?
5. What barriers exist that may 'impede or preclude success in
deploying educational technology?
6. What innovations are required at your institution to successfully
deploy educational technology?
7. What organizational, structural or process changes are required

in your organization to successfully deploy educational
8. What specific forces exist in the external environment of your
Anstitution..that Are spurring_ you on to deploy educational

1 9"6


Deploying at an-Urban Institution

9. What specific forces exist in the external environment of your
institution that may lead to a successful deployment of educational technology?
10. What specific forces exist in the external environment of your
institution that may seriously impede or even preclude the

achievement of your goals in deploying educational technology?
11. In what ways does the type of external environment (i.e., urban,
suburban or rural) in which your institution is located influence
your programs and services?
12, Is-your institution committed to a mission to provide life-long
learning opportunities for adult learners?

13. Are there demographic, economic, social and/or political

trends developing in the external environment of your institution

that will cause significant impacts upon the demand for its
services? In what ways are demands for your institution's
services likely to change in the years ahead?

Tactics are specific action steps designed to support one or ,more

1. What is the.appropriate educational technology or technologies
needed to accomplish your goals?
2. How will the benefits of deploying educational technology be
3. Are the improvements that will result from deploying educational technology client-centered, producer-centered or both
client- and producer-centered?
4. Who will actually benefit from the deployment of educational
technology and who will pay for the actual costs incurred?
5. Who willpeiceive that benefits will accrue from the deployment
of educational technology?

6. Who will actually be sUbstantially impacted because of the
depleyment of educational technology?
7. Who will perceive the occurrence of substantial impacts
because of the employment of educational technologies?
8. What opportunities exist for your institution to obtain the
necessary capital funds?
9. Can your institution accommodate whatever increases in

annual costs may be necessary to keep the educational

technology in operation at a satisfactory level?

10. Are you seeking to reduce overall annual operating costs at your
institution by means of the deployment of' educational technology? If so, what are the specific cost savings that you wish to
11. What individuals and/or groups ought to be consulted at your


Deploying at an _Urban Institution


institution to implement an orderly process to change? Are
there any issues that 'will be raised by these -individuals or

groups that will impede or prevent the changes that are
necessary to achieve success?
12. How long is the consultation process likely to last before all of
the necessary actions can be taken? 13. What educational technology products are available today?
What products are likely to reach the market place in the next
three to five years? What products are likely to reach the market
place in the next five to ten years?

14. What criteria will be used to make a choice among various
competitive eduational technology systems or products? What
individual or group will make this choice? What individual or
group will Nivel° live with this choice after it has been made?

15. Granted that it is quite likely that there is relatively little
experience with the large-scale deployment of educational
technology at your institution, how will you assess the risks
involved in undertaking such a venture?
16. How will tile producers be motivated and trained to provide
their services via the new technology?
17. How will the clients be motivated and trained to use or accept
ohe new technology?
18. What is the timetable-to achieve-paybackof the-initial-capital
investment? How realistic is this timetable?



Consideration of some o all of the issues raised in the previous section
of this paper is, of course, an on-going process which probably occurs
sporadically, if not continuously, at most universities. It would be far

beyond the scope of this paper to describe in detail all of the
considerations that led to the ultimate decision to install an interactive
instructional television network at IIT. For the purposes of this paper,
therefore, I shall summarize the background to the decision-making
process and describe some of the features ofthe system actually installed.


Illinois Institute of Technology is a private, non-sectarian, coeducational, urban university dedicated to supporting nuional goals
through education and research for leadership Lq programs that are
problem-solving in character, decision-making in purpose, and socially
and economically responsible. IIT's educational programs encompass

the following pathways to professional leadership: Architecture,
Business Administration, City and Regional Planning, Design,
Engineering Law, Pre-medicine and Health-related Sciences, the
Biological, Computer Mathematical and Physical Sciences,



Deploying at an Urban Institution

Psychology, Public Administration and the Social Sciences. UT is a
PhD: degree granting research university affiliated with two other
powerful research organizations, the IIT Research Institute and the
Institute of Gas Technology. The combined annual research volume
in engineering and science of the entire IIT Center is very close to
$100,000,000 per annum. It is the purpose of IIT to providethe
educational and basic research activities which link and complement
the activities of all three affiliated organizations.
Beyond its commitment to providing education for full-time undergraduate and graduate students because of its-urban location, lIT is
committed to providing significant educational opportunities for parttime students who are interested in working toward an undergraduate
or graduate degree. Specifically, IIT is committed to providing
continuing education programs for locally employed professionals in
the principal fields represented at the university.
The current enrollment pattern at IIT is shown on Table 1. As may be
observed from this Table, IIT is a relatively small school and it intends
to stay that way even though some growth in the size of the student
population is desirable. The long term enrollment goals Of the Institute
are shown in Table 2 which indicateq a total enrollment of 6,000 FTE
students. Were ye to achieve this goal, the current physical plant

would, in our opinion, be utilized at an optimum level. IIT is,
therefore, seeking an additional 600 FTE students consisting of
widergraduates and graduate students.

Table 1Current Enrollment (




All UG




All Grad


All LaW
All Students




* Fall 1980


Deploying at an Urban Institution


Table 2Overall Enrollment Goals (FTE)
All UG





Ali Grad


All Law
All Students


IIT is located in the heart of Chicago, three miles' south
center. The significant vital statistics of the Chicago areaohm
1. Population
There are approximately 2.9 million residents in the city,
million in Cook County and 7.049 million in the
metropolitan (5 county) area. The estimated resident labor
force is 3 A56 million and 3.8 million residents
are classified as
suburban. An estimated 19 percent of the U.S. population lives
within a 300 mile radius of the city.

2. Industry


It is estimated that 53 million tons of manufactured goods
are shipped from Chicago yearly. The metropolitan area is a
leader in the production Of steel, metal plates, bars, sods and
structural shapes, food products, metal furniture, mattresses,
envelopes, boxes, inorganic chemicals sOap, paint, gaskets,
cans, screws, bolts, saws, barrets. machine tools, blowers,
switchgear, locomotives and other railroad equipment, heavy
machinery, surgical appliances, fully assembled automobiles,

electrical equipment, eleatronic components, consumer
electronic goods and ldtchen appliances. It is the second

largest center in the nation of consulting firms specializing
architecture and engineering:Moreover, it is among the three
or four largest centers for the delivery of health care in the

nation. There are two national research laboratories in
Chicago, Argonne National Laboratory and Fermilab, the



Deploying at an Urban Institution

National Accelerator Laboratory. Beyond these federal
research centers, there are a number of significant independent research laboratories as well as industrial research
centers. Chicago produces a gross metropolitan product of $97
billion, 4.6 percent of the GNP. Moreover, it contributes $1
billion annually to the nation's positive balance of trade.

3. Commerce'
There are 14,400 manufacturers in Chicago the total of
whose sales exceed $76 billion; 57,000 retaiierS the total of
whose sales exceed $28 billion; 13,000 wholesalers the total

of whose sales exceed $43 billion; and 56,000 service
establishments do a $6.4 -billion in business. Average
personal income per household is $28,700.
4. Construction
There has been $7.1 billion in industrial construction since
1965; $17 billion in residential construction; and $8 billion in
commercial construction.

5. Educational Institutions
There are 39 institutions of higher education within a 50
mile radius of the city, 69 within a 100 mile radius and 164
within the State of Illinois. The senior institutions within a 50
mile radius of the city are the University of Chicago, Illinois

Institute of Technology, Loyola University, Northwestern
University and the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle.
There are probably somewhere in the neighborhood of 60,000

to 70,000 persons in the greater Chicago urban area who are
practitioners of one of te professions represented in the educational programs of ITT. Perhaps as many as half of the total
number of such individuals are interested in taking advantage of
opportunities for continuing professional development. That is,
there are probably at least 30,000 to 35,000 individuals in the
greater Chicago area who would be interested in continuing their
own professional development provided that a suitable educational delivery system could be deployed. Such a systern would

attract a substantial number of users if and only if it were
convenient, of high quality and it minimized time away from the
job or from normal leisure time activites. The interactive instructional television system is an educational delivery system which is

capable of delivering normal university instructional material

directly to the workplace without incurring long hours ot
commuting between job site and campus. Moreover, interactive

instructional television makes it possible for employed professionals to gain acces s. to university instructional material

2 Oi

Deploying at an Urban Institution


offered at any time during the day rather than only during evening
The System

IITIV. is an educational delivery system that uses four special
frequency television channels combined with telephone audio links to
bring regular university classroom instruction to the workplace. The
special frequencies are assigned for Instructional Television Fixed
Service (ITFS) in each city by the Federal Communications
Commission. From studio clagsrooms on campus, video and voice
signals are beamed fourteen hours each working day via microwave to
the top of the 110-story Sears Building* three miles away wherej,Irs
own transnlitters broadcast signals which cad be received anywhere
within an area bounded by a circle of 50 mile radius centered at the
Sears Building.
-On a continuing b is, employed professiOnals (or their companies,
if a tuition reimburs ment program exists) are charged the same tuition
as on-campus students. An additional gliding scale service charge for

courier service and other administrative costs is based on course

enrollment, rang.mg downward from an amount equal to 100 percent of
thettiitbn charge for a single student-course enrollment to a minimum
of 20 percent of tuition when more than SO student-course enrollments

at it single site occur.

Talk-back system costs are paid by the company at whibh the
receiving station is located. These consist of regular telephone line
charges plus a monthly rental fee for the auto-dial telephone.

There is a one-time capital investwnt to be made by each

participating company for a microwave antenna and tower, signal
o3nverter, television monitor and telephone talk-back connection that
ranges between $5,000 and $10,000 depending on the distance of the
receiving site from the Sears Building. In addition, each participating
company is expecied to provide' the services of an official representative

for several hours per month to serve as liaison between the firms and
The IIT/V system went" on the air" in the fall semester of the 197677 academic year enrolling 105 students at twelve remote sites. This
past fall 536 students were enrolled at nineteen remote sites...The
current list of participating organizations is shown on Table 3.
IIT/V students may enroll in one or more of approximately sixty
regular IIT courses per semester broadcast live from the IIT campus.
These courses are chosen from the regular Schedule of Courses to
make it possible for employed enffmeers, computer scientists and
business managers to obtain all the coursework necessary to fulfill the

This 1,454 & high building is the world's tallest.



Deploying at an Urban Institution

graduate course requirements for the master's degree in their respective
fields entirely by means of courses delivered via IIT/V to the job site.
Beyond normal university come material the IIT/V system is used

to deliver short-course and special seminar material to nterested
professionals- and to company management at the job site.

Table 3IIT/V Participating Organizations
American CaxiCompany
Research CentCr
433 Northwest Highway
Barrington, Illinois 60010
Andrei; Cotporation
10500 West 153rd Street
Orland Park, Illinois 60462
Argonne Natio,lal Laboratory'
9700 South Cass Airenue
Argonne, Illinois 60439
Bell LabOratories

Naperville & Warrenville Rd.
Naiierville, Illinois 60140
Caterpillar Tractor Company
P.O. Box 348
Aurora, Illinois 60507
CPC International, Inc.
Moffett Technical Center
Box 345
Argo, Illinois 60501
A. Finkl & Sons
2011 North Southport Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60614
GTE Automatic Electric
400 North Wolf Road
Northlake, Illinois 60164
Honeywell, Inc.
1500 Dundee Road

Arlington Heights, Illinois 60004

Inemational Harvester Company
Science .8c Technology

16 W. 260 83rd Street
Hinsdale, Illinois 60521



MCC Powers
2942 MacArthur Boulevard
NorthbroolkIllinois 60062
Midwest Industrial Management
9845 West Roosevelt Road
Weitchester, Iljinois 60153
Motorola Communicationi
.1301 East Algonquin Road
Schaumburg, Illinois 60172
New Trier Central
3013 Illinois 'Road
Wilmette, Illinois 60093
North Central College
30 North Brainard
Naperville, Illinois 60540
Northrop Corporation'
600 Hicks Road
Rolling Meadows, Illinois 60008

Teletype Corporation
5555 West Touhy Avenue
Skokie, Illinois 60076
Western Electric Co., Inc.
ao Bell Laboratories (Lisle)
Naperville, Illinois 60439
Zer.ith Radio Corporation
1000 MilwaukeeAvenue
Glenview, Illinois 60025

Deploying at an Urban Institution

Table 4IIT/V Capital Equipment-Expenditures
Summer '76Initial Installation
3/5/76* R F System
2/2/76 ITT Classroom Equipment 86,780.00
5/20/76 Remote Site Equipment
1/22/76 Videotaping Facility
3/1/76 Master Contiol Console
2/26176 Overflow Classrooms
7/7/76 Spare Equipment
6/7/76 R F SyMem

Winter '77Spring '78-Retrofit and Additional Channels
12/12/77 Cqnsoles and Master
Control for 2
Additional Channels
11/22/77 Auditoria Fittings
35,000 00*
Dec. '77 Transmitters-2
1/5/78 Studio Transnkission Links 52,000.00
FAICEE Combiner
12/26/78 Electronic Equipment



Public Access Sites
Summer '77 North Central College

fall '79 North Central College
Filter Network
'Fall '78 MIMA Installation
Fall 10 New Trier East Installation
Spring '81 New Trier West



$ 17,080.00
Studio 6
&unmet-80 Cameras, Controllers
and Cabling

$ 28,000.00.



* InCludes all associated labor coats of installation.



Deploying at an Urban Institution


Capital-EquipMent Costs
The costs of acquiring ind installing all f the capital equipment of
_the IIT/V system is shown in Table 4. The funds needed to meet these

costs were "borroweirliolif eadoViiierit fund (i.o., the fletible
funds functioning as endowment) of the university on -the understanding that restoration of all such borrowings would be made from
the tuition revenues generated by the system after a operating costs
were deducted. It was of course, recognizedfrom the outset that tuition
revenues during the first two or three years of operation of the system
would fall short of covering the annual operating costs.
Tabl,e,5 shows the enrollment in and the financing of IIT/V. Line 1

Table 5Enrollment in and Financing of IIT/Y
Years from








Academic Year 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82*
1. Course Enrollments

2. Student Credit
3. Hourly Tuition




















84,150 161,040 274,167 489,489 644,799

4. Tuition Income,
S. Admin. Expense,

100,000 100,180 172,540 203,840 240,400 269,248

6. Seed Funds
film Operating Budget,




7. Funds Available for Payback of
Capital Inveqtment,

70,337 249,089 375,551


Funds Available for Payback of Investment,

* Estimates
41- f


Deploying at an Urban Ir.aitution


shows that a seven-fold growth in course enrollments occurred from
the first year through the fifth year of operations. Line 6 indicates the
amount of seed funds needed to cover the shortfall in tuition revenue
below the cost of operations (line 5). This shortfall occurred only
during the first three years of operation and totaled $67,230. If a 20
percent growth in enrollment occurs during the 1981-82 academic
year, then line 7 shows the excess oftuition income over administrative
expense (line 5) available to pay back to the endowment the costs of
acquiring the capital equipment. In fact, line 8 shows that the total funds

accumulated beyond admipistrative costs are expected to be approximately $695,000 at the close of the 1981-82 academic year. This sum
considerably exceeds the sum of capital costs and seed money (i.e.
$489,210+$67,230=$556,440) that have been expended on the system
during its first five years of operation. Hence it may be concluded that
on, purely fmancial grounds alone, the system is a sound investment of

the. portion of the university's endowment resources. Moreover, it
appears quite likely that this investment will continue to return handsome dividends in the years to come.

This paper has treated some of the general issues associated with the,
institut.,-wide deployment of educational technology, it has described the
essential features of IIT/V as well as the way in which it was fmanced in

the hope that this case study would serve as an example that would
stimulate analogous development elsewhere. I hasten to add, however,
that each of the 3,000 institutions of higher education in the United
States is in many ways unique. Hence, each must examine- its own
unique environment, opportunities and constraints to determine whether
and what kinds of educational technology should be deployed. It is the

thesis of this paper that when educational technology is properly
perceived as a powerful means to achieve well-defined educational goals

then real-opportunities exist to improve services and to attain greater
levels of effectiveness and efficiency. Experience at IIT suggests that this

thesis may indeed be true at other urban universities.

2 0.6



The Central Educational Network's
PostsecOndary SeMce



Card A. koffamus
Central Educational Network
Chkago, Illinois

No one Wfil deny that many colleges ire experiencing a declining
enrollment of 18-22 year old students. No one paying their heating or gas
bills wiN deny that energy costs are increasing and the end is not in sight

The* energy costs are also having an effect on the -educational
inatinitionit yo one will deny that tuition costs will continue to rise. In
addition to tete events, We are also being tjld that financial support from
govefidnent and private sources is decreasing. All of these events will
have an affeet on the adult learner and the educational institutions, but
there is another side of tbis coin, With our rapid technological advances
AineriCa, our information systems will double every eight years'. Think
about ft. These sane adults will need a continual updating of information
arid upgrading of skills to keep Pace with this new technology. There are

adults in and out of the work force. They will need to learn how this
technology' Will affect their jobs and lifes4des and then meet those
changes without fear. Edwation entities have a tremendous responsiblity
to these learners, and must take the leadership in this life-long learning
They willhe teaching an older, adult learner rather than the traditional
18-22 year old and they will have to adapt to that fact People within a
given community need education at basically five different levels:

(1) Basic education
(2) Occupational education
(3) Occupational upgrading
(4) Job changes
(5) Leisure skills
Within these levels therpore millions of adults who will need life-long

learning programs that are meaningful to them and available at their



Central Educational Network


convenience. Looking at statistics we would have to concede that higher

education needs to improve in this area. According to the American
Association for Higher Education a majority of adult learners are getting

their education outside college and university settings. Fifty-eight
million, four hundred thousand adults each year are involved in some
form of organized education, while only1 2.4 million of theni are colleges

and universities. PrOgrams offered by business, government agencies,
professional organizations, telecommunications field and other organizations are educating five times as many adults_ as are higher education

institutions. The financial resources devoted to this enterprise are
staggering. I! is estimated by the American Society for Training and
Development (AS7D) that American business, alone, devotes $40
billion annually to employee educatipn exclusive of college programs.
Clearly new fields, a wider array of resources, such .as television and
radio, need to be employed by higher education in order to involve a new
adult learning clientele into their program.

Meeting Adult Learners' Needs
The challenge to meet the needs of the adults who want and need to
learn more is great but we have never shied away from a challenge. In
fact;history has shown that when the challenges were greatest we exerted
our best efforts and overcame the problems.
Because the task is formidable, meeting the nee& oi adult learners in
this decade cannot be done by colleges and universities alone. There
must be a unifledefort where we can capitalize on all of the resources we
have to meet the diversification of the learners' needs in our communities.
It is here where I believe telecommunications can work with colleies and

uniVersities in providing an educational alternative to meet some of
those learners' needs. It not only can, but we have shown in our service
that it does.
The Central Educational Network's belief and commitment to this
concept is what began the first postsecondary telecommunications
service in the country. CEN's Postsecondary Education Council was
formed iii October, 1979 to meet these needs. The Council consists of
postsecondary institutions and broadcasting entities. It is important to
remember this point.
During the past fifteen months, states interested in postsecondary
telecommunications as an alternative to reaching the adult learner, were

asked to form their own poetsecondary state councils. These state
councils are composed of, but notlimited to, members from two and four
year private ,and public colleges and universities, pu6lic broadcasters,

and vocational/technical institutions. No two states are structured
exactly alike. (We will be publishing a report later this year on these
yarious state structure models.) Each state Set its own by-laws and
nominataione member from its state council to represent Ion the CEN



Central Educational Network

Postsecondary Council'. You have one state one vote. The Council
meets twice a year. At the present time the following ten states have
organized themselves and are members in our Council: Illinois, Indiana,
Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, West Virgihia
and Wisconsin.
Xou will be able to see the postsecondary and broadcasting representa-

-don on the Council by each state's representative's professional title:
IllinoisDirector of Educative Services for a public broadcasting
university atation
IndianaDean of Learning Resources for Media, Indiana University at Bloomington
KansasDirector, Office of Instructional Media for a state university

MichiganInstructional Television Coordinator for a public
broadcasting university station


MississippiDirector of Educative Serviccs for tht Mississippi
Educational Television Network (State System)
MissouriDean of the College of Arts and Sciences for Continuing
Education at University of MissouriSt. Louis

NebraskaDirector of Instructional Services for the Nebraska
Education TV Network (State System)
OhioExecutive Director of the Ohio Educational Broadcasting
Network Commission (State System)
West VirginiaEducative Services Coordinator for a public broadcastng station
WisconsinDirector of Educational Services for the Wisconsin


Central Edueationaldsletwork


Educational Television and Radio Networks (State
Our Postsecondary Education C3uncil is a self-supporting, selfgoverning division of CEN and elects four of its members to the CEN
Board. These four members comprise the Postsecondary Executive
----Cummitterand-work-closely with-CEMs-Postsecondary Coordinator_
The Council has set its goals and these include, but are not limited to:
1) Providing services to increase the availability of quality credit
and non-credit materials to reduce costs in postsecondary
educational telecommunications.
2) Identifying problems, issues and successfUl methods related to
expanding postsecondary learning opportunities in the states
through telecommunication and
3) Sharing expertise and resources to strengthen postsecondary
education telecommunication in the states.
Individual services that are offered to the membership include, but arenot limited to:
1) To serve as a professional resource organization and accessing
postsecondary edupational telecommunication needs and intèrests of the states.
2) To identify postsecondary telecourse materials for their annual
program screening.

3) To negotiate group rentals and buys of programs for the

4) To provide scheduling and distribution of the program series.
5) To spansor an annual postsecondary professional development
workihop for the exchange of information. This year we wily be
producing an interactive teleconference from our satellite uplink
in Lincoln, Nebraska on "Marketing Telecourses" with tDr.
Roberta Clark from Boston University.
6) To provide a monthly memo informing them on local, state,
regional and national postsecondary telecommunications a4tivities.

7) To provide a free videocassette library loan service for the

8) To seek grants for'assistance in facilitating the above grants.
9) To coordinate other services designated by the Postsecondary
Education Council.

Costs to the membership are based on a flat fee of $3,000 assessed to
each state equally plus a graduated fee based on a scale reflecting the
state's total population. For example the state with a total population of
5.5 million people would pay $5,750 to belong to Postsecondary
Educational Conn-CO-or ofieYelf arid-participate in the above services:

21 u


Central Educational Network










I- eras





SECOND frois0
(FINAL 11149



C oterg ACTS
IT;157/716 'Bun ON

Each state council decides on how these dues are assessed and
To show you the diversity ofhow the membership dues
are three examples:

In Missouri, each membership category in their
state council is
assessed according to their FTE's and 100 percent
participation. The
membership categories in their stite organization are:
1) University of Missouri Systems
2.) Regional Universities
3) Missouri Association of Community and Junior
4) Independent Colleges and Universities of Missouri
5) Missouri Association of Private Career Schools
In Illinoisythe state council-applied forand received a giluiffrem


Central Educational Network


Illinois Board of Higher Education to cover the membership fees for all
154 postsecondary institutions in Illinois.
In Mississippi, the membership dues are paid for by the Mississippi
Educational Television Authority. We saw earlier how diversified the
models of eich state council can be. Assessing of their membership fees
are also diversified.

Two rants during our first year of operation. assisted us in getting

established. A rant from the Corporation of Public Broadcasting
Education Services Department paid the membership base fee for each
state that-joined. This year they had to generate their entire dues from
their newly formed state councils. All of the ten states were able to do
this. In addition to the CPB grant the Exxon Education Foundation gave
us a grant to begin our service and our postsecondary videotape free loan
library to the members.
This year we were awarded another grant from the Exxon Education

Foundation of $38,985 for membership expansion. Specifically, the
funds are available as a 50 percent match for each new state interesred in

joining the CEN Postsecondary Education Council. States joining us
need to pay only half of their membership fees for the initial year.
Membership is open to any state.

















Although we have come a long way in the past fifteen months we
realize we have a long way to go. Besides continuing to upgrade the
existing services there are several other areas that we see in our future



Central Educational Network

growth of our postsecondary council:
Delivering out most utilized telecourses via our satellite to the
users and eliminating all the tape dubbing and shipping costs.
Expanding our radio telecourse offerings to the members.
On mutual course needs, form a program consortium to get those
programs produced.

Implement, whenever needed, the new technology such as
videodisc, 1" inch videotape, direct broadcast satellites, the
teletext systems, fiber optics, etc. into our service.
On-going pr"ofessional development workshops at minimum
costs to the members. These workshops will deal with the needs
expressed by ihe members.
Extend our telecourse programs to a broader base in the community through more inter-agency and inter-institutional
Expand our service to include more states.

Work with other educational and broadcasting entities to
promote the development of mare quality telecourse programming

in radio and television.
We realize that we are not the total answer to the solution of reaching
and teaching the adult learner, but we are confident that we can be part of
that answer. Kali the resources in our society take on part of that solution
then we will succeeds Someone once said, "We are only one, but we are


21 3

Eva luating-aninstructional System
in Matheniatics
Steven M. Frankel*
Dkector, Department of Educational Accountability
Montgomery Coungy Public Schools
Rockville, Maryland

For the past three years, the Deparnnent of EducationalAccountability



(DEA) of the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) has been
evaluating the Instructional System in Mathematics (ISM), the first of
four instructional systems planned for implementation in Montgomery
Cairn), Public Schools. When the DEA evaluation started, ISM was
already in place in 26 elementary, one middle, and six junior high
schools. It is now functioning with roughly three times as many sthools
on the system.
While ISM was developed within MCPS to specifically meet the
needs of the system's students, it is similar in structure to many other
in that it
objectives-based, computer ,supported instructional
nt. Where
coniists of a curriculum component, and a reporting co
it differs from many of its counterparts is that computer Support is,used
primarily in the assessment and reporting components, with only a

minimal portion of the actual instruction being delivered via the
computer. Similarly, the capability ofprescribing instruction based upon
the results of the assessments has not been programmed into the system.
Thus, concePtually it is far closer to a computer managed instruction

(CMI) system than to a computer assisted instruction (CAI) system.
As is often the case in educational evaluations, the impetus for this


study visa largely political. ISM had come into being as the flagship of a


Several years later, with the superintendent and his policies coming

series ofinstructiOnal innovations introduced by a new school superintenclent.

The opinions expressed in this papet are those of Di. Frankel and do na necessarily
reflect the opinions of other members of the school system's staff or Board of Education.



System in Mathematics

under increasing criticism from segments of the Board of Education, the

public, arid the school system's staff, the study was perceived by the
superintendent's supporters as a means of validating his efforts, and by
the superintendent's critics as a means of repudiating them.
The two, mods which were produced 1 2 satisfied neither soup
entirely. The evaluations identified many positive outcomes which were
--associstedwiththeuse-cif-tlie-tsttrthiuVthifacthere was a demand
among teacheis whose schools were not on the system for the ISM
curricular materials. However, they also identified severe flaws in the
manner in which it was being, implemented; documented the fact that it
'was subitantially more expensive to operate; and reported that, possibly
because of the implementation problems, no overall gains in student
achievement could be linked to use of the system.
Because studies such as this are becoming increasingly common as
school administrators and Board members ask the question, "What will
support for instructional system development and implementation really
buy us?" it was felt that a paper describing a generic design for such

evaluation might be useful. If the paper can also forewarn system

sponsors of some of the questions which will be posed in a comprehensive
evaluation effort, then so much the better.

Evaluating System Components

In designing the ISM evaluation, it was decided to yeat each

component of the system individually; and in each case, to attempt to
answer the question, "Has the component delivered what was promised

for it?" In addition, wherever possible, the evaluators attempted to
contrut the outcomes of using the system component with outcomes in
other scliools using non-systemitized counterparts; and to develop
comparative cost data showing the additional resources or savings which
resulted from using the component.
The Curriculum Component
The evaluation of the curriculum component examined the manner in
which instruction was being delivered; the types of activities in which
teachers had to engage to support instruction; and the outcomes of
instruction for students. In the ISM study, it was fortunate that when the
study began, only about 25 percent of the schools in MCPS were using
ISM. In addition, the ISM schools had entered the system at different
points in time; this permitted comparisoni to be made betwen ISM
schools which had been using the system for one, two and three years,
and between ISM and non-ISM schools. Among the key issues which
were addressed in this component of the study, were the following:

Does use of the instructional s9stem increase the amount of
individualization in the classroom? Underlying this issue, we
are interested in whether more smalLgroup_or-individualiz


System in Mathematics


instruction was occurring and whether the activities occurring in
the classroom reflected the data on individual student progress

produced by the system. Such information was gathered by
having trained- observera sit in classrooms monitoring actual
-instruction and comparing the assignments of individual students
with:their- computer generated records.

How does ise ofthe system affeit academically engaged time?
Here, we were coneerned*th whether students using the system
appeared to be spending more-time on task; or, conversely, if

there were net losses in acidernieilly-engaged time due to
students haviiig to wait for their turn to get a conipuerterminal or
for their teacher to give them a new assignment, or to friVel back

and forth between the instructional area and the area in which'
terminals were located. Again, data such as these were gathered

by means of observers located within ISM and non-ISM
classrooms; and by means of questionnaires completed by teachers, aids, students, and administrators.
Does use qf the instructional system affect achievement test
scores? We approached this area with considerable caution,
since this is the single issue which school boards most often focus
upon and the media will play up. While we gathered and reported
data such as these, we also cautioned that this information should

not be riccorded inordinate weight because of factors such as
imperfect Matches between curricular content and the nationally

standardized tests; the impact of previous learning on the test
scores; and ttle ease with which individual teachers can "prep"
their studentifor a nationally standardized test which has been
used hi the school district for several years. Ofparticular interest,

however, were "longitudinal analyses of third vs. fifth grade
achievement test scores for ISM vs. non-ISM cohorts.
Does use of the instructional system affect achievement scores
on locally developed criterion referenced tests? Largely because
of the problems perceived with using norm referenced test scores

as dependent variables, considerable weight was given in the
evaluation to administering the ISM mastery examinations to
groups of non-ISM students as well as to groups of ISM Students.
The reasoning behind this activity was that if differences between

students using and not using the system were occurring, they
would be likely to show.up if these two groups were tested using
the materials which were part of the system itself.
Is the curriculum well organized and ',resented? Information of
this type was gathered by querying school staff members about
their satisfaction with the materials. An additional step, which we

did not do but which would be advisable, would be to have




System in Mathematics

materials. In addition, a rather innovative unobtrusive Measure
was employed: having observers record the degree to which the
system's curricular materials have been "bootlegged" into
non-system schools. In our study, this was assumed to represent
the highest degree of flattery and a highly effective means of
determining,the repute in which the materials were held by the
general population of teachers and principals.
What resources are required to impleMent the system, orpermit
it tofunction effectively? In an era of shrinking resources, this has

become a paramount issue. We were interested in the costs
which were being incurred for continued system/materials
development and inservice training in attempting to determine

whether instructional delivery costs had actually increased after
the system was installed, due to increased numbers of aids being

used and/or teachers having to expend additional time for

individualized planning and/or recordkeeping in assessing the
costs for computer hardware, software, and communications; in

whether ISM was presently overtaxing the capacity of the
computer mainframe; and whether implementation of the system
in all schools could be accomplished without having to greatly
expand the present computer's capacity.

What happens to students after they have left the,grades in
which the instructional system is implemented? Since the

MCPS math program splits into different "branches" of varying
difficulty levels starting in the junior high schools, it was possible
to determine how many ISM vs. non-ISM students went.on to
take the more difficult math courses and to compare grades for
system and non-system students when they are enrolled in the
same courses. ,

t The Assessment Component
The key in many instructional systems, including ISM, is the process
by which student progress is monitored on.a continuous basis. In ISM,

monitoring meant that teachers and students were notified when a
particular objective had been mastered. As mentioned earlier, many
other instructional systems carry the concept still further by prescribing
future assignments on the basis of performance on assessments.
In studying the assessment component of ISM, the following types of
questions were posed:
Are the assessment instruments technically adequate? Given
the 'importance of the assessment instruments to most instructional systems, it is reasonable for evaluators to expect that the
skills measured are indeed those which are taught; that there is
good agreement between performance on individual test items


System in Mathematic:.


and overall test performance; that alternative versions of assessments are of the same difficulty level; that placement and mastery
test items are similar in difficulty for individual objectives; and
that if the system is hierarchical, there is a consistent increase in

difficulty level as students move through assessments. The
techniques by which issues such as these are addressed are well
known and generally involve administering samples of items to a
set of students, and analyzing the records of students using the

Is feedback,provided to teachers and students in an efficient
manner? When students are not immediately informed of their
perfonnance on an assessment measure, or where such information is not routinely available to teachers shortly after the student

completes an assessment, much of the potential value of an
instructional system is lost. A detailed examination of the
logistics involved in the assessment process will reveal these
types of problems. Similarly, such an examinationif supple-

mented by first hand observationwill also reveal related
problems such as delays in being able to take an assessment due

to insufficient hardware being available or lengthy Iterminai
response time: lack of flexibility in the software which does not
permit students to attempt assessments "out-of-sequence;" and
gaps in time between when instruction in an objective end and
the assessment measure is administered.

Is the assessmeht system worth the cost involved? An issue
which should have received greater emphasis in the study was
whether the Value received from use of automated assessments,
which permitted the system to 'accept constructed responses (as
opposed to having to use a fixed multiple choice format), was
worth the additional costs involved. Delving into this issue fully
would require an analysis of capital:inVestment, startup, and

operational costs; a comparison of the reFurces required to
administer assessments with and without the computer, an
examination of the impact which the assessment process had on

available time-on-task and Aeacher preparation time; and an
assessnient of less costly alternatives for assessing students that
fell somewhere between what the system offered and was
available in non-system schools. An interesting result of these
studies was that issues such as these are now being explored by
the system developers.
The Reporting Component
The evaluation of the reporting component of an instructional system

was closely linked to the evaluation orthe assessment component.
Whereas the latter addressed how effectively the student's progress was

21 8


System in Mathematics

monitored, the former addressed What was done with the monitoring data

after they were collected. In evaluating this component,
the following
issues were considered:
Who ILMS the Wormation which isprovided? A msjor
activity' in
this evaluation was to assemble a set of all reports generated
the system and attempt to determine, using open-ended interviews,
the degree to which each was actually used for decisiot, Making
purposes. We were interested in determiningwhether any reports
were : a) being used for archival purposes only ("I keep it in ease
anyone asks for it");b) directed at the wrong party (principals
being provided with student level data); or c) much too detailed/
giobal for use in making instructional decisions. The olteetive, in
concktcting these activitiet, was to determine if the entire flow of
piper producectbyitheryitemwas truly necessary and/or being used-properly.

Is the qualuy and timeliness of the data superior to that
available in non-system schools? Give the emphasis on the

availability of relevant data which had been used to sell the
concept of the instructional system, it was not unreasonable to
make comparisons betwearthe quality and timeliness of data in
system and non-system schools. This was done by interviewing
staff and adniinistrators as to how certain standard types of
instructional decisions were being made; The issue of timeliness
was particularly critical since the best dadt in the world are
absolutely useless if they are received alter the relevant decisions

have had to he made.
Are the capabilities ofthe reporting zystem being fully exploited?

While it is essy for system desiiners to err by providing

pracdtioners with gluts of the wrong types of data, it is equally
easy for them to not sUpply certain typs of useft4 data which
well within the system's potential to provide.-Information
on this
topic wits gathered by interviewing teachers and


This paper has attempted to provide an overview of the
breadth of
blues which a sound evaluation of an instructional system
encompass. To keep the paper concise, the list of issues addreised in the

study was representative, and by no means inclusive. If there
is one
message to leave, it is to distrust any evaluation of an instruetional
system which is single faceted and does not go beyond reporting

differenceo in achievement test scores, or describing the manner in which
instruction is delivered.

1. Frechtling, Joy et al. An Evaluation qf the Instructional System in Mathematics:

1977-1971, Montommy County Public &boob, Department of Educational

21 9

System in Mathematics


Am ;notability, November, 1978.

2. Gnus, Sums et &Um/ma/fon cif the Instructional System in

Mathematia4 1978-

Comparisons down ISM and Non-ISM School, and Analyses
Inelnanants, Duartment of Educational
Accountability, Montgomery
Public Schools,








,rj f") n

4 il

V ci:le.:4



A Description of the DAVID Interactive
insiructional Television System and. Its
Applkation to fost High School Education
James kvonFeldt
Instructional Television/Computer Department
Nationcilledinical-Instftutelor-the-Deat---Rochester, New York

The human rights movement in the United States has stimulated much
sensitivity pertaining to the special needs of handicapped. Laws have
been passed, institutes have beed created and muéh has already begun to
happen in our Society to implement access to the mainstream of work as
well as the larger social arena of life for handicapped persons.

The National Technical Institute for the Deaf on the camPus of



Rochester Institute of Technology in Rochester, New York is one such
institute. If I were asked to state NTID's goal I would put it this way: To
pmvide post high school deaf students with the skills, experiences and
education, to fonnulate a successfid career in a technical society?
One &the eight mission statinients which assist NT1D in meeting its
goals consists of exploring and Creating innovative teaching/learning
technologies. The DAVID (Digital And Video Interactive Device)
interactive system is a product of that mission. However, before we
begin, let me state that this technology, lfice many before it and many
more which are in the figure, are meant f- supplement the instructional
iind training experience. It was not desiiited to, nor coidd it, replace an
informed, caring teacher. Lie other technologies irr education (overhead, video tape, blackboard, book progrnmmed instruction, etc.) the
teache?: power is enhanced and the teaching/learning process is more
efficient when it is applied appropriately.

'2 21




Instructional Needs
Deaf students require special instructional techniques and technologies
- because of the cumulative effect of hearing deprivation in the process of
"The nature of deafness limits instructional stimuli to a visual primary

input mode. Put another way, the absence of significant audio input
(resulting from severe, hearing impairment) forces the-individual to
depend upon seeing or visual stimuli almost entirely. Blind people rely
upon audio stimuli. Those who are not handicapped utilize both audio
and visual stimuli.
The significance of audio deprivation can be shown by the generally

poor language and speech characterized by the deaf population.
Unfortunately,language is basic to communication and communication
basic to learning (and socialization) and learning to career success.
Prior to the development of the DAVID system, the NTID Communication Department had developed auditory training processes utilizing
drill and practice with an audio tape system. Speech reading also requires-

much drill and practice; Iiiivevir, that firdeels requitedinstructionat
television. Both auditory and speech training demand much individual

practice by each student as well as regular classes and teacher
interaction. Lest it appear obtuse, auditory training (training in the
discriminatory use of residual hearing with the aid of amplification) has
demonstrated significant overall instructional gains through drill and
practice. Most legally deaf people have some residual hearing and can

benefit from training to use what they have. In addition to the above

stated practices, both auditory and speech training require media
overlap. Auditory training, which used audio tape only, indicated the
ideal situation would allow audio or audio with video stimuli. Skech
therapy was already utilizing video stimuli in the form of instructional
televlsion tapes, some with, and some without audio reinforcement. Both
curricula indicated strong need to control the audio and the videckstimuli,
to provide interactive learning with feedback and reinforcement, and to
provide individualized instruction.

Computer-assisted instruction at NTID (beginning in 1968 with the
IBM 1130-1500 system) hail demonstrated effectiveness in providing
individualizea instruction through drill and practice and tutorial strategies

in many diaciplines. Also, Jean McKernan Smith and Dr. vonFeldt's
preliminary research study indicated that CAI interaction could improve
the instructional gains found with the use of instrtietional television.2 The
hypotheses posed were: 1. a combination of student interaction provided

by CAI when merged with motion And/or audio would provide
significant instructional gains in Audiology and Speech Pathology, 2.
instruction which was not then possible could be explored, and 3. that

students may be able to receive additional individualized practice




without requiring additional speech or audiology staff. The comparison
study was the first step in exploring these hypotheses.2 Development of
the NTID-DAVID prototype was the second step.

System Specification
A team from NTID including teachers, researchers, system specialists,
engineers, CAI specialists, TV engineers, and media specialiits assisted
in the process of defming the system specifications. The result included
feamres which addressed instruction, evaluation, lesson management
and research. The elements specified for the proposed system were:
control of audio and visual stimuli (mOtion), color, fast accessibility of
specific TV segments, quick rewind, ability to individualize, capacity for
student interaction, and data gathering capacity with ability to summarize
and print. It was also requested that the proposed system be portable, low
cost and modularly expandable.

The first question addressed was "Is such a system feasible?" A
search showed that no system was then in existence that wouldsatisfy all

of the demands. A review of the TICCIT system revealed Many

elements but it did not proyide contml over the television-segments, wets

not low cost for a single stand alone system, and was not considered
modular in design (Hazeltine Corporation markets the TICCIT CAI
Extensive exploration of television, minicomputers, microcomputers,
interface systems and the instructional demands indicated that the state
of the art was such that the system could be built (1975): The task began
in Januiry 1976 to build the prototype system.
A general summary of the instructional elements were as follows:
Control of the audio stimuli was designated as a primary need for
auditory training Use of the audio track on video tape provided the
capacity required. Speech training specified control of audio as desirable

Speech training indicated that motion and color were primary needs in
order for the student to visualize articulatory movements. Video tape was

identified as the required media. Color enhanced reality and provided
extended motivation.
Drill and practice and tutorial strategies had proven effective for both
Auditory and Speech therapy at NTID. The prototype system would be

required to repeatedly play and replay segments of audio and visual
stimuli. The,stimuli were generally very short.(7 to 10 seconds long). A



2 13

video tape replay (VTR) SYstem would meet this need though extensive
modification to enable control of the tape would have to bemacre.

Fast Rewind
Data from CAI and otherinstructional research indicates that waiting

for reinforcement beiond 4 seconds results in deterioration of the
reinforcement For this reason it was specified that a seven to ten second
stimuli must be replayable in four seconds or less. Short drill And practice

stimuli are common at NTID, particularly in Auditory training

The system must be capable of individualizing instruction to meet
specific needs of each student. For many years deaf students coming to
NTID., have shown a wide spectra of need for remediation as well as
instruction, both of which- must be met. Computer-assisted instruction
was appropriate as one component of the sysem because of its capacity of
meeting specific student instructional needs within defmed limits.
Active Learning

bats suggests a strOng correlation between active learning and
instructional gains. Interaction can occur with lesson materials and in
classes in many ways. Computer-assisted instruction provides capacity
for student participation through interrogation, quizzing, simulation, etc.,
allowing the student to communicate by way of keyboard or other device.

Data Gathering


To individualize a student's lesson, student data must be gathered.
Based on this data, a specific program of instruction is provided.
Periodically, data is gathered to determine that the initial prescriPtion
was correct Lesson modifications are made as needed. Researchneeds
require data gathering at a different level. The capacity to identify each
stimuli and when it occurred may be important Each student's response,
time tip respond, etc., may be critical. These data must be collectable.
A combined ihstructional/research need was defined as maintaining
performance status for individual students as well as for classes. For
research purpoies, the ability to group students by various criteria of
handicap wax desirable. These research needs required a minicomputer,
disks, clock and printei.


NTID's Commitment to dissemination of curricula as well as
technology affurned the need for portability-. Also, it was envisioned that
ff a single stand alone system could be made small and portable, it would
be feasible to extend speech and auditory training into the deaf student's

school and-come environnient prior to attendance at NTID.




Low Cost
The final criteria was that a low cost production model be feasible

based on the prototype system. The low cost model would be for
instructional use only. It would utilize existing lessons. No research or
lesson development capacities would be required. Low cost was defined
as a one year salary plus benefits of a professional Speech Therapist
(approximately $15,000.00).
This system levels were defined:
1. The instructional model (low cost).
2. The lesson development model.
3. The research model.
The system was to be designed in a modular form which would support
upgading as desired. Special attention was paid to rentability, reliability
and availability of service for the coniponents of the system.

Video Disk
Video disk technology was explored as an alternative to video tape.
Rejection of video disk at the time of the development of this project
(1965-66) occurred for the following reasons:
1. Unavailability of the video disk.
2. Very high cost of the disk prototype.
3. Very high "Cost of creating disk from existing tape or film
4. Unknown reliability.
5. Poor picture resolution (at demonstration).
6. Lesson development processes indicated that the tape system
would be critical in the lesson revision stages based on student
performance. This process also had strong economic implications which favored tape over disk.
The conclusion therefore, was to proceed utilizing state of the art 3/4"
video tape equipment for the prototype. It was also pointed out that if the

price, reliability, disk cost and serviceability of the disk system
approached that of tape then it would be feasible to interchange the tape
media for the disk. Furthermore, it was established that conversion of the
video disk system controller would be relatively simple and inexpensive.

As of this writing it appears that the feasibility of video disk (both
MCA-Phillips and Thompson CSF) is closer to reality. MCA-Phillips
provided a limited number of consumer players for sale to the general
public in the spring of 1979. These players cannot provide the random
access. The cost or these players was quoted as $700.00 each (with
rumors that they were underpriced).

The March 1979 issue of Educational and Industrial Television
announced that MCA-Phillips and General Motors Corporation had
ageed on an order for 7,000 industrial model Disco vision players. The
price per unit was placed at $2,000 to $3,000 per unit in large quantities.



The conference on "Interactive Videodisk Technology In Education
and Training" supported by the Society For Applied Learning Technology (February 1979) displayed several Thompson-CSF videodisk
systems. These systems were built into prototype training systems by
various companies and demonstrated in the vendor area. MCA-Phillips
systems were noticeably absent. The Thompson CSF representative
suggested that their interactive disk systems would be available late 1979

and that the price per unit would be approximately $3,000.
The cost for videotape replay units (Sony and Panasonic) capable of
random. access is approximately $1,500. The tape systems, of course,

move slower to access a given TV segment but, as you will see later in this
paper, the speed is adequate for drill and practice and tutorial applications
particularly on the 1/2" systems.

Another problem that the disk systems will have to overcome is the
cot of creating disks. At this point a disk conversion from your existing
16mm film costs approximately $1,200 for a master (both vendors are
vague on this topic). The cost of copies from the master vary from $10 to
$15 per 1/2 hour disk depending on she volume ordered. In contrast, the
labor for copying a 1/2 hour video tape is approximately $6.00 (several
tape& can be copied at the same time) plus the cost of the raw tape which
is about $10 for a 1/2" tape up to $25.00 for 3/4" tape. Delivery is usually
within a week depending on the number of copies to be made.
Table 1 shows the estimated cost per tape or disk at 10, 100, 1,000,
and 10,000 copies. Ten 1/2 hour disks would cost $135.00 each. Ten 1/2"
tapes would cost $11.50 each.

Estimated Cost of Duplicate Disk or Tape
Including Initial Set Up and Raw Tape or Disk

of Units

Per Unit
115.00 $1140


$ 11,5400



of Units




Per Units

1,350.00 $135.00
2,700:00 $ 27.00

$ 16,200.00 $ 16.20
$151,200.00 $ 15.12

Delivery of video disk copies are reported to be 4 to 6 months. The
manufacturers claim 1 month. Delivery for video tape copies is within
the week unless unusually large quantities are required.
The important fact to retain is that there are two disk systems: the
home player (S400-700) that cannot be used for interactive instruction
and the industrial system ($3,000-$5,000) which can provide interaction.




Prototype System
The prototype computer-assisted instnuctional television system was
fully functional November 1977. Figure 1 shows the component parts.

Extensive testing. and modifications were made from July through
October 1977.
The WANG minicomputer (2200 vp, 32K) 10 mb disk, printer, clock
and keyboard were used without modification. An Intel 8080 microcomputer (4K) was built to control the Sony 2850A video tape player
and to communicate with the WANG by way ofRS232 protocol. A time

code reader (CMX) was added to the Sony 2850A player. Electronic
integration of the Sony 2850A allowed microcomputer control by
software. Time code was placed on the 2nd audio track of the TV tape.
Each frame of television had a unique address which was then read by the

CMX reader and interpreted by the microcomputer software. The
WANG minicomputer directed the 8080 microcomputer and thus the
TV segments. The WANG System also provided the CAI lesson and
gathered data for management and research.
Disk Memory

Videotape Recorder


Figure 1: DAVID TB/CAI Prototype System

System Test
Testing activity was scheduled to determine if the prototype would be

able to function as designed with acceptable reliability and accuracy
under instructional use. Serious research could not begin until the system
had proved itself under use.




Two lessons were developed specifically for the test. Two television

e-made. Tape 1 consisted of three parts to match the three
strategies used in that lesson. Part 1 was made up of episodes of Startrek
taken from the air (with permission) to augment the Startrek (gaming)
strategy. Part 2 adapted existing NT1D speech reading drill and practice
instructional television lessons. Part 3 called for the creation of a totally
new set of television stimuli in the form of over 100 ten second episodes.

These eipsodes make up the dialogue of the Job Interview (dialogue
strategy) and should be considered the first example of multi linear
branching television (DAVID TV). Television tape 2 was developed by
Dr. C. Csuri of Ohio State University and Dr. Margret Nithrow of
Gallaudet College. The content of tape 2 consisted of 3 dimensional
animated eipsodes designed to reinforce a single language concept; such
as through,over, and into. The lesson using tape 2 allowed the student to
command the frog to jump through, over or into a fence, a barn, or other

Approximately 500 people participated in testing the computerassisted instructional television system which became known as DAVID.
From November 1977 to late September 1978 deaf and hearing students
at all levels, housewives, teachers, professionals and non-professionals
participated in testing the system. The design features of DAVID were
tested using one or more of the following strategies: 1. gaming (Startrek),
2. drill and practice (Speech Reading), 3. dialogue (Joe Interview), and

4. student control (Frog/Language Concepts).
The system demonstrated portability on two occasions. A floppy disk
was used in place of the 10 mb disk. The DAVID system was taken to the
National Institute of Health in Washington, D.C., for one demonstration

and on another occasion was on display at H.E.W. during the 25th
celebration (also in Washington, D.C.). The entire system fit easily into
the back of a small automobile.

The cost of the NTID prototype system was approximately
$65,000.00. By January 1979 computer-assisted instructional television
systems will be available commercially for approximately 815,000.00.
A reasonable research level sysem will be available for 830,000.00.

The *most common question asked about the DAVID system is
concerned with tape transport speed and latency. Or in other words, how
long does the student have to wait to see the TV reinforcement?

There is no single answer to that question due to the variables
involved. A partial answer lies in the instruction strategy used, the
number of possible TV segment responses, the length (in seconds) of the
TV response, the positioning of episodes on the tape and the functional
speed of the access system. For example, drill and practice using existing
television taped lessons, has had very short latency (wait time). This

occurs because the TV stimuli and TV response segments are vex),
predictable. The next logical stimuli is usually very close requiring very




little time to position the tape. Table 2 shows latencies taken from a
student's Speech Reading drill and practice lesson. Also with drill and
practice you can expect repiats of the TV segment to occur. The latency

related to the repeat is directly proportional to the length of ,the TV
segment and the rewind speed of the video replay system. Generally
speaking, there would not be branching to a remote part of the TV tape for

a "replay."

Table 2
A Representative Sample of A Student's Latency Using An Adapted

NTID Drill and Practice Speech Reading Lesson

Next Stimuli



































Note that after completing a group,of five sentences, the progyam
randomly picks a block of five sentences. A long latency occurs at that
point as the tape moves into position. A paragraph of text on the screen
for the student tekead can mask the wait so that the student would not be

aware of the laiency. Also notice that ii takes about four seconds to

22 9



rewind the stimuli for a repeat. As you can see, average latency would be
misleading. In several instances this student decided not to replay the TV

segment (sentence numbers 7, 8, 22).
The ,quiz for the same lesson (Table 3) Was designed to select seven
sentences at random from the twenty-five that were practiced. The
sentence is repeated one _time. After that no repeats are available.

Table 3

. Quiz Section Of A Representative Sample Of A
student's Latency Using An Adapted NTID
Drill And Practice Speech Reading Lesson
Next Stimuli












Latency,can be reduced in this section by reassembling the test items
into single blocks.

Tape design becomes More important for gaming, dialogue and
student control strategies. The first step is to plan anticipated TV stimuli,

Segments and groupings. We found that access is faster when we
duplidate segments on a tape rather than jump back and forth to one
specific TV sevnent Iftany event,,the TV flow is enhancedby putting a

response segment next to the following TV stimuli 'Segment For
example, if the TV stimult(in the Job Interview lesson) was "Are you

willing to move to the corporate headquarters?" the TV response
segment for an affinnative answer by the student would be: "That's fine,
by the way, what hobbies are you interested in?" In this case a negative
ould lead to I diaastrous effect and would tree out to a
termination of the interview unless Abe student reversed his position on
moving. But thaes a different issuein itself. As you can imagiue, i6ility to

gather data reflecting student paths becomes very important to the
process of developing efficient television tapes for the DAVID lessons.
In general, the Sony 2850A is fast enough for drill and practicc(6.5
sec. per sec. in fast forward and 14 sec:per sec. in rewind) but a faster
transport system is needed for dialogue. Table 3 shows latincies typical
of the gaming, drill and practice and dialogue.





The data in Table1 reflects one studeni's path through the demonstra-

tion lesson. Since there are many deciiions available,, the
represents a highly individualized
map and would be quite different from

another student's pefformance. Many of the students stayed
in the
SamilIz section rnuch longer.
In many instances -lessons can be designed-to reduce latencies
to 2
seconds or less by inter4cing text between TV segments. In
this way the
feedback and "further instruction" masks the tape access time. When
student hat finished reading, the,tape is in positionresdy
to go.

Table 4
A Representative Sample of A Student's
Various Strategies From the NTID DAVID Letenfy Using
Demonstration Lesson
Next Segment
Latencyln seconds)

Put 1


Startrek Game



Part 2
Speech Reading
Drill and Practice








32 (position to section 2)







Table 4 ton't
Part 3



30 (position to section 3)








40. -


-\ k






















A eclmmercially avafiable system anticipated provides
speech of 23 seconds of tape per second in both forward tape V;ansport
and rewind. This
wilt be a significant

improvement over the 2850A
forWird at 6 seconds per second and rewind at 14 which moves tape
seconds per second.
Exploratiod of hard video OP* will occw when economically
however, it is *till coisidered imperative that lesson
done by way of a tape system befixe a disk system
can be effectively
used. Also, the newer PCM *soft Nide° disk with its
read/write capacity
may allow 'elimination of the tape process. These
processes will be
explored when available.

On October 1, 1978, the

NTlD prototy9e systad.was
meeting criteria. Soon,ifter, plans were in iction to begin accepted as
exploring the
system as a research tool.




Current Experiments
Dr. Dona Is Dims of the NTID Audiology Department is exploring the
DAVID sYStem-and its ability to help him evaluate_the effectiveness of
answer strategieg cueren-dy used to teach deaf students speech reading

Current instruction of speech reading at NTID requires a video tape
player and television set at each student station supported by answer
sheets and a teacher in the room. Three activities take place: 1) class
instruction, 2) indivilial instruction (during practice) and 3) independent
study (lab):
The following is a description of the deaf student's speech reading

activity en the DAVID system which is desigped to be similar to the Lab
instruction. Firit, the student is started at a multiple choice level. After he
sees a sentence spoken tn the television he, is asked to type the correct
answer from four choices. A simple, a, b, c or d task. The assignment of
level is done by the teacher and is based on extensive diagnostic data as
well as the stlident's performance in class.
The sec,?nd level of answering requires the student to type the words of
the sentence just seen into a forinat which has blanks as clues and the key
vo6bulaty word in the correct place. For example, the TV speaker has
said, "The report was filed in the top drawer." The, student is given the
following fontat to type his answer:



The third level of answer difficulty is similar to level two except that
the key word is placed to the right of the answer area; su4 as:


level 3


The fourth and hardest answer foimat requires the student to type the
answer into a blank area. No key wofd or clues as to the number of words
or their length is given. A blank space is provided for the student response
such as



level 4

Exact spelling is required; however, words out of positicn are'

2 3 :3



accepted. As students practice,* the correct words are shown in their
proper position in the sentence Its feedback, such as:

The report has filed on-the drawer top. (student)

The report -- filed

the top drawer. (feedback)

This shows the student that he has six words correct. The feedback
becomes a strong clue. The student is given several tries with as many
repeats of the TV segment as he wants. Eventually the student gets the
sentence correct or is given the sentence word by word to type in. At that
,time, the sentence is played again but this time the audio is on and the
4ords are captioned on the screen.

A typical course consists of 150 to 175 sentences organized by
curriculum such as Engineering or Business. Key words are identified as
primary vocabulary words in the given curriculum.
Dr. Sims' lessons are being field tested by deaf students as they are

being developed. When the lessons-are satisfactory, two strategies of
control will be added for testing: L. studentperformance control; that is, a
series of correct or wrong answers will automatically direct the student to
die next level of difficulty allowing progreSs or regression through the
fdur levels of answer formats based on the individual's performance, and
2. learner control; that iq.. the student chooses any of the four answer

The needs of the deaf community require special tails to optimize the
teaching/learning process. Instructional television has had a positive
effect for teaching deaf students speech reading skills at "the Nationil
TeClmical Institute for the Deaf Auditory training has utilized programthed instruction techniques with audio repliy technologies to
increase deaf studentS' ability to use residual hearing. Both audiology
and speech. faculty have depended upon drill and practice to teach and
iinpiove student performance. The DAVID system was designed to
assiSf the teacher by providing audio, television (in color) and an
interactive learning activity through keyboard. All of this was under
computer control. In addition, a sophisticated data gatk.ering capacity for

research at NTID was attached.
Television tapes and CAI lessons were developed to test the prototype
undeil instructional conditions. Instruaional strategies used on the tapes
were:11. gaming, 2. drill and practice, 3. dialogue, and 4. student control.
The system was accepted by NTID October 1978 after nearly one

year of testing by over 500 people. Face validity of the system was

The speed of the tape transport was identified to be a problem for some




of the strategies used thou-0 it was adequate for drill and practice. New

techniques for developing television tapes have been developed that
maximize the access speed of the tape transport and which capitalize
upon the very promising strategy of dialogue. Existing instructional
television tapes were successfully adapted.
Innovations such .fis hard video disk and ,PCM disk with read/write
capacity will be explored when feasible.

Dr. Dinis of the NTID Audiology Department is exploring the
DAVMI system as it applies to speech reading and auditory training.

I feel it is fitting to list those whose creative contributions have assisted

in bringing the DAVID system to its current state: Dr. Barry Cronin,
chairman of the Instructional Television Department, Dr. Donald Sims
of the Audiology Department, Dr. Haiold Farneth of the Curriculum
Development D.epartment, Mr. Steve Talley of Instructional Television
and Mr. Tom Myers and Dr, Kirmitt Schroeder, consultants.

1. Sims, Donald, vonFekk, James. IL, Dowaliby, Fred L, and Hutchinson, Kathy,
"Speechreading Instniction Experimental Design Utilizing the Digital and Audio
Interacti'Ve Device (DAVID)," Repon of Fall Quarter 1978 Activities at NTID,
Interdepartmental paper, National Technical Institute for the Deaf; January, 1979.
2. Smith, Jean and vonFeldt, James R., "A Comparison of Two Media: An Examination
of Computer-Assisted Instniction and Television Instniction in Teaching Diacritical
Markings to Post Secondary Deaf Students," techniCal paper, National Institute for the
Deaf, August 1, 1977.

3. vonFeldt, James R., "An Overview of Computers in Education," technical paper,
NationsVechnical Institute for the Deaf; March 1977.
4. vonFeldt, James R., "A National Survey of the Useof Computer-Assisted Instructl
In Schools for tfie Deaf;" technical paper, National Technical Institute for the Deaf;
January 1978.





Seminole Community College
Working with Aventy-Seven
Other institutions
Thomas W. Hobbs
Seminole Community College
Sanford, Florida

The Florida Community College System has several times served as a

model for other community college systems in the country. With the
realization that television had become one-of the dominant mediums of
mass communication -the Florida Community, College System agim
served as a Model when kbegan the development in 1973 and 1974 of
the Florida Community and Junior College Television and Radio
A major reason for the search for a cooperative method of organizing
the presentaticin of televised college credit courses was that of cost. With

the relatively fugh costs of acquisition and of leasing documentaries,
producing written materials, purchasing television broadcast dine,
adapting telecourses to local needs, and of assigning faculty time, it was
appaient that television created special economic problems for a single




The development of the Consortium began during the fall or1973
when Valencia Community College in cooperation with WMFE-TV,
the public television station in Orlando, agreed to broadcast the "Man
and EnvironMent" series. Approximately three hunched students enrolled
for credit the first semeiter. With such an outstanding response Valencia
Community College, began to explore bther possibilities 'of televised

The signal of WMFE-TV covered the service area of five central
Florida community colleges. Encouraged by the news that WMFE-T1 .
was about toincrease its signal strength five times its present power,
Brevard, Pollc, Lake-Sumter and Seminole Community Colleges joined




Seminole Community College

Valencia Community College in a Consortium. Unfortunately, the new

tower from which the greatly increased signal was to be broadcast,
collapsed during a finarstate of constniction. This resulted in two of five

colleges suffering from an almost total loss of signal in their college
It was found that both colleges, isolated by the loss of the signal from

WMFE-TV in Orlando, could receive the signal -of-WEDU-TV in
Tampa. The WED U-TV management ageed to brpadcast the "Man
and Environment" series. The broadcast by WEDUIV not only made
it possible for Polk and Lake-Sumter Community Co4eges to receive
progam signals but it also allowed for four additiRialt community
colleges to participate. Hillsborough, Manatee, Pa,sco;teernando and St.
Petersburg Community Colleges could now receive the signal and were
invited 'to join the Consortium. As .a result of these additional colleges
entering the organization, it was decided during the summer of 1974 to
form the Central Florida Television and Radio Consortium.

When the 1974 fall term was completed, the Consortium's college
credit television course enrollment was 3,294. By spring of 1975 the
list of courses being offered by member community colleges included:
"The Ascent of Man," "Dimensions In Culture," "Man and Environment, Part I and II," "As Man Behaves," and via radio, "Law I" and
"Law II." Since September 1974, more than eighteen different courses
have been offered by members ofthe Consortium (see Appendix B). The

enrollment has increased from the original 3,294 in one term to over
11,000 in one year. The total enrollment since its inception has been
more than 52,000 students.

Consortium Organization

The geat amount of interest expressed in a possible statewide
consortiu,m by non-member community colleges was such that with the
'aid of the Florida Department of Education plans were developed and

approved for a statewide Florida Community and Junior College
Television and Radio Consortium. The plan assigned each of Florida's
twenty-eight community colleges to one of six regions. Each of the
regions was centered upon, and somewhat determined by, the local
public television station's broadcast capability. Each college was to
serve the student population of its own district and would share equally

the decision making processes and in the funding of die region's
operations. Each region would choose a volunteer coordinator. These six
coordinators would, in turn, meet on a statewide basis and would choose

a chairman. This organization has functioned in such a way that the
coordinators have shared in the development of plans, progams and new
funding solutions. The plan and resulting Floridd Community and Junior
College Television and Radio Consortium was approved by the Florida

State Community College Council of Academic Affairs, the Florida



Seminole Community .College


Community College President's Council, and by the Florida Division of
Community Colleges of the State Department of Education during the
fall of 1974. Subsequently, all twenty7eight colleges have expressed
interest in the Consortium and have participated to some degree.
The Florida Community and,Junior College Television and Radio
Consortium at that time was unique in that it developed within the
Florida Community College System. The Consortium was designed to
meet the needs of the individual colleges and was not superimposed upon

the system at the state level. Much credit must be given to Robert
McCabe, President of Miami-Dade Community College and David
Evans, Vice-President for Campus Affairs of Valencia Community

College for providing much leadership and support.
Additional encouragement, technical and financial aid came next from
the Florida Department of Education. J. Warren Binns, Administrator
of Educational Television and Radio, agreed to assist the Consortium.
This aid came in many forms but two of the more important were the
leasing by the Department ofEducation for the Consortium, the majoritY
of its teleyised courses and secondly, that it served as a dubbing center for

all series offered by the Consortium. Both of these actions greatly
relieved the financial burden placed upon the Consortium's member

Locating Materials
A problem that has often arisen for the Consortium has been that of
locating appropriate materials. Until the recent addition of such listings
as those of AACJC much of the search for new material was on a hit or
miss basis. Often first knowledge of the existence of a telecourse has been
gained from the varied public relations efforts of the individual producing
entities. Other sources have been the various educational television or
audio visual workshops with their displays of equipment and materials.

The difficulty of locating a wide variety of materials has been

especially acute in the areas of high Student enrollment such as the widely

found general education courses. These freshman an4 sophomore

courses acrOss the state enroll thousands of students each college term
yet there have been very few television based courses,produced to fill this
need. It is true that a number of high quality course materials such as "As

Man Behaves," "The Growing Years," "The Ascent of Man," "It's
Everybody's Business" have been produced with many colleges now

using them. Many other colleges and universities have tried to enter this
instructional area but often their efforts have centered upon the recording

of lectures and slide show presentations. While it can be said those
presenting the materials were often talented professionals in their
respective fields of academic endeavor they have often possessedlittle
knowledge of the limitations and potentials of television based instruction. Due to often poor or limited production procedures many of these



Seminole Community College


series are simply not being used by the majority of colleges
offering television based instruction. There are several
reasons for this
reluctance, one of which is that of low appeal to the student. The
student of today is accustomed to viewing and using high quality audio
visual materials. Materials produced poorly will receive
poor student

usage and will have a resulting low student enrollment. A second
problem linked to poor production, quality and style is
that many
television stations today are reluctant or will refuse to
use poorly
produced educational materials during prime hours due to the lack

viewer appeal. The local stations when reviewing telecourses
must also
consider the general viewing public of which the station does
not with to
lose its share due to extremely poor production of some television series.
It is not that excellent instructional courses have
not been produced.
One only has to view such series as "The Ascent of Man,"
to have the
enjoyment of factual materials being presented in an enlightening and
entertaining style. The number and variety of these courses for use in

general education has continued to be severely limited. Additional
production work needs to be undertaken in this area. It is not that it
cannot be done because such institutions as Miami-Dade Community

College, Dallas Community College and Coastline Community College
have been doing it for several years.

The television based courses offered by the Florida Community

Colleges are usually chosen on the basis of consortial agyeement. The
Florida Consortium regional representatives meet regularly to
reviews of available materials and to discuss future needs. After initial
viewing by the region representative the recommended tapes
are then
viewed by the faculties of the individual colleges in each region,
then make their recommendations to the regional coordinator whowhich
in agreement with the other five coordinators recommends what the
should lease or buy.
Adoption of Al a terials
The adaptation of a television based course is very often

as simple as
it 'may at first seem. Quite often a lengthy periodnot
of review by

instructional faculties of the course objectives and content takes
Occasionally questions arise as to advisability of totally adapting
course with all of its content and components. In some instances only the
reordering of the sequence of tapes has been
necessary. In a majority of

instances extensive modification of either state, regional
or local

consortium professionals has had to take place on at least one part and on
several parts of the course package.

Many of the changes have resulted when there arose differences
between the television based course materials and the local curriculum.
Other changes have occurred in efforts to modify the
lessen faculty resistance to telecourse& In one instancecourse so as to
changes were


Seminole Community College



made to reflect a more local focus. The very popular series produced by
Miami-Dade Community College, Man and Environment I and II was

an excellent example of the range of adaptive changes. The series
consisted of thirty ono-half hour tapes which were equally divided
between the series' two courses. North Florida Community College at
Jacksonville believed that a more local focus to the course was needed
and so produced its own series of tapes to be used with those of MiamiDade Community College. Other changes involved in adopting these

two courses could be found in the Central Florida Region of the
Consortium. Here, not only were tapes reordered as to sequence there
were new study guides developed .and different textbooks chosen.

Problems of Delivery

The full potential of the Consortium proably has not been fully
realized. Several colleges have tried alternative means of reaching their
district populations. Gulf C oast Community College at Panama City has
-had to make extensive use of local commercial television cable system.

Their problem has been the lack of a strong station to servi their
population. Another example of alternate means of serving television
students is exemplified by Daytona Beach Community College which
has worked with the Volusia County School Board in using its
system. Each of these examples represents an alternative method of
reaching student populations by means other than public and commercial
television stations.
One reason for the numerous searches for alternative means of reaching

the student have been the all too often obstructive or uncooperative
attitudes of several of thelstate's public and commercial stations to the
very idea of working wittiany ofthe colleges in a constructive way. Often
the rates for air time have been placed at too high a level. Other instances
have occurred where the local stations would simply refuse or not make
time available for the telecasting of the college courses.

Perhaps one reason why the Central Florida Region 'has been so
successful in its programming ,has been because of the attitudes and
management policies of WMFE-TV toward the Coniortium. Over the
years since 1973, WMFE-TV has been an active supporter of the
Consortium's eprt. Rates for air time have been le,..pt at a reasonable
level and times for broadcast have been easily attained.
Consortium Benefits
The resulting advantages to the Consortium's individual member
colleges have been numerous. Each college has shared in the selection of
courses and has had the flexiblity of participating or not participating in
.`-any of the course arrangements. This system of cooperation has helped

all colleges in that it provided a greater sharing of expertise in such
activities as the selection of materials, the devel )pment of faculty

2 .1 u


Seminole Community College

workshops, study guides and other printed materials. Another advantage
of this Consortium was that no longer would any individual college have
to pay all the costs, for by cooperating, they paid an equal share of costs.
The outstanding qdality of the Florida Communty College Television
and Radio Consortium seems to be the freedom of choice allowed each
member in its participation in any activity of the Consortium. The only
limitation being that once a region has decided to offer a course all must
share in its broadcast costs. Associated with each of these decisions is the
fact they are arrived at in the local-regional level and nOt at the state level.
This has allowed each college greater latitude in controlling not only its
instructional costs but also its curriculum.

Community College
Instructiodal Television and Radio Coordinators
Jack Carroll
Paul E. Novak
Director, Learning
Media Specialist
Florida Keys
3865 N. Wickham Rd.
Community College
Melbourne, FL 32935
Key West, FL 33040
IsatiC Call
Charles Bond*
Director, Learning
Dean, Learning
Broward Community
Gulf Coast
Commnunity College
3501 S.W. Davie Rd.
5230 W. Highway 98
Fort Lauderdale, Fl 33314 Panama, City, FL 32401
Sharon Mixson*
Dr. John Bouseman*
AV Coordinator
Vice President
Central Florida
Community College
Community College
P.O. Box 1388
Plant City, FL 33566
Ocala, FL-32670
Mrs. Mary Thornton
Manager, Media Services
Director, Learning
Indian River
Community College
Chipola Junior College
.3209 Virginia Ave..
Marianna, FL 32446
Fort Pierce, FL 33450


Dr. Don Thigpen
Dean, Learning
Daytona Beach
Community College
P.O. Box 1111 Daytona Beach, FL 32015
Dean Ritzman
Director, Media Services
Edison Community
College Parkway
,Fort Myers, FL 33901

Guy Kerby*
Cablevision Coordinator
Florida Junior College
940 N. Main Si.
Jacksonville, FL 32202

Ned Glenn*
Director of the
Open College
Community College
11011 S.W. 104th St.
Miami, FL 33167

Mrs. Lu Alice Sands
Library Services
North Florida
Junior College
Turner Davis Drive
Madison, FL 32340
Hosmer Roberson
Media Services
Junior College
College Boulevard
Niceville, FL 32578

Community College




ommu ity College
e City, FL 32055
alter Allan
Community College
re00 N.W. 441, South
esburg, FL 32748

Mrs. Margaret J. Lyons
AV C Department
Manatee Junior College
P.O. Box 1849
Bradenton, FL 33506
Thomas C. Rogero
Dean, Academic Affairs
St. Johns RiverJunior College
5001 St. Johns Ave.
Palatka, FL 52077

Robert N..Kreager
Director, Instructional
St. Petersburg Junior College
P.O. Box 13489
St. Petersburg, FL 33733
Dr. Robert Meyer
Dean, Learning Resources
Santa Fe Community
P.O. Box 1530
Gainesville,, FL 32602

Dr. Thomas'Hobbs**
Chairman, Social Sciences
Seminole Community
Sanford, FL 32771



Seminole Community College

Milton U. Thomas
Ay Coordinator
Palm 'Beach
Junior College
4200 Congress Ave.
Lake Worth, FL 34603

Wellington Estey
Dean, Learning
Pasco- Hernando
Community College
2401 State Highway 41,
Dade City, FL 33525

ITV Director
Pensacola Junior College
1000 College Boulevard
Pensacola, FL 32504

* Region Coordinator
*1' Consortium Coordinator

Mrs. Leila L Sebring
South Florida Junior College
600 W. College Drive
Avon Park, FL 33825
William Donaldson
Tallahassee Community
444 Appleyard Dr.
Tallahassee, FL 32304

Dr. Paul Kinser*
Community Resources
Valencia Community College
P.O. Box 3028

Orlando, FL 32802

Dr. Patricia S. Miller
Director, Learning
Polk Community College
999 Avenue H, N.E.
Winter Haven, FL 33880

Television Courses That Have Been Offered
By The Florida Television and Radio Consortium
Man and Environment I
Man and Environment IF::7"

As Man Behaves
Dimensions In Culture
Ascent of Man
Adams Chronicles
It's Everybody's Business
Writing For A Reason

Earth, Sea and Sky.
Making It Count
The Long Search
American Government

24 3

Home Gardener
Classic Theatre
Modem Math
Law I
Law II
The Age of Uncertainty
Music Appreciation
The Growing Years

Personal Finance and
Money Management
The Living Environment
The Art of Being Human





Bridging the. Chasm Between
Telecommunications and Higher Education
C. Gregory Van Camp
General Manager, Station WWVU-TV
West Virginia University
Morgantown, West Virginia

Several years ago, when West Virginia University's public television ,
station was in its infancy, my administrator, the provost for academic
affairs, made a statement that in many Ways characterized the 'age-old'
chasm between education and technology. The situation was this: the
television station was under a short deadline from the Federal Communications Commission to file a form wlifch Nuked the signature of the
chancellor of the West Virginia Board of Regents, holder of the station's
license. The university, which operates WWVU-TV for thehoard, had
an extensive, tithe-consuming revieKprooechire for an'y and ill matters
which required the chancellor's approvalcertainly too extensive and
too complex to meet the station's deadlineAn appraising the situation,
my provost said, "Greg the problem is ... in television you work by the
sweeping red hand of the clock . . . but the university works by the"
decade!" However humorous, or maybe sobering his assessment reflected
.a significant reality.
Although my illustration is a greatly exaggerated contrastthe fact is
that a chasm does exist between education and technology, specifically
communications techholOgy. The Width and depth of the chasm varies,
perhaps based upon one's own perspective. Certainly from tlie technology
side, the chasm is generally perceived as awesome. In Match, 1975, the

Advisory Council of National Organizations published a report to the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting it was entitled simply "Public
Broadcasting and Education." The first of its 11 recommendations
stated, "The CPB should intensify its efforts to bridge the triditional
chasm between broadcasting and education, building a working partner-

ship to serve their common purposes." Over the years, many similar



Bridging the Chasm

recommendations, challenges, and mandates have been voiced. But the
reality is that generally each camp continues to walk along its own side of
the chasm.
It is my purpbse hire to explore some of the reasons why this is true
butperhaps more importantly to show that the chasm does not need co be
thereat least not to the clearly-evident level that exists too extensively
throughout the United States today. Higher education and communica-

tions technology can inter-relate; however, it is going to take a major
effort, and significant changes, by leaders on both sides to make it

Basic IsSues
Let's consider the basic issues in an effort to understand the scope and


nature of the problem. My analysis shall be confined to the field of
cornmunications technologyor telecommunications; it is Ty observation that the chasm is greater in this field than in most other areas of
technology. Most technology can be fully Controlled or managed by the
user; telecommunications, however, is different.
Telecommunications is a threat to many educators. It is not easy to

use. It requires a team of specialists to produce its software. Too
generally, educators and telecommunications people don't understand
each other. One of the reasons is that telecommunications is similar to
the educational Community in that the important work of each is pchieved
by professional peopleassuming that the telecommunicatiorls unit is

one of quality, with high standards. Each field is composed of
sophisticated, intelligent, motivated human beings. Each has pride
... and separate missions with sets of goals. However, for the educators
to use the technolognand to use it properly, individuals from these two
fields must work closelyegether. The split also becomes evident when
faculty within the same icademic diseipline reject the work of others.
Further; we see it when the academic leadershipofan institution does not
support the use of the teehnology. The communications technology itself
is not the problemthat is quite straightforviard. The technology is
merely hardware: cameras, videotape machines, cable, satellite, casettes,
fibre optics, videodiscfascinating tools, designed by people.

Consider three examples in an attempt to explore this nationwide
chasm. First, a very simplistic situation: the use of a television-based
course, produced by another university. The key work is 'another.' Here
is a well-known pattern: time and time again, faculty pm University A
reject the television materials produced by Universities B and C.
Reasons range from valid explanatiOns to obvious excuses. The fact is
the faculty from University A didn't have a role in contributing ideas into
the content. Further, within the same department of a university, a


Bridging the Chasm


television course developed by 'Prof. Smith' is equally reje'eted by his
We all well know, however, that books on subjects within the same
academic discipline are accepted and used. What ;s the difference? Ideas
and concepts are expressed in both forms. On the one hand the book is an

integral part of the traditional system. Education developed with the
of higlier education for centuries. But,
book; it has been part
televisionthat's a wholly different matter. It is a non-traditional
newcomer. It doesn't fit into I- og-standing, established academic
patterns. But perhaps most sigtificant, it is very personal. The communi-

cations process is one-to-e.

As a result, for these and other reasons dozens of truly outstanding
television courses receive low fo marginal acceptance forbroad useuse
which could be beneficial to many students-Land to many colleges and
A second exampleproduction of a television-based credit course. In

this situation, a professor, the teacher-host, enters into the new

experience with the expectation that he will control the cireumstadces.
But this won't necessarily'be the case. The reasonwaiting to work With
the professor is a 'team pf television experts: an instructional specialist,
an executive pnxiucer, a pnxiucer-director, graphic artists, v'lecgraphers,
lighting people, sound specialists, .echnicianseach with a role to play,
and each in his desire to produce the highest quality poisible, may
modify, support (or even hinder) the educator. True, the professor is
responsible for the contentbut to effectively adapt it for televisjon, he
must rely upon the tetvision experts, who are also creative, irnovative,
knowledgeablepeople with ideas of their own, and confident of their own
capabilities. There will be planning meeting, discussions, and approvaF
of major and minor matteys. The faculty member becomes caught up in
differenkechniques: formats, art work, field production, ahd other non-traditional, new 'activities. The educator becomes a partner, howcvei
willing or unwilling, in a cornplc: situation--one which requires time,
energy, patience, and hard worle. It is my observation that the more
complex and sophistiCated tne production activity, the lower the control
by the educator. Based upon the above scenario, can you expect a rush ois
faculty members? And I haven't even mentioned the negative reinforcement and criticism the professor typically receivps from his peers during
his new, sometimes traumatic experience!

Frequent Distrust
To add tri the complexity, unfortunately there is another whole side to
the problem . . . a side of some significant magnitude. Too generally,

. television people question the motivation of some professors in their
de4re to use television. Telecommunications professionals have been
'burned' numerous times in unsavory experiences. When faculty tme





Bridging the Chasm

telecommunciations for personal gainor some self-serving purpose,

the project doesn't succeed, or the end product is Of lower quality than
it .
could have been. Three graphic illustrations come to mind. One deals
with the use of television as a means of proViding release time
to faculty
for their own research and publishini_ . release tirne justified by the large
number of student contact hours generated. by the use videotaped
lessons, played-baa multiple times, and repeated in future semesters. A
second illuStrationthe production of a television series as w means to
piovide a summer job for the faculty membernot produCed
to meet an
institutional need. A third illustration is a common problem. A professor
secures a grant for production-of teleyision materialsbut he dbesn't
inform the telecommunicationi peoPle about the project until after he
receives the funds. Typically there is then conflict because of prior

commitments by the telecommunications unit, or the funds are inadequate
to accomplish the professor's original project. It is situations like these
.which-make the,television people rightfully suspicious of new faculty
prOjects which are brought to them. There are literally dozens of
illustrations like these from around the country.
Let's continue to explore the chasm with example number three:
full-blown, sophisticated telecommunications center, including public
television and radio stations, as a unique entity within the university's
system. To put this unit into context, realize the relatively high level of
independence of this unitindependence from 'traditional university
patternscreated by the Feder-al Communications Commission and its
licensihg process. Sprcifically, the broadcasting staff has a truly unique
mandatea responsibility of some considerable magnitude requiring
special considerations, which may have little todo with the university,
Which it is lif;enSed. In essence, to some major degree, the broadcasters
must operate as an entity. Further, whatever it does, its product, is fully
the publid view. This in itself is a unique, major distinction.
Therefore, the administrator of this telecommunications unit is also,

manager of the licensed broadcast stations; he works under a split

responsibility and, sets of guidelines. He must walk the line between
university's policies and rules ... and those of the FCC and other Federal

agenceis. To this, add the .complexities and implications of-My two
can begin to realize the depth and width of the chasm.
Positive Relationship!Posiibilities,,

previous examplesplus a number of other pressuresand maybe

Now, with that background, let's return to my theMe: in sp
ite ot the
problems, a positive, productive inter-relationship can exist between
educational community and the. one of telecommunications.
True, I have painted a fairly grinypicture of the chasm. But, that chasm
can be bridged, if the parties Want it to happen. It is like a marriage. It

workif botk partners want it. to. However, unlike a marriage, the




Bridging the Chasm 237
relationship of education and telecommunications is quite one-sided.
One of the parties musi try harder,'be more flexible, and make a genuine
effort to accommodat4 the other. That party is the technology partner.
WhY? *Obviously the educational institution is the majority partner

by many fold. Its, mandate, its size, its depth, is much broader, much
okler,.much stronger. The telecommunications unit is just one of =try
units Within the universityperhaps the youngest, the smallest, the Most
There are several major reasons why the educational community is
imereated in utilizing the new communications technology: (1) financial

and enrollnient pressures on the colleges and universities and the
resultant.meed to achieve greater efficiencies and to develop new and
different student enrollments; (2) an increasing awareness by faculty in
the potential benefits of using telecommunications; (1) the development
of new easy-to-use devioes (such as the videocassette and the videodisc);
(4) a gowing sophistication of the telecommunications professionals; (5)
an increasing appreciation and acceptance Of the talents and contributions
of the telecommunications staff; and (6) a realization that the average
American is greatly influenced and affected by telecommunications as
an integral part of his or- her everyday life. American industry and the
defense e,stablishment have embraced communications technology as a
basic part of their educational and training programs. NK

Crestingi a Successful Marriage
Those are the reasons to build the bridge.
But hoW do we go about it? Previously I stated that one of the partners

had to wolic much harder to make the marriage workand so it is. The
telecommUnications people must make the major oVerture ... create the
opening .. L. provide the proper atmosphere. And if the circumstances are
to the advantage of the educators, and their use is for truly legitimate,
valid purpOses, the marriage can work.
For benefit of the marriage, there are several specific suggestions
which I offer to the varidUs.parties.
To the telecommunications administrator and the members of his

Develop, and instill in your staff an understanding of, and a
coMmitment to service on behalf of the academic community. Be
genuinely responsive to the needs of the educator*:
Create an internal system which will objectively evaluate the

Merits of accepting, or rejecting, faculty requests for service

Maintain a high level of communicationsinternal and
externalon activities related to _academic needs and projeCts.
Open positive relationships with the other administrators within
the University: Work With people ins the, comptroller's office,



Bridging theChasm

purchasing, budget, personnel, physical plant. Within our
bureaucratic world, learn to work within the systems . . . and
'make the systems wolic for you.
Build a confidence in those with avhom you work. Develop
realistic, justifiable goals, budget requests, and policies.
Establish and maintain high production, technical, and operational standards.
Make it as easy as possible . . . in all ways . . . for educatort to
utilize your services.
To the university administrator, I offer the following suggestions:
If telecommunications can play a role in your institution, openly
endorse it and follow with tangible support.
Implement mechanisms, policies, aM organizational- structures
which will integrate telecommunications into the mainstream of
institutional concerns and directions.
.1 Hire a telecommunications administrator-who will lead a staff
whICh is responsive to faculty needs.
Insist that the telecommunications unit be truly high-quality,
professional in nature; if it is not, the expenditure can become a
liability insteatof an asset.
Support the telecommunications unit with adequ'ate funds for
personnel; equipment, and operations.
And to the faculty I offer these guidelines:
Enter into the telecommunications experience with a positive,
open attitude.
Be willing to learn from the team of specialists: new techniques,
ideas, capabilities of the hardware. Look upon the telecommunications staff as professional people who will help you.,
Be flexible and take full advantage of the new opportunities.
Be realistic about the outcome of the activity.
Involve-the television professionals early in your planning.
Use telecommunications only for projects which support institutional and departmental goals.
Previously, I said that the maniage can work, ifthe 'Parties want it to. If
the above specific guidelines were all implemented, we would have an

educational/telecommunications utopia. But needless to say, I'm not

expecting this to happen. Short of utopia, however, I encourage
educators and telecommunications professionals to work together for the

mutual benefit of the learner. There is much to be gained.,

In closing, I'll share an example of how one institution, West Virginia
University, and its telecommunications unit have built their bridge. Its
construction took many years and much hard work . . . on both sides.
Then after the bridge was in use, a new governor proposed removal of

Bridging the Chasm


Station WWVU-TV from the university. He suggested that. it be
transferred to the state's Educational Broadcasting Authority. To the
governor, the move seemed logical and practical. It would accomplish
the consolidation of all public television facilities under one budget and
one set of policies. However, what the governor didn't know was the deep
inter-relationship of the siption within its university. In the months which
followed, an outside consAltant was retained to assess the most desirable
'home' for WWVU-TV:In his final report, the consultant, Mr. James A.

Fellows, President of the National Association of Educational Broadcasters, recommended that WWVU-TV remain with West Virginia

University. His six observations painted a picture of a successful,
effective, positive, on-going relationship. He identified such areas as the
university administration's support ... the station's planning activity as
part of the institution .. . successful programming . . . efficient financial
reporting ... and involvement and support from the public. The governor
agreed' with the rationale.
In the years which followed, traffic increased over the bridge. Perhaps
thejnost successful activities have related to progiamming on WWVI/TV, which serves 29 of West Virginia's 55 counties. Since 1975, more
than 500 WVU faculty and administrators have actively participated in


production, or have worked with us in other projects. Many of the
programs have been accepted for distribution by the Public Broadcasting

Service, or have been used regionally. One instructional course is
currently being used nationally via satellite.

Another recent area of success has been faculty utilization of

television-based credit courses. This project is now in its fifth year.
Student enrollment for the six institutions served by WWVU-TV,
showed an increase of 23 percent for the fall semester, 1980-81, over the
similar period a year ago.
Virtually every area of West Virginia University works with ' WVUTelevision' in the development of programs or in the utilization of other

services such as equipment maintenance. One of the most exciting
activities is a mutually-beneficial student intern project. Recently, the
bridge was strengthened 'further through a new relationship between the
academic senate and WWVU-TV. Now in place, and communicating
effectively, is a Faculty Television Committee ... a liaison link between
the educators and communications technology. Within the University
organization, the telecommunications unit is structured as an active part
of Academic Affairs.

On September 25, 1980, on the occasion of the dedication of West
Virginia University's new Broadcast Center, President Gene A. Budig
stated, "WWVU-ni is a vital, integral, important part of West Virginia
Although there is still a great amount of work to be accomplished
particularly in the area of direct support of instructionthere is a strong



Bridging the. Chasm

foundation and the proper elements are in place to move ahead
Yes, it can be accomplished. But make the bridges solid

... and wide

. and lasting, the design must be created with great care, and the
construction must be well supervised. Once the bridges are in place,
benefits start flowing both Ways . . . but most importantly to the
institution. As we move through the new decade, and as our nation
. . . and higher education meet different, changing circumstances and
challenges, telecommunciations can play a siglificant, vital role.
I encourage you to build some bridges.
. .

Curriculum's Technology Lag
(Curricula and Television Literacy)
Robert L Hilliard
Dean of Graduate Studies and Continuing Education
Emerson College
Boston, Massachusetts

As much as I deplore the lag in the use of technology in implementing
curricula, I find even more critical and dangerous to our future the lag in
incorporating technology, particularly television, aspart of our curricula.
American education is responsible not only for a technology lag, but for a

cultural lag that threatens the very nature of our free and democratic
society by not making television an integral part of our curricula, as it is of

our everyday livescertainly as much a part of our existence as is
English composition, Algebra I and II, or a foreign language.
Let me illustrate:

When American television was young, in the 1950s, Edward R.
Murrow interviewed a teen-aged gang member indicted for the murder of
another youth. Although the accused boy could neither read nor write, he

watched television a lot. He explained his act or aggression by


comparing himself with Ns favorite TV hero, the invincible "Mighty
Mouse." He could not differentiate between the fact and the fancy of
what he viewed on television. He saw, but he could not accurately
interpret He was not only a print illiterate, he was also a television

In 1981 a woman goes to her physician with symptoms of breast


cancer and, despite recent alternative methods of treatment, she =elks
without question the diagnosis and prescribed mastectomy. Her principal
knowledge of medical doctors comes from television, where they are
gentle, altruistic, infallible, and look like Robert Young. The television
reinforcement of the image the medical professional projects for itself



Curriculum's Technology Lag

influences her even against her own self-interest. She is a television

During any political campaign a man learns about the candidates
principally horn television, where the need to get attention and make a
point in a short space of time results in the capsulizingof significant issues

into 30-second spots. He comes to conclusions and exercises his
democratic right to vote on the basis of superficial judgments rather than
careful evalu'ation. He, too, is a television illiterate.
Most of us, in fact, are television illiterates. That is, we cannot
and evaluate and come to objective conclusions about what
we see and
hear on television, although many of us, because we are highly literate
print, think we are television literates as well.

At the very least, we are sonfronted with an issue of
morality of our being controlled without our knowledge. We
need to
know what is being done to us, how it is being done, and how
we can cope
with it.
Cultur,a1 Sophistication and. traditional learning are meager defenses
against media brainwashing, a
relatively highly educated society of

pre-World War II Germany fo

. Goebbels praised film as his most

important and SuCcessful tool in solidifying national support for the Nazi

Those who control a country's media control its political processes.
Unless we become literate enough to understand and control the effects
of television, it will control us.
We are a society that is primarily communicated to and is learning
,communicate by visual and aural means, rather than by print which,
'before the electronic revolution of this century, was the only mass
medium. Before television and radio we relied, for hundreds of years,
on larint as the medium through which we could communicate longdistances and with large groups of people simultaneously. Throughout
history, totalitarian,countries, in whatever political form they
have usually attempted to maintain a high rate of print illiteracy. They
have known that without the ability to communicate effectively and
evaivate critically communications received, people were at
a continuing
disadirantage in understanding their political alternatives or in organizing
to do something about them. During the past several centuries, with
invention of movable type and the growth of the printing press, print

literacy began to spread, resulting in a gradual series of political

revolutions, not the least of which was the one in this country in 1776.
As long as print was the principal inedium of sophisticated communi-

cations, the rise in literacy providedbut did not guaranteethe bases
for people-oriented governments. The development of non-print
as significant means of communications permitted, in some countries,
return to totalitarian control over minds and emotions, including

countries where the people's high degree of print literacy lulled them



Curriculum's Technology Lag


the false perception that they could not be controlled through communications. Again, Germany of the 1930's is a prime example of the dangers
of such a fallacy.
Howpany hours a day do you spend reading? One? Two? Six? The
two hours a day the average American spends reading includes signs,

packages and labels, with less than half-an-hour devoted to books,
magazines and, newspapers. Compare thai with this statistic: the
television set in the average A merican household is on 6 hours and 20

minutes each and every day or the year. And 98 percent of the
households in the United States have at least one TV set.
The average student, by the time he or she has graduated from high
school, has spent some 10,800 hours in the classroom and over 12,000
hours in front of the-television set.
Print Illiterates are vulnerable to control by television and radio
because they cannot take advantage of the multiple-source information
and ideas that are possible in even the most repressive societies through u
underground newspapers, clandestine pamphlets and smuggled books.
Television and radio are especially powerful in developing countries,
where they are principal instruments of control of thought and feeling.
The more developed countries, however, are not immune. Even with

or, perhaps, because ofour extensive and intensive exposure to
television, we Americans are not literate enough to immunize ourselves
objectively from its persuasive powers.
Print literates also are vulnerable to control by television and radio
because they have a false sense of secuiity about their ability to evaluate
critically and to cope with the effects of the media on them.

Authority has always recognized print as a medium requiring the
active participation of the reader, making it easier for the individual to
control, and therefore authority has tried to suppress it. On the other hand,

recognizing TV as a medium of passive participation, less easy for the

individual to control, authority has tried to encourage and then to
dominate it.
Even in a democratic society such as the United States, efforts by both
public and private sources to control television politically have sometimes
been less than subtle. Control of the purse-strings can affect media
content indirectly, if not-directly. As Erik Barnouw's book, The Sponsor,
shows, sponsors' beliefs and interests have frequently determined the
political orientation of a program, so subtly in many cases that unless you
are a television-literate you probably didn't realize how you were being
A decade ago a National Conference Board study of the anticipated
most significant issueeof the 1980s revealed that one important concern
of leaders in various professional areas was the possible domination of
the political process through the control of television by government or
private interests. Government documents released in 1979 confirmed




Curriculum's Technology Lag

what many people in the communications field had known in the early

1970s: the Nixon White House had attempted to use television to
forward its political purposes and to intimidate the television industry
Into restricting materials it considered politically unfavorable. Although
it did not succeed in the long run, it was not without some success in both

commercial and public television.

Communications Professor Dallas W. Smythe of Simon Frazier
University in Canada has long been in the vanguard of those who have
recognized both the potentials and the responsibilities of the mass media
in the real world. Some 20 years ago, at the height of the cold
current events make Dr. Smythe's comments as applicable today as they
were thenhe wrote: "We know that the public is largely apathetic and
alienated from concern with the vital issue of survival. What has been the
contribution of the mass media to this apathy?. . . As Lazarsfeld and
Merton argued... the escapist nature of most of the content of the mass
media has for the citizen a 'narcotizing dysfunctional' effect."
By demanding passive response, television can neutralize people's
concerns with and participation in the social and political events of the
world, as well as being able to persuade them to take a particular stand on
If we do not formally educate our people, young and oldto at least as
much competency with visual and aural media as with print media, we
will be-- we aresetting the stage for eventual control of them, ofus, by
those who control the media. :lust as a young person graduating from high
school has had twelve years of required courses in print literacy, so
should that student have had at least an equivalent education in visual
and aursl literacy, in television and radio criticism, and in the analysis
and preparation of visual and aural communications and materials. The
same holds true for college and university learning. All students in all
fields'of endeavorincluding those going into economics, engineering,
medicine, history, sociology, business, law and other professions, and
not only majors in journalism, film, television or radioshould have at
least as much exposure to visual literacy courses as they haxe to print
literacy coMposition and literature courses if they are to function in and
contribtite effectively to their society. Today, relatively few colleges


encourage for, no less offer to non-media majors such courses as
"Critical Analysis of Television and Radio," "Aesthetic§ of Mass
Medic," "Television and Society," "Writing for Television," and
"Psychology of Communications." There is a need for more basic
courses oriented to specific fields, such as "Teleyision and the Teacher,"
"Health Communications," "Broadcasting and the First Amendment,"

"Television and Human Behavior," "Television and Politics," and
"Corporate Uses of Media."
History and current events have shown us unequivocally that with few
exceptions those who control television and radio are likely to control the


Curriculum's Technology Lag


political processes of any given country or Society. When a political
revolution occurs anyplace in the world today, what is first taken over?
-Not the Treasury. Not the Post Office. Not the schools or colleges. Not
the factories or department stores. Not even the printing press. But the
television and radio stations! ,
The control of the political processes of a country through the control
of televisionwhether by-a government in power or by media barons in

the private sectoris already a reality in many countries. In only a
handful of nationsours among themare television and radio insulated
to a meaningful degree from the direct control of the government. In the
United States the extent to which the people can determine the content of
television programming depends on their influence on the advertisers
who sponsor the programs and the stations that carry them (and the state
and local governments, institutions and organizations that support and
eperare public television). To what degree can we exercise such influence as

citizenz in a democratic society?
In only the rarest of 'situation, given the political systems in today's
world, is there a practical possibility that individual citizens might gain

direct Control of TV and radiothat is, for citizen groups, included
minorities and the poor as well as the elite, to own and operate their_
stations. The only citizen alternative, therefore, is to gain control of the

effects of the mediato be able to analyze objectively and evaluate
critically the content of television and radio so that it does not influence
our thinking, feelings and actions without our intelligent and informed
consent. That is what we mean by TV literacy.
Those who believe they are qualified to exercise such control must ask

themselves whether the judgments they make are based on literate,
critical, intelligent analysis and evaluation of what they see and hear, or
on untrained, even prejudicial attitudes. Just as important is the effect on

our thoughts and feelings of those things about which we make no
judgments because we do not understand enough about the media's
psychological and aesthetic impact. These materials may be, in fact, the
same kinds of things we have little problem making judgments about
when we see them in print because we have had enough education in
reading, writing and literature to be print-literates. Many of us who are
print-literates wrongly assume that we are television literates as well.

Both the problem and the solution lie in our educational system.
Traditionally, we require formal preparation of all of our citizenry in print

literacy. Almost without exception, graduates of secondary schools in
this country have had 12 years of courses in composition, literature and

other subjects that generally come under the heading of English, to
enable them to communicate in print and to have some critical facility in
evaluating print communications. Almost every college graduate has had
at least an additional two years of required courses in print-competency.
Yet, few elementary and secondary schools of colleges and universities



Curriciihan's Technology Lag

require even one course in visual and aural literacy despite the
fact that
for some years past and from today on almost every human
being has
spent and will spend most of his or her communicating hours with visual

and aural rather than printpaterials.

Although the titles may seem Speciplized, such a curriculum
would riot
be designed to produce media specialists. It would do for
our understand-ing Of the mass media what requited basic courses in history, mathematics,
the physical and social sciences and, of course, English, do for
us in those
fields: provide us with a general understanding of those subject
make us less vulnerable to misinterpretation- and manipulation areas and
when we
encounter them in our everyday, if not professional, lives. We should
have to Wait, either, for the training of a new generation before
we begin to

On control over the effects of television and other
mass media.
Continuing education

programs for adults should include opportunities
for TV literacy proficiency. The concept of "lifelong
reaming" has had
strong national support. One of the recommendations that
came out of
both the Federal Interagency Committee on Education's conferences
education and technology in 1979 and 1980, and which
was endorsed by
all federal agencies with educational responsibilities stated:
Etuny citizen should have access to the highest quality communications,
iniormaiion and knowledge resources and should be provided with the
opportunity tor developing competencies in print literacy, electronic'

literacy, computer literacy, and telecommunications literacy.

In this respect, at least,

our frequengy foot-dragemg federal bureaucracy
is far ahead of our educational establishment.
Those who are concerned about our national TV illiteracy
and want to
do something about it will not have an easy road. It
means changing
education. It means convincing school boards and superintendents
principals and teachers and trustees and professors and students and
citizens. It means more than talking about it. It is
easy to get agreement

when only words are at issue. It is exceedingly
more difficult when action
is required and political control of a people is the prize. As
Bernard Shaw
said of Savanarola: when the hitter told the ladies of
Florence to destroy
their jewels and finery as a step toward a better, moral life,
him as a Saint; but when he actually induced them to do it, they hailed
they burned
him at the stake as a public nuisance.
The same people who would make their educational institutions

best schools or colleges of the 19th century are likely to object
strenuously to the introduction of mass media courses

of the curriculum. But, just as the monks with the as an eSsential part
mortarboards and
gowns who railed against the intrusion of mass-produced books into
monopoly of all the world's knowledge had to adjust to
people's desires
for uncensored learning, so will those who now are fearM of
peOple's right to learn how to cope with perhaps a less obvious,
but more
insidious, kind of censorship and control.

Curriculum's Technology Lag


If our educational institutions truly want- to educate people to
participate as thinking, contributing, competent human beings in a free,
democratic societyand that is what educational institutions tell us they
want to dothen they must introduce curricula that will graduate people
who arc visual and aural as well as print literates.
I am aware that there is some question as to whether we now are
turning, out even print literates. Perhaps part of the problem is that we
have created a schizophrenia in learning we have been concentrating
almost completely on print and have been unsuccessful in all media areas
because the real world in which the student lives and operates is
principally a visual and aural one.
If we believe in the desirability of a society governed by the educated
will of the people, we will have to take action, perhaps as saints perceived
as public nuisances, that will make us all literate enough to evaluate
critically and, therefore, better able to control the effects of television. If
we do not, we can be certain that television eventually will control us.



'The American Open University
One Answer to- the Technology and
guniCulum Lag"
Don Mdlell
University of Nid-Americo
Lincoln, Nebroslo

Despite the broad reach of distance education programs, across the
United States, there is still a need to reach millions of unserved or
underserved learnersthe problem is one of scope. And despite the fact


that existing institutions do serve some "distance" learners through their
extension services, the very structure of the institutions keep them from
embracing new, innovative methods of educating adult's.
Demands for educating adults are increasingby women re-entering
the work force,. by the military, by minorities, by industry and tabor.
People are looking at their lives and seeking education that will aid them
in a mid-career change, in upward mobility, in continuing education, or in
simply learning for learning's sake.
The key to educational opportunity for adult learners, most of whom
are pakt-time students, is that the education be on their own terms. But
these students face situational, psychologicil, and institutional barriers.
The barriers generally include residency requirements, unavailability of
programs at times and locations desired by the student, limited credit
awarded for learning gained from experience, limited credit awarded for

"testing out" or credit by examination, non-transferability of credits
between institutions, lack of support services, bureaucracy of admissions

and record-keeping systems, and a refusal by institutions to utilize
technnioa in teaching-


To overcome these barriers, the University of Mid-America proposes
the creation of a nationwide American Open University (AOU), aimed

at the part-time adult student. It will be an independent, accredited
institution with its own Board, faculty and administration. And it will
have regional centers across the country, which will monitor satellite
study centers.



The American Open University


Scope of AOU
The American Open University will produce and acquire courses, and
offer instruction via a, variety of delivery systems, ranging from independent study to technology-based instruction. It will grant unlimited
credit, after testing, for learning gained through experience, and will

accept transfer credit from accredited institutions. The AOU will
provide a Variety of tests for competemies, and counseling services will
be-available by telephone, by interactive computer, and in person at the
study centers. In addition, it will create a credit registry where a gtudent
anywhere in the country can "bank" or accumulate his or her credits, and
will, on demand, provide training and continuing education progiams. It
will also build in evaluation and research, which will relate to all phases

of the operationcourses, curriculum, governance, operations, admissions, etc
Since technology can improve and expand educatic

-" levels and

increase the cost-effectiveness of education, ttie Ma., will utilize
technology wherever it is appropriatebroadcast and cable_television,
audio (broadcast and cassettes), videocassettes, satellite transmission,
the picture phone, the videodisc, the computn, and any other techno-

logical innovations that will help reach the student with quality
Of particular importance to the AOU is computer-based instruction.
In today's society, one must be "computer literate" to survive. The AOU
will use computers in administration; in tutoring, testing, and scoring in
the credit registry; in evaluation and assessment; and in the delivery of
courses, with the eventtial capability of offering an entire degree through
computer-assisted instruction.

Proposed Curriculum
Finally, the AOU's curriculumthe curriculumplan is 6uilt now on
assumptions that later may change after experience is gaitied, but rOr now
we assume the following. The AOU will make available a full curriculum

of instruction for each degree program. The first two degrees wil be

Bachelor's Degyees in Arts and Sciences and in Business. Each
bachelor's degree program will require 120 credit hours, with an area of
concentration and with evidence of a broad education. Later degrees will

include Communirtiom and Technology, masters programs and
noncredit courses.
AOU course offerings will be a mix of courses produced by the AOU
and courses acquired elsewhere. After six years, the AOU intends to

offer 312 credit hours of instruction, With 72 hours produced by the
AOU and 240 hours acquired from other producers:.
A typical Arts and Science course will be computer-managed, with a
media component; and a typical 3 hour course will include 15 lessons of



250 .0-The American Open University



independent study materials, with textbook and study guide; a set of 6
audiocassettes; and 2 optional computer-based or television-6ased
programs available at a study center. The AOU later intends- to
experiment with offering 6-credit-hour coutses.
The average cost of an AOU-developed course will be $45,000, while
the average.cost of acquired course will be $40,000. Courses will require
revision or replacement in 6-7 years, with revision costs to be half the
-development cost.
The key to the AOU's curriculum development will be its faculty. A
team approach will be used, and the faculty will decide curriculum issues.

Aitually, there is nothing new in the American Open University. Each

of the concepts is found in place in various segments of the -higher
education system. But the effort to reach adult students is fragmented and

isolated. Our plan is to bring together all those concepts within the

framework of a single institution.

The goals and objectives are much the sathe as held by., other
institutions of higher learning. Yet this institution will he responsive to
adult part-tinie students; it will be learner based, rather than institution
-based. It will; of course have high civality offerings, and it also will be
cost-effective. The AOU will not lose human ihteraction, but it may not
be in the traditional form -of lectures and face-to-face meetings. The
telephone, the comp,titer, and the mail may become the substitutes. But it
will have human involvement andit will be humane.
We hope, as the AOU seeks to overcome the barriers of the part-time
adult learner, that it can earn the respect of the existing institutions. The'
AOU would like to become partners in the enterprise, to work together
on contract, thrOugh articulation arrangements, etc., hOth with 4-year

and 2-year institutions. We are not competing with them; we will

Supplement their progams and eventually provide more students for the

existing system, even as the American Open University grows to a
projected student body of 50,000 in five years.
The need and demand, are evident; the technology is available;
experiments to datehave succeeded; we have the ability. Itislime to
create the American Open University.

2 61

Using TV to Teach High Order
Thinking Skills
M. Virginia Diggy
College of Education
University of Lowell
Lowell, Massachusetts

The professiOnal literature of the last two years abounds with

references to cognition, problem solving, concept development, associa-

tive thinking, critical thinking, reasoning, productive thinking, and
creative thinking.

Those who know the theories of learning and cognition fields will
recognize, however, that this attention to the higher cider of skills is a
renewal of interest. James, Tfiorndike, Thurstone, "Gagne, Piaget,
Russell, GetzelS, Covington, Bruner, Salomon and many others have
devoted their professional lives to research and the development of

hypotheses about the components of thinking and what skills are
necessary to -solVe probleins creatively.

What are the "higher order skills?" There is probably not much

, disagreement that they include inquiry, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

Theories of learning, in the majority, hold that knowledge that is

organized and related is better learned and retained than knowledge that
is specific and isolated. Curricula organized sround scope and sequence
are designed to Provide the"organization" and the order that seem to be

necessary for niost pir.,Pie to ase these learning tools critically and

creatively. There are always hidden agenda in instructional materialsa
master plan of what ought to be.introduced first, reviewed, and reapplied.

Sometimes the sequence and the application are too subtle to be

identified by the learner, he doesn't recognize that he is thelearner and

that he does have command of the information. Sometimes the

provisions for application are artificial and seem unreal, and the learner is
reasonably sure that he will never have an opportunity to use this
information and that no one else will use it either. What the student needs



High Order Think(ng Skills

is evidence that he can do something with the knowledge

that he can apply the information to new situations he has acquired.
and problems. He
expects to be able to select an appropriate technique for
attacking a new
problem and to use his information ffacts and
concepts) to solve it. The
capacity to do this is frequently called reasoning or critical
thinking, but
regardless of its name, it provides the learner with
a solid feeling of being
in control, Of having a handle on his world, of being
able to solve a

Television as a Medium
And why would we want to try to teach these
components of thinking
via television?
First, it is necessary to look at television
as a medium for instruction
rather than entertainmentin other words, to
indicate why television is
for learning.
Television is a powerful motivatorit provides the
viewer with direct
contact, it can span history, it can pick out a wee piece of
history or theory
or aand turn it around in the camera's eye much
as a gemologist would
turn a diamond as he searched for quality or for flaws, it
the viewer the hustle and bustle of a city, the sights brings directly to
and sounds or the
tranquility of hundreds of acres of farmland in
or the sight of
tears, pain, Poverty or joy, warmth, friendship. It
can pace the learner, it
can challenge, it can comfort, it can capitalize on the receptivity
of most
young people to the "visual"

and to the "aural," it

can put the
viewer/learner in the center of a problem and give
tools and suggestions ta solve the problem It
boring in other media but
always necessary) interesting and stimulating
because it can help to apply
newly acquired skills in wholly different
content and context yet help the "skill" to stick right
out at the learner.
An. instructional television
program represents hundreds of hours of
planning, of research, of organization and conversion
of ideas to
practical segments of instruction.
It maintains a steady enthusiasm and efficiency
unlike the human who
may present a super lesson, wisely planned and executed
once a day but
whose energies are drained and
whose capacity to sustain that quality
level of "super" is eroded by interruption and other
Cost Effective
Television gives the best bargain -for one's
investmentit is cast
effectivebut though cost effectiveness and efficiency
are not only buzz
words but popular concepts, it is the quality
of instruction which
television can bring which

quality jnstruction.

is so vital. There simply is no substitute for

In 1974-75 I had the rich professional experience
of preparing a
prospectus for an instructional television series dincerned
with skills


High Order Milking Skills


essential for learning. In the course of thinking about the task and fmally
writing about it, I spent hours researching and discussing with colleagues

the critical components of essential skills for learninginquiring,
analyzing, synthesizing, seeking alternatives, and creative problem
solving, indeedreasoning and thinking.
There were many professional colleagues who questioned my sanity,
since those components are alleged to be handled best by a teacher face to face with a student.
I was proposing that television could help in the task because it could
prdifide a variety of strategies for introducing or reviewing, enhancing

and extending the higher order of skills or reasoning and thinking,
problem solving, synthesis, evaluation, "creative thinking."
Television, I argued, could help kids to "see" these components being

usedthey could, in fact, be a part of the solution of real problems
because the thinking process related to the solution could be visualized

and an assortment of more complex problems requiring increased
reasoning talent could readily be provided.

Instructional Design
Froin that paper and subsequent years of inquiry into "thinking" an
instructional design emeriod. I had thetremendous good fortune to work

with two of the most intellectually capable people I knowDr. Jerry
Brown and Dr. Priscilla Denby who served as the major instructional
designers for the series, "ThinkAbout," prepared for the consortium of
41 State Departments of Education and instructional television agencies
in the Unied States and Canada under the direction of the Agency for
Instructional Television.

The design of "ThinkAbout" had some tenets or "underpinning"
statements by which we all "lived" as we worked on the development of
the series.

Two basic guidelines were: (1) skills, whatever they are, require
constant use to keep them operative, and (2) the more practically and
realistically and the more often a skill is properly applied in a variety of
contexts by the student, the more likely it will actuallybelong to him 'and

be his to use for a lifetime.
We assumed this posture about "acquiring" skills. The term "acquire"
means to "gain by any means, usually by one's own exertions . . . or, to
get as one's own." As indicated earlier, one of the reasons why students
fail to identify basic skills instruction as useful and necessary for them
(and theret4e to profit from it) is that the instruction frequently conveys
the idea that the skills have no real, everyday value. Students think that it
is merely the teacher who has decided that these skills are necessary, so I
continued to press the point"If the emphasis is on 'acquiring' skills, the
total_design of the series will have to assume a posture of involving the
student so that through his own participation he will acquire, as his own,



High Order Thinking Skills

the skills essential to learning."

And some "concomitant concerns" we hoped to address via the

seriesa sort- of hidden agendawerethe concomitant !earnings
which are avaLble to children whenInstruction is carefully planned and
when full advantage is taken of the opPortunities to point out relationships

are many.
Accordingly, as the instructional design team for the project prepared
materials, we were especially dware of additional purposes to:

help students to recognize that "learning" is an appealing
attract and sustain the student's interest in learning
assist the student to identify the learning style which seems to fit
him best
assist the student to realize how one learns and why some parts of
the learning process have been assigned to the school
help the student to appreciate why the skill is essential
assist the student to become capable of self-diagnosis of his level
of performance in the essential skills.

Throughout the series, whenever possible, through the content
selected to present the skills essential to learning, the design team made
every effort to include reference to the following:
learning to make good choices and good decisions and acting in
ways commensurate with those decisions are persistent goals
observation is an important learning tool
expressing one's thoughts and feelings well is productive
reading can produce personal enjoyment
style and taste can be developed
aesthetics and values are an integral part of learning

clarity and precision in speaking and writing are a courtesy to
one's reader or listener
memorizing some items one needs regularly is a legitimate activity

non-verbal communication skills are essential
visual literacy, the ability to recognize and draw information from
sources other than print, is an essential skill
problem solving skins apply to almost everything one is called
upon to do.
As Dr. Brown and Dr. Denby worked on the design, the interdisciplinary
character of the series was very evident because we were,using the same
processes for attacking and solving a problem in a math context as in a
discussion about energy conservation.
Later, as scripts were written, the very skillful pattern of " layering" in
all the disciplines and the components of problemsolving evolved by Dr.
.Brown, became the interdisciplinary backbone of the series.



High Order Thinking Skills



After months of study, it was necessary to" anchor" some components
of reasoning and thinking which we hoped would be the core of the series.

They were organized in Clusters:
"Finding Alternatives"
"Estimating and Approximating"
"Giving and Getting Meaning"
"Collecting Information"
"ClassifYing" "Finding Patterns"
"Sequencing & Scheduling"
"Using Criteria"
"Reshaping Information"
"Judging Information"
"Communicating Effectively"
"Solving Problems"
The clusters were further developed to permit various strategies for
achieving the purpose of the cluster.
A sample of a cluster and its "parts" is:
Solving Problems

Solving one problem may create another
The amount of time given to,thinking about a problem
before acting should vary with the importance of the
problem and the amount of time ravailable

Solving a problern often involves a risk
Solving problems requires persistence
Let's take a quick look, at the "intro" information in the Teacher's

Guideto this cluster.
"Cluster Goal"
To helf, students:
Decide how much time So give to thinking about (or trying to
solve) a problem.
Realize that risk-taking is part of problem-solving, and that one

must decide upon how much risk one wants to accept when
preparinge plan to solve a problem.
Accept failures in problem-solvinglearn from them, and persist.

"About Solving Problems"

`ThinkAbout' programs have presented many different problems,
and all of them have been approached in a thoughtful way by onscreen charicters. Repeatedly, real-life ten-to-twelve-year-olds have

had opportunities to observe and discuss how their on-screen



High-Order Thinking Skills

counterparts try to solve problems and how, in most cases, they
By now students may agree that:
A planned approach to solving problems is usually preferable to
an unplanned approach.
It is important to have alternatives.
There seldom is "one best" way to solve-a problem.
This cluster introduces four additional ideas about solving
problems. In solving a problem one must be aware that other
problems may be created. The amount of time devoted to thinking
about a problem (or trying to solve it) must "fit" the problem and the

situation. Risk-taking is-an inherent part of problem-solving and
must be considered when weighing alternatives. Failures can be
expected in problem-solving persistence and willingness to learn
from past mistakes are crucial.
These are important ideas. It is easy to assume that a carefully
thought out plan cannot fail, to become discouraged if it does, to
reject the value of a thoughtful approadh, and to ask, Why bother? A
planned approach to problem-solving is not a guarantee for success
on the first try, or ever. Rather, a planned approach offers people the
best chance of eventually finding a solution. It is a way; it is not an
end. By integrating the ideas in these four programs with the ideas of
other programs, students will have powerful gdides to use in tackling

problems, in school or out. They will be `ThinkAbouters:
Each program of the sixty has its own story line which intrigues the
students and virtually wraps around them so that they become involved
in solving problems or finding patterns.

After a year of use, the cumulative effect of working with the series
seems to be that students are looking more carefully at the route to
solutions for problems. After the second year, we'll know more, of
course. Our goal has been to help the students get handles on their own
worldsolving problems requires persistence!
Reasoning, thinking, and all those other components seem, indeed, to
be being taught via television. Solving problems requires a risk, too, and we took it!

1. Teacher's Guide to THINKABOUT, a video series for fifth and sixth grades in the
Skills Essential to Learning, pp. 78 & 79, Bloomington, In. Agency for Instructional
Television, 1979.

Computers and Curriculum
Promises and Problems
Robert M. Caldwell
School of Allied Health Science

Untversky of TexasDallas
Dallas, Texas

The Need for Technology-Assisted Instruction
A complex tangle of problems has led educators to seek new ways to
improve learning, particularly in the basic skills. The causes for these
problems are extensive and complicated and will require continued
research and experimentatiod before we fmd the proper technologies and
their application to solve them.
Declining Test Scores

While the exact causes remain unknown, there has been a step*
decline in SAT scores, in achievement test scores, -and in numbers of
students who perform at grade level or above. In urban recruitment areas,
for example, the armed forces rejects over 40 percent of those seeking to


enlist because of illiteracy.5 In an attempt to reverse this trend, thirtyseven states have adopted some form of competency testing while others
have explored the use of various forms of technology to help insure
mastery of basic skills.
Declining Enrollments



Failure to master basic academic skills had led many students to drop
out of school. In New York city alone over 40 percent of public school
students drop out to seek manual labor or vocational training.1 Most end
up unemployed or ivorking at menial jobs.
In addition, schools are losing students at a stettcly rate. The percent of
students between the ages of 15 and 19 will decline from 20.6 in te80 co
16.8 in 1990. This will result in many school facilities closing lind will
create a need for fewer teachers. However, even with fewer students
enrolling, the cost of educating them will continue to rise. As a result,



Compute's and Curriculum

school officials will be IllAh'ing to find more efficient means to educate
learners with fewer and fewer resources.
Decline in Available Talent Pool

A meaningful consequence of declining enrollments and a steady
decline in achievement is a critical shortage of individuals trained in skills

needed-for high technology industries. Not only will there be fewer
college graduates by 1990 but few of them will be trained in the skills
related to science and high technology. The number of college graduates
in engineering has risen from 37.8 percent in 1960 to 54.6 percent in
1980. The number of graduates in the social sciences; however, has risen
in the same period from 31.5 percent to 211.0 percent. This represents a
percent increase of 669 percent in social science graduates opposed to
only a 44 percent increase in engineering graduates.
The impact of these statistics on the future of technology development
in the United States is significant. UNESCO figures (Table 1) for 1980
show the United States far behind other countries.

Table 1: B.S. Degrees in Engineering in Nine Countries


East Germany
West Germany








5,535 '





In short, our educational problems have reached critical proportions,
particularly if the United States expects to maintain leadership in the
high technology industries. As a result, industry, business and education

have looked to the promise offered by the magnificent technology
currently available for solutions to the urgent problems facing them.

The Promise of Technology-Assisted Instruction
The benefits of increased achievement and heightened student interest
which can be derived from technology-assisted instruction, particularly

instruction which is under direct computer control, have been well

documented in the professional literature.2 There is little need to reiterate


Computers and Curriculum


the conclusions detailed there. However, some discussion is appropriate

concerning the promise technology offers for improving instruction
-and broadening our alternatives for instructional delivery.

The Bitefits for Instruction

I. Distributed and Distance Training: The cost of high quality
training goes up each year. Large corporations which maintain offices in

vide ly disparate areas of the country and the world are fmding it
increasingly more difficult to maintain quality training programs,
particularly in high technology industries where the technology changes

rapidly and profoundly. Costs related to transportation, housing, per
diem and lost work opportunities became significant over time. Training
which can be distributed across many locations and delivered to remote
job sites can contribute significantly to savings in training costs.

2. Individualization: Computer systems make individualized instruction possible in ways few other media can. Because of their highly
adaptive and responsive natures, computer systems allow instmction
take into account each learner response and adapt the amount and extent
of instmction to the individual needs of each learner. The computer can
employ self-pacing and individual branching to the extent that a learner
can select his/her own pathway through course material. Also, computers
can perform diagnostic inventories which can identify individual skill
deficiencies. This information can then be used to place students exactly
within the curriculum and to direct them to the instructional material

- most appropriate to their needs.
3. Modularization: Curricula designed for delivery through computer
systems can be easily modularized,into small, easily mastered units and

structured in coherent hierarchies so that learners progress through
learning expereinces in a sequential fashion or at least in a sequence
determined by each individual response history. rn this way, curriculum

materials can specifically address each necessary skill in a defmed
content area in a manner that does not leave topics unattended or require

extensive instruction in any skill that has been already mastered.
Instruction presented in small, well defined units is less overwhelming

than large blocks of material and promotes success. The steady
"mastery" of each discrete unit,, then, reduces frustration and helps
learners- gain confidence about their ability to learn.

4. Multisensory Format Computer systems have for some time
offered a wide range of media integrated under computer control to
produce a multisensory presentation of material. Many computer
systems, including microcomputers, can present material through slides,
audio, video tape and video dislc. Many of these media can be randomly
accessed by the computer so that students can hear or see portions of a

presentation several times in a remedial segment. In addition, some
computers can display sophisticated graphics and animation on the CRT



Computers and Curriculum

itself and offer touch sensitive response. This feature is particularly
useful in training where instrumentation is being taught (e.g., pilot
training, equipment operation). Touch sensitive screens allow learners to
touch switches, buttons and levers in a manner which closely approximates
a real situation.

5. Tireless Repetition and Reinforcement: Many skills requite
repetition and reinforcement before they are fully mastered. Foreign
language, complex vocabulary, terms and other content which can only
be acquired by commitment to memory can be presented tirelessly and
with infmite patience by a computer. Also, computers can structure
repetitive tasks and patterned reinforcement into carefully planned
sequences which adapt to the individual learner's responses and which
take into account entry behavior. This is done automatically and
efficiently in a way that would not only be imssible for a teacher to do
but inefficient.
6. High Transportability and Flexibility: The introduction of microcomputer systems has added a new dimension to computer-based and
technology-assisted learning. The highly transportable nature of microcomputers allows educators most of the benefits described above in
almost any location where there is an electrical outlet. Microcomputers
can be used as stand-alone systems or can be networked together to offer
many of the same advantages of record keeping, diagnosis, and prescription offered by larger systems. Microcomputers can also be tied to main
frame computers by using modems and used as terminals to access large
data bases.
The benefits cited hero are but a few of the many ways computers can

be used to expand the educational alternatives currently available to
schools at all levels of education and training. Obviously, the ultimate
benefit is in increased achievement and greater efficiency in learning.
Many studies are available which detail instructional gains derived from
computer-based programs. A recent one serves as a good illustration of
how achievement can be increased dramatically using computer-based
Two projects which used the Basic Skills Learning System delivered
on PLATO demonstrated significant gains in reading in Maryland and
Minnesota.5 A summary of the results obtained at an adult learning
center in Baltimore, Maryland, are summarized in Table 2.
In summary, the potential for using various forms of technology,
particularly computer-based media, offers excellent potential for improving instructional alternatives and opportunities.

Cost Benefit
In addition to substantial benefits which can be obtained instructionally,
computers and computers interfaced with other technologies can have a
number of advantages for reducing the cost of instruction. One example

;2 7 1.

Computeri and Curriculum


Table 2: Achievement Gains, Adult Learning Center,
Baltimore, Maryland, February-June, 1978
Expected School
Time for Similar
Number of

15 In.


0.8 grades

120. hrs.

Two prcjects in Minnesota also compared the computer-based Basic
Skills Learning System with traditional educational programs. Each site
included approximately twenty students and utilized data collected
between February and June, 1978. Table 3 reports the grade level gains
for the two Minnesota sites.

Table 3: Comparison of Basic Skills Learning System and
Traditional Program at Two Minnesota Sites

Average Time On Basic Skills
System/Student Learning System

Stillwater Prison
Fair Break (Adult
Basic Education Center)
St. Paul,


15 hrs.

1.6 grade gain*

0.0 grade gain

11 hrs.

1.8 grade gain*

0.0 grade gain

Statistically significant gain.
Adult learners using the Basic Skills Learning System to improve reading
skills averaged a 1.12 grade level gain in reading achievement after an

average instructional time of 13.0 hours. Further analysis of the data
reveals that an average learning time required to generate a 1.0 grade
level gain would require 18.34 hours of computer-based reading instruction. A more detailed analysis of this data is offered in Rizza and WalkerHunter (1978).
cited earlier is the tremendous cost savings which can be accrued using,
technology in training. Other cost benefits are also possible:

1. Declining Cost of Hardware: Computer systems continue to
become less expensive as new technologies emerge. As these systems get
less expensive, their instructional potential seems to rise proportionally.

2 72


Computers and Curriculum

One computer industry spokesman remarked recently
that if the
automobile industry had advanced at the same rate as the

industry, a Rolls Royce Would currently cost $74! Recent
in microcomputer technology have slashed the cost of
computer-based instruction. Highly sophisticated systems which teach
using graphics, animation and speech output can be purchased
for under
$3,000 and some less flexible units can be purchased
for under $500.
Computers remain one of the few products which get increasingly
but continues to cost less.
2. Savings from Lower Attrition: Most urban schools
have a severe
problem with attrition. Unmotivated students do not attend classes
drop out at an early age. As mentioned earlier, the dropout rate in New
York City alone is 40 Tercent. Use of computer-based

however, has begun to alleviate a portion of the problem by introducing


novel, individualized approach to education which has resulted
dramatic reductions in attrition. In studies done in Ontario, Canada,
Baltimore, Maryland, for example, attrition went from 60
percent to 5
percent using computer-based

programs. In a study done with 700
students in Washington, D.C. schools, lower attrition° resulted
in a
$30,790 saving in tax dollars. If this figure were projected
across 24,000
students, it would result in a Cost Product Index savings equal


Non-Traditional Education
Advancing technology will produce many far-reaching benefits in the
future, particularly with regard to non-traditional forms of
Instruction will be available in the not too distant future in
work and remote locations, such as military installations, home, at
marines, and at sites where traditional communications ships, suemedia are
unavailable. Cable television, for example, will hot only bring
programs intp the home, but will also allow access to large data bases,
many of which will allow interaction with the home television.
Television and video disk linked with computer systenis will
level of interaction never before possible. Hoine viewers will allow a
be able to
view many events from several
different angles. Each viewing

angle will
be chosen by the viewer using a .control called a "joy stick."
replays from any angle of your choice will be common in the

These innovations, along with satellite communication, fiber optics
and a whole range of technological advances, will revolutionize learning
as we know it today. There is little doubt, of course, that central to
operation and control of these technologies will be low
computer systems.

2 37

Computers and Cutriculum


Proolems Related to the Use of Computers in Education
kack of Adequthe Courseware
Even though educators have been exploring the uses of computers to
deliver and manage instruction since the early sixties, the development of
courseware (i.e., programs which interactively inslruct learners) remains
*rather inexact science. Most attempts at delivering a lesson through a

computeilystem to date endup looldng like someone's lecture notes,


printed on a cattxcie ray tube. The result for the learner is usually a rather

dry presentation- of material which does not need a sophisticated
computer system to merely present text and ask questions. Lessons of
this type cheat the learner in two Ways:-.first, lectures are usually better
delivered by their authors; the pacing, intonation, histrionics and gestures
supplied by the human teaOher can add significantly to the effectiveness

of-cOmmunicating ideas. By the same token, the computer.possesses
many capabilities for certian kinds of instruction that make it a unique

*livery system. If we fail to design lessons which ue the graphics,

animation, color and interactive,- capabilities of the coMputer, we _are
denyinglearneis learning experiences which miOt be of greaf, benefit to

frctheM: Simulations and legons which call for testing -solutions to

problems and reteiVillg-feiidback immediately come to mind as types of

instrUction- which are better adapted to computer delivery than to
,Aeacher-led presentations.
In summary, much of what is delivered on computer systems today
fails to use the computer medium effectively, The 'computer is a new
medium which requires careful study afid erperimentatioh. Before the
printing press, novels, magazines, textbooks and many-Other forms of
print media did not exist. In fact, one of fhe earliest novelts,lPamela jwas
written and ,published by Samuel Richardson, a printer who became
tamiliarwith the taste and thePemands of the readingpublic. Hensed th;

medium of print to introduce what has become a piimary-k:urce of
entertainment ana.learning. The computer stands today as our modern
dityp#isting" press; it is a medium which challenges our imaginations to

use44,OWer for improving our iiatterns ofthought .find for improving our

problemsolving abilities. We inust seek imaginative ways to use this
new'Meffitun so that we derive maximuth benefit from its capabilities.
0,4041! pevelopment
istinfoitinniely much of the interactive courseware called for above i:;
lt presem expensive to develop and time consuming. to produce.
Ingiyiduais)Who are part of the growing software cottage industry have
-paidu.d.edAlolated lessons and courses for the more popular microconi*terS'such as TRS-80, Apple and Commbdore PET; but these
ii4e4is are scattered, vary wildly in quality, and generally represent a
xlis6rganized attempt at developing instructional materials.


Computers and Curriculum


Many . publishers 'have -beffn reluctant to
readership in
courseware developtent because of the risk of assume
extensive initial costs
weighted against an uncertain markOplace with
Medium they don't
quite understana yet:Some publishers haye takena significant
strides in
this area, however, and have either produced
or will-withinthe year, Control Data alretdy computer-based
has extensive course and
lesson offerings over their PLATO network.
Mifflin and Computer Courseware CorporationHazeltine, Houghton
Programs in reading mathematics, and language alsb offer extensive
arts. Curriculum of
various types for delivery oumicrocomputers is
available from Miliken SRA, Milton Bradley, Randoni will soon be
House, Scott,
Foresinan and others.3
Major costs for producing courseware are tied to

designing instruction to use the unique capabilities


of particular comPuter
' systems. These cosia become
significant because of differences which

exist between'the te,hnology of various computer
systems. Publishers
wrio want to address the total education
market are forced to develop
materials for several computers simultaneously
which can double and
even triple development costs. For this reason,
some publishers have
dedicated themselves to developing One machine
exclusively in the
hope that the curriculum materials will become
particulal. computer. It remains to be ieen Which an-incentive to buy a
strategy will yield the
highest paya
R4id .Technological


P'ut very simply, technology changes sb quickly
increasingly more difficult to design instruction for that itis becoming
existing hardware.
This has caused many publishers and 'software
to hesitate in
their plans to produce curriculum materials
to be delivered through
computers and, more specifically,
In the end this could
result in a never ending cycle ofmicrocomputers.
delays waiting for thevery newest
breakthrough in technologjr. Many publishers, for
example, are now
waiting for the most recent developments
in video disks, a technology
which is 2-5 years away from widespread
practical usc.

A partial solution to this dilemma is to
develop good interactive
instructional designs and apply them to
technologies as thcy
develop. In this way, the new technologies will enhance

the instruction
-rather than completely reshaping it. Developing
of specific technology should be a prime
precept in instructional design if
we.are to avoid the pitfalls of changing technology and
incompatibility of
hardware. We must decide what humans
do best and what machines do
best and begin to develop instructional
systems which can be easily
adapted as new technology emerges. Marshall
McCluhan wrote, "We
shape the media, and they in turn shape" us.'As
we shape instructional
programs.which employ interactive principles toward developing

(4) It.1


Compilers and Curriculum


level cognitive skills and higher order learning strategies, we will also
begin to shape the technologies we will need to facilitate this instruction.
The. Case Against Technology
One of the biggeXt Obstacles to developing technology-based learning
systems is overconiing the many "myths" which surround the use of
technology hi the traditionally human enterprise of education. Clearly,
the nature of the educational enterprise is changpand1n a world where
computers are clearly more accurate "memoriz ,
st begin to
help learners acquircl nev- skills and new ideas which will help dispell
some of these myths.
Myth *1. Computers will dehumanize the learning process: Opposition to tcchnologyhas always been with us. Antitechnologists such as
JacqUes Ellul as early as 1954 depicted individuals as helpless slaves to
technology, driven% hy necessity to perform repetitive and dull work
which they detest These critics see technology as a force which cuts man
off from the natural World and therefore spoils the quality of his life. This

argument is a very old one hut will reach an inevitable resolution. In
Culture and Commitment Margaret Mead points out that any new

technology has the effect of.creating an irrevocable change in a farniliar
'environment.9 This Change, however, produces a self-awareness among

the members of the affected society to the extent that they realize

eventually that they Can make a contribution to that changed society in a
new way. Educatorsare slowly gaining thin new self-awareness but need

education and guidance. The result will be the development of a

computer literacy which will in turn enable wide adoPtion of computers
in many varied uses:.
In The meantime; educators must be educated about technology and
come to realize that a fear of technology, thus an avoidance ofit, can
leave its develOpment to an elite class of technocrats who, by possessing
specialized knowledge which is crucial to our survival prospects, can
defranchise the Mules. It is important then to understand the control
technological innovation so that it can be used for its maximum benefit
A further point to be made here is that research on computer based
instruction- shows nb evidence that instruction delivered through a
computer systerns -dehumanizes instruction. In fact, most all studies
show exactly the opposite. In a Study by Feldman and Sears students
using computer based instruction claimed a distinct preference for the
computer oyer their hUman teachers.' Their consensus opinion was that:
(1) Computer histrtiction was "private," i.e., one could fail without
fear of ridicule or embarrassment from other classmate's or the teacher.
(2`j %Computers
untiring and therefore infinitely Oben:: Learners
min try as often as they must to immix skills or concePta.
(3) Computers are Completely unbiased and nonjudgmental. 'They
are incapable of puttingatudents through the untold "put downs," insults,



Computers and Curriculum

and o her ego damaging biases which human teachers can and often ds

inflict on children on a daily basis. Computers can also deliver
persOnalized feedback, positive reinforcement and many other "warm
fuzzies" which many burnt out teachers tend to forget or ignore.
In several instances students have broken into schools after hours not
to vandalize and destroy but to play math games and run programs of
their own design.7 In cases where students have vandalized schools, they
have left computer terminals and equipment virtually untouched and
undamaged. These incidents are not mentioned here to imply that a
machine can do more for a child than a sensitive, caring teacher, but these
incidents are becoming less unusual as use of computers becomes more
widespread and they do indicate the potential computers have for making
learning meaningful and impostant to learners.

Myth *2. Computers Will Replav Teachers:At the hearings before'
the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Science
and Technology held April 2-3, 1980, Maxine Rociroff, Vice President
for .Planning and Research for the Corporation of Public Broadcasfing
testified that the primary reason why teachers will not accept computers
is that education is essentially a labor intensive endeavor, therefore,
educators will not readily need or adopt a laborsaving device. Contrary
to this point of view, there are at least five (5) reasons why teachers will
accept computers and begin to legitimize their use:

A. In some areas of instruction intensive labor-saving is badly
needed. Much of what many teachers do now is repetitive and boring drill
which requires learners to provide ritualistic responses to see how much

information they can store. This is one of the least effective uses of a
teacher's time, especially when computers can present drill with infmite
patience and perfect redundance. Computers can implement precise
reinforcement schedules which are generated from exact diagnosis of
learner response rate and achievement.
To some extent, then:computers, can replace teachers but only to the
degree that they free teachers to do what teachers should be doing:
developing in students learning strategies associated with high order
thinking by creating real problems to solve. Computers can release
teachers from drilling useless information into the heads of learners and
concentrate their effbrts on helping students learn how to challenge what

we accepras facts, to assemble data into theories, and test them in a
process of real intellectual inquiry.
B. There is a crucial shortage of teachers in mathematics and science.

In the Dallas Independent School District, for example, over 200
positions are vacant in the areas of math and science. Well developed
courseware for computers can help relieve this situation temporarily and
provide good, interactive instruction in math skills on an individualized
basis and continue to do so even when the shortage is rectified. On a more

long-term basis, computer -skills in the mathematics and sciences are

Computers and Curriculum


critical; computers are and will continue to get extensive use in these
C. Computers can serve as diagnostic partners in classrooms that test
learners and print out detailed programs of study which are keyed to
existing materials and resources within the classroom or school district.
They can continue to update these programs as students make progress
through them. Management systems such as these will be essential in
states where programs of competency testing are mandated and where
Public Law 94-142 is implemented properly. The computer holds great
potential for performing the complex diagnosis and generation of
individual educational programs that will demanded in these situations.
D. Education faces increasing costs in salaries, building costs, books,
materials, equipment and so on:- Administrators and school board
members are seeking help on how to reduce expenses. Many school
officials are already looking to microcomputers as a means of increasing
student-teacher ratios without a loss in achievement. They literally are
trying to use computers to replace teachers,- but there are some fatal flaws

in the logic they use to do it. Teachers should not be replaced by

computers for the reasons mentioned, but computers can be used for a
variety of functions which will help cut costs in the following ways:
I. Computers can do many of the administrative duties now
performed by many teacher aides. This could mean a considerable
savings in the number of aides hired or retained by a school district.
2. Teacher's time can be used more efficiently thus eliminating
the possibility of adding additional -acuity.
E. The Society of the future will require a set of skills that are not, for
the most part, being taught in schools today. Teachers as well as students
will have to acquire new skills in order to cope with rapidly changing
technolOgies and the impact they will have on our lives.
In summary, then, it seems safe to say that computers will not replace

teachers but will probably take away much of the drudgery now
associated with drill, record keeping, grade reporting and free them to
make the use of the teacher's time more efficient and therefore more
Myth *3. Technology Has Not Fulfilled Its Promise: Of all themyths
surrounding thiuse of computers to deliver instruction, one of the most
prominent is the belief that technology has failed to meet its promise.
This belief is usually predicated upon a variety of bad experiences,
especially with computer systems. These experience. can be grouped

into the following categories:
Cost: Since few educators have very much practical knowledge about
computers, they rely huvily on manufacturer representatives for
information. As a result, many computer systems are pUrchased which
either far exceed user needs or which do not meet educational needs at
. all. As the tourchasers become -more knowledgeable about the system

2 7.8



Compiaers and Curriculum

they have purchased and discover what the machine can or cannot do,
they become resentful or hostile. By the same token, many educators
reject very effective systems because of their high cost. This is regrettable
because the eeal losers in this situation are students who could potentially
profit immensely from sophisticated computer equipment.
This process is currently repeating itself as educators begin to consider

microcomputers. ToO often these machines are purchased solely
because oflow cost without any regard for function, available software or
courseware, or how they will fit into an overall program of study. If this
trend is to be reversed, educational institutions must begin to formulate
institutional policies which defme how computers will be used and what
problems they will solve.

Unfair Comparisons with Other Media: Too often computers are
compared unfairly with other delivery systems. For example, computers
have been subjected to various studies which compare their effectiveness
with lectures, programmed instruction, and a variety of other mediated
instruction. The result is that the computer-assisted instruction is
found to be less effective or, more often, less cost-effective. The fallacy in
these comparisons is that the media are usually compared instead of the

instructional programs which are being delivered.

In a classic faux pas of this type, Educational Testing Service
conducted a study which compared the use of the Control Data PLATO
system and TICCIT in community colleges. One of the conclusions of
this study was that PLATO had "no significant impact on achievement
for community college students ... " while TICCIT resulted in improved
student achievement.6 Themajor weakness in this study is the generalization made to.computer systems rather than to the courseware delivered

through those systems. While the implied conclusion here is that
TICCIT is a better teaching system than PLATO, the only valid
conclusion that can be reached is that the TICCIT courseware was more

effective than that offered on the PLATO systemfor that population.
There was no mention made in the study regarding the curriculum
objectives that were addressed, the subjects that were taught, or the
instructional strategy employed in the instructional program. The only
conclusion implied was that one computer system was better than
another one. In short, the study attempted to compare delivery system,
i.e., the computer systems but based the evaluation on the effectiveness

of the curriculum being delivered. Such a conclusion is analogous to
concluding that books are a poor teaching medium based on a study of
dull, poorly written volumes which dealt with esoteric topics.
Unfortunately, many educators are making decisions about computers
as instructional delivery systems on just such specious information. Far
too many of these "Horse race" studies exist (which system is better?). If
researchers want to compare delivery systems, common criteria should
be established as a basis of study; the same holds true for comparing

Computers and Curriculum


curricula.-However, a comparison of curricula should never be used to
draw conclusions about deliwery. In addition, caution must be exercised
when comparing computer-based instruction with other technologybased systems such as educational television, programmed learning and
self-paced learning. Each of these media possesses unique features and
capabilities which make it appropriate for delivering instruction. It is

critical that these features be taken into account when comparing
instructional media.'

Poorly Designed Courseware: This is the single greatest problem
related to the disenchantment with computer-based education
because of poorly designed courseware. To a large extent this criticism is
warranted because many computer-delivered lessons fail to:4
I . Shape learner behavior toward specific learning outcomes.

2. Use the interactive capability of the computer system.
3; Use graphics, color, animation or sound to its best instructional
4. Make imaginative use of the capabilities of the computer system,
e.g., branching, menus to solicit student choice and options, and

5. Employ a variety of teaching strategies such as drill, tutorial,
simulation and games.
Most computer-based lessons simply attempt to make the instruction a

computer-delivered lecture and fill the monitor with text. This type of
presentation is usually followed by some rather unchallenging multiple
choice questions which, when taken together, have little more effect than
a self-test at the end of a printed learning module or textbook chapter.
Since this type of lesson has predominated computer-based curricula for
so long, educators have tended to accept this inefficient use of computerbased instruction as the norm and therefore reject CBE as a whole as an
ineffective, high-priced fad.
In summary, if technolou has failed to fulfill its potential for delivering

instruction, it is because few attempts have been made to use its full
potential. Computers and other technology are tools which must be used
creatively and imaginatively. They ere new media whose capabilities are
not fully understood. We must, however, attempt to use them,in ways
that will take full advantage of their potential and give us maximum cost

Lack of Knowledge and Awareness About Computers and
What They Can Do: The fmal problem related to the effective
implementation of computers as instructicnal tools is a general lack of
knowledge about what they can do and how they work. Until programs of
computer awareness (knowing generally what makes computers work,

what they can do and how they can be used) and computer literacy
(learning to communicate with a computer using computer languages
written in code) are made widely available to educators, they will resist



Computers and Curriculum

t,he unknown. Few individuals are able to use tools of which they have

little knowledge and even less use. Educators must be taught about
computers with computer systems and shown the great potential these
instruments have for helping solve the multitude of problems facing
education today.

In conclusion, it would be safe to say that technology, particularly the
computer and computers interfaced with other media, will continue to
have a significant impact on the way education will be conducted in the
future. Its capacity for both delivering and managing instruction offers
enormous potential for widening the possibilities for fasteirmore efficient
course delivery in the years to come. As we better understand the
problems which are currently retarding progress toward fulfilling this
potential, we will be better able to design and deliver exciting, interactive

learning to locations almost anywhere in the world.

I. Braun, L. "Computers in Learning Environments: An Imperative for the 1980's,"

BYTE, Ju1y,,1980.
2. Caldwell, R.M. "Evaluation of a Program of C omputer-Assisted Reading Instruction

for Semi-literate Adolescents," Paper presented at the American Educational
Research Association annual meeting, Chicago, March, 1974.
3. Caldwell, R.M."C omputers and Computer Courseware: New Directions for Helping
Children Learn," Children in Contemporary Society, Spring, 1981, 14, I.
4. Caldwell, R.M. "Guidelines for Developing Basic Skills Instructional Materials for
Use with Microcomputer Technology, Educational Technology, October, 1980, 20,

5. Caldwell, R.M. and Rizza, P.J., Jr. "A Computer-Based System of Reading

Instruction for Adult Non-Readers," AEDS Journal, Summer, 1979, 12, 4.
6. Educational Testing Service, "Computers ire Fun, but cin They Teach," ETS
Developments, Princeton: Educational Testing Service, 25, 4, 1979.
7. Fanning, Patricia, "Stealing Knowkdge," The National Observer, May 8, 1918.
8. Feldman, D.H. and Sears, P.G. "Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on
Children's Behavior," Educational Technology, 10, 11-14, 1970.
9. Mead, M. Culture and Commitment: The New Relationship Between the Generations in the 1970's, New York: Anchor Books, 1978.
10. Rizza, P.J., Jr. and Walker-Hunter, P. The Basic Skills Learning System: An

Evaluation Report on Field Testi Conducted from January I, 1978 toJuly I, 1978.
Summary Report. Minneapolis: Control Data Corporation, 1978.

2 8i


HoW Can We Best Produce Courseware?
Howard Hitchens
Association for Educational Communliations
and Technology
Washington, D.C.
It is interesting that in the context of a publication on educational
technology we should be discussing the production of"courseware." The
concentration on sophisticated video and microcomputer apparatus and
techniques for education is an appropriate focus for the use of such a
term. Incidentally, a traditional audiovisual leader argued eloquently
several years ago for the adoption of this term to apply to all instructional
In searching for a working defmition of the term "courseware," I found

to defmitions in AECT's Educational Technology: A Glossary of

1. In computer assisted instruction (CAI), the actual instruction
including both content and techniqueinstalled in a CAI system.
Coursewarelis different from software in that the software is the
actual machme language which directs the computer operation.
2. As a generic term, any instructional _materials, particularly items
which must be used with equipment
These defmitions, of course, fit neatly for our purposes today. We are concerned with video programs and the instructional content of micro-


computer and similar devices. I shall address myself to two major
questions in these short remarks. First, what are the possible models of
production of instructional materials for the sophisticated electronic
systems with which we ae concerned? Second, how can we get the costs

Models of Production
Independent Industry


The history of the growth of instructional materials for the educational
system indicates a long standing dependence on an audiovisual industry
that grew wiih the advent of the motion picture, closely linked to the

hardware industrythe developers of motion picture projectors. The
more recent history has seen the growth of an independent film
production industry for education, represented nationally by a trade





organization called The Association of Media Producers. The premise
on which that small industry was built is that instructional filniszould be
made and sold profitably to education. Throughout the history of that
part of the industry, the producer and distributor of educational films has
been laced with the paradoxical situation of desiring to make a film that
will have the greatest instructional effectiveness on,the one hand; and on
the other, keeping the instructional content and approach general enough
tO insure that sales will .not be inhibited because it isn't applicable to
enough of the thousands of school systems in the country, As a result of
this situation, the industry has found some rough going in the past few

As the cost of instructional materials have escalated and the scope of
the materials increased to include entire courses of study; we have cast

about for a better way to capitalize the high production costs and to
develop an efficient distribution system. As I result, various consortia of
educational institutions have been created. This is a reasonable solution
that ia still being explored. Many examples are around us. I'm sure most
of you are familiar with The Ascent ofMan and Man A Course of Study

Another kind of consortium is the University, of Mid-America
arrangement whereby the higher education institutions in seven states in
the Mid-west pool their resources in order to produce and make available
continuing education courses for the citizenry in those states. In addition,
instructional television consortia have existed in northern and southern
California for some years, and have enabled the production of comp'ete
instructional, sequences on a more cost effective basis. These consortia
have been cOmbinations of cooperative ventdres of not-for-profit educational agencies for the most part.

Non:Profit Agencies
There is a different kind of agency that has grown in the past few years.
The most prominent one that produces materials uniquely for instruction

and with a broad base of substance is the agency for instructional
television. The secret to its success is the securing of cooperation and
fmancial commitments from state education departments ancIprovinciii
departments (in the case of Canada) for each production. The kodu ct ii
each case is a complete series of programs which are arranged in whitt we
generally are used to thinking of as courses. I submit that this is a very
successful venture in that it is providing a generally recogniied service for

the educational community and it is cost effective in its procedures.

Computer Manufacturing Companies

I mentioned earlier that for years we depended on the hardware




manufacturers to generate a certain amount of courseware to go with
their film projectors. This same dependence is &curing at present in the
cast of microcomputer. For example, the Apple H provides an Apple II
software directory of games, demonstrations and utility programs.
However, we are seeing some programs and some courseware being

developed independently of the hardware itself for use with any
hardware. Creative Computing Press of Morristown, New Jersey, has
two books entitled One Hundred Two Basic Games and More Basic
Computer Games published for use with computers that employ the
basic language. There is a book of programs for the TRS-80 and there is a

book published by Adam Osborne Associates of Berkeley, California,
entitled Some Common Basic Programs. Those programs are available
also on cassette for the PET and the TRS-80 microcomputers.
Other Production Schemes

Two other production mechanisms are worthy of mention. A recent

project entitled "Schoddisc" has been undertaken jointly by The
National Education Association and the American Broadcasting
Corporation. This is an extremely important development because it
intends to place complete instructional sequences into the schools at a,
very low cost and in a very highly usable form for the pioneer videodisc.
The initial pilot sequences have been tested and the full production of
eight hours of instructional programrriing on videodisc for the schools is

under way. This is being underwritten by ABC and NEA and will be
made available at a minimal cost, approximately $1500.00 per school,
during the 1981-1982 school year. I want to bring it to your attention
because it is a prime example in which the private sector (for whatever
purposes of its own) and the major teachers' union in the country are
cooperating to provide instructional materials for the schools.
A second project which I would like to bring to your attention is the
project by National Public Radio to market instructi..nal courses based
on the radio programs which it has developed over extended periods of
time. The project is moving to the point now that the public offerings will
be announced in the ne'k few weeks. In this instance, public support for
radio broadcasting will result in the accumulation of enough resources to

make available courseware deveioped to meet a variety of curricular
purposes. The programs have been paid for and are'being repackaged
and made available as a venture which should be self-sustaining in the
next few years.

Underwrking Costs
Let's turn to ways in which sufficient funds can be accumulated for the

underwriting of the extremely high costs of developing courseware.
Traditionally, we have looked to the federal government in its categorical

programs to provide us with money for courseware. The Emergency





School Assistance Act has a specific title within it for the production of
educational television programming to a:ssist the large urban school

systems in dealing with the problems of inner city learners. The
Department of Education has provided most of the funding for the

Children's Television Workshop to develop the well-known Sesame
Street and Electric Company sequences. The National lastitute of
Education has funded the operation of the University of Mid-America in

order to insure that the consortium could demonstrate its ability to
service the needs of continuing education in tii,e Midwest.

A second source of funds to meet the underwriting costs of
courseware has traditionally been foundations of various Winds. The
Ford Foundation has provided funds along with other agencies in several

instances to develop the necessary capital. I'm sure many of you are
familiar with some of the activities of the Markel Foundation and others
in this area.
As I mentioned above, however, the most interesting and resourceful
accumulation of films recently has been the development of various
consortia for co-productiop. The Agency for Instructional Television has

a successful enterprise here, as does The University Consortium
which has produced Man A Course of Study and The Ascent ofMan and

many other instructional courses. I have not yet seen any consortia
developed which has been able to capitalize on the development of
courseware for microcomputers across the board.
At the moment, we are largely dependent on the hardware industry in
the microcomputing world to provide courseware for us. However, that
is changing and there are several publications which could be perused for

an update on what is available from the privat sector in the way of
courseware for microcomputers.Creative Computing, Personal Computing and Microcomputing magazines.all review commercial programs
as they are introduced. Most of those sources are listed in AECT's
publication, Guide to Microcomputers, by Franz Frederick.

So, how can we best produce courseware for the video and microcomputing evolution? I suspect that my answer has to be that the
consortium route is probably best for video-oriented materials in the
form of coursewre and that for the moment we will probably have to

depend on the hardware industry in microcomputing to assist us until we
can get a courseware creation cadre built of such a size that the needs of
edcuation can be served independently.


How Can We Best Produce Courseware?
(The Process of
Courseware Development)
Peter J. Rizzo, Jr.

Senior Erational Consultant
Contra Data Corporation
Minneapolis, Minnesota

The process of curricul

development has had a history of slow

evolution. Originally info ation was transmitted from highly-educated
instructors to their students ia lectures and handwritten notes. Thiktype
und the instructor and the success of the
of education was centered
learning process depended ntirely upon the talents of the instructor or
the initiative of the learner. ith the invention of the printing press many
formed into support materials for students.
of the lecture notes were tr

This allowed for wider-s read distribution of ideas and for more
continuous learning. This type of learning was centered upon the
instructor and the textbook

the main sources of infortation and it was

the student's responsibili to acquire the information by attending
lectures and reading the xt. More recently with the introduction of
multimedia materials as support to the learning process, the student has

been allowed to experience a Wider range of stimulus. Many
educationally-meariingful çxperiences were filmed, photographed, or
diagrammed and used by he instructor during the lecture as support
materials. Sometirrles the multimedia materials were presented to the
student in an indivadualizqd mode as the actual learning activity. This
was the firstostep toward naking the learning Axperience less teacher
dependent and more stud nt centered. Now, with the introduction of
computers into educations the concept of a stildent-centered learning
environment has become reality. The computers can deliver instruction

to the students indepen ently of the instructor and the student can
progress at his or her ow pace commensurate with their abilities. This

type of education constjtutes a drastic shift away from the passive



'Courseware Development

instructor-centered transmission, f the information to the more active
process of the student interac 'On with a dynamic learning experience
controlled by a computer: .
Accompanying the evo/tution of education from a singular-source,
lecture-centered envirorent to a multimedia, interactive, computerbased environment has been the tremendous increase in the need to have
quality courseware
un7(terials available. To produce a set of lecture notes
was a relative ly-s

le task for a well-educated professor, particularly in

his field of expert*. To develop a textbook was far more extensive an
effort, because iny different instructors with various learning strategies

would be ex cted to use the same textbook to teach in different
locations. Th9fefore, the textbook had to be comprehensive, informative,
accurate, anf above all accepted by the teaching profession. To develop
multimedi aterials involving slides, audiotapes, videotapes, filmstrips,
graphs, c arts and a multitude of other embodiments, required a
significanily-higher level of effort in the initial development stage than
did the textbook. Multimedia development requires that many simulations be structured for photographing, professional actors be contracted
for audiotape recording, and photographers be employed. To develop a
computer-based education curriculum is possibly the most compre-

hensive and sophisticated activity that curriculum developers have
faced. This usually inVolves large scale activity in the form of comprehensive curriculum definition, computer programs at different levels for a
variety of users, and sophisticated testing and routing routines to afford
flexibility and individualization of instruction. iki an example of the
amount of effort it takes to develop computer-based education materials,
one only has to look at the small number of curriculum packages which

are currently available using computer support folloWing 'massive
financial investments on the part of the government, the computer and
publishing vendors, and the educational users. To develop a quality
computer-based education environment you r.eed to have well coordinated, comprehensive and systematic curricu!dM offerings. To assume that
a teacher can develop a high quality computer-based education offering
in his or her spare time is equivalent to asking teachers to write their own
textbooks, script and record their own multimedia materials, stage and
deliver their own television shows, and develop and analyze their own
standardized tests. Perhaps with the introduction of the micro-computer
into the classroom as a stand-alone deiivery system, one might be fooled
into thinkiiig that with a little bit of effort you could write your own
courseware for delivery on that systeth. i However, this is analogous to
giving a teacher a blank book and a typewriter and expecting him to write

his own text.
In order to understand the complexities of courseware development
for computer-based education delivery, it might help to examine the
similarities and the differences between the traditional teacher/textbook

Courseware Developmept 277'

orientation to instruction and the computer-based education delivery. In
terms of content coverage of a course, both the teacher/text and CBE
approaches must present the materils coinpletely and comprehensively,
Objectives and goals must be stated and detailed background information
must be developed. However, the CBE, approach requires additional
effort in the number of test items developed, the extensiveness of,case
studies delivered, the variety of alternative approaches presented and
subsequent content expansion, and the amount of analysis given to the
student upon demand. Specifically, the amount of pre-determined
feedback is a major requirement. The instructional approach used in
delivering educatipn with teacher/text as well as CBE approaches can be
discovery, exposition, inquiry, etc. The major difference between the two
deliverY systems is the amount of iMeeae,tion required in the CBE
This necessitates *a flexible curriculuM, arid increases the variety of
responses,in the material. The complexity of the development process
increases as the interactive nature of the components increases. Both

teacher/text and CBE approaches requite valid test items to be
developed for examining achievement and attitudinal changes. The
difference is in the number of test items which must be generated for CBE

delivilry and the complex testing strategies which .are available under
computer control (i.e., tailor testing, mastery testing, variable criteria
testing). Finally, with respect to the pace and flow of the curriculum
otTering, the major difference between the two approaches is that CBE
instruction is generally self-paced. This requires that extensive branching
schemas be well thought out in advance and that repetition ard review for
remedial education be allowed.
The difference between the teacher/text and the CBE deliveryrequire
more comprehensive and extensive development efforts to be undertaken

for quality CBE courseware. There seems to be a need, then, for a

systematic approach for courseware develoPment because of the number
of factors. Most of these factors directly influence the cost of development
and subsequent cost of delivery. Because CBE courseware de elc,pment
is quite time consuming, involves the use of and, therefore, the cost of

terminals and computer technolog md requires a wider variety of
people with different skills to be coorcuriated in a team in order to develop

a comprehensive program, the cost of development is very high. Even

though the coinputer terminal offers the capability of quick and

instantaneous revision, the actual cost for making reVisions is-quite high.
Most of these costs are a result of the amount of time it takes to gather

accurate and appropriate data as to the type, scope and depth of the
revisions necessary and the athount of time and effort required by
development people to make the revisions which are recommended.
Certainly specific criteria must.be established early on to identify the

type of changes which will be tolerated and the type of performance which
will be achieved. The cost of implementing a computer-based education


Courseware Development

currictium involves the cost of support people and the cost of the
computer terminals and technology itself. While these costs continue to

come down on a year-by-year basis, certainly they are substantial
enough to require that the paducts be of quality nature and reliable
stature. Finally, the cost Of failure ofa CBE courseware offering is rather

llrge. It may involve the changing from one entire CBE system to
another system which is a large fmancial decision. In some cases there
may be no alternative program to rely upon, in whichcase failure of the
courseware to deliver the recommended achievement level means failure
of education. It may mean wasted development-and revision dollars,as
well as a tremendous waste in implementation costs to deliver a program

which is ineffective. In many communities, businesses, and other

educational institutions, computer-based education has only one chance
to make a first and last impression and failure of the system to perform
can mean failure of the community to avail itself of the new technology.
In order to guarantee the favorable use of computer-based education
technology in the learning process it is imperative that high-quality,
comprehensive curriculum materials be developed. These materials can

only be developed through a systematic approach to courseware

development similar to the one that follows in the next section.

The development of courseware materials js a complicated actiyity.
The need for a systematic approach to the development of courseware
material was presented in the first section of this paper. The systems
approach model which follows in this section is one which separates out
the six major phases of courseware development into specific wellrelated steps and identifies sequences of activities designed to, solve
educational prOblems and achieve instructional goals. This system
be employed by an individual, a small team, or a large courseware
development group. Regardless of the specific team structure for the
courseware development effort, each step of this systematic model
should be followed to increase the likelihood of a quality product. The
systems approach for developing instructional materials consists of six
phases: analysis, design, development, formative evaluation, implementation, and summative evaluation. (See Figure 1.) These six phases
designed to build upon one another to/generate instructional
which is integrated, efficient, and above all effective. In order
to more
fully illustrate this process, each of the phases will be expanded
illustrated by examples from the Basic Skills Learning System, a CBE
curriculum designed to teach functional literacy.

Phase I: Analysis
The first step in any courseware development process
must be to

28 9


Courseware Development








Figure 1: The development pnxess
determine the scope and the nature of the initructional mateiials required
to satisfy the given set of educational needs. The analysis phase consists

of four tasks. The rust task is to define the learning requirements; the
second is to define the instructional program; the third is to survey
existing courses; and the fourth is to plan the design and development

Defining Learning Requirements
Learning requirements are identified by: 1) analyzing learning needs;
2) defining needs and constraints; and 3) analyzing the target population.
For example, consider the fact that 25 million Americans are designated
as functionally illiterate. The impact of having this large a section of our

population remain functionally illiterate is economically staggering.
Most of these individuals do not participate in the production or the

servicing of goods and are veiy often a drain upon, rather than a
contributor to, the national wealth. To date many curriculum efforts have
been made to train and retrain these individuals into productive members
dthe society. Most of these efforts have failed due to the dependency on
quality instructors which are not readily available, the inconsistency of

materials which vaiy drastically depending on location and instructor,
and the ability to motivate the target population to participate in arid,



Courseware Development,

more importantly, remain in thiliaining program being offered. How can
computer-based education be employed to address functional literacy at
the national level?

The first step is to analyze

the educational needs. In this step,
discrepancies between the desired performance and the actual capabilities
are identified. For example, suppose the desired performance for these
adults Li to read and compute at an eighth grade level so they
can enter
into vocational training programs which will allow them to enter the work
force. However, most of these individuals do not possess these skills. An
analysis of the requirements of the vocational programs and
population capabilities will identify the discrepancies. Another important

result of analysis of the educational needs is the analysis of the
consequences of the performance discrepancy.

In other words, what will
happen Wait people in-this pOpulation and the country in general if
problem-is allowed to continue?
The second step_is. to defme needs and constraints. The needs analysis
indicates which specific task must be learned in order to reach the
performance. These tasks form the basis for instruction. The defmition of

constraints indicates the restrictions that affect the delivery of the
instruction. The availability of funds, time, qualified staff, and the
delivery environments are some of the constraints.
The third step in defming the educational requirements is to
the target population, the students for whom the instruction will be
prepared. Student characteristics such as geographic focation, age,
ability, need for motivation, present skill level, and the number
students are important considerations
in the preparation of instructionai



Defining the educational requirements means determining
a discrepancy between actual and desired performance, identifying the skills
or information needed to resolve the discrepancy problem, and determining factors such as constraints or student characteristics
that will
affect the solution of the performance problem. In the case of the
functional illiteracy problem, it was determined through the defming of

educational requirements *that the majority of the population had literacy
and computational skills well below the level needed to enter vocitional

training programs, that the skills of reading and computation were
essential to their succesS in vocational training, that many opportunities
woutd be available for vocational training if these students could function
atan eighth grade level in both reading and mathematics skills, and that
this population consisted of a low-motivated group which
had experienced
many failures through the traditional method of education. It was also
identified that many of the individuals in the targerpopulation possessed
some, but not all, of the necessary skills and that a program which
able to place individuals into the proper learning sequence and give
students credit for already-acquired skills would be most efficient
most acceptable to this population.


Courseware Development 281

Defining the Instructional Program
In this step, curriculum and course goals that define the
scope and the
purpose of the instruction are documented.
The major tasks and topics to
be included in the

instructional progam are defmed with specific

requirements concerning media and expected performance
levels. The
overall curriculum structure and the inter-relationships
of the course and
sub-course components are specified. Furthermore, the specific
requirements and constraints are documented and the type of routing
and assessment strategy is determined in general terms
for the overall
The do&imentation of this step results in a general
course specification
document which is intended to solve the instrwAional
problem within the
identified constraints. This document should include:
overall course
length, structure, and proportions presented by the allowable
media; a
description of the target population and its present level of
definition of file constraints plac51 on the instructional
delivery system;
and the goals and topics to be covered. This
preliminary basis from which the design phase proceeds. forms the
In the case of the functional illiteracy problem,
a document was
generated which identified the need for a three-part
called the
Basic Skills Learning System. The first course is the
Basic Skills reading
course which addresses the main topics of vocabulary
literal, interpreted and evaluated comprehension.
The basic language
skills curriculum addresses the topics of
gyammar, writing mechanics,
and syntax topics. The basil math skills curriculum
covers the topics of
- whole number operations, basic number ideas, fractions
and decimals,

geometry and measurement, and ratio and proportion.
The target
population. was described as being between the third
and the
seventh grade levels as measured by the Adult Basic
Learning Exam

(ABLE). The purpose of the curriculuni was identified
as a CBE offering
designed to enable functionally-illiterate adults,
representing a wide

range of abilities, goals and problems, to achieve
an eighth gade

equivalency education in the reading, language and

mathematics skills.

Survey Existing Courses
Identifying existing courses and comparing them with
needs are the wo
steps in the survey of courses. Before time and
money are expended to
develop a new courSe, existing
courses are identified and analyzed for
applicability to the training need. If an existing
the needs and fulfills required quality standards, course appears to meet
it is considered for use in
either its present or a modified form.
In the case of Basic Skills Learning System, after
an extensive survey

of courseware materials used in basic education
programs, two curriculum
efforts were identified as having specific appropriateness.
The first was

21 2


Courseware Development

the Individual Learning for Adults (ILA) reading curriculum which was
offered by Research for Better Schools in Philadelphia. This curriculum
was in a paper-and-pencil, individualized, performance-based format
and was being delivered with realtive success to the target population.
The second curriculum identified was the Middle School Mathematics

Learning System (MSMLS) under development by Dr. Ralph T.
Helmer at the Pennsylvania State University. This was a computer-

based basic mathematics skills curriculum which was being developed
for children. These two curriculum efforts served as the fundamental

cornerstones to the specification of the design for the Basic Skills
Learning System. Indeed, entire sections of each,of the curricula were
adopted, modified and implemented in the BasiceSkills Learning System._

Plan Design and Development Effort
At this point there are three alternatives. The first is to proceed directly

to the design of the instructional program. The second, given the

availability of existing courses, is to go directly to the evaluation of those

courses. Third, it may be desirable to discontinue the courseware'
development effort if costs and other associated parameters become

In the case ofB asic skills, a decision was made to acquire the rights to
the two stated curricula and proceed in a total redesign and redevelop-

ment of a new computer-based education product based on the
fundamental structure and design of these two curricula.

Phase II: Design
The purpose of the design phase is to prepare a detailed plan for the
course. The information gathered,in the analysis phase forms the basis
for the designed plan. The basic tasks performed during this phase are: 1)
perform instructional task analysis; 2) specify instructional objectives; 3)
defme entry behaviors; 4) group and sequence objectives; 5) specify

learning activities; 6) specify assessment system; and 7) specify
evaluation system.

Pelform Instructional Task Analysis
In this step, the course goals are analyzed to determine the.skills and
knowledge that are necessary for the performance of the tasks within
each goal. Each individual task is then analysed to determine sub-tasks

and how they fit together into the task. The result of this step is a

hierarchically-arranged learning map, a visual representation of how the
tasks and sub-tasks relate to each other within the overall goals.
In the case of the Basic Skills Learning System, specific objectives
were identified. These objectives were grouped together in clusters for
Which specific learning activities were developed; these clusters were


Courseware Development 283

grouPed into bundles where retention testing and review was provided;
and these bundles were grouped into strands which represented threads
of common content.

Speci0 Instructional Objectives
The task and sub-tasks on a learning map form the basis from which
instructional objectives are written. Each objective describes a desired
performance or behavior, the conditions under which the performance or
behavior will be observed, and the criteria for acceptable performance.

An example of such an objective from the Basic Skills Math
curriculum is: "Given a three-digit number and a two-digit number where

regrouping only from tens to hundreds is necessary to find the
difference, the learner will be able to find the difference. The criteria for

mastery will be four out of five." An example from the Baskc Skills
Reading curriculum is: "Given a selection and its main idea, the learner
will be able to identify specific details in the selection and support of the
main idea. Mastery criteria is three out of four." An objective from the
Basic Skills.Language curriculum is: "Given a series of adjectives, each
in the positive degree of comparison, the learner will be able to select the
correct word used to form the comparative and superlative degrees.
Mastery criteria is three out of four."

Define Entry Behaviors
After the instructional objectives have been completed, entry behaviors
must be defined. In this step, entry behaviors are defined and thoroughly
analyzed. In the development of courseware the specified entry behavior
marks the minimal level of competence required for a student to enter the
curriculum. These minimum entry behaviors must be examined and if

students do not possess the minimum behaviors, they should not be
allowed to enter the program without acquiring these skills. It is essential
that the curriculum succeed or fail on its own merits rather than failing

because the students entering the program were beneath the minimal
level of competence for the curriculum.
In the case of Basic Skills, if students tested lower than the third grade

reading level on the ABLE test, they were referred to a low-level
remedial program delivered by an instructor to raise their skills to a
minimum level. Due to the very nature of the curriculum being delivered

on-a-computertenninalithe-students had-to-be able to read at a third
grade level in order to follow the directions and participate in the

Group and Sequence Objectives
In this step, objectives are arranged in groups that are logically related
in terms of instructional purposes. The objectives are then sequenced so

that the ordered relationships indicated in the learning map are



Courseware Development

preserved. This step assures that learning will progress logically and
efficiently throughout the hierarchy of the content domain.
In the case of Basic Skills, the mastery learning model was employed
and specific pre-requisite objectives were identified for tvery higher level

objective and students were not allowed to proceed to the higher level
skill until mastery was demonstrated on lower level pre-requisite skills.
Retention was checked at periodic intervals to assure that lower level
skills were, indeed, learned and retained.

Specifi Learning Activities
When each group of objectives has been identified, learning activities
can be deterMined. Learning activities are small segnents of instructional
materials that correspond to one or more objectives in a particular group.
In the specification of learning activities, three tasks must be performed:
1) select media; 2) select instructional strategy; and 3) identify content.
Media (text, audiotapes, videotapes, computer-based instruction, and so
forth) are selected for each learning activity on the basis of appropriate-

ness and instructional strategy. Instructional strategy determines the
teaching approach for presenting concepts, soliciting interaction,
providing feedback, and so on. The content specific to each learning
activity is also identified.
The Basic Skills program effectively addresses the problem of a
diverse and discouraged student population through well-defined
curriculum which is: individualized, diagnostic and prescriptive, objective-

based, based on mastery learning models, modular in structure, and
multisensory in format. Specific media was determined for different
components of the curriculum. A series of motivational audiovisual
products presents an overview Of the curriculum and describes the
instructional activities in the curriculum. The purpose of the audiovisual
activities is to act as an advanced organizer and motivator for the student.
Each new skill is presented in the form of a tutorial lesson on the PLATO

terminal, followed by a drill and practice activity on the PLATO
terminal, accompanied by an "off-line" exercise application in a
workbook and a mastery test delivered on the PLATO terminal.
Speci67 Assessment System
The means by which learning performance is measured and reported is
specified in this step. The use ofpre-test, progress checks, and post-test is
defmed. A plan may be presented for administering, scoring, and using
test results.
In the case of Basic Skills, and effort was made to allow the student

freedom within a structured curriculum. Two kinds of controls were
established. 1) Router Control: The system's router makes available to
the student the most appropriate cluster within a given strand. After
mastery of this cluster has been demonstrated, the next cluster in the

2 '9

Courseware Development


strand is made available to the student. Only one cluster per strand is
available at one time; the student must demonstrate mastery of this
cluster before continuing to the next. 2) Student Control: Within reason,
the student is allowed to determine which strand to work on, and within
the prescribed cluster for the strand, which type of instructional activity to
work on. For example, a student may choose to work on the multiplication
strand of the math curriculum. The router makes available to the student
the most appropriate cluster within the multiplication strand. The student
may then choose to work on the tutorial, the drill and practice, the off-line

. workbook, or any other instructional activity within the prescribed
cluster. The students are also allowed to access their individual profile
which allows them to see their progress graphically in each of the three
curriculum areas.

Specf& Evaluation System
In this step, a plan is prepared to outline the strategy for validating the

instructional materials in the evaluation phase. The plan details the
arrangements that pertain to student groups, sample sizes of groups, and
data analysis requirements. The nature of the evaluation will determine
the time required to complete the course, the attitudes expressed by the

students, and the student performance: This is an absolutely critical
stage. In order for any CBE curriculum to be accepted on a large scale, a

thorough evaluation of that curriculum must be performed. Specific
criteria for success must be outlined and the development team must
know what criteria will be used to evaluate their work.
In the case of tne Basic Skills Laming System, the evaluation criteria
was specified as achieveinent on a standardized exam such as the ABLE

test, length of time in- the training program as measured by student
contact time and length of time in the class, student attitude, and attrition
rate of the students within the program. In most cases, the Basic Skills
Learning System has demOnstrated a remarkable achievement rate in a
very short period of time, and has been able to retain the students in the
program with a high level of motivation.

Phase HI: Development
During the development phase, all initial drafts of instructional
materials and tests specified by analysis and design phases are prepared.

Test items, text materials, computer-based learning activities, and
audiovisual scripts are developed in this phase. The documents prepared
and the design specified how to: 1) prepare individual lesson designs; 2)

construct test items and tests; 3) develop individual lessons; and 4)
review and edit after this process is complete.
Prepare Individual Lesson Designs
Lesson designs are prepared for each learning activity. A lesson design
I) 01




Courseware Development .

included identificatiOn of the activity and the objectives to which it
corresponds; the general media strategy for that activity; a detaileu
statement of the content and instructional approach; and flow charts of
the lesson structure, as appropriate. The approval of the designer and
subject matter expert is required before each lesson design is finalized.
Construct Test Items and Tests

Test item construction is based on the outcome of the assessment
system and its specifications. After the individual items have been
prepared and reviewed, they are assembled and entered into the testingmanagement system.

Development of Individual Lessons
Individual lessons are text, audiovisual, or compter-assisted learning 4
activities. Individual lesson designs are used to draft texts; to design,
develop and program computer-based learning activities; and to draft
audiovisual scripts.

At this point the development process of all the materials are in the
form of drafts. All draft materials are reviewed by the subject matter
expert for content integrity and the designer for instructional adequacy.
After the materials have been approved by both the subject matter expert
and the designer, the editor assigned to the team reviews the materials for

fmal draft. Documentation products of the development phase are the
CBE learning lesson designs and the draft of materials for the entire

In the case of the Basic Skills Learning System, the development
phase produced over 1,000 lessons in the form of tutorials, drill and
practice activities, mastery tests, and off-line exercises and applications.
In addition, there were 14 videotapes and 12 student booldets containing

over 293 sets of exercises. The development phase also produced a
sophisticated student routing system which allows for pre-test, post-test

and retention testing, generates a student profile, and allows for
placement of the student within the curriculum.

Phase IV: Formative Evaluation
The purpose of the formative evaluation phase is to try out and revise

the course materials based upon actual student use data. During this
phase the following tasks are performed: 1) conduct one-on-one tryout of
draft materials and revise materials; 2) cdbduct small group pilot tests

and revise materials; and 3) edit and produce the course.
Conduct One-on-One

The one-on-one tryout of the draft of each learning activity, is

Courseware Development


conducted by the team with at least one student who represents the target
population. While this may appear to be a small saniple size, at least 50
percent of all errors are identified at this time through this very simple
process. After the one-on-one tryout, the designer, developer, and editors
Make-the necessary revisions and assemble the materials for the pilot

Conduct Small Group Pilot
During this step, a small group that represents the target population

tries the course. In this pilot test, of course, the conditions of the
environment in which the course will actually be used are simulated.

' Various evaluation instruments are used to gather data and the course is
evaluated in terms of effectiveness based on the sepcific criteria identified
in the design document. Problems identified in the imall group pilot tests

are analyzed and appropriate corrections or modifications are made.

Edit and Produce
A technical and mechanical review is performed on all computerbased learning activities and fmal editing is performed on all text and
audiovisual materials. The final edit ensures completeness and appropriateness of all materials and the course is ready for reproduction and
The Basic Skills Learning System went though an extensive formative
evaluation-phase. The_curriculumwas &livered at an adult learning
center in a major urban area. Substantial data was collected if
and analysis of that data was used to improve the curriculum materials
and the curriculum structure.

Phase V: Implementation
During the implementation phase, all instructional materials are
reproduced and distributed to a select number of sites. The course is
actually used with the target population in the intended environment.
While the course is being used withAhe intended population, data is
collected on student performance and attitude. Information is also

recorded about the students' performance after they coinplete the course.
The Basic Skills-Learning System wasimplemented in several sites
representing a cross-section of the target p*ulation. The curriculum was

delivered at an adult learning center in a major urban area, at a
correctional facility, at a military base, and at an urban city high school.

As a result of the analysis of the data collected, several instructional
materials were revised, some new materials were added, some were
deleted, more instructor/teacher options were incorporated into the
routing-system, and more flexibility was built into the entire system to
allow for teacher involvement.


288 ,

Courseware Development

hase-VI: Summative Evaluation
Evaluation in this phase is of the summative nature. It is intended to

measure the effectiveness of the course involving the educational
problem identified in the analysis phase. In this phase, data gathered
during field use of the course is analyzed and summarized. This data is

.the basis for a report containing recommendations for course and
delivery system modifications. Finally, a decision based on these
recommendations is made. If minor modifications are to be made,
corrections follow the course maintenance procedure. Usually these
corrections do not interrupt, the operation of the course. However, if
major problems are identified it may be necessary to go back to the
analysis phase to identify the source of the problem and take corrective


---SUmmative evaluation was conducted on the Basic Skills curriculum
across a number of different sites. The results indicated that the Basic
Skills Learning System achieved its objective of teaching functionallyilliterate adults to read and compute at the equivalency of an eighth grade
level. In addition, a large number of the participants in these programs

have successfully entered vocational training programs. Furthermore,
the attrition rate for the Basic Skills offerings has, been significantly lower
than tradition9Imethods, which indicates that the materials are meaning-

ful-and motivational to the participants.

It Itas been demonstrated in this paper that curriculum development is
evolving dramatically in complexity, particularly with the influx of the
computer into the educational process. As Heimer and Rizza noted (2),

"The construction of substantive, high-quality: computer-delivered
courseware is a complicated and many-faceted task that can be done
successfully only by employing sophisticated systems approaches." A
particular system approach for courseware development has been
represented in this paper and examples of each of tne phases have been
specified. The dilemma for the 1980's is how to supped the necessary
courseware development activities to produce high-quality, cost-effective
curriculum offerings. The cost of courseware development is substantial;
the number of resources both human apd technological are many; the
time required for the development process is long: and the process which
must be followed to produce a quality product is extremely complex and
sophisticated. We know how curriculum development should be done;
but,we haven't figured out how to fund it and staff for it. If the school
systems and universities, the federal government, and private industry do
not take an aggressive and cooperative stance on curriculum development,

ihe country will be plagued by individuals writing bits and pieces of
courseware which in most cases will not be quality and wili not be

C'ourseware Development 289'

used. The question of how to develop courseware can be answered. The
question of who should do the deeloping -and how it should be funded
remains to be answered.

-1. Courseware Development Process, Control Data Corporation, 1979.

2. R.T. Heimer and PJ. Rizz a, Jr., "Some Basic l'rinciples for the Design/

Development of Courses to be Delivered by Computers," paper submitted
to the 3rd World Conference on Computers in
Education, Lausanne,,
Switzerland, July 1981.

3. JJ. Pirschbuhl, "The Design of Computer Programs for Use in Elementary
and Secondary Schools," proceeding of the 3rd
Congress and Exposition, Volume I, Society of Applied LearningLearning
Tedhnology, February 1980, Virginia.
4. P.J. Rizza, Jr., "Curriculum Development" (Workshop), annual conference
of National Association of Users of Computers to
Assist Learning

(NAUCAL), Dearborn, Michigan, November 1977.
5. R.M: Caldwell, PJ. Rizza, Jr., "A Computer-Based System of Reading instruction
for Adult Non-Readers," AEDS Journa4 Vol. 12, No. 4, Summer 1979,
6. R.J. Seidel, "It's 1980: Do You Know Where Ygur Computer Is?PhiDeltapp.
VoL 61, pp. 418-484, March 1980.
7. J.E. Searles, P.J. Rizz a, Jr., "Cultural Diffusion of- Educational Technology,"
Education Technology, November 1976, pp. 45-48.
8. J.H. Poore, J.E. Qualls, B.L. Brown, "FSU PLATO 7?rojectBasic Skills and Math
for Florida High Schools" (Final Report), published by Florida State University
Computing Center, Tallahassee, Flor;da, July 1979.

3 u ,rd

Technology and Humanism=
Are They Compatible?

Edward A. Friedman
Dean of the College
Stevens Institute of Technology
Hoboken, New Jersey





illiteracy as a banier to the acceptance of technology in education. I wish
to address the concept of technological illiteracy as well as focus on a

Many references have been made in this book to "technological


barrier that has received little attention:Illetechnological anxiety. I
will proceed by first discussing some oServations of technology by
humanists, followed by comments about the nature &technology. After
providing a case study that illustrates technological anxiety and resistance
to the introduction of technology in education, I will conclude with a
discussion of some recent programs for the development of technological

Those of us who participated in the conference were probably
convinced ihat we are pursuing a humanistic goal. We believe
educators we can apPly technology to education for the enhancement of
individual growth and development. While we may sce a liberating
. potential for technology there are many who view technology as limiting.
Technology to them is associated with war, dissonance and constraints.

It is seen as a 'force that thwarts humanistic aspirations of peace,

harmony Ind freedom.

Visual StatementsTechnology and Humanism


ConceptS of tichnology and humanism are difficult to :place in
perspective, I will begin by sharing some visual statements withyou
about technology -and humanism. Artists have distilled some impbrtant
notions for Os. For example, "Bus Driver," by George Segal, presents a
rather stark representation of man in his technological world. The
painting, "Big Julie" by Fernand Leger shows the human form and a



Technology and Humanism


technol4cal forrri intertwined with each taking on some aspects of the
other. Should we view this as a sign of hope that technology can enter into

aesthetic expression or a dark portent that even the most sublime of
human visions will be invaded and degraded by an unfeeling technology?

In "Propellers," again by Leger, we see a clear glorification of
technology through a brilliant aesthetic transformation.
A Calder sculpture of bird "Le Coq de Sache," shows that in the hands of

a genius, conceptions of nature, itself can be enhanced by adopting a
technological point of view. A Calder stabile called "Portrait of a Young

Man" reveals artistic grace andr-form through a construction that
simultaneously. exudcs the essence of mechanical engineering. Calder

was, in fact, a Mechanical Engineer who graduated from Stevens
Institute of Technology in 1919. The relationship between his education
as an engineer and his creativity as an artist has received only limited
While Calder demonstrates the role of technology in the creation of

art, Joseph Stella's paintinptitled "Brooklyn Bridge," done in 1917,
reveals the role of technology as a source of inspiration to the artist The
Brooklyn Bridge as an aesthetic object and as a technological triumph

that opened new vistas for man when it was completed in 1883 has
sparked many creative fires in literature as well as art.
A profound statement about technology was made by Allan Rubin, a
young New York City painter whose work is titled "Canyons." Here the

man-made technological world stands in juxtaposition to the Grand
Canyon. Allan Rubin stated that contemporary man's enviromnent
existsits origins whether in nature or in technology are somewhat

irrelevantit all impinges upon the senses and there is grandeur
everywhere. Some may want to run from such a conception, but our earth
is small. Some may wish to reject various aspects of technology but no

man can escape the physical presence of technology. Satellites are
among the stars and electromagentic radiation is carrying information
and images everywhere. The question is not whether we are for or against
technology but how we adjust our lives to a world in which the heavens

send us both acid rain and new knowledge. We can't return to caves;
rather we must face the formidable task of trying to absorb the benefits of
technology while protecting ourselves against its dangers.

Editorial Attacks
An incredible attack on technology in education took place this past

Fall in the "New York Times." On October 21st an innocent news
article described the use of computerized systems by the Library of
Clarkson College in Potsdam, New York. The head of the Library, Dr.
Grattidge, was quoted as saying that:
"Education is basically an information transfer process."

While the use of data bases, television and microfiche were described,



Technology and Humanism

the President of Clarkson was also quoted in the article as stating that
these innovations were intended to supplement the tools of learning not
destroy them. Here "the tools of learning" meant books.
The Times then launched a barrage of criticism upon the Clarkson
project. An editorial5 on October 27th accused Clarkson ofbeing against
humanistic qualities in education. President Robert Plane pointed out in
an eloquent
letter to the editor6 that the:
. . use 'Of The computer provides students With
more of the, most
precious commoditytime; time for the rest of their education, time to
communicate with peers and faculty, time to think and contemplate,
time to enjoy the physical world about them, and yes, time to read
books. Even the most enthusiastic computer user doesn't want to read
"Moby Dick" or the "Rubaiyat" on a video display terminal."

Following President Plane's letter, on November 9th, two big league

hitters of the Times both pounded Clarkson: Russell Baker and

Ada Louise Huxtable. Russell Baker, in a sardonic column7 entitled
"Terminal Education" tried to sound the death knell for technology in
education. Referring to the librarian's quote he wrote:
"Informationtransfer process incQed. Education is not like a decal to
be slipped off a piece of stiff paper and pasted to the back of the skull.
The point of education is to awaken innocent minds to a suspicion of
inform ation."

He went on to state learning to doubt is best done:
"... in the grass, under the elm, where someone has gone to read a book,

subject to the random events of nature."

Since television sets cannot be plugged into tree trunks, educational

technology would lead to sterile learning as viewers watched their
screens in environments where in Mr. Baker's words"No trees grow
and no apples fall." If meant as humor, it is caustic humor indeed.
Technology is vulnerable to the myth of HAL that it will embrace an
extreme form to limit, rather than to liberate, humanity. Those espousing

technology in education must be wary of being transformed into

caricatures in the mind's eye of their public.
The attack of Ada Louise Hustable springs from deeper roots akin to
those that motivated Faulkner. Ms. Huxtable usually writes about
architecture. Her attack upon Clarkson was based upon the existence of
the ominous educational pursuits in the library. Since the Gothic design
of the Yale library is inspirational, Ms. Huxtable decided that she would
compare Yale's Sterling Memorial Library with Clarkson's new Educational Resource Center. In her column8 of Architectural criticism she
"Any similarity between the Sterling Library and the Clarkson
beyond the fact that they are both educational buildings devoted to the
storage and dissemination of knowledgewould be rejected even if it

She leaves no room for doubt about which building and style is


Technology and Humanism


preferablejet she goes on to admit that she has no knowledge of the
Clarkson Center. She draws definitive conclusions (in reference to the
'Clarkson Center) propelled by pure reason as follows:
"I have not seen this self-service library of tomorrow devoted to data
retrieval rather than holistic humanity, but I asiume that stylistically it
is also a model of the future that its designers envision."

A poor concept then guarantees incompatibility with satisfactory
Architecture. It is as if a Crusader denouricechhe-nesthetics- of -altMoeciffes because-they were founded upon a false premise!
Ms. Huxtt NC damns modern forces of technology in both Architecture

ind in Education because of the Technological Fallacy which she
"... leads to unreal, naive or arrogant expectations... It is Clarkson's

extension of the Technological Fallacy to defme education as
information transfer that is so disturbing..."

What gives rise to attacks such as these? In my view both Baker and
Huxtable fear quantitative style overpowering and suppressing qualitative
aspects of life. The tripwire that sets off apparent dissonance between
technology and humanism is the fear that mathematical man will seek

unconditional surrender from verbal man with the suppression of
impressionistic, subjective and poetic sensibilities. Advocates of technology in education are not declaring war on the humanities and arts, but

we should remember that in a world of limited rekurces, satellite
communication systems and computer assisted instruction may in fact
absorb funds that are needed for verdant campuses, art studios ind books
with leather bindings.

LiteratureTechnology and Humanism
These various perspectives on technology and its relationship to man.
and society have parallels in literature as well as in a vast outpouring of social

commentary. One view of technology by a twentieth century Noble
Laureate, author William Faulkner, is worth citing. In1954 anItalian
airline on its fourth attempt at an instrument guided landing, at what is
now Kennedy Airport, fell short of the runway in a fatal crash. Faulkner
saw the pilot as a victim of the "Cult of the Machine." Conjecturing that

the pilot's past experience slititild have led him to Mistrust the
instruments, he wrote that the pilot:
. was the victim not even of the failed instruments but victim of the

mystical, unquestioning almost religious awe and veneration in
which our culture-has-trained-us -to,hold gadgets. . . .

He dared not so flout and affront, even with his own life too at

stake, our cultural postulate or the Lifallibility of machines,
instruments, gadgetsa Power more ruthless even than the old
Hebrew concept of its God, sinCe ours is not even jealous and
vengeful, caring nothing about individuals."

294 Technology and Humanism
Somehow Faulkner was able to accept the technology of air travel but

drew a line at automated landing. Technology that clearly expanded
man's horizons and that was familiar could be accepted as good. New
technology that was unfamiliar, that seemed to place man in a dependent,
depersonalized position deserved only denunciation. Who would suggest
today that astronauts reject computer control of their trajectories in space

because it was in conflict with their "Seat of the Pants" instincts?
What Faulkner overlooked is that technology is created by man and is
intended for man. While science strives to understand the natural world,

technology is part of a social process that strives to modi& the

environment in response to human need. Technology might be defmed as
both the systems and objects or artifacts that are citated using knowledge
from the physical and social worlds. These systems and artifacts always

have a purpose which is to affect the activities and organization of

Technology's Role in Society
In order to explore the role of technology in our society it is necessary
to have some understanding of the essential features of technology.2 It is
not simply applied science nor is it random gadget making. Technology

seeks to solve problems using current methods and knowledge. The
objects of technology do not exist in isolation. Often these complex
systems must be evaluated and decisions made with incomplete
information. Engineering and medicine are among the few professions
that incorporate uncertainty and ambiguity into everyday practice.
While science seeks to understand, technology is action-oriented. Such
actions entail risks. These risks must be weighed against the possible
benefits. The risk of all alternative solutions must be weighed. This
process necessarily includes the alternative of not taking action.
When technology is seen as part of a social process it is obvious that
there can be both "good" and "bad", technology. Mindless gadget
making reflects the social process not the intrinsic attributes of the
technology. It is difficult for many humanists to see technology in
perspectiveit is strange. Fears that technical creations will overwhelm

their makers generates an underlying level of anxiety, if not hostility, that
is difficult to dispel. How quick we are to accept the image of HAL, the

master computer in the space vehicle of the film "2001 "3 as the
archtypical technological monster of our age. HAL tries to assume
control over the crew in an unparalleled display of technological
Let me extend the basic description of technology making note of a
concept-of anthropology. Central to one anthropoligical view of man is

the notion of man as creatorhomo faber, man the maker. Modern
technology is an extension of the first chipping of stone tools or the
casting of metal objects. Technology is as derivative from the crafts as are

Technology and .Humanism


the fme arts. Painters and sculptors have carried forward the aesthetic

aspects of the craftswhile technologists have carried forward the
In the context of this book we must examine the tension between
Humanism and the Technology that arises ineducation. Some critics of
educational technology fear that weyill be carried'by our instrumentation
along paths that we do not want. Perhaps the Mystique of a "cultural
postulate of the infallibility of machines!' could-iodeed-trap.us into the
cult ofthe machine. Another ominous possibility would be the creation of
a HAL-like teaching computer that outwits OUP progamming skills-and
begins to assert its authority as chiefpedagogue. Ifwe are practicing good
technology, then we are using technology to solve problems that arise out

of important social needs. Poor technology would tiave us force
technology upon society simply because it exists. Such aimless use of
technology for its own sake is the essence of the gadetry that Faulkner
attacked. Another potential pitfall would be to employ technology for a
useful purpose that was undermined by faulty impletnentation. These are
some of the challenges presented by HAL and his Imborn descendents.
In addition to these real pitfalls for technology ineducation, there are
also unexpected pitfalls arising from a climate of opitlion that could block
paths of potential progress. Technological backlash is always lurkingjust
beneath the surface.

A Competition for Resources


It is in these threats to the quality of life and leariiing that incompatibility of technological and humanism may lie. I do no t. believe that it is a

conflict of fundamental values but rather a compefition for resources.

Will the acquisition of computer assisted instru6tion, for example,
preclude support for strong interpersonal learning? My hope is that
technology in education will reduce costs in some iareas so that more
intensive human contact can be encouraged elseWhere. Perhaps an
expansion of computer assisted instruction, videodisc and the like will
provide cost effective teaching for facts and techniques. The savings in
time and in expense could be used to enhance arid promote the free
exchange of ideas under trees, in gothic libraries, or even in Bauhausinspired learning centers.
Part of the problem we have in evaluating these apparent conflicts
between technology and humanism arise because of limited perspective
and outright confusion regarding technology. Technology is distinct from
science but thiS distinction is rarely perceived. While scientists abound in
educational &dies, engineers, who promote technology, are generally
isolated in professional schools dealing with professional pursuits. I wish
to report that some promising changes.are.taking place. During the past
eighteen months a new organization,-The Council for the Understanding

of Technology in Human Affairs, or CUTHA for short, has recieved

296 Technology and Humanism

strong national support and encouragement. It is a group that includes
both engineers and humanists. It has grown out of an effort by about
thirty engineering colleges to provide education in technology for liberal
arts students. These educational initiatives have been well received8 and

there seems to be a rapidly growing interest in expansion of such
programs at liberal arts colleges that have had no previous connection
with technology. I believe that a greater appreciation will be developing
nationally concerning the content and nature of technology. As these and

similar efforts develop, the apparent incompatibilities between technology and humanism will be somewhat dispelled. What is more
important is that we will need all the wisdom that we can muster in order
to deal ably with real conflicts over limited resources. Our society on this
fmite earth must understand more about both technology and humanism
than ever before.

1. William Faulkner, Letter to Editor, New York Times, December 26, 1954, Section
IV, page 6.

2. Edward A. Friedman, Engineering Education, December, 1980, pp. 211-216,

"Technology as an Academic Discipline."
3. "2001; A Space Odyssey" by Arthur C. Clarke, New American Library, 1968, New
York. Based on a Screenplay by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke.
4. New York Times, October 21, 1980, Section "C", page 1.
5. Editorial, New York Times, October 27, 1980, Section "A", page 22.
6. Robert Plane, Letter to Editor,New York Times, November 5, 1980, Section "A",
page 30.
7. Russell Baker, New York Times, November 9, 1980, Section VI, page 29.
8. Ada Louise Huxtable, New York Times, November 9, 1980, Section II, page 33.

New Directions for Training Technology
U.S. Army Research Institute
Washington, D.C.





Military triining basis:a:1i I-roes:1g tirr, Isirig attention recently, and
-this trend is expected to corifinuelcir ...,tles2tiour reasons. First, the
quality of entry level miatpowevlai ieen,4 _..,1-0...sing substantially. lathe
last ten years, college entry SchOlnsth,.. Aptitude Test scores have
declined about 5 percent in matheniatier4 achievement and 11 percent in

verbal achievement. The decline is uniform across the country; it is
unrelated to economic, race, or geogaphic background. Moreover, it has
occurred during a time in which the proportion of our Gross National
Product allocated to education has more than doubled. This increased
investment has been almost entirely in traditional instructional technology. The lack of return may indicate, as Heuston has argued, that
traditional instuctional technology has matured to a point of diminishing
returns.4 The only way to increase the productivity of current education
and training institutions may be to develop new technological tools and
have them incorporated in these institutions. That the productivity of
these, institutions must be increased seems self-evident In an era of
increasing technological complexity, the proportion of individuals with
high proficiency and basic skills needs to rise,_ not fall or remain level.
Second, the quantity of manpower available for entry is severely
-decreasing. Despite the well publicized problems the Services have been
experiencing in manning their forces and maintaining their material, they

have been drawing from the litrgest pool in history. At present about
4,250,000 people are entering the job market each year, by 1990 the
number will drop to 3,150,000. These numbers argue poorly for both
quantity and quality of people available for military service. As Tucker
has suggested, it appears unlikely the our cturent difficultieS in attracting
The opinions, views, and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of tbe aisthor and
do not, represent official policies of the United States Department of Defense,




New Directions

sufficient numbers of lower ability personnel to the Services will
worsenthe sjtuation is bad, but it is not likely to get worse.I0
the ability of the. Services to compete favorably with industry
universities for high ability personnel wili rapidly diminish,

scarcity of these people as the need for them increases. increasing the
Third, the density of equipment has been increasing
dramatically in
the last 10 years. To take an example from the Army, there
one "system" per person. There is one wheeled vehicle is now almost
for every four
people in the Army, one tracked vehicle for every 20
one radio
for every six people, etc. Supplying adequate
operate and maintain these

systems is, needless to say, a challenge for the
Army, and the challenge is similar although
not quite so severe for the
Navy and the Air Force.
Fourth, the costs of training are increasing steadily. The
of Defense will expend over $8.7B on formal residential Department
training in FY
1981, of which almost $3.8B will be spent
skill training. These figures do not include
training for new systems, "team" training,
or field exercises. In. addition
to increased expenditures for salaries and benefits, the major
to these increases is the cost of equipment to be used
in "hands-on"

These problems are viewed as harbingers of
what is to come in
industrial training. Industry may well be able to compete
the military for high quality people, but this advantage favorably with
is likely to be far
outweighed by the probleths industry shares with Defense.
The problems
of manpower quality and quantity, the increasingly

character of entry-level jobs, and the costs of training
and training
equipment are just as problematical for industry
as they are for the
military. Further it should be noted that on almost
any scale, industrial
training is a major undertaking.
Estimated expenditures for industrial
training in the United States

range from $25B to SI 00B
extent, then, the problems of training and training a year. To some
technology are
genuinely national problems.

Seeking New Solutions
In any event, there is substantial reason for

government and industry
planners to seek new technological solutions
for the demands and

concomitant problems posed by current and projected
trainiug requirements. Technological opportunities are abundant and include
speech input and output, artificial intelligence, low-cost
computer graphics, videodiscs, micmdoniputers, and high
density storage.
These opportunities have yielded a variety of
bilities for training and these are the focus of the new applications possiremainder of this paper.
Most of the new training technologies listed here
developments that have occurred independent of are based on systems
training and education

New Directions 299

requirements. It should be emphasized that the real opportunities for
sustaining and improving human performance are the "functionalities,"
or capabilities based on these system- developments, not the developments, themselves. The appearance of any new functionality is unpredictable and dependent on breakthroughs inimagination and technological
creativity.---This- process is neither trivial nor one that follows autolhatically from new technological opportunities. These functionalities most

directly determine the new training technologies that must find their
place within the full suite of opportunities available for improving system
On the basis of the problems listed earlier, it is possible to specify at

least in part the kind of training technology the future and the present
demand. This technology must be accessible, accessed, relevant and

1. The technology must be delivered to and available at job sites. In
military training, as in industry and elsewhere, there is a tendency to
abrogate responsibility at the school4house door. Stated more directly,
there is an assumption that when a student leaves residential mining, the
job is done. This is not a productive point of view for at least the following
reasons: ( 1) real expertise requires an amount of experience and practice

that is completely impracticable in residential training; (2) much skill
growth occurs at job sites, not just in residential schools; (3) current
problems assure that less training will be accomplished in schools, and

less well prepared people will appear at job sites; (4) declines in
manpower. quantity will mean that fewer people will have to perform a
wider variety of jobs.
2. In addition to being accessible, the technology must be accessed or,
in short, :it must be used. Education and training are gradually shifting
from a teacher-centered orientation to a student-centered orientation.
This trend is particularly important in induStrial and military training
where manpower shortages will permit less and less use of expert human
instructors. Students are increasingly expected to be self-initiating, selfmotivating, self-pacing, self-assessing, and generally, self-reliant. The
ptoductivity of students, rather than the productivity. of instructors, is

becoming the focus, in evaluating the successbt and efficiency of
instruction. As a consequence, technOlogy must be adapted and designed

to help students meet goals of productivity rather than be grafted on
instructor-centered systems poorly prepared and little motivated to use

The technology must be relevant This is certainly an obvious

goal, but one difficult to attain in practice. Unlike accessibility (it is either

there or absent) and usuage (it is either used or not) which are easy to
measure,-relevance is difficultto establish in practice. If training is to be
relevant, it must be like the job. This means that we must either provide
practice on doing the job itself under precisely accurate job conditions

300 New Directions

i.e., the student is doing the job and nothing elseor we must turn to
some degree or another of simulation with its benefits of economy

visibility, reproductibility, and safety.
4. Thetechnology must be intelligent This is- rcontroversial
However, if the new training technology is going to be used successfully
at job sites, isolated and distant from subject matter experts and qualified
instructors, then it must incorporate in itself some of the qualities and
capabilities of expert job performers and tutorsan Aristotle for every
Alexander as Suppes and Morningstar intimated.8 In passing, it should
be noted that no distinction is intended between "intelligently" designed
and "unintelligently" designed training systcms. Intelligent training
systems may be as unintelligently designed as any others. Rather, the
development of these systems is Viewed as a specific effort to apply
artificial intelligence techniques to CBI in the sense of informadon
structure oriented (ISO) approaches discussed and advocated by
Carbonell who contrasted ISO efforts with ad hoc frame oriented
approaches based on techniques of programmed inStruction.2

New Training Technologies
In searching for ideas, "technical approaches" to meet these goals of
accessibility, use, relevance, and intelligence, we have pursued development of the following new training technologies:

Interactive Movies
One of the problems with training in which demonstrations of skilled
performance play a large part is that essential components of .the

demonstrations are, simply, invisible to viewers. This problem is

solved to a major extent by interactive movies. These movies, which are

based on microprocessor controlled videodisc technology, allow the
viewer control over such aspects of viewing as perspective (front, side,
above, below, etc.), speed (fast, slow, still frame, reverse), detail
(panning and zooming), abstraction (photographs, video sequences, line
drawing animations), plot (different actions at different choice points
yiekling different results), and simultaneous action (gauge readings,
actions by other team members).

Surrogate Travel
Surrogate travel forms a new approach to locale familiarization and low
cost trainers. Under microprocessor control, the user accesses different
sections_ of_ a videodisc, simulating movement over selected paths of
travel. Unlike a travel movie, the user is able to both choose the path and
control the speed of advance through one area using simple controls.
When he-comes to an intersection, he can turn left, turn right, proceed
ahead, or go back all under joystick control. He can travel along a path
--looking either to theleft; to the right, or to the rear as well as straight

3 11

New Directions 301

The videodisc frames the viewer sees originate as filmed views to what
one wouldactually see in the area. To allow coverage of very large areas,
the frames are taken at periodic intervals that may range from every foot
inside a building, to efeiY ten feettlown a city street, to hundreds of feet in
sk large open area (e.g., a harbor). The rate of frame playback, which is the
number of times each video frame is displayed before the next frame is

shown, determines the apparent Speed of travel. Free choice in what
mutes may be taken is obtained by fihning all possible paths in the area as

well as all possible tums through all intersections.


One promising aspect of combined surrogate travel and interactive
movies is microtravel. This capability provides interactive surrogate

travel in places where people cannot go. One example of this is
microtravel throughout a jeep engine while it is running.

Virtual Team Trainer
Many tasks are performed in teams or crews where communications and
timing of actons are of critical importance. However, training of this sort .

is too rarely provided because of difficufties in bringing together all
members of a crew at one location to use expensive equipment that is
often required for more directly mission-oriented activity. This problem
is exacerbated by the fact that frequently only 1-2 members of the mew are
the focus of the training, other members are required only as support for
the activity. Within the current state-of-the-art it is possible to assemble a
computer-based team trainer that is vOice interactive for some class of
-highly stereotyped messages using a vocabulary of not more than 2000

words and jut ir Capable of assuming the role of any or all but one
member of the crew or team being trained. As the state-of-the-art
continues to progress rapidly, less message stereotyphtg, larger vocabularies,

and more complex\ roles will be possible.

Automated Authonng
Current estimates of the amount of time required to prepare one hour of

computer program that: ( a) obtains information about a subject area
limited amounts of computer-based instniction can be generated by a
compuer- program that: ( a) obtains information about a subject area
through computer-initiated inquiry of computer-naive subject matter
experts and/or printed reference materials; (b) constructs an adequate
knowledge representation of the stibject area despite coltradictory
and/or missing information; (c).generite instructional items, sequences,
and simulations for individualized training. Such -a system can now be
built using non-exotic represeMation such as production systems, existing
natural language capabilities, and emerging notions of meta-knowledge.3



New Directions

Optimized Instruction

Much training requires memorization of relatively discrete items of
information. Substantial efficiencies in training are achieved when

student time devoted to this activity is minimized and gaming aspects are
maximized. The combination of quantitative models of learning, optimal
control theory and computer-based instruction has substantially reduced
student learning time over all other procedures evaluated.1 These results

have occurred despite incorporation of quite imptecise parameter
estimation and memory modeling techniques. Both of these have been
dramatically improved in the last several years. Precision of parameter
estimation alone has been improved by nuke than 60 percent through
application of Tukey's one degree of freedom model.7

Electronic Libraries
Electronic libraries in the form of Spatial Data Management Systems
(SDMS) provide students and instructors access to an assortment of
multi-source and multi-media information.5 Users literally "fly over"
information and select what they want by simply pointing. Spatiality is
used to cluster materials so that different information spaces represent
different concepts, instructional topics, and asstssment procedures. For
the instructor, the SDMS provides ready access to material which-might
otherwise be unaccessible. Instructors can access the SDMS to create

their own information spaces (i.e., courses or lectures) and subsequently
present such materials to large audiences in single locations via large

screen television projection or to multiple locations through cable or
satellite distribution systems. Students can independently use the SDMS
for self-paced instruction by either working through previously designed

information spaces or by browsing on their own. When students and
instructors are in remote locations, offsite instruction is facilitated by
linking two or more SDMSs together using regular telephone lines. In this

manner, a student or instructor can fly the other to a topic of interest,
sharing at geographically remote sites a large library of information.

Low-Cost Portable simulators
Videodisc technology has been used to produce low-cost visual simulators. An example of this is the development of a tank gunnery trainer.'
In this low-cost trainer, a gunner is taught to locate track, and fire at
enemy tanks. Instructional sequences consisting of bOth the visuals seen
by the gunner and the constantly changing problem information needed
tO provide instructional feedback are accessed from a videodisc. The
videodisc provides rapid access to a wide variety of problem sets as well
as high fidelity display of what is normally seen by tank gunners. The
trainers can be linked together to provide intra-tank training, for fank
crews, or inter-tank training for tank platoons. Shoot-offs:and "quickfire" exercises are presented to increase motivation. All sighting devices

31 3

New Direcdons


and sight reticles are included in the trainer. Computer graphics overlaid
on the:t video sequences are used to show trajectory and burst-on-target

information. Daytime, nighttime, smoke, and dust sequences are all
included The device captures the entertainment of arcade games in a jobrele7ant training activity.
These new developements all meet to one degree or another the need
for .training technology that is accessible, accessed, relevant, and

intelligent.- The list is necessarily incomplete and the full set of
possibilities should grow substantially over the next several years. As

new training media, these developments add power and flexibility to our

ability to bring people rapidly up to levels of performance and skill
mastery required by jobs in the military and industry. 'However, the end
goal of this activity is only indirectly the improvement of training, the

principal benefit is, br should be enhanced systems performance.
Specific training developments and training technology in general must be
fitted into the full spectrum ofalternatives available for improving system
performance. This consideration leads most directly to a mildly novel

approach to training technology development. There are at least four
aspects of this new approach Worth noting.

People are assumed to be part of the system. Especially in training

where we tend to discuss systems such as airplanes, shipsjeeps, and
rAdios, it is easy to assume that performance, effectiveness, and
"readiness" begin and end with hardware reliability and Availability.
This assumption is, of course, false. People design these systems, they
maintain them, operate them, and deploy them. People are an integral patt

of every system. Solutions to the problem of increasing Performance,
effectiveness, and readiness so often sought by industry and the military

in.improved hardviare, may in many cases, be more appropriately
obtained from any cost/effective point of view by improvements in
human performance directly sought through training. Training technology
is being increasingly viewed as at least one engineering solution to system
performance problems.

2. Coming from the othlr side of the issue, training technology is
developed for a reason. It is properly viewed as a solution to a system
problem. The goal of training research and development is not improved.
'training it is improved system, performance. The criteria for effectiveness in training technology should not concern end-of-course performance
so much as skilled performance on thitijob
whether or not the training

has contributed in a positive fashipn to effecth ness, and system
performance. Probably, we have lost sight of this perspective because it is

difficult in practice to implementitlhas been easier to examine courses

and end-of-course performance measuresbut times are now more
difficult and these measures, which typically yield miniscule correlations
with job performance measures, no longer suffice. They/are particularly
inappropriate when we find ourselves outside of the residential "course"



New Directions

paradigm and must evaluate, the efficacy of job site training.


3. We are escaping the information theory metaphor for training.
Contemporary advancas win psychology are reminding us that human
cognition is an overwhelmingly active, constructive process. in training,

as in all communication, we are snot simply -shipping chunks of
..,.k..infohnation across a channel to be gliled intact on a blank slate:Instead,
what we seem to do is pass cues for sensory simulation that are built up

by- the-receiver, Memory -itself appears to-be reconstructive, or recreative, rather than reproductive. We do not simply dredge up items for
ricAll, we reconstruct. them. We do not teach in the sense of dumping
whole chunks of information into students heads. Rather we are creating
envikriments in WhiCh, to greater or lesser degrees, students learn. It is

far ihore
efficient for people to be doing something in a learning


- environment than simply'receiving information. This is particularly true
oftithe febally unskilled Ropulations- from-which- we- must draw our
electronics technicians,tydraulics.repaimien, and avignics technicians
hence die emphasis on intelligent simulatiThis. that are accessible atjob
sites: The further training is removed freavlob relevant activity, the less

effective it is. This is noilsrignore the issue.o4ost. We need to.lmow.
what amount of training effectiveness is purchased by a unit of cost in
designing training technology.
4. We-must learn to.view-training as a subsystem., Inteltependency
abounds in Ellis business. Manpower, persame1, and training Fequirements
depend on lhardware requirements and vice veisa;, training simulator
requirements depend on the ftill training systems designed and vice versa;
training depends on selection and classification, selection and classification on training-job design on training, ft:lining on job design, job-design
on supply, supply on job design, etc. An adequate analysis capability
depends onan integrated apprcach to all these components. We need a
"capping" technology so that vie can at last make thesileadeoffs explicit
if not optimal. It goes without saying that such a technology is presently

It can be argued that little in this approach is truly novel. However, the

tendency among developers of instruCtional technology to pursue
technological opportunities with little regard for how their products fit
within the hill spectrum of instructional possibilities has been long noted
and frequently lamented. That instructional technologists are mit only
'considering the role their products should play among all instructional
possibilities but also beginning to consider instruction itself as just one of
several alternatives for increasing systems productivity may come as
something of a shock to those long used to the foibles of instructional
technologists. In retrospect, however, this trend seems not entirely odd.

After all, in the broadest sense 'technology' refers to any systematic



New Directions 305

treatment. It matt be that instructional technologists, despite their prior
predilectiqns, are among those best equipped to deal with these larger
issues of instruction.

REFERENCES:Attineon, R.C. Ingredienti for a Theoiy ofInstruction.American Psychologist, 1972,

27, w.-921-931.


2. Carbone11,1.1C Al in CAI: An artificial intelligenceapproach to computer-assisted

instruction. IEEE Transactions on Man-Machine-Systems, 1970, II, pp. 190202.
3. Davis; R. Applications of Meta-knowledge to the Construction. Maintenance, and
Use of Large Knowledge Bases. (Memo HPP-76-7). Stanford, CA: Stanford
Computer Science Depaitment, Stanford University, 1976.
4. Houston, D.H. Testimony before the subcommittee on Science, Research,, and
Technology, 2-3 April, 1980.1n,1trfirmation Technology in Edication
. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Gpvernment Printing Office, 1980.

5. Levin, S. Video Disc Based Spatial Data Management In Proceedings of the AF1PS
1980 Office Automation Conference.
Washington,D.C.: American Federation of
Information Processing Societies, Inc. 1980.
6. Olsen, J.B.; Bunderson, C.V.; and Gibbons, A.S. Learners and Learning System
Productivity (Technical Report DIS-3). Orem, U.T.: Learning Design Laboratories,

WICAT, Inc., 1980,
7. Paulson, JA. A Transformation Yielding on Additive Representation of Data in A
Two-Way Array (Technical Report 80-1). Portland, OR:Department of Psychology,
Portland State University, 1980.
8. Suppes, P. and Morinptar, M. Computer-Assisted
Instruction. Science, 1969, /66,
pp. 343-350.
9. Thomas, J.0.; Madni, A.;.and Weltmani: G. Systems Requirements Analysis and
Prototype Design of a Low-Cost Portable Simulator for Pedbrmance Training
(Anaus1Tochnical Report PATR-1085-80-2). Wocdland Hills, CA: Perceptronics,
Inc., 1980.
10. Tucker, A. Training and EducationPolicy, Issues, and Procurement Trends. In,
Conference Proceedings for NewDirections in Training Systems and Technology.
Los Angeles, CA: AIAA Conferences, 1980.



The Influence of instructional
Technology on Educaticin:
Certainties and Possibilities

Christopher Dede
University of Houston/Clear Lake
Houston, Texas





When applied to education, the new information technologies (ships,
fiber optics, direct satellite reception, artificial intelligence, videodisk,
etc.) are blely to reshape both the delivery systems used to convey
instruction and the subject matter of the traditional curriculum.-Potential
consumers of new educational technologies include very young children,
students at every level of formal education, recipients of industrial or
professional training, the aged, adults engaged in non-formal learning
activitiesin short, virtually everyone in the society. Thus, the size,
method of operation, and content of education may alter dramatically.
Such a major shift would create numerous educational, social, and
ethical consequences: some intended, some not. Research in the field of
technology assessments has indicated that theanintended, second-order
effects of a technological innovation on society are frequently more



influential, long-term, than its direct and deliberate effects. (For

example, in many crowded metropolitan areas one can travel by car no
faster thaaby horsethe greater speed of the automobile has been lost
through congestionbut automotive pollution and petroleunisvailability

remain as maior societal concerns.) Thus, attempting to anticipate all the
hiely implications of a technological advance may be well worth doing,
u seemingly minor changes in the method of implementing a technology
may have major long-term. oSnsequenct ,, and some technologies may
cause such high eventual coats to society that the short-term benefits they
offer are not worth acquiring.
Effects of technological innovation can be divided into two categories:
outcomes likelY regardless of method of implementation, and outcomes
highly contingent on the particular implementation strategy. This article


The Influence on Education 307
will provide brief illustrative lists of both types of effects. The former set

of consequences can be used to calculate the overall costs/ benefits of
using a given technology; the latter analysis can help to determine the
best approach for introducing the technology into educational practice.

Relatively Certain Effects of Instructional Technology
(One cautionary note: future researchers tend to use "short-term" and
"long-term" on a more sweeping scale than generally practiced. For the
purposes of this discussion, "short-term" will refer to effects within a

three to ten year time scale; "long-term" will indicate consequences
which may take several decades to appear fully.)
Short-Term Implications

1) a larger proportion of the society will have access to instruction,
opening up new markets for schools and increasing the overall
literacy of citizens.
2) high initial investments in development and delivery systems will be

followed by an overall reduction in the daily operating costs of
schooling. This will help to alleviate the funding problems of the
labor-intensive education sector.
3), to realize these savings, large numbers of instructional devices must
be sold and software for these will have to be centrally produced. This
will increase curricular quality overall, but will erode local control,
reduce individual teacher initiative, and necessitate rigorous quality
control for error and bias. Revision of content or approach as better
instructiOnal strategies are evolved will be difficult and expensive.
4) massive changes will be needed in both pre-service and in-service
teacher training to enable instructors to do maintenance, programming,
diagnosis, evaluation, and remediation using educational technology.

The personality types attracted to teaching. the salaries needed to
retain high quality personnel, and the intellectual demands of the
profession all will change. M many (or more) educational jobs will
exist as at present; but a considerable number of these positions will
be supported by an expanded clientele for educational services and
will be located outside the school system in industries, communities,

1) "education" (multiple right answer subject matter) will be differentiated from "training" (limited range of right answer subject matter).

Education will be done by people in schools (or their future
equivalent); training will be delivered by instructional technology in
extra-school settings. Most instruction will be a carefully orchestrated
mixture with training initially dominating. then education added in
ever increasing amounts. The present curriculum may be taught in a


31 8


The Influence on Education

third of the time it takes currently (especially where training is
predominant, as in the early primary grades).
2) a new definition of "intelligence" (the cognitive skills we most value)
will gradually emerge. Memory and lower order cognitive skills will
be increasingly deemphasized; instruction will focus on building
proficiency and analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

3) a higher overall rate of societal change will develop, both in
technological innovation and in social invention. A better understanding by citizens of the strengths and weaknesses of technology,
continual adult resocialization, and an increasing homogenization of

different nations and Cultures will be factors which instructional
technology contributes to this trend. However, the values of Western

Society msy remain relatively similar to todayfor better or for
worseas educational technology may well be viewed more as a goalattaining mechanism than as a tool for evolving iew values.
4) a fundamentally different mode of teaching/learning will evolve. At
minimum, this new paradigm will include:

a centralization of curriculum development and financing

a decentralization of the learning environment into homes,
communities, and industries
a decentralization and infonnalization ofthe educational experience

new types of government regulations to allow educators to
interface with public utilities as communications channels

a privatization of the educational enterprise, as information
technology vendors get involved
new types of diagnostic, assessment, and evaluation strategies in
response to larger grading pools and altered definitions of learner
new "machine-coupled" teaching strategies

new administrative networks, with the erosion of many middle
management positions as increased information transfer becomes

possible without intermediary functionaries
new types of people attracted to the various educational professions, with different skills and salary requirements and

a revolution in the process and content of teacher training/
In brief, sweeping changes in iioles and relationships will occur for
parents, teachers, administrator:3, industries, publishers, media, and

Possible Effects Dependent on Implementation Strategy
A variety of plausible alternative scenarios can be constructed for the
emergence of information technology as a major educational tool. One
metaphor used by future researchers is to view the finure as a "tree."


The Ireuence oirEdardlion-309We stand on the trunk of the tree ( the present) looking upward toward the
branches (the major likely alternative futures). Each step we take up the
trunk toward the branches (each decision we make in the present) chops

off a branch (greatly reduces the probability of a cluster of alternative
futures). By the time we reach the brancheswhen the future becomes
the present all the branches are gone but one (the new trunk), and a new
set Of alternative futures stretches upward.
Who the major actors are in implementing information technologies in

education and how these actors interrelate will be crucial determining
factors in which alternative future emerges into reality. In the United
States, some major potential "players" are the equipment vendors, the
media, the textbook publishers, the federal government, the formal
educational establishinent (teachers, administrators, state school officers),
and the individuals knowledgeable in software production (i. e., 'artificial

intelligence experts, television directors). Space does not permit v'
explication of short-term plausible alternative implementation scenari6s,
but a few illustrative generalizations can be made about potential effects
highly contingent on the implementation strategy which emerges.

Loss of Affect?

One open issue will be the extent to which human interaction is
reduced in the learning process. If machines are simply substituted for
people without compensatory shifts in the human teaching that remains,
personal contact and the affective skills learned through modeling others'
behavior will be partially lost In a world daily growing more impersonal,
the retention of large amounts of human interchange in learning seems
important, both for socialization purposes and to enhance quality of life.
Some degree of person-to-person interchange can be incorporated into
instructional programming if new types of communications skills are
developed that allow being person-oriented and- affective even when
interacting via the computer or television. After all, this is what an adept
media personality is able to accomplish; studying these figures- may
reveal how sociability, social presence, and affect can be incorporated
into machine-mediated communication. Certainly, people have adapted
to using letters and telephones without completely losing the human

touch; training via these new technologies could also become more
personal if tome thought is given to development
Even With- affectively-oriented programining, hOWOver, important
amounta of human contact will be lost unless time spent with human

instructors is more intensely person-centered in compensation. At
present, as the number of students per classroom increases, the human

element in teaching is b.ling eroded even without the intrusion of
machines. Some of the financial savings derived from technological
innovation could be used to reduce class sizes for human instructors.
Revision of current teaching practice to take advantage of recent findings


310 The Alluence on Education
in social and humanistic psychology would also allow intensification of
personal contact. Such a thrust should be a major component of,any
technological implementation policy.

A second" opeli isSue will be the equity (or inequity) with which the
advantages of the instructional technologies lire distributed to learners
across the nation. In the United States, several decades of work to

equalize educational opportunity and (to some extent) educational
achievement may be lost if a laissez faire approach is adopted to
dissemination of these new devices. The aged, the handicapped, the
poor, and minority groups all could benefit greatly from access to
instructional technology, but do not have the finandial resources to

compete with the affluent as potential client6le.
Market forces,_ if the- sole criterion-forimplementation strategy, will
dictate that the educational hardware and software produced be designed
for the needs of the largest and richest body of consumers: the middle and
upper class majority culture. Not only will less fortunate groups lack the
capital to invest in purchasing equipment and programs, but also the
materiali developed may well be directed toward a different cultural
background and different educational needs. Two levels of schooling

could easily emerge in a society: one geared to students who have
instructional technologies available in the home and school, another
relying solely on traditional methods of teaching. Given the potential

these technologies have for improving the educational process, the latter
group of students would-be plided in an intrinsically inferior-portion.
Moreover, early childhood experience with instructional technology
may Create an advantage that a deprived individual can never overcome
as in adult Learning computer programming, for example, is somewhat
similar to learning a second language: easy when young,-far more difficult
when older. The disadvantages to society of having a two tier system- of

educationwith its loss of available human potentialwould be


On the other hand, if equal access to high quality instructional
technologies designed to meet the needs of diverse groups were

guaranteed, educational discrimination and inequality in society might
be reduced more quickly than at present As the economic situation of
educatiorLworsens, _poor_ and minoritritudents - are-the-first-to -suffer,
these technologies -could alleviate-that problem. -Some of-the causes of

unequal achievement may be related to. a small range of teaching

strategies hying to service a broad spectrum of learning styles; through
indivichialization, technology could reverse that situation. By extending

communication networks across cultures, classes, and generations,

instructional technologies could improve the integration of the elderly,
minorities, the poor, and the handicapped into Society.


The Influence on Education


A subsidized and organized process of technological implementation
will be necessary if equity is to be helped, rather than hindered, by these
new devices. Incentives must be provided to manufacturers to produce
software for different need§ and cultural backgrounds; many schooling

systems will require additional funds to purchase equipment and
programs; parents will need training to help them maximize their
children's benefit from exposure to these machines. For both ethical and
economic reasons, society would be wise to invest some resources in
improving the training of all its citizens, but the choice to proceed With
this type of implementation must be made quickly before laissez faire
marketing begins.
A Knowledge Coordination Sector?

A third open-ended issue will be whether a knowledge coordination
sector is deliberately created as a method for national strategic planning.
At present, knowledge is produced and disseminated in most societies in
a relatively haphazard manner, with no overall perspective on what types

of ideas and skills are needed or how these can best be created in the
population. If information is to be the key economic resources of the
fuSure, research and development its major means of production, and
%human capital its ultimate source, then a society would be well advised to

attempt maximizing all these factors through some form of central
coordination. The information technologies, properly implemented,
offer a powerful means for achieving this end.
Such a knowledge coordination sector would have several functions:
anticipating societal needs for knowledge
developing in educational institutions the capacity for training
appropriate levels of human resources
assessing the capability of current institutional mechanisms to
generate needed knowledge and augmenting this ability where
organizing the dissemination to citizens of vital knowledge so that
it is fully utilized
This type of systematic approach would represent a commitment to
education in its broadest sense as a fundamental reconstructive force for

The information technologies, once established in a nationwide instructional network, would make.sucka lcnowledge,coordination sector
feasible. The economic advantagesand the general improvement in the
quality of life made possible by a more literate citizenryseem to justify

the effort involved in implementing this type of national stritegic
planning. Should this be a goal of the society, the initial implementation
ot instructional technology would have to be organized so as to facilitate
the formation of this knowledge production and dissemination system.



The Influence on Education

Decisions made today, often without thinking about long-range
implications, will be very powerful in shaping our future options. On
balance, given the relatively certain effects of implementing instructional

technology, how muCh do we wish to incorporate these devices into
education? What changes in the rest of the social structure are needed to
maximize the berefits and minimize the negative consequences of such a
shift? Are we capable of avoiding the deleterious outcomes discussed
above by choosing approPriate approaches to implementation?

The world is facing a period in education comparable to the
introduction of the printing press five hundred years ago. In converting to
the use of books, people confronted problems similar to those discussed

here: a potential loss of the human factor, the necessity for a new
educational model; career shifts, massive needs for capitalinvestment,
equity issues, etc. Although decades passed before books were used to

their full instructional potential, the shift to the printed word for
information dissemination ultimately did result in progress, increased
learning, and exciting new frontiers for education. Given a comparable
opportunity, will we successfully rise to the challenge?



Looking to the Future:
What Business Are We In?
Elizabeth L Young
Public Service Satellite Consortium
Washington, D.C.

As we continue to share our experiences and look toward the future, I

suspect that we are all a bit frustrated. Frustrated because we see so
clearly how technology can be used to aid in the educational process and

yet we also have experienced some barriers to its adoption. We may
know what works, but how do we persuade administrators, indeed entire
bureaucracies, that mediated instruction can be effective and economical.
As we contemplate how to get from where we are today: blowing some of

what can be done, to where we want to be: integration of media and
technology into the learning process, we may want to step back a moment
to focus not only on the specifics of the adoption process but on a prior
question: What business are we in?
Why should we ask this question? Let us look at the perceptions about
the roles of various institutions in the educational process. Those roles
are increasingly overlapping, and it is not easy today to say, " a college or
university does this and only this, while a library does something entirely
different" There is and will be competition in this "information society."

More importantly, there is and will be competition in the arena of


imparting knowledge. Focusing on how best to use technology is starting
with the wrong end of the telescope. We cannot ask about strategies until

we have clearly in mind what goals those strategies support. And the
question about specific goals must be preceded by the question I have
_already...introduced: Whalbusinfts areAve.in?
For example, it is probably not going to be enough in future years to
say simply that we are in the business of educating people, because a
great many other organizations and institutions are getting into that
business, too.-Perhaps we want to say we are providing a certain type of

44 education to a certain clientele with specific intended outcomes. The
more ptecise the definition, the better able we are to set precise goals and
arrange strategies.




The Future

Need for Assessment

At this point I must recall for you the classic business school story
about the need to ask the right question. It seems there was a group of

bright young scientists who had invented a superlative type of drill. They
immediately captured a share of the market, and their drill sold well:But,
after a time, their product sales hit a plateau, and they wanted to expand
the product line. So, they began asking each other, "what other kinds of

drills do people need?" Then, after awhile, they turned the question
around and asked, "what kinds of holes do people want?".That was a.
question that required research, and when their investigation was
complete, they began a whole new product lineof tools other than
drillsto thee the demand for holes.
We need to assess 'our environment. We need to review who the
"competition" is, what our resources are to accomplish our goals, what
our organizational strengths and weaknesses are. Even when we fmd out
what kind of "holes" people want, there are still questions about how to

address that need. So, too, there are unanswered questions in the

educational marketplace. And we should have no shame about using
such terms as "business" and "marketplace." For it we do not run our
educational organizations as businesses, asking strategic questions and
doing strategib planning, we will surely fail, or at best, succeed by
Let me turn now to an overview of the changing roles of institutions
and especially of mediated education.

The Public Service Satellite Consortium, which has over 100

memhers representing many aspects of the public service community,
has recently been concentrating on services to libraries. We have done so
because some of our library members, like the American Library
Association, have brought us to the understanding that libraries in the

future are going to view themselves as broadly based centers for

information exchange and mediated learning. Libraries are becoming
centers for data exchange, for the production of programs on local cable
systems, and they can act as repositories not only of books but of video

tapes and cassettes and video discs. Of Ihe more than 4,000 cable
systems operating today in this country, most have "local access"
channels, and in an increasing number of commuaities, a local library

may serve as the "head end" to program that_ channel. ,It..is..not
unreasonable to suppose that within the next twenty years,- many

libraries will have satellite receiving (and perhaps transmitting).facilities
and will be part of an intricate network for the exchange of all kinds of
information in all kinds of format, whether data, audio or video. Also,
libraries N.riew themselves as community centers and will be encouraging
broad use of their materials by a large cross-section of the public. Clearly,
then, libraries can become centers for learning.

1) 0

The Future


Museums, too, can serve some of these functions and while currently
not as far along in their vision or their planning, they have the potential to
interconnect with each other to become "nodes" on the learning network.

Home media centers will also grow rapidily since the cost of
technology will be reasonable and the availability of programming will
increase. For example, by the year 2000, many homes will be wired for
two-way, interactive cable that will deliver not only entertainment and
educational programming but such serVices as hoine 'banking and
shopping and fire alarm protection. Homes will be interconnected with
libraries and other data banks, and the telephone coupled with a display

screen will serve as the "computer." If a company called Satellite
Television Corporation has its way, many homes will be able to receive
progamming directly from communications satellites via small roof-top

antennas. Several channels of programming will be available and
educational programssome even designed for relatively small, discrete
audienceswill be featured. Additionally, most homes will have a video
cassette player. The home library of discs and cassettes will include

programs borrowed from the library, perhaps from the educational
institution, and programs owned by the family. They will be accessed for
branched, interactive learning. All this will be in addition to conventional
radio, television and print media in use in the home.

Planning Expansion of "Markets"
As educational institutions take stock of these future scenarios, they
must begin to plan to expand their markets and offerings. While we
should never-use technology for its own sake, it can become a tool to
reach newlearners. Just to focus for a moment on some examples and to

mention the technology with which the PSSC deals most regularly,
communciation satellite§ can be accessed by colleges and universities for
a number of purposes.

First, by erecting a satellite earth station on your campus, you have
access to new services. The PSSC has a number of members, including

the American Dietetic Association, the American Library Association,
and the American Hospital Msociation, that frequently arrange satellite
transmissions of seminars.; teleconferences, continuing professional
education and other types of programs. What is usually transmitted via
the satellite is one-way television, with interaction made possible by
returnaudio circuits. Such two-way transmissions become cost-effective
when they not only replace travel but enable far more people to join in the
session or meeting. Your own faculty and students can take advantage of

such program offerings. Your administrators can use the ability of the
satellite to establish "ad hoc" networks for teleconferencing on a regional
or national or even international basis.
But if you can use satellite transmissions on the campus for the benefit
of the academic community, you can also begin to envision the satellite



The Future

earth station as a community resource. Let's take a concrete example.
PSSC has coordinated several satellite seminars for the American
Dietetic Association in which their intent was to provide briefings for

their members all over the country. Ifyour campus acted as the receiving
site for the satellite-fed program, dieticians from various parts of your city
could coine to campus to participate in the interactive telecast. You might
want to offer this service in conjunction with your continuing education
division. Regardless of how you open the dodor, the satellite earth station

in your quadrangle would enable you to extend the campus to the
--ctiinmunity-in-a_very tangible way.

The third possibility is for your institution to become a provider ofservices and information. Whether it's legal seininars -from your -law
school or coverage of your winning basketball team's home gathes, there

is probably a market for what your institution has to offer. The best thing
about the communications satellite is that it is "distance insensitive." In
other words, a satellite has a national coverage area, and it does not cost
any more in terms of time or money or -energy to send a signal from
Minneapolis to Los Angeles than itdoes from Minneapolis to Madison.

If you have a service or a program that can be marketed to a national
constituency, you now have the necessary delivery system.

Guiding Prescriptibns
Assuming that you have asked and answered the question about what
busindis you would like to be in and that you have assessed the market for

your services and the tools available, I would like to suggkt several
guiding prescriptions for the activities you will undertake.
First, we must speed up the process of media literacy. By this, I mean
that we need to be concerned not only that our young people learn how to
create with and speak the language of technology but that we learn also.
Fear and bias among educators and administrators is chiefly responsible
for the lack of innovation with media in education today.

Secondly, we must change the decision-making environment to

accommodate new technologies when appropriate. It will not do to reject
technology "because we cannot afford it." In at least some instances, we
cannot afford not to use it. Those who understand its potential must serve
as the "change agents" to bring about adoption. Entrenchedbureaucratic
decision makers will not take kindly to being told there is a new way to do
thingseven if that way can ultimately be cost beneficial. Therefore, we
must devise persuasive arguments and strategies to get mediated learning
off to a good start.
Thfrdly, we must become more entrepreneurial as educators. If we
'know there is an adult, non-traditional audience out there, interested in
-certain kinds of credit and non-credit courses, it behooves us to find ways

to reach that audience. Call it marketing, or service, or outreach, it
involves expanding our horizons and our services in a way that will make


77se Future 317
them self-sustaining as well as useful.
Finally, traditional educatiomil institutions, whether at the elementary/
secondary or other levels, must become more interactive with institations
in the community that also offer Mediated information and instruction. If
the local public library is seeldng to 'reach idult learners, also, find a way
to cooPerate and enhance efforts. I am not suggesting an acquiescence to
competition but zither a healthy attitude of"comboe forces" where and
when practical.

As we-view our future service and business options, we can only be
certain that the faiure will be dynamic and that therewill likelY be more

variables to consider than even our most coraprehensive scenarios
suggest Each time we think we have'pushed development and innovation
to the limits, we are wrong. BM even acknowledging uncertainty, we can
take.the broad view that the edticational institution of today oan be mom
than the nerve center of its own tightly-knit community. It can in the not
too distant ftitUre be the nerve center (or one of many cooperativenodes
on a nerve network) for the world, the world of information, of human,
interaction, of knowledge transfer. In short, the custodian of the &true.


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