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ED 220 916 -EA 014 833
TITLE Technology and Education: Policy, Implementation,
Evaluation. Proceedings of the National Conference on
Technology and Education (January 26-28, 1981).
INSTITUTION Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington,
PUB DATE 81
NOTE 328p.; For individual papers, see EA.014 834-843, EA
014 845, EA 014 848, EA 014 850-855, EA 014 857-864,
EA 014 866-872, ED 201 312, ED 205 197, ED 205 212,
ED 206 270-271, and ED 208 871.
AVAILABLE FROM Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc., 1001
Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036
EDRS PRICE MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
DESCRIPTORS Change Strategies; Computer Assisted Instruction;
*Computer Oriented Programs; Consortia; *Educational
Change; Educational Cooperation; Educational Radio;
*Educational Technology; *Educational Television;
Elementary Secondary Education; Government Role;
Instructional. Materials; *Material/DeVelopment;
Nontraditional Education; Postsecondary Education;
Teacher Attitudes; *Technological AdVancement;
.Thirty-nine papers on the place of technology in
education are'collected in this volume of conference proceedings.
Several themes run through the collection, appearing in different
combinations in different papers. Among the major topics discussed
are the applications of computer technology to different aspects of
instruction and school administration; the uses of broadcast and
cable television and radio and of videostechnology in on-campus and
off-campus instruction; And the formation of,consortia of educational
institutions to share the costs and benefits4ssociated with-
courseware development and disseminAtion. Other major issues
considered include the nature of the changes that technology will
bring about in,traditional and nontraditional education; the role of
the government-in developing educational technology; the concepts
Affecting the develoOment of effective courseware) and the effects of
educators' attitudes on the adoption of new equipment and methods.
The .1% ajority of the papers consist of informed opinions or
gaper' ized analyses of the status of educational technology, while
others Iscribe specific programs or suggest techniques for
implementing and applying technology. (PGD)
Reproducta s supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made *.
from the original document.
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-kit:awartsour OF IDUCATION
NATIONAL INSTRUTE OF EDUCATION
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION
KThis ,doournent hes been retwoduced as
received from tt person or organization.
C) Meux changes have been made to improve
Points of view or nioirions sailed in this docu-
mentdo not nocesserily represtnt Officio! NE
:weapon or policy. ,
MATERIAL IN MICROFICHE ONLY -
HAS !MENA:PANTED BY
Do Sti4 NCI"
TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."
(Proceedings olthe National Conference -on
Technology and Education'
January, 26.28, 1981)
$ponsored by:Institute for Educational Leadership, Inc.
In cooperation ISitk American Associatice of-Junior and
Community Coiloges; American Aiiciciation kr Higher
Education; Association for Educational-Communications
and Teclmoloey; American Association of State Colleges
and Universities; American Association of School Admini-
strators; Corporation kr Public Broadcasthw Emerson
College; Joint Council on EducationaaelecoMmuricitions;
National AssocifitiOnof State Universities and Land Grant
Colleges; National School Boards Association; National
Science Foundatiom-National Public Radio; PUblic Broad-
casting Service; and National TelecomMunicatiorm aed
Library of Congress-Catalog Card No. 81-81832
CopyrigM ° 1981 by. Inttittite for- EdUcational Leadership, Inc.
:All rights reserved.
Institute for Educational Leadership, Ine
1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Manufacturedin the United Slates of America
'Edited desiMed, and produiced by Information Dynamic:a, Ine.
Congressional Perspectives on Information Technology
George.g. Brown, Jr. vii
Developing Technology to Enhance the
,Allan E. Hershfield 1
Educational TechnologyThe Congressional Perspective
Fred-W. Weingarten . 16
Technology and the Changing Ec8nomics of Education
Robert H. McCabe 22
Changing Organizational Structures to
Capitalize on Technology
Joseph I. Lipson 29
Public Telecommunications Policies and
Frank W. Norwood 35
Investing in Computer Technology:
Criteria and Procedures fa System Selection
Fred T. Hofstetter 45
New Public Broadcasting Programs and Services
Dee Brock 54
Computers/SoftwareMore for Less
Dorothy K. Deringer 63
Matching Educatibnal Neale with Available Technology:
,What is HapPening in the Rest of the World
Clifford H. Block 71
Securing Teacher Acceptance of Technology
Doris K. Lidtke 80
Effeetiveness of Technology in the Schools
Public and Taxpayers Response
Catherine E. Morgan 90
The South Carolina Telecommunications System
Thomas L Stepp 97
Higher Education Uses of TV and Ridio
Peter J. Dirr 103
Making the Cue for Changing Public Policy
Norman E. Watson 108
Faculty, Response to the Use of Technology
Dello K. Beal 115
Evaluating the Use of' TeChnology in Education
Kuala Anandam 126
Managing Technological Change in the
Dallas Public Schools
Nolan Estes 139
Managing Technological Change fit
Montgomery County, Maryland
Homer Elseroad 145
Managing Technology Change "MECO
A Management History"
John E. Haugo
Managing the Development of the Public Telecommunications
Center, Spokane, Washington
Walter Schiar 15 9
The Consortium Approach. Preserving College
Philip C. Dolce j171
Accreditation and Technology Issues
Jerry W..Miller-4 179
Deploying Educational Technology at an Independent,
Urban Institution .
S. A. Guralnick 184
The Central Educational Network's Postsecondary Service
Carol A. Koffarnus 196
Evaluating an Instructional System in Mathematics
Steven M. F*ankel 203
A Description of the DAVID Interactive Instructional
Television System and Its Application to
Post High School Education of Deaf
James R. vonFeldt 210
Saninole Community College Working.with
Twenty-Seven Other Institutions
Thomas W. Hobbs 225
Bridging the ChasM Between Telecommunications
and Higher Education
C. Gregory Van Camp 233
Cuniculum's Technology Lag (Curricula and
Robert L. -Hilliard 241
"The American Open UniversityOne Answer
to the Technology and Curriculum Lae'
Don McNeil 248
Using TV to Teach High Order Thinking Sldlls
M. Virginia Riggy 251
Computers and CurriculumPromises and Problems
Robert-M. Caldwell 257
How Can We Best Produce Courseware?
Howard Hitchent 271
How Can We_ Best-Produce Courseware?
(The Process of Courseware Development)
Pete!' J. Rizza, Jr. 275
TechnolOgy and'HumanismAre they ompatible?
Edward A. Fdedman- 290
New Directidns for Training Technology
J. D. Fletcher 297
The Influence of Instructional Technology on
Education: Certainties and Possibilities
Looking to the Future: What Business Are We In?
Elizabeth L. Young 313
r-17-1 Congressional Perspectives on
cIN Information Technology
cp(N1 Congressman George E. Drown, Jr.
r\J Committee on Science and Technology
I am pleased to discuss a subject of considerable interest to me, both
personally and as a seniof member of the Committee on Science and
Technology of The House of Representatives.
There has been a long-standing involvement of the' Science _and
Technology Committee in efforts to improve the flow of scientific and
technical information and in the application of information technology to
education. I will spare you the ancient history and only summarize the
more recent activity for you.
In 1977 we held extensive hearings on Computers and the Learning
Society. These hearings served an iMportant educational function fOr
both the Congress and the public, raising in a liigh -visibility forum some
fundaniental question about the deVelopment anduse of computer-aided
instmction. Partly as a result of these hearings, Congressmen Scheuer, a
senior member of the Committee, intzoduced a bill, H.R. 4326, calling
for the creation of a National Comthission to study the scientific and
technical implications of information technology in education. The
Science, Research, Technology Subcommittee held hearings in October
of 1979, to gather testimony on H.R. 4326 and more generally on the
Z,.. educational implications of such "new" information 'technologies as
An videodiscs, teletext, and cable and satellite broadcast television, as well
00 as computers.
These hearings made it clear to us that much had changed in the two
Min years Mowing our 1977 hearings. Not only had technology development
S: And application progressed rapidly, but there had also been an important
institutional changethe establishment ofa cabinet-level Department of
Education and the resulting reorganization of much of the federal
educational bureaucrady. (Of course, it now appears at this new
3department may succumb to infant mortalitybut that's another story.)
As a result of our October 1979 hearings, we saw a need to bring
viii Congressional Perspectives
together educators, developers of infonnition technology and the
associated courseware, and policymakers, in a forum to share ideas and
to begin charting a course for what seems certain to be an increasing use
of information technology in the educational tuture. In April of 1980, the
SRT Subcommittee joined with the Subcommittee on Select Education
in two days of hearings, a workshop for 150 participants, aixf atechnology
demonstration. The testimony of those two days left little doubt that
rapid technological advance will continue, creating exciting possibilities
in education and elsewhere. The witnesses and participants also made it
clear that public planning in this area will need to take a broad view of
what constitutes "information technology," and that this technology will
have educational impacts going well beyond our traditional educational
The April hearings helped to catalyze a number of activities. The
Subcommittees forwatded a copy of the recommendations of the
discussion groups to the Secretary of Education, with the request that the
Department identify initiatives falling within its preview and indicate
proposed actions in these areas. Partly in response to this request, the
Secretary appointed a task force on educational technology charged with
analyzing the Department's current efforts in support of educational
technology and identifying promising areas for future efforts, including
any additional legislative authority that might be needeil. I prefer not to
venture any predictions of the uses the incoming Administration may
make of the task force report.
On another front, the Subcommittees requested that the Office of
Technology Assessment undertake a study of information technology in
education, including an assessment of current levels of activity and
projections of future use and its impacts on educational and social
institutions. This study, an 18-month effort, was approved by the
Technology Assessment Board and is now under way.
The Subcommittees responsible for the April program are in the fm
stages of preparing conclusions and recommendations to the ConeI s
and the Executive Branch. I cannot yet share these w!th you, but I ould
like to share some of my personal views and concerns regr6ing the
future of information technology, in education and elsew re.
I don't think anyone needs convincing that the Inform tion Revolution
is upon us. By one estimate, approximately. half of otVwork force is now
engaged in information-related occupations, r6adIy defmed. It is
already clear that the productivity and innova e capacity of American
industry, which is an important concern of e SRT Subcommittee and a
focus of much of our activity, depends ip 4 critical way on the generation,
processing, and transmission of intr.) ation. In the home or workplace of
1990 and 2000, information te,hnologies will have uses ranging from
routine services such as eleytronic mail and banking to sophisticated
industrial applications ofAmputer-aided design and robotics.
We cannot allow developments of this importance to take place willy-
filly, without addressing some careful thought to what kind of society we
seek to build and what tools are appropriate in building it. Information is
an important national resource, and its impact on our lives has become so
great that we need to begin some serious planning of how best to use this
resource to advance our national goals.
Some of you are aware that I introduced a bill in the last Congress,
H.R. 8395, -aimed at stimulating this kind of planning. The bill
establishes an independent Institute for Information Policy and Reseal&
in the Executive Branch. I believe that the independence of the Institute
would allow it a broads and integrated perspective on such issues as
institutional structure and regulatory policy, a perspective rarely attain-
able within the btireaucratic constraints of the dispersed agencies, now
dealing with information issues. I view the Institute as a transitional
mechanism to facilitate our nation's evolution into an Information
Society. It would serve as a focal point for informationpolicy research
and analysis and would provide a forum for consideration of the
information interests of government, business, and education.
The ways in which information technology is usedor not usedin
our educational processes will have a great deal to do with how well we as
a society are able to cope with the Information Explosion. 'I" , issue of
compatibility of technology and humanism, and I -use the term to
encompass all systems of moral values, is significant. That issue should
be of concern to all of us, since inforznation technology raises some
particularly disturbing questions about these values.
When technological innovations are widely addpted, it is usually
because.they offer a demonstrated, or at least anticipated, enhancement
of productivity. InfOrmation technology is 'no exception to this rule. By
offering students both conceptual ind practical preparation in information
technology, we can help them to function more effectively in the
technology-rich environment of ten or twenty years hence. But in so
preparing them, we need to keep in mind the end goal of increasing
productivitya more humane, just, and equitable society for all. We
need to make a special effort to see that the benefits of these new
technologies are shared by all in our society, and that we do not end up
reinforcing current patterns of inequality. We need to develop in our
citizens the cognitive and social abilities that will enable them to adjust to
and thrive in an environment characterized by rapid change. And, not
least, we need to enhance the intrinsic value and sheer creative pleasure
I doubt that any two would agree on the precise characteristics of
an educational- system that could accomplish all that I have just
described, let alone how to create it. It is very likely, however, that most
or even all of you will accord an important role to information technology
in your respective educational utopias.
Butit is an inescapable fact that, as of today, information technology
is less pervasive in formal education than in virteally any other social
arena. To get to Utopia from here, we need to understand why this is true.
In my view the main reason is that teachers, administrators, and
parents have not been convinced that information technology can
increase learner productivity or enhance educational quality at an
acceptable cost. In our April hearings, this failure was consistently
attributed mainly to the lack of good courseware. It is true that the
application of information technology to education has largely been a
technology-driven process, in the sense that educational needs have not
been a major impetus in hardware or software development. I think there
is reason to believe that equipment vendors and publishers are starting to
take edncational needs seriously and are on the verge of major initiatives
in courseware development and promotion. The hature and quality of
these initiatives will have considerable bearing on the future of information
technology in education, and it is of the greatest importance that
educators have early and continued involvement in these efforts. The
development of technology must be guided, and its applications shaped,
to make it work toward that end goal of a more humane and equitable
If education is ever to take full advantage of informatkin technology, I
think it's important to understand that fundamental technological
advances, almost by definition, have the capability to change the way we
think about the world. Taking advantage of the magic of information
technology forces us to think about new ways to organize and transmit
knowledge.-Real improvements in educational quality are not likely to
result from using shiny new technology to do the same old things just a
little better. The power of videodiscs, fer example, will be wasted ifwe
simply use them as surrogates for printed textbooks. I see great
educational potential in imaginative uses of telecommunications networks
to "wire" together schools, libraries, and governmental and industrial
centers and to make distant data bases, as well as distant new and
important environments, accessible to home users. With the construction
of sophisticated "knowledge bases," computers will be able to query a
studentperhaps in natural languageto ascertain his level of knowledge
and to guide his explorations, complete with advanced graphics, at an
There are challenges aplenty in this vision of the futurefor
researchers in cognitive sciences, for courseware developers and educa-
tional administrators, and for policymakers in local, state, and national
government. I applaud your dedication to this important task and urge
you to keep up the fight. As for the federal government, one of the
witnesses at our April hearings suggested that the federal government
should either help in the appli'ation of information technology to
education, or else get out of the way. It is not yet clear to me whether the
Congressional Perspectives xi
new Ad Ministration makes a distinction between thise alternatives '
but, as for the Contress, I continue to believe that we.can help.
Developing Technology to Enhance
the Educational Process
'Allan E. Hershfield
Notional University Consortium
College Parit, Maryland
Several thousand years ago, there was an island in the Mediterranean
on whiCh the people hactresched a very high !evel of civilization. One
of the unusual characeiristics of this society was that it had no formal
system of education. Parents "educated' their childreis;in an informal
way, passing ilong the wisdom and history of their society in the course
of day-to-day activitiei.
Lace many other city states of that time, this island state had a large
central market that was both a commercial and social gathering place.
One day, a number of the adults who came to the market. regularly
noticed a fairly large iroup of children had assembled around a young
man named "Thok," and Were listening Avidly to everything Thok had
to say. They witnessed the children ask Thok questions and were most
impressed by the wisdom of Thok's answers to these questions, and by
the question he, in turn, posed to the-Children.
Attic talking among themselves, these adults agreed Thok was so
smart, and Potsessed so much wisdom, all the childfen in their country
should be eiposed to his brilliance. They approached Tholc,_and told
him they would all chip in to pay him a daily fee if he would share his
wisdom with all the children in the societythe children to be
assembled in the market place Monday through Friday from 9 Lm. to
5 p.m. Thok agreed and began to meet with the children daily. As the
adults continued to ao about their business in pie market place, some of
them listened with some enre to Tholes discussion with the yoanpiers,
and they diacovered- that Thok lied a great many thins; to say that
would benefit adults. So, they went to him and asked him if he would
meet with the adults in tha same way he was meeting with the children.
Thok agreed, ind the adults began to meet with Thok in the_ market
place froin 7 p.m. to 9:30 p m._ fives nights a week. (The market was,
afterall, of children t tie the daytime hours.)
This arrangement was successful; and went on undisturbed for
many years. As Thok got older, his voice began to weaken, and one
night, as he was speaking to the adults, a voice from the rear of the
2Enhance the EducationalProcess
market place shouted, "Speak louder, we can'thear you back here."
Thok's voice was weak and he couldn't sPeak louder, but he was quitk
witted. He walked over to a nearby palm tree, took off a long flat leaf,
rolled it up to form a mejaphone-Iike amplifir, and continued his
Presentation using the leaf. This -innovation worked very well. The
rolled leaf amplified Thok's voice and he was able to continue has
This-innovation, the use of the rolled leaf as an amplifier,hecame
routine and no one thought anything about it until one day, the island
received a visitora teacher from a neighboring city State. This visiting
scholar watched Thok speaking with the children in the daytime and
the adults at night, and noted the leaf: In his society, no one used a leaf
to teach, and so he began to ask the question, "Can tbe leaf teach."
Being an inqnisitive soul, and:after gaining the full cooperation of the
\, adults and the children of-the society, he submitted a grant propaal
to one ,of the country's largest, and wealthiest olive merchants. The
proposal laid out an ambitious research project intended to answer the
question, "Can the leaf teach?" The merchant was taken with the
question and funded the research project.
the visiting scholar theh divided the children, who assembled in the
market dyring the day, into two groups. He did the same thing with the
adults who, assembled in the market place at night to hear Thok. Then,
Thok Addressd each group separately. During the day, andone group
hear him through the leaf and the other listened to him without the leaf,
and the experiment was repeated at night. After using an abacus, and
conducting a lengthr- inulti-factoraj analysia, the visiting scholar
- _conchsded_there_ were no significant diflferences betweeh Thók and the
The moral of this story is that most. of the- people interested in
instructional technology have focused their attentionon the leaf; and not
4., on Tbok and the students. If we are going to make effective-use of
teZhablogY for educational purposesAT must move away with this
simPlistic faith in technology, and understand how to help Thok learn to
'use technology to imprOve tfie education delivered to studenti. To do
this, we must dome to understand the past and make iealistic plans for the
Vnderstanding Past-.Realistic Future Plans
Breathless 'technologists andfutUrists have been predicting a techno-
logical revolution in education, at, all levels, ever since Motion pictures
appearea more than eighty years. ago. When radio broadcasting
developed in thel 920s, it too was supposed to bring about basic changes
in our educational systems. Then,leaching machines, television and
computers were seen by many as technological innovations that would
bting aboUt fundamental changes in the teaching-learning process.
Having received Ty own formal elementary, secondary and college
education from the 1930s through the 1960sr in a number of different
Is And, systems, ,l_can_state categolically. ihat,..apart_fronLan
Enhance-the Educational Process 3
occasional Encyclopaedia Brittanica film, my contemporaries and I saw
no evidence of this so-called revolution. The educational process through
which we went was very much like the process most young people
experience, today. Although, I daresay, it may have been somewhat
Undaunted by the gross inaccuracy of previous predictions of
technologically diiven change in elementary, secondary, and higher
education, contemporary oracles are now forecasting video cassettes,
video-discs, lasers, communications satellites and two-way cable systems
will, at last, bring us to the educational millenium.
In spite of the extraordinary impact all of these technological
innovations have had (and are likely to have in the future) on American
societY in general, they have had little influence on what happens in the
average American classroombe it in an elementary or secondary
school or on a university campus. If we looked in on the average
American classroom, today, we would find one teacher of professor
standing in front of a group of students, presenting materials. At the
elementary and secondary school levelS, we might also find the teacher
'posing questions, and accepting responses from students with up-raised
hands. Thus, the educational process in the average classroom has
changed little since before the invention of m6vable type in 1448. Until
books could be reproduced speedily and inexpensively, the only way a
teacher could cojrnunicate knowledge to large numbers of students
rather quickly was to sttnd in front of them and read his or her own hand-
written notes. The students could then make their own notes foi later
study. When Johann Gutenberg began printing books, more than 400
years ago, he made this type of instniction obsolete. ?et, this approach to
education is Still the dominant mode of,classroom instruction, and the
classroom is the place in which most formal education takes place in the
Thus, we have a single model of the way formal education takes place,
and the administration of cur schools and universities, with. a few minor
exceptions, is based on this model, as are state and federal policies
related to education. Educational approaches that depart from this model
have little chance of success because they don't fit the preconceived
notions of faculty, administrators, students, legislators, and staff personnel in
departments of education, statewide educational coordinating bodies,
Before describing some of the impediments, systemic and otherwise,
that block of effective use, of instnictional technology in American
eduCation, it might be useful to sketch 'out some of the assumptions
implicit in our current model of education about what a professor or
teacher does in preparing to teach a class and in actually teaching it.
4Enhance the Educational Pmcess
Generally, educators do essentially the same thing no matter the level at
which they teach: They plan the course; present the material and make
outside work assignments; stimulate and motivate the students; assess
bow much the students have learned, report the information on how
much the students have learned to a central record keeper and to the
students, and most important, they provide an example to the students of
the way authority figures behave towards .stndents and towards one
another. Most of the_ teacher's time for a given course is deVoted to
planning and preparing the course and presentingmaterial to students. It
is, therefore, imponant to think about whitwe really expect of a good
teacher who performs these tasks extremely well.
Firct of all, the teacher should have mastery ofthe subject matter he or
she is supposed to teach. While the levelsef required mastery will vary
according to the level Of instruction, there is no doubt ourmodel teacher
should be able to select from all the information he or she knows, that
material which is most appropriate for the type of students he or she will
be teaching. Since knowledge changes rapidly in so many fields, this
means the teacher must keep up witk the latest discoveries in his or her
subject area, and must revise his or her course to take into account these
changes, every time the course is taught. 4
Secant-the superb teacher must- determine now bestto structure and
deliver the course so Ihe students will learn not only the material, but alsna.,
learn -how to solve: pmblems and how to be creative and use thee,
Effective teaching, then is a coinplex series of activities involving
many very different skills. Our traditional model ot education assumes
all teachers have all these sldlls and use them to near perfection. Yet, if
each of us were to reflect backon our own experiences in elementary and
secondary school and in colleges and universities, I suspect most of us
would be hard put to remembermore than one teacher who stimulated
and motivated us, as well as helpingus learn the latest knowledge in his or
her subject area.
From personal experience, r can say when a student has the great good
foMme to come in contact with one such teacher during the course of his
or her education, that teacher usually mikes a permanent, positive
impact on a studenes life. In twentyyears of schooling, I have been lucky
enough to have two such teachersboth of whom taught at the university
level. While I am extraordinarily grateful for having had the opportunity
to sit at the feet, so to speak, of two such great teachers,I ask myself what
about the other approximately 113 teachers who instructed me from
grammar school through two master's degrees and a Ph.D." Very few of
them possessed all the skills our traditional model of education assumes
each teacher to have.
Enhance the Educational Process 5
The Promise of Instructional Technology
The great promise of instructional technology is that it, at last, offers an
opportunity to develop models of education far different from the current
dominant one, and in so doing, make majorimprovements in the quality
and effectiveness of education. We may also be able to use technology to
improve educational efficiency. There is, however, nothing inherent in
thenature ofinstructional technology that guarantees these outcomes.
Instructional television, for example, is used frequently to do nothing
more than transmit What happens in the classroom. When that is done,
the televised lesson usually combines the worst 'aspects of the classroom
experience with the worst aspects oftelevision, without the benefits of
either form of instruction.
The perplexing issue with which all of us interested in improving
education must deal is, given the existence of new communication and
instructional technology, why haven't we been able to use these
technologies to make major improvements in our traditional educational
Why hasn't the mere existence of innovations in communication and
instructional technology brought about the same kinds , of sweeping
changes in the educational process that the invention of the steam engine
and its precursor inventions wrought when the Industrial Revolution
swept across England and then, much of the rest of the world? Critics,
searching for the answer to this question, frequently point their fingers at
teachers and faculty members, charging them with unwarranted con-
servatism, doworight recalcitrance, and being the major obstacle to
technolOgical innovation in education.
While no description ofimpediments to the use of technology would be
complete without an explanation of the fundamental basis for general
faculty conservatism, let me sketchout some of the systemic characteris,
tics and other types of barriers that make it most impossible for even
those few faculty members who might wish to use instructional
technology to do so effectively.
Comparing the Course Developmeit Processes
A good way to begin is to compare the course development process in
the traditionalinstitution of higher education with the procedures used to
create courses (instructional software) that make full use of instructional
The course development prdCess in a traditional college or university
is basically labor intensive, involving a single faculty member in the
development of a particular course. Usually,no major capital investment
is requiredexcept that originally needed for buildings, laboratories,
libraries, etc. Apart from an occasional sumnier grant to support a faculty
member while he or she develops a new course, there are no major costs
Enhance the EducatiOnal Process
associated with such-an activity. Most new courses are developed as
they are taughtwhile the faculty member is teaching other courses,
engaged in research, advising students, participating in committee work
and carrying on whatever public service activities can be fitted into a
busy schedule. Faculty are, in effect, being paid a single sum of money to
develop and to deliver a course.
Unlike the traditional course creation process just described, courses
developed to use technology effectively often involve recording an entire
course of much of the material in advance, in one or more formsfilms,
videOs pes, computer programs, programmed texts, audio-taPes, slides,
carefiilly-structured printed materials; etc. The development process for
thisAype of course is different from the one just described, and is not
corsistent with common institutional practice, state policy, faculty and
administrative values and behavior, and the traditional model of
Imagine the reception a group of foreign language faculty members
from three different universities in one state would receive from their
department chairpersons, their deans, or vice chancellors, or the head of
the state's postsecondary commission or chair of the legislature's finance
cpmmittee, if they mtde the following request
Atter careful study and thought, we believe we can make a major
improvernent in the teaching of French by developing a technologically-
based pagan% to be used at our universities, and other universities in,
the state which might wish to buy or rent our materials for on-campus
use, or for off-campus, adult education. We plan to begin by developing
an introductory French course for first-year students. Here L what we
need to create this course.
We (ill three of us) need afull year of released time at- learning
theorist; and instnwtional technologist, two graduate assistants and a
full-time secretary, all at a total coit of $124,000. OW group,
functioning as a course developnieht team, will develop and test an
introductory French course. When we have completed this develop-
ment work, we will need another $150,000 to produce color video
cassettes, audio_ cassettes, computer-based programmed texts and
examinations, controlled vocabulary reading materials and adiagnostic
entry examination to be administered to all entering students. We will
also need $10,000 to hire as consultants the three senior experts in this
field in the United States, as well as several of our colleagues from
other universities in this state. When the course had been completed
and is ready for delivery, our three universities will each have to spend
$50,000 to deliver this course. Moreover, because the students will be
spending a great deal of time working independently with the materialS
produced for this course, and less tithe listening M us live in the
classrootn, our nwnber of student contact hours will be reduced
substantially, but because this course will be used to teach many more
students than we could have taught in the traditional mode, we should
havemduced course loads. If these materials are sold or used outiide of
Enhance the Educational Process 7
our universities, we should receive residual payments similar to those
paid to film and television performers. Finally, we'll need to provide
$15,000 per year for possible annual rvision of a portion of the
Although this approach to course development may seem over blown,
it is very similar (although not identical) to the development process
used by the British Open University to develop superb, internationally
acclaimed courses that are used by adults who cannot attend a college or
univeriity, on campus as full-time students. The development of one of
these British Open University courses costs more than $500,000.
The example just presented demonstrates only one of many ways of
creating course materials to Make effective use of instmctional technology.
Other somewhat less complex and expensive approaches can be used
with good results. This example is pirticularly useful, however, because
it provides such a stark contrast to the traditional model of course
Now, let me describe some of the barriers that make it ll but
impossible to use a sophisticated course development process similar to
the one just described to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of
Current administrative practice makes it impossible to consider
fiffiding eourse development in the high technology mode. Funds are
allocated to departments, and the largest proportion of the budget, 70 to
86 percent, is used to pay salaries. Ideas which do not fit this "bits and
pieces" resource allocation system areexcluded from consideration.
The full-scale, technologically-based course development process is
heavily capital intensivewith very large amSunts of resources being
required to develop a single course or unit. Capital is needed to produce
Ind.test the software: to set up and operate* system to deliver the course,
and to provide funds to update the twenty-percent of the soffirare °Ivan
Few, if 'any, American states, C011eges or universities have any regular
mechanism for funding course development activities of this nature on a
large scale. Development of this type, to the .extent that it does occur,
almost always takes place Is anunusualuception to existing practice.
The only way such heavy capital investments can be justified is for the
course or its various components to be used by very large numbers of
studentsmany more than a single faculty member would normally
teach during one academic term. Let us pursue this point further by
analyzing the situation of one of the three faculty members mentioned in
our earlier example.
Assume a faculty member normally teaches three different three-
credit courses per term, and the average enrollment in each course is 30
students. Using current adminlitrative terminology, the faculty member
would have "generated 270 student credit-hi:Airsninety for each course
(3 credit hours X 30 students @ 90 student credft hours 3 courses @
270)." If the faculty member's salary were S26,000 per year, for a nine-
month contract, and the academic year had two semesters, the direct cost
8Enhance the Educational Process
of instruction in the traditionatmode is almost $39 per student credit
hour ($26,000 V 2.semesters$13,000 per semester V 270 student
Looking at the high technology model, the costs mentioned above
Capital $344,000 for software development
Recurring annual costs $ 15,000 updating and deliVery, of
,This does not include the -facultY member's salary that is-treated
below. Since the average faculty member would seldom teach three
sections of the same con:* driringone sernester, let us assume two of the
three sections he or she teachesare of the same course, and this is theone
which will be produced using the technological approach to development
In two sections of this course, Lwith 30 students each, the faculty member
will generate 180 student credit hours. The cost for his or her salary,
. apportioned by student credit hours, is still $48.15.1f thetechnoloecally-
based course were to be used only once to teach two sections ofthe class,
the additional costs per student credit hour generated would be
$1,855.55. The faculty member's salary added to that would bring
overall cost to $1,903.70per student credit hour generated. Uweassume
the course will be used five years, without major modifications, (the
$15,000 budget for recurring costs is for minor modifications) to teach
two sections per semester,or foursections per academic year, the faculty
member would generate 1,800 student credit hours, and the annual
capital cost would be $78,800 derived as follows:
One Time Four-Year*AevisiOn .Capital Cost
Capital Cost Cost at $15,000 peryr. 5 yr.
$334,000 + $60,000 = 394,000 5 yrs. @ $78,800
* No reyision required during the first year:
The cost of course development would be $218.88 per student credit
hour. Adding the cost of the faculty member's salary, we arrive at a cost
of ahnost $267.03 per student credit-hour generated, if the course
developed is used only to teach those students the individual faculty
member would have taught anyway. The cost for this form of delivery
would be mcire than 5.5 times thatof instruction in the traditional mode.
The course would have to be usedto teach 3,416 students over a five-
year period, rather than the 600 who wouldnormally be taught, to get the
cost per student credit hour downto $38.44, not counting the added cost
of the faculty member's salary. This analysis makes it clear that the full
scale use of technology cannot result in the more efficient delivery of
educational services within a few univeisities and colleges unless
technology unless technology is usedto displacefacully membvs. This
paes 4.M.ciaTental dilemma.
Enhance the Educational Process 9
The Dilemma of Development
If One were the president of a large manufacturing firm, interested in
increasing .the Productivity of the manufacturing operation, he or she
could- call upOn the research and development section to develop or
aiquire new, and More efficient machines or processes. Once these were
available, management would make the decision to install them in the
factory (assuming there westno legal obstacles such as union contracts);
the workers would be instrult.W on how to operate the new machines;
they wbuld begin- tci operate IfferN and the coinpany *mid benefit from
increased produCtivity, and in most instances, so would the workers.
Unlike the fact*, it is the University's "workers," the faculty, who
mtist develop the software to be used on the computer, the television set,
the teaching- machine, etc. Thus, even those -few -individual faculty
members who might be willing to tryto develop new, More _effective and
efficient-approaches to delivering educational services, would stop very
quickly once they perceived they were being asked to invent the means
by which to put themselves and many of their colleagues out of a job.
Many individuals who push for the wider use of inatructional
technology seldom-Aake into account student attitudes .toward auch
developments. In an Urban-industrial society, increasingly depersonalized
by the use of technology in alrnott every -phase of life, university
students are not.likely to be pleased with an approach to instn4ction
they perceive will qlford -them less face-to-face contact with their
professors. Indeed, there is some anecdotal evidence ,to suggest
substantial numbers of older adults may enroll in exterision courses
primarily to be with other peopleand to have an opportunity to interact
with the professor.
Faculty, too, generally react negatively to what they perceive to be the
depersonalization of the educational process that may result from- the
increased use of instructional technology.
There- are those both within and outside of our institutions of higher
-education who appear to be.breathless_enthusiasts for mediated instruc-
tion as an end in itself. Such individuals take on a variety of formsallof
which with good reason, tend to alienate the faculty.
Absence oj Technology Objectivity
Itiadifficult to find, within most Amerkan universities and colleges,
trained instructional technologigis whOein deal with a -wide- variety -of
technological and non-technological approaches to education with equal
competence, -professionalism and ease. One tends to fmd exPetts in
instructional television, computer-basedinstruction, And audio-visual
equipment such as film and overhead projectors, etc. Each of these
individuag is a devotee of his or her particular form of technology,
"Experts" such as these often lose sight of studenta as the beneficiaries of
andrectimmends -it- vigorously to resolve every pedagogical problem.
the educational process. -
Moreover, faculty, administrators and students have all-t000ften been
frustrated by the failure or inadequacy of both the equipment and the
10 Enhance the Educational Process
software provided by these "experts," and this too eontributes to the
reinforcement of negative attitudes towards the use of technology.
A second, but no less vexing, aspect of the instructional technology.
panacea is frequently demonstrated by a politician, state agency official,
or self-styled-expert who sometimes exhibits a bid case of "mediaitis."
This illness takes at least two forms. A symptom of Type A Mediaitis is a
suggestion that gobs of money could be saved if only "we would putone
faculty member on television, somewhere in the state, and broadcast that
faculty member's sterling lectures to thousands of exPectant and eager
--students." Typt-BsMediaitis is-someWhat-different InthisfOrth of the
illness, an expert spends a great deal of time expoimding upon the need
for a particular type of technologically-based delivery system, e.g.,
broadcast, closed circuit TV, satellite, videodisc, etc.
-Having described many of the systemic barriers to the use of
technology to improve educational effectiveness and efficieridY, if nav
seems wise to attempt to understand the basis for the university and
college facultY's general conservatism towards new approaches to
instructionboth-technological Mid non-technological.
Because the selection of instructional techniques iS almost always a
matter of free choice by each individual faculty menilier, new approachei
to instruction will onlY be adopted widely if each faculty member is made
aware of a particular innovation, becomes interested in it, tries it,
evaluates the results of this trial, and if pleased with the results, adopts the
approach 'More or less permanently. Very few university and college
faculty Members go through this proceSs of adopting newapproaches to
instruction because their training and experience do not move them in
This is the case because there is a single more or less pervasive model
of excellence in higher educationthe prestigious research university:
Faculty members. who are successfid in such institutior..; emphasize
certain activities and patterns of behavior which are antithetical to
seeking out and using-Information on new approaches to instruction.
These Patterni of ficUltY behavior are also not- consistent-with- the
requirement that the development of high technology education software
is, of necessity, a team effort requiring the close, collegial cooperation of
a variety of professionals.
As graduate students, most doctoral candidates focus their attention
on becoming competent in one or more sub-fields of an academic
discipline and on acquiring the skills needed to do research within that
sub-field. They, also learn, from their faculty mentors, that the primazy
function of university faculty members is to push forward the boundarita
of knowledge in their choSen speciality by doing original researchthe
results of which will contribute to the development of a body of theory
and will be publishable in the most respected scholarly journals in
their discipline. A closely related function is that of communicating the
knowledge they acquire to graduate and undergraduate students.
The emphasis, then, is on highly individualistic, creative, intellectual
Enhance the Educational Process I I
work focused on problems defined by an academic discipline. Judgments
of the quality and quantity of a faculty member's published work are
made largely on the basis of evaluations made by specialists in his or her
disciplinary sub-fields, many of whom are at other institutions of higher
educatipli. These judgments and those of his or her departmental
colleagues are of primary importance in decisions on promotion and
tenure, and to a lesser extent, annual salary increases based on merit. A
faculty member's performance will bejudged by the extent to which heor
she conforms successfully to the behavior pattern described above.
Departures form that, pattern will be punished by negative evaluations.
The reward structure in prestigious,research universities reinforca the
highly individualistic, creative intellectual behavior patterns learned in
The pattern of faculty behavior just described is dominant in most
research universities. It is, indeed, one of the primary reasons for the
preeminent status of our mt5st prestigious universities. Faculty at these
institutions have made extraordinary contributions, to the gowth and
development of human knowledge, and these contributions have been
stimulated by the system just described.
Another major aspect of individualistic faculty behavior and institu-
tional practice is that a single faculty member usually teaches a single
course. This is neither the most efficient nor most effective way to
develop packages of mediated materials which will be used widely. With
respect to the use of mediated materials, it usually leads to "the not-
invented-here syndrome" often expressed by an individual faculty
member not involved in the development of the mediated materials as
"those materials are not of sufficiently high 'quality to meet the
educational needs of my students." (Translation: 'That isn't the way I
would do-it, therefore, it doesn't meet my quality standards.")
Hone cannot expect a technological revolution in higher education to
begin at prestigious universities, is it then possible that other, different
types of American institutions of higher education will make the changes
necessary to move in new directionST-With the possible exception of
some community colleges, the prospects for this sort of change are not
good. The reason for this is that even though there are relatively few
prestigious research universities, *there is a single model of excellence,
in the minds of most faculty members and administrators, and many of
them exhibit all the patterns offaculty behavior found-in die research
institutionswithout producing the quantity, or quality ofpublications
produced by their counterparts at Harvar4 YaleStanfor4 Berkeley,
Wisconsin, Michigan, etc.
These less prestigious American institutions are, the ones which might
be expected to adopt more effective and efficient approaches to
instruction and learning. Most of them have not done so, however, and
All facuk9 members, regardless of the type of institution in which they teach, must be
actively engaged in the pursuit of knowledge. This is the only way they can be sure they are
providing current, accurate information to their students. This does not, however, mean
they must be involved in "state of the art" research in their discipline.
12 Enhance the Educational Process
will not do so Until alternative models of excellence emerge and are
awarded sOcietal recognition. Unless and until that happens Most of
these colleges and universities will continde to emulate the research
institutions in behavior and values. if not in high quality scholarly output.
The suggestions which folio* are intended to help these colleges and
uniYersities wishing to use the high technology mode of instruction-
overcome many of the foregeing barriers.
Policies and Practices Intended to Facilitate
the Use of Instructional Technology
A number of changes -in institutional policies and procedures can
activate faculty to become= involved in the development and use of
instructional technology_ and at the same time, protect their jobs, and
reward them for their efforts. Here are some general stateMents which
might be included in a policy designed to attain the goal:
1. The faculty, students and administration of University
commit themselves to develop and use instructional technology
whenever there is sound reason to believe such technology can
improve the effectiveness and the efficiency of education. Since the
-centetif and-the pedagogical_objectives of all courses do not
necessarily lend, thems&es- to a technOfogicalSteatment-major--
development efforts will:be undertaken only after.discussion by the
-parties involved and general agreement that such efforis-should be
2. No faculty member currently employed will be displaced by
-3. Within the frameWork of #2 above, technological approaches to
education will be used to:
a. Extend- the capaeity of faculty to ser7 larger numbers of
students More effectively; and
13: Where jiossible and appropriate, to substitute for faculty-
members who are planning on leaving the instinition volun-
tarily; to fill-vacancies created by death; and to begin new
programs or courses for which new faculty would normally be
4. Productivity gains derived ftom the development and use of
-instnictional_technology, if any, will be shared with:
fa. The faculty members who jiittieipate-in-coursadevelopment
b. The-academic departMent of schools to Which the faculty
mentioned in "a" are assigned; tInd
c. The main funding source for'the instituton (e.g., the state, for
public colleges or universities, and the trustees of independent
5. The faculty and the administration will, together, develop an
Enhance the Educational Process 13
institutional policy on ownership and use of mediated materials,
the development of which have been completed .With substantial
institutional resources. This policy will define and protect both
the institutioni's and the faculty member's rights and obligations.
Among these are:
a. The institution's right to recoup funds committed to develop-
ment, in the event there is a substantial external market for the
b. The faculty member's right to additional remuneration from
external distribution, after the institution's capital investment
c. The conditions under which the materials may be used bY the
institution in the event the faculty member terminates his or
d. The faculty thember's right to ensure the continued accuracy
and utility of the materials by the regular provision of
institutional resources for annual revision of a specified
percentage of the material (ten to twenty percent);
6. The extent, character and quality of a faculty member's contribu-
tions to- the development of mediated materials will be given
substantial weight in the tenure, promotion and merit review
7. New means will be developed for assessing the efficiency of
instructional techniques making heavy use of instructional
While any one who has ever taught in a classrciOm-w6uld have grave
doubts about the utility of the number of student contact hours* as a valid
measure of anything, it is clear such commonly-used measures can be
major impediments to faculty members who might wish to develop and
use high quality instructional software. To do so could reduce markedly
their number of student contact hours.
Obtaining Development Capital and Measuring Efficiency
State and nitional goveinment officials and individuals in the private
sector, interested in stimulating the use of instructional technology, must
create some regular funding mechanism to provide the capital necessary
to develop and deliver instructional software, and they must be willing to
re-examine and discard those measures of efficiency that prevent faculty-
and administrators from developing and using technologically-based
approaches to instruction.
Many American public universities are reouired to reoort the number of student contact
1%ours (the measure of students X the number of credits for each course) to state
\ governments. This statistic is used as a measure of efficiency.
Enhance the-Educational Process
Encouraging =Wider Use of Instructional technology and Avoiding
"The Not-Invented-Here Syndrome"
.Individual faculty members generally have different areas of expertise
within the same discipline, and one is likely to get a mediated course or
unitin which the content is accurate and current if different faculty
members handle that part of a codrse in whiCh they five the greatest
expertise. _A second reason for actively- involving as many faculty as
possible in the development of-a single course is that by doing so, one
greatly increases the probabilitY each of the facultY members will
approve the use of the course: This should increase markedly thenumber
of students who will use the course. Another way to expand even further
the numbers of students and institutions using a course, is to leave out
certain segments or sections of the course, but to suggest some ways that
faculty in other institutions and departments might prepare materials for
a these segmentstluis personaliiing the course and, increasing the
probability these faculty and dePartments will use it Using this "blank
spam" technique is one way of mitigating "the not-invented-here
syndrome," and encouraging creative and individualistic faculty to give
their own personal touch to software developed elsewhere.
To get ab individualistic faculty member to become a full participant in
a group of professionals Working on a common Project, one probably has
to make it possible for that faculty member to work with the group on a
full-time basis, long enough to complete workon the group project Poing
this shout& remove the faculty member from his or her workday
university world and the system which reinforces individualistic behavior.
An explicit orientation may also help the facultymember understand the
difference& between the normal pattern of faculty behavior and-that
required to develop packages of mediated -materials successfully.
Such an orientation might explain that the effective development and
useof instructional-technology is basically a_ team effort which requires
careful planning and the close cooperatian ofhighly skilled professionals
in several fields. First and foremost among these is, of course;the faculty
member. The faculty member is, the content expert responsible for
ensuring that the course goals are realistic in terms of the entry level
=knowledge of the Students; that the content is appropriate to both die
students' entry knowledge level and the goals of the course, and that the
content is both current and aecurate.
While the faculty member mustbe treated as the first among equals,
someone must be put in charge who hit a firm understandingofthe entire
process, and can activate Cboperative effort and who can resolve disputes
in a creative abd non-destructive manner. Whichever member of the
'team can bestcarry out this sophisticated leadership function, stiould be
put in charge of the project In any event, the faculty member must have
the find word on content
Enhance the Educational Process 15
An orientation program during which the points just stated lire made
would help the faculty member adjust quickly to the new circumstances.
This adjustment would be facilitated further if sooperative efforts were
reinforced by group processes and financial rewards.
Both students and faculty must come to understand the advantages
they can derive froni the effective use of instructional technology; what
the limits uf this technology are; and when it should not be used.
The high technology4 capital intensive, mode of couise development
described earlier can best be used for those courses and parts of courses
in which the content is relatively stable, and the teaching-learning
objectives -are fairly clew'. Basic, introductory courses in almost any
discipline other than performance courses in theater arts, music and art
are genirally appropriate for this type of development work.
In these types of courses, the professor's role should be changed, by
use of the high technology mode, to that of a tutor in comparatively small
group, face-to-face interaction, rather than a presenter of material to
hundreds of students assembled .in Massive lecture sections.. The
advantages of this type of faculty and graduate assistant role change
should be obvious tO both students and faculty.
The high 4echnology mode probaply should not be used for.those
courses or parts of courses in which the content is changing rapidly, or in
which students and faculty are studying-or doing research on problems
for which there are no known answers. These would include someiunior
and senior courses and a- good many graduate seminars. One could,
however, probably make a very good case for the high technology
development of introductory research methods and statistics dourses
normally required in many graduate programs in the physical, biological,
and social sciences, and the full range of courses in Many professional
Akhough sOme univelsity-level instruction may not be suited- to the
development of sophisticated packages of mediated materials, American
educators are maids% little effort to use instructional technology
effectively, in their regular programs, in those areas that show great
promise. The problems I've described are not insurmountable. They can
and will be overcome, given initiative, imagination, commitment- and
cooperation on the part of the faculty, administration, students and those
governmental institutions that supervise and provide ftmding for education.
The 'technology to improve both educational effectiveness and
efficiency is now available. If educators do uot reorient themselves
quickly to take advantage of this technology, private industry and new
types of non-profit educational organizations will do so.
Educational Technologr- .
The Congressional Perspective
Fred W. Weingarten
Office of Technology Auessment
Even in the Most stable political times, a person would be pletumptuous,
indeed, to attempt to present a Congressional perspective on any topic.
:Who Could speak for more, thin five hundred highly, independent men
and women? And theie- are anything but-stable times on the HU The
Federal role in many, areas of donsestic life is likely to be reasseued, and,
in the view of many observers, education will receive its share of
Sensing that use of-information teChnology in edema:on:is going to
-present new oppatunities and problems for Federal pahoy makers,
-Congress -has reqUested that the Office of TechnologY Assessment
(OTA)Prepare for it a report on information tecinriogy and education.
This assessment has just started. A report on its initial directionsmight
givesenne sense of how Cengress may choose to look at education policy
in light Of new information technologies, and that task is -the one I will
t\9 undestakelhis morning.
Ic% The Office of TechnologY Assessment
U% The Office Of Technology Assessment is an agency of the Congress. It
is -responsible to both houses of Congress and is dirented by a
Technology- Asiessment Bowl connoting of three members fiun each
N, party, Atom each chamber. Its role is to examine the long term effects of
% -*they dui** regarding technological issues.
OTA' studio,- generally last from severalmonths to:a few years, in
Stk contrast to the generally shorter,' mote tightly focussed studiet conducted
by -the Congressional Researth Service -cc the General Amounting
`44 Office. The agency does not make policy recommendations to Congress,
bht rate; trim to ptoject -as objectively as possible the available
The Congressional Perspective 17
decisions afict their social, etonomic- and political effects. Each study
Must be requested by at least on6 fiat- committee and approved by the
what has heen said so far:
The Federal Governinent has nothing to de with education.,,it's.
The Defense Department- spends an estimated twelve billion
-dollars on manpewer training.
-The Federal GoVernment has never done anything with the
express intent of aidingeducation per sebut to achieve other
The Federal Government pays over ten percent orthe budgets of
local- schixit disocts.
These are just a few, of the eminent: I have colleded in the first few
months of the study, iiictthey illustrate the paradoxes in U.S. attitudes
toward-a Federal educaVon policy that mikes a study such as this so
complex and undertaking
It is clearly possible _that_tbe_new information teehnology_ holds great
prom* kir' traditional edueation. This same technology, coupled with
our evolution into an "Information Society," is also changihg the very
_meaning of educatien, the mechanins for providing it, and the nature of
societal demands for it.
The purPose of this study is to examine these technological trends,
assessmhat they have to offer the educational process, determine how
their are likely to be used, and explore how the Federal Government
might respond'HoPefully, the study will answer the follov4ing questions.
Are there policies that will encourage the use of infonnatidi technology,
are Ihere legislative or regulatory barriers, and est there potential
problems stemming from educational use of infornition technology that
may call for legislative-remedy?
Comniunicating this aisessment to Congress it complicated by the
problem that educational policy is not made solely_ hy,Committees with
the word "Education" in their titles. The Armed Services Committees
must wotrY about manpower, the Civil Service Committees- about the
competence .of Government workers, the= Commerce Committees are
concerned with copyright and the Science and Technology Committees
are concerned with communication policy and R&D. Thistype of cross-
tutting issue isi-theoretically,a particular specialty of OTA. in reality, it
is hird to focus ind communicate sucha study.
The study has four major goals:
Assess Existing Federal Interest and Roles: The Federal GovernMent,
18 The Congressional Perspective
even-though not directly responsible for the -schools of this nation, has
many programs that affect them and many interests_ in_ the quality of
education in the United States. What are reasonable objectives for the
Federal GoVernment that may shape policy strategies?
Determine Opportunities and Barriers for Use inthe Schoolr-Many
experts think that the new developments in information technology hold
great promise fertile schools. Tileprcblems ;acing the schools have been_
cataloged in many places. Theyinchide the following:
A declining support, from taxpayers as the percentage Of the
taxpaying population with children in school drops and as the
support- of the middle class for public "education declines.
Increasing pressure -from the Government and the Courts 'to
provide equal access to education for all types of students, racial
minorities, non-Eng,fish,speaking groups, the handicapped, and
other 'such groups. In addition pressures to -sery, more varied
student groups in the traditional sectors oeducation, new
demands for education by women, by the elderly, and by those,
trying to adapt to a changingjob Market, are also creating new
demands on the education establishment.
The increase in labor costs as experienced in all service sectors.
Productivity inereases often depend upon the substitution of
capital for labor. Those activities that haVe not traditionally been
subject- to productivity improvements are squeezed by the
inflationary prestures of labor costs increasing faster than the
overall inflation, rate. .
The need to train more proactive and technologically sophisti-
cated citizens, to _help the U.S. economy and to Provide more
effective citizens in an informatiOn society.
Faced with these pressures, it is only natural that education decision-
makers woukl ask whether the neW advances in information technology
cotild contribute to solving their problems. Can inforMation technology
improve the quality of education? Can it improve access to education on
the parts of those for whom it is difficult because of physical restrictions
or geographical separation? Can it provide better productivity offering an
improved product at lower cost'? At the least, this report should be able to
summarize for The Congress what is known about the potential benefits
and costs of information technology:
Assuming that a set of policy options might be intended to encourage
the use of information technology, it is also important to describe the
barriers that exist to such use. Many have been proposed in the literature
-and ta me in preliminary conversations with exper's. Among them, the
need for teacher training might be pointed out, along with the lack of
sufficient support in the way -of training and service, the existence of
overly restrictive purchasing policies, and ignorance at the higher
Nwdministrative levels of the school bureaucracy.
The Congressional Perspective 19
A number _of problems that could be characterized as societal, or
Constitutional, in nature need to .be examined. _Many experts have
expressed concern about the long term effects on learners, particirlarlY
children, of rePlacing the classrOom experience by television or cornptiters.
As another example, the use of infonnation iechnology may greatly
increase the amount of record-keeping on students. More records .of
traditional types of information -such as-test scores or other types of
claisroom performance will be stored in machine readable form for !Ong
periods of time. In addition, new ,types of information conderning
thinking processes, psychological diagnoses, and so on inay be collected
and retained. What will be the privacy rights of students under these
circumstances, and what will be the-responsibilities of the schools in
handling this.data. An analogy may be seen in the area of medicalrecord-
keeping, in which hospitals and doctors have been deluged with a
plethora of new legislation and regtilation at both the state and Federal
Anotherissue will be equity. As information services become a major
industry, information is becoming a significant marketable commodity.
An important question Will concern the degree to which access to some
basic threshold of information literacy is a basic right of U.S. citizenry.
One scenario would hold that the benefits (if they exist) stemming from
the use of information technology in education may accrue only to the
private providers and, perhaps, to the well-off public school districts.
This trend would leave the poorer schools, those serving the poor of
society, in the lurch. Should such a scenario come to pass, the schools
could serve to increase rather than_to narrow the bridge between groups
irr this society,-to provide barriers rather than bridges.
A final-example is the-problem of Federalism. The schools, as the
quote at the start of this paper suggests, have traditionally been regarded
as the preserve of local government. One of the general observations that
have been made about high technology it that it tends to centralize, to
Place a value on thelarge operations, as opposed to the small. True, this
tendency is the subject of endless argument about whether this iinperative
is necessary, but one can observe that most automated systems to date
seem to centralize control. Any Federal policy toward use of information
technology must take into, consideration the possibility that more
national conticol and less local choice over the content and style of
education will result. This centralization may not be onlyon the part of
the Govenuirent, but reflect the influence oflarge publishers, broadcasters,
program_ produCers, and the like. Choice of curricular material may
simply be restricted.
The-Changing Role of Education ,
Evidence mounts that in the firture information society edudation will
be provided by a much wirkr spectrum of agents. Historians of education V
20 The Congressional Perspective
such its Lawrence Cremin have point out that education has, fora long
time, been provided in a number Of environments other than sehools.
These -other providers may be in-a position to exploit the technology,
more quickly and effectively than can traditional schools. The following
examples come to mind:
The investment by industry in training and employee education is
not well-known, but estimates range from $40 billion to $100
billion. We do know that the number is large and growing rapidly,
Surely faster than the budget of the schools. More important than
size, the type of eduCation offered by employers is also changing,
moving toward topics, such as writing skills, that have traditionally
been considered the preserve of the education establishment
The recent White HOUseConference on the Library spent much
time discussing _the importanCe of the library in an information-
sotiety is a purveyor of knowledge rather than an archive,a role
that, again, borders closely on that of the schools.
Many museums, partieularly the relatively new science and
technology museums and the even newer children's musetuns,_
are developing -public setvices that are clearly educational in
Public broadcasting, radio and television, whose recent emphasis
on cultural programming may be under strong challenge in light
of new cable and broadcast satellite technologies, may return
more closely to their original interest in education. Several
proposals have been floating around that show revived interest in
a- nationwide, broadcast-based educational service.
In the microcornputer market, manufacturers are starting tO
attack the home consumer market directly with educational
devices such as "Speak and Spell" and software packages for
personal computers such as.the Apple and the TRS 80 that are
starting to appear in the home. Videodisks, if a large constimer
market develops, could stimulate a similar trend.
These trends affect Federal policy in a number of wayi. In the
first place, they may- offer opportunities, provided the markets
can be guided or encouraged to develop.
However, these developments may also cause difficult poliCy problems
for The Congress. The public schools may be under even greater streises
than they are today, if an economic, more effective, andmore convenient
ilternative source of education is available to the middle class. To the
extent that the alternative is available to those who can afford it, the role
of the public schools as the educational system of the last resort becomes
vital. And the Federal Government may be called upon to provide the
funds to support that role.
-Thai CohgressionalPerspective 21
The principal aim of this part of the study will be to determine whatt
Congress may wish to achieve, and to decide what policy levers exist to
accomplish those goals. --
The assessment will develop a limited number of policy scenarios that
appear to befessible and responsive to the various probteiris discussed
above. Among them, expanded in detail, with substantial fme structure to
be added, might be the followinx
A laissez-faire policy that keeps a strict distance between the
Federal Government and developments in education, save for a
few efforts to remove unintended barriers to the developing
educational use of information technology.
Some form of a VoucherAystem-may be adopted that removes
Federal support of the schools directly, but that recognizes the
developing choices of educational style and provider.
The Federal Government could direcdy subsidize the schools in
order to sustain a free public education system and to enable
schools to obtain the new technology they used.
The Government could directly fund the creation of educational
materials, curriculum, television programs, and soon, thitWould
be available to all users.
Agencies such as NSF could greatly expand support for research
and development on information technology for education.
These efforts could include dissemination programs to help
schools get access to the knowledge developed by the projects.
The Assessment will consist of three stages. The first, nearly
complete,' is a study planning phase. Second, there will be data
collection and analysis, and, finally, apolicy assessment will be done.
An advisory panel of distinguished experts in the field ot education is
being assafibled and will meet shortly to kick-off the data collection and
analysis effort: This work will be conducted by in-house research staff
and outside contractors and consultants,.
I will close by saying that the success of an assessment such as this will
depend greatly on the quality of help that is provided by die interested
communities,. From experience with other projects at OTA, I can state
with certainty that the report will probably not fully satisfy anyone. It
must present the full possible spectrum of actions for Congress, and
represent the interests of all stakeholders. However, it is the active
involvement of those stakehoklers that assures that their interests are
fairly and completely represented.
Technology and the Changing
Economics of Education
Robert H. McCabe
President Miami-Dade Community College
After years of faltering progress, it is_ now reasonable to forecast
substantial growth in the use of technology in-postsecondary education.
Colleges and universities will change dramaticallyin the decade ahead.
A series of factors, incuding operational econoMics, will stimulate
greater use of communications technology. As a basis foç discussing
changes in the'Use of technology, it is important to take a brief look at the
changing clientele and services, Public attitudes towards higher education,
and some considerations in financing
By the end of this decade, the successful postsecondary institutions
will be very different from the present: For one thing there will be more'
older students. For a number Of years state "legislatures have been
awaiting the widely forecastdecines in highereducation enrollment. All
were aware that there are 20 percent fewer eight-year olds than eighteen-
year olds in America today, and that high school enrollments were
already declining Yet, the decline has not materialized. The reason is
that growing numbers of older Americans are beginning college careers,
or returning for continued educational servies on a lifelong basis. For the
lf) first time in _the fall of 1980, there were fewer first-time-1n college
stio students who came directly froni high school than those who did nota
considerable and important-change. More individuals are coming back
'present jobs. In my fields continued education is being required to
on a continuing basis to upgrade _their skills often simply to, keep their
maintain certification or licensure. The paramedical fields are a very
Ct( good example. The average American has three careers during th
444 worklife, and many students_ return to college to facilitate c
career:Many others return for personal development. This ispart* arly
Chinging Economics 23
important to the substantial number of Americans who have jobs that are
not personally fidfdling.
Another major change will be the continued diversification in every
attribute. The older students have more life-experience and:necessarily
more varied, competencies, knowledge, and attitudes. There are more
part-time students; more from previously under-served Minorities; and,
most importantly, more with less academic skill. We are now in _the
thirteenth conseeutive year of decline in -academic skill for American
"-high school graduates as measured by standardized tests. If one uses
1975 norms on standardized academic-tests -with 1980 high _school
graduates, the median score is tenth gildeeixth month. This decline in
skills has profpund impact on colleges, especially cOmifilinitycalleges. It
has brought public concern for the quality of our work, and with it
growing dentand for standardized testing competency-based programs,
and increesed use of assessment and standardized measurement This in
turn is requiring a more directive approach to the educational program,
and the-need for increased information concerning progress for students
Less Academic Skills
Students are coming with less academic skill, and colleges are being
asked to upgrade expectations and raise standards. Thus, colleges are
faced with a critical dilemma which will be very difficult to resolve, but
some tliings are clear. For one, the application of a standard amount of
educational services will not bring a student who is considerably behind
academically to the expected standards. Further, the tremendous
diversity among students will require time variable and individualized
programs. The programs must be more directive, with considerable
control of student flow. Only through the use of communications
technology will these necessary changes take place. I seeno prospect that
appropriations to colleges will be increased sufficient!), to achieve these
ends through the use of additional personnel. Even if funds were
provided, it is doubtful that the-necessary changes in program could be
achieved without utilization of the capabilities of the improved
There are so many important changes in communications technology,
that for this presentation I will select only a few on which to comment.
There will be many new ways to deliver television to the home, but most
imisattant for education are the growing cable networks. Unlile open
circuit broadcasts,lcable delivery can present specialized fare for low
volume listenership. Even the public television open circuit broadcasters
worry about the impact on programs before and after educational
programs which draw small audiences. Audiences that are practical for
24 Changing EcOnontics
delivery from the standpoint of the educational institution are often
viewed negatively by open circult broadcasters. Cable operators have an
entirely different view. Thus, the spread of cable systems may resolve the
serious broadcast access problems of the colleges.
The growth in videotape recorders and the adient of videodisc plaxers,
of course, have important implications for education. At this time -in
Miami there are seven videotape purchase and exchange-operationi
-within a ten minute drive of my home, and prices for exchange are
dropping rapidly. Already more than 4,500,000 homes have videotape
recorders. With the beginning of sales of videodisc players, some
educational discs are being offered for as little as $5.95, and disc players
have fascinating flexibility, particularly for information, storage, and
random access. With regard .to equipment, it is important to us in
education to follow the home market development, as the volume sales
will reduce prices to the minimum, and in the long run it would be well to
think of the equipment in individuals' homes as part of our educational
-011 the computer front there are two developments that arecf special
interest One is the tremendous gain in power of microcomputers. The
impact is well illustrated with the .Miami-Dade Community College
RSVP system, a combination of CMI/CAI systems which is operated on
a $2 millionmain frame configuration. We are currently worldni with
other institutions to redevelop this system with limited compromiies on
scale, and added capabilities. The new system will requie an $8,000
microcomputer configuration. This will not only make the system more
available in Miami-Dade, but will make it practical for the smallest
institutiOn. This is a major economic breakthrough, not only because of
the reduction in the cost of the hardware, but, even more importantly, the
potential-for reduction of per-student cost for software. The number of
students who will benefit from a software package (course) both dictates
the financial feasibility of the development of the software and the level of
that development If many institutions have similar equipment, the
number of potential users imreases, and more dollars can be allocated 'for
the software deyelopmentand quality software is costly. The very large
institutions have always been able to develop some course software,
while small institutions have had limited capability. Now small institutions .
-*ill be able to afford to acquire quality computer-based courses for their
students from the large institutions, and the large institutions can have
software for a larger spread of their curriculum, as they can draw from so
many sources. Tliis should result in a boom in development of high
quality computer-supported learnink programs. When we reach the
Changing Economics 25.
point of volume utilization thatwill permit modest charges per student to
amortize development costs, institutions with very few students and
small facilities will be able to access broadly diversified learning
programs. From the standpoint of economics, what is created in effect is
a situation similar to a very large lecture section with supporting faculty
The other development in computers that interests me is what I call
"Christman games" computersthe very small processers that utilize
the television receiver as a screen, operate interactive games, and sell for
lets than $200.. I an intrigued by the possibility that such a micro-
processer, particularly the type that utilize cassettes, could be in typical
homes by the end of the decade. The possibilities of combining such a
processer, a videodisc player, and a television receiver are fascinating.
With this configuration, colleges could easily deliver quite sophisticated
branching programming with interactive learning arrangements, particu-
larly where drill is essential; From the standpoint of economics, it is
important that the eqnipment is in the home. Not only because of the cost
of acquisition, but also from the standpoint of maintenance of equipment.
The discs themselves are very inexpensive to reproduce, although high
volume is necessaiy. If this part of the work occurred at home, there
would be no investment in plant or equipment for that part of the
individual's educational program. There is investment only in software
development and/or purchase. The discs, which are quite durable, and
the cassettes, which are very inexpensive, .could be checked out to
Another important application of the use.of videodiscs, cassettes, or
telecasts relates to the growing need for recertification and the learning of
neviskills and information to maintain current positions. While in urban
areas it might be practical to configure sufficient individuals to operate
standard classes, these services must be delivered on a location variable
basis. Many individuals live in areas where there are not enough persons
with the same need to operate a standard class arrangement; thus, only
methods using video appear to be practical. Further, the developments in
many fields today are so rapid, and in some occupations the number of
specialists so few, that it will be necessary to develop such programs for
use throughout the country, or at least throughout a state. It would be
impactical for each institution to attempt such programs independently.
Impact of Student Financial Aid
One change which has taken place during the past five years and has
important future impact is in the area of student financial aid. Begkining
with the post World War II G.I. Bill, the federal government has used
financial aid to student& as a principal vehicle for expanding access to
postsecondary education. It has left the fmancing of operations to state
and private sources. In recent years the expansion of the Basic
Educational -OpPortunity -Grants (noW -the Pell Grants) -and other
fmancial-aid increases in many institutions -resulted-in-a-majorityof the
fulkinieStirdents receiving financial aid. Thus, most of the students are
being paid to go to college. This has brought with it a growing concern
the the -people -who-receive- this aid-benefit- demonstrably frofir-the
services, and-make progress toward achieving,the objectives for which
the grants are given.-Without question this further contributes to the need
for more measurement and more inforritation about student progress for
-the institutions, the government, and the student. The institution's
approach to students must be more directive. This type of feedback and
control cannot be achieved without the use of communications technology,
and there is clear evidence that much headway is being made. There are
at least five national guidancer-sytemS utilizing interactive computer
applications, and many institutions are developing other applications to
take greater control-of the student-flow process.
-Monitoring Student Progress
Progress based on the concepts that students can-take any courses that
they want at any time, have a right to fail; should get credit for any
coursesdevelcipmental or not, are dead. At Miami-Dade Community
College-the student's progress through the institution is now monitored
from point of entry to exit:There is assessment, placement, competency
requirements to move into collegelevel courses, restrictions on load as
early as seven credits attempted, required intervention courses as early-
as fifteen credits, individualized letters to all 45,000 students after six
weeks of each term concerning their progress in each course, and
computerized information at the end of every term concerning progress
toward graduation and towards meeting the requirements of the institution
to which they are planning to transfer. All of this is at increased cost to the
institution, but is an absolutely necessary part of the cost Of a student's
education, and only affordable because of the use of communications
The key in the econoinics of education is massing. Simpli put, if large
numbers of people want to do the same thing (take the same course), it is
easy to develop traditional classroom delivery methods that meet
economic expectations. A well run student scheduling and registration
procedure should tie able to handle class siie for large enrollmentcourses
almost like an assembly line filling milk bottles to the proper level. But,
where the numbers of perions taking a single course is small, class size
ccntrol is lost and costs rise. Where the number of persons with the same
goal begin with considerably varied skills traditional methods break
down, and individualization through the use of personnel, is clearly
beyond our fmancial capability.
Changing Economics 27
There are a number of things that can and should be done that involve
technology, and that are economically feasible. However, one should
never forget most students, especially Older students, are anxious to have
a personal interactive experience, and the number of students who work
well completely without such interaction is relatively small. One of the
purposes of the controlled student flow system at Miami-Dade
Community College is to reduce the student diversity in the broad
spectrum of courses, so that there is reduced diversity in academic skills
in the classes. In that way, faculty can deal more effectively using
traditional methods. In this case, technology, is utilized to make
traditional practices more economically feasible and more effective.
Individualiz a tion
When a learning program utilizes technology so that a faculty member
,does not deal with students in a class group, individualization, rather than
being more expensive, becomes less expensive. A result is produce4that
economically is similar to large group instruction. The new technologils
provide tremendous capability for individualization that seem not only
desirable, but absolutely essential if we are to deal with our much more
diverse student body, and preserve the opportunities for students to
interact with faculty and staff.
One important key, and perhaps the most difficult hurdle for academic
institutions, is cooperation. Technically, the improved capability of
microcomputers and the new developments in video -have made: the
sharing of materials among institutions very feasible. TO reducethe cost
.per student for development, it is absolutely essential to share the
development cost, and good software is expensive. None of us,
regardless of size, can expect to develop all of our ownit is, simply not
economically possible. The teohnical developments that have made
sharing practical, and the experience of the cooperation of a number of
institutions over the past decade have provided important steps- in the
right direction. In terms'of academic attitudes,- there is still kway to go.
Faculty-like to do their own thing in their own wayit is part of the
academic tradition. While progtess is being made toward necessary
collaboration, it is also important to provide for manipulation of softiVare
so that faculty in each institution, and, if pasible, each faculty member in
an institution, have some way to make the materials their own. Yet, there
is no escaping the need for faculty to workin collaboration if educational
services are to be delivered in the most efficient and effective way for the
;. One advantage in the introduction of technology into the institutions in-
21, Changing Economics
am& is that it appears certain that the reeistanceamong faculty Will
der** for use of techcoloiy is no lingerunusual The gosvth in the use
of Computers and video in- every lield, and -the daily interaction with
tsclaricigy in the lives ofstudents airclfircukywill =keit seem/gra* in
_the Mars if the- initihkions do not 'Use communciatiOns
The Mire growth _in the use of technology in higher' edwationis
cat*. It holds great hope farus in corninunily collegetto finally match
our keg heidaspiration to help each student succeed through realistic,
affordable, and effective educational programs. ,
' NI Changing Organizational Structures
cr. to Capitalize on Technology
mi ibseph I. Upson
t c%) Notion& Sdence Foundation
i::) Watthington, D.C..
Most observers ogee that educational teclmology has na lived up to
its promise. Many &mons for thii havi been paposecL I would hIce to
explortjte possiblity that an important reason is the following
We have tried to bnplement new technologies with a school organiza-
tion that evolved in taconite to an older teclmologythe technology of
the clissroom, the blackboard and the textbook. The effective use of
educadonel- technology wil'iequie the Mrolution or design of new
If this is tnie, it *lies thit 'schools should be re-organized to help
people to be productive with the new inforaation technologies such IS
the coaputer, the videafisc, and the ccamunications netwak. By
orgadizational structure I mean simple, rraxlsne things such as who
roports to whom, how the budget is Allocated, hovi .the budnet is
organized, who must sign-off before various decisions or purcksAl are
Made, the names given to organizational units, unit descriptione
goali, job desotiptions; how people are hired, who can ask whom to any
out a task, and who must apprOve requests fir Fork by a given unit or
co.iplex and chimps more rapidly, I); our organizational structure must
Ratted ideas are that as educational technology "becomes more
-become more adaptable, less rigid, and 2). we must invest more of our
effort in the design ind maintenance of the orianization,that helps us to
use this technology.3. 4
)' The Challenge of Innovation
railroads, the steel Wish'', the auto induitry; and sobools have so much
Why is, it that established organizations such. u the hotels, the
difficulty raponding to the opportunities of new technologiel? Why is it
(Li that innovations are so difficult to institutionalize? Perhaps the stay is
something hie this: Laup.established organiations tart a life of their
Z. 1 0
10 Organisational &roams
own. They do stable and suecessful. Presumably they are successful
because their organizatibnal structure was, during their time of growth,
well-suited to the tools of their operaticin. Theirorganizational structure
was appropriate. They were well-organized to enable people to be
productive ,with the technology them available.
Their very suet:els and stabilityis what getsiong-lived organizations
place by a set of, eprinp, a small disturbance bringi forces into play that
return the ball tO the bottom of the bowl or return the spring-held object to
.its original position. Similarly, when& stable organization is disturbed by e.
an innOvation, forces come into plpy to resist the innovation and to return
the siMation to normal. The status quo is the condition of stable
equilibrium. All departures from the statio ,quo are resisted.,
In a personal conVersaticii, Rob Spaulding used the analogy of
residence to infectibn. If we think of the school or School systern as an
organism, an innovation is analogoug to an infection. The school systein
immediately:responds to maintain its character Ind its integrity, to resist
the infection of change. Etch individual in the system thinks that s/he is
acting autonothOusly and intelligently,not realizing the myriad ways that
the organizational structure Ind procedures are encouraging hini/her to
act so as to reject the innovation. There issome evidence that awareness
of the forces ope4ting on us helps us to resist thern, to -be more
discriminating in our actions and decisions; and if our consciousness is
raised with regard to the subtleways our organizations, influence us, we
may-learn to modify our traditional reactions.
I.have seep the following haPpen several times: An individual
Proibuor will become intereated in using sonie form of educational
technology.Tor a while s/he it able to resist the fbrees that encourage a
rettirn tothe status, quo. If energy in the form ofresources (e.g., money,
released dine) is allocated to the innovation, then for a while a tenuous
stability cab be breated.bf all the innovationsthat are tried, a few may
even be coMPitible with the existing structure and such innovations may
survive and be institutionalized (e.g., the research institute, the use &the
Xerox mabhine). However, the more common courie of events is that
evendially the professor gets tired, lives or is simply forced to Ore up the
innovation and the system. The schoOl returns to the status quo.
At the microscopic level of detailed human interiCtions, many causes
am Observed and offered as reasons for the failure ofan innovation: The
faculty member feels that his/her efforts are MX adequately considered in
the promotion/tenure process. /slot enoughhelp is provided. &federal'.
grant runs out and there are 'no replacement resources made Available,
and so on.6 HoWeVer, after observing theprocess of attempted and failed
or limited institMiOnalization several times, I have come to the hypothesis
that the prob)im lies deeper than the surface events imply and that the
solution must dealwith the deeper relationships betweeirbrganizational
Organizational Structuies 31
structure and the way -we- use the tools available to us.
Put another way, we need social- and organizational- inventions to
enable us to effectiVely use new hardware-and software inventions. As
Dobrov3, 4 states,
without technology, society is disarmed; without technical knowl-
edge and people ivho can manipulate it, technology is stillborn; without
social organization enabling- tedmological systems to be rationally
used and developed, those systems are oflittle Use and can even 1*
The Existing Technology
If cine looks at mod schools and colleges, one sees that our curriculum
and the activities that we assign to students are -largely limited and
controlled by our reliance and commitzneat to word and symbol oriented
technologies. These technologies are the classroom, pencil and paper,
the blackboard; and the textbookin contrast to the held trip or
laboratory, and the TV/computer screen or direct observation. The
existing technologies are used because a.) words and symbols are to
important to the educational -process tind.b.) tlfeY ire reliliiieffehetii
The result is that studen(activities with objects, photographic images,
and equipment are not well represented in the curricullith. As a further
result we have the recUrrincomplaint that students can repeat word and
symbol strings' but:that *.:ty do not have the skill needed foractually
doing things. This distinetfon is characterized as the difference between
knowing what and knowing hOw, the difference between declarative sus;
procedural knowledge. Examples of the differetice are a.) being ?Ile to
describe the operation of an auto engine vs: being able to design, build, or
repair an engine and b.) being able to state mathematical rules or
theorems vs. being able to solve problems with those rule*. (Note.
Another technolOgy that hat seriously influenced education is the
nidtiple choke test. There is evidence that students who are preparing
for a multiple choke test engage in different kinds of study activities than
those who are preparing for essay or problem tests. In general, the
anticipated form of aisessment [e.g., having to make an oral presentation,
having to teach a class while, being obseived, having to carry out an
experiment or construct a work dart] modifies the activities students use
to prepare. The cOnclUsion is that a technology that allows a wider range
of assessment procedures to be carried out economicak and reliably will
modify the -learning experiences of students. The computer is such a
Departments and Clastroom Teachers
The organizational siructure that has evolved to effectively use the
existing technologies is a realtively flat one (i.e., a group of peers
repotting to a department chairperson) that tends to focus on the teacher
:in the classroom as the basic operational unit with the subject-based
32 Organistuional Structures
department as the basic-organizational unit. Services, administration,
budgeting practices, promotion and tenure, etc., all tend to sipport the
classrOom teachers in their standard role of developing knowledge using
words and symbols. I know that many teachers would disagree with this
and exiress dissatisfaetion with the degree of support- they get. I would
propose that their divatisfactica with anything except direct support of
their role in front ofthe class is one ofthe forces that tends to maintain the
current structure. Teachers resist anr.new organizational arrangement
that drains resourdee from traditional classroom activity. In my view, this
is correct is lceg as the principal sources ofproductive woric in the school
is the teacher-led class. The question is, can we invent new technology-
based arrangements .ffiat, with different combinations of roles, tasks,
reporting lines, schedules, etc. an more productive and more satisfying
to both faculty and students? There are interesting examples in medical
education and in the case of the British Open University that suggest but
do not prove or conclusively demonitrate that this may be possible.
The Failed Technologies
The motion picture, television, radio, the LP record, the electric
typeivritir, the audio-cusette player, the video-cassette player, and kits
of laboratory materialihave not had a signifiCant knpact upon the nature
of the currAculum and the qUality of foaml school education. In order for
them to hair had a greater effect many inter-related steps to modify the
organizational system would have had to be taken: -new purchasing_
regulations, new federal, state, and local arrangements to support
curriculum development, new organizational support units, _new in-
service and pre-service training programs, new budget formulation
Procedures, etc. would have had to-be developed.
For example, hecaustof its new organizational structure, the British
Open University has the largest publishing operation in the United
Kingdom and the docnments they print are widely used throughout the
higher iducation aystem. In this case an organization modification was
required to enable higher education to serve the distant, isolated learner,
and a resuk has been the creation of a hUge organizational subsystem to
exploit the existing print technology. A similar story holds for their TV
production. However, Oen the British O.U. has difficulties in using new
media because of the fact that they have, a matrix organization of course
teams combined with academic departments of the Open University.
The academic departmeats seem to_ be the culprits that create a
reeistance to innovation and may eVen be a force for reversion to a
campus' system with classes, etc.
The New Technologies
The compuer, telecommunications networks, and image devices such
as the videodisc offer a wide range of instructional options.1, 2,5 Even on
Organizotional Structures 33
a Straight economic basis the continuing reduction in the cost of
computing combined with the increasing cost of printed materials
suguests that electronic publishing will compete directly with printing
within the decade of the 80's (Evans, 1979). The question is, can we re-
organize otir educational systemat all levelsto make effectiie use of
these new information teehnologies?
At the national level; can we coOrdinate the resourde allocation and
decision procedures to have needed equipment standards, inforination
and dissemination networks, and courseware development?
At the local and state levels, can we create support units such as the
science teacher suppott centers that Doug Lapp has designed and
implemented in Virginia? Can We develop -nevt training provims for
teachers to use the new technologies and for authors who are needed to
create the new materilli?
At the achool level, can we create new organizational arrangements
that move away from the cottage industry format of the classroom and
that allocate resources to the purchase, maintenance, and improvement
of educational technology systems? And can we do these things in a cost
effective way ,that makes the schooling experience more interesting for
both faculty and. students?
The Likely Scenario
If the above questions are to have a pesitive response, their urgency
needs to be recognized si every level of the system. Decisions are drilien
by emotions, and until the problem of educational technology has
emotiOnal and political Rome, little is 'tidy to happen. One of our tasks is
to find the arguments, images, anecdotes and demonstrations that give
the issue tbe needed-force. Some of our best arguments will be Oen
during this conference and also are listed in existing documents?, a My
expectationis that the new technologies will begin fo take root outside of
the formal systeth through home learning, through industrial training
programs, through medical training programs, and through militaty
'training programs. When they are sufficiently established outside of the
colleges and public schools, smite schools and colleges will respond to
the thallenge and try new organizational schemes to use the technologies
and some new schools,and colleges willhesres4_! d scifically to make
use of the new technologies. Oral Roberts University is a .posSible
example of the latter case. The use oftechnology is built into the structure
of Oral Roberts; and the contracts of all faculty require that they learn
about educational technologies, contribute as authors, and use the
Knowledge and skill are so critical to a modern society that eventually
'inter-national pressure will require the organizational changes needed.
Forethought and planning can make the transition easier, can minimize
the pain of change; but the change is inevitable. Failure to make the
34 Organizational Structures
investment of human talent and ingenuity will cause much greater misery
and dislocation at some future time. To paraphrase Ann Landers:Unless
we take the steps to renew the quality of our schools, we will become a
fourth-rate nation without a shot being fired. Ipropose that the intelligent
and 'humane use of educational technology is, a necessary part of any
program of improvement.
1. Atkinson, Richard C. and Joseph I. Lipeon,Instructional Technologies qf the Future
paper delivered at the APA 886 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada,
3, 1980. (Copies available from Lipson, National Science Feundation, W=Z
2. Brown, Gone E., Jr., Chairman, Information Technology in Education, Joint
Hearmps bekre the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology if the
Committee on Science and Technology and the Subcommitteeon Select Education of
the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Rewesentatives, 96thCongress,
Apr98il 2, 3, 1980, No. 134, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.,
3. Dobrov, Geimady M., Technolog, as a Form qf Organization, inint. Soc. Sci.
Journal, Vol. =CI, Nri. 4, 1979: pp. 585-605.
4. Dobrov, Gennady, M., The Strategy*. Organized Technology in the Lightqfl ad:
Se-, and Org-ware Intenwtion, in Long Range Planning, Vol. 12, August, 1979:
S. Evans, Christopher, The Micro Millenium, The Vildng press: New York, 1979.
6. Hershfield, Alan F., Education's Technological Revolution: An Event in Search qf
Leaders, m Change, Vol 12, No. 8. November-Decemixr, 1980: pp, 48-52.
7. Uspon, 3.1., Instructional Technology and Organizational Structure in Higher
,Education, in Fraley, LE. & Vargas, B.A. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Third National
Conference on Behavior Research and Technology in Higher Education; Society for
Behavioral Technology and Engineerjog. 1976: pp. 215-220.
8. Lipson, J.L, Technology in Science E n: The Nat 10 Years, in Con;puter,
Vol. 13, No. 7, July, 1980: pp. 23-30.
9. National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Educationfor the 1980's
and Beyond Report to the President q fthe Unued States, subm;tted by Hufirtedler,
S.H. and Langenberg, D.N., 1980.
10. Molnar, Andrew R., Understanding How to Use Machinato Work Smarter in an
IrOrmatian Society, in T.H.E. Journal, Vol. 7, No. 1, January, 1980: pp. 42-46.
(Note: Dr. Molnar has written a large number of important articles that represent
advanced thinking and planning for educational technology. A list ofthese articles may
be obtained from Dr. Molnar, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Public Telecommunications Policies and
Frank W. Norwood
Joint Coundl on Educational
Of the numberless public policy decisions which impact on
schools and coileges, few are farther from the educator's focus of
attention than those Which shape communications policy. The school
superintendent or the university chancellor may know that the Federal
Communications Commission grants licenses to cothmercial and
noncommercial radio and television stations, but it is not likely to occur
to either that that has much to do with education or with education's use
of technology. What may happen in Geneva, Switzerland, at the
International Telecommunications Union's World Administrative
Radio Conferegce, cc how the work of CCIR Study Gmup 10/11B or a
Joint Government/Industry Committee might open or close education's
doors to a future full of satellites, computerized data bases, interactive
cable television systems and the like are questions not even formulated.
With or without the participation of educatms, decisions are made.
With or without their knowledege of the war, the battles for
canununications policy advantage go on. And their results impact schools
and colleges-- and the options for ofkampus learners as surely and as
1\n- seerely as if the superintendent and the chancellor understood the
demonstrable fact that other parties lire deciding their future for them.
N., The JCET is concerned with this interaction of communieations policy
and educationid policy because it was born in response to a policy making
crisis. In 1950, the Federal Communications Commission struggled with
a dilemma. The post-war public successs of the infant television medium
4.1 had demonstrated that the demand by potential broadcasters and eager
viewers for the new medium would require more stations than could be
accommodated in the twelve Very High Frequency (VHF) channels that
36 Public Polic4s
nad been allocated to television broadcasting before World War IL
Rather than a rich man's toy, limited to well-to-do urban areas, television
-promised to be a medium of news and entertainment for all.
The Commission's pioblem was that of finding a way to create enough
new channels_ for television broadcasting to make possible a variety of
services for substantially all of the American public. Adding additional
channels in the VHF spectrum was not possible. Other services already
occupied those frequencies. The next available spectrum was in the
untested Ultra High Frequencies (UHF) for which no television hardware
had yet been developed, or even tested. To seekout the technical solution§
to the problem, the FCC in 1948 calleda halt to the construction of all-
new TV stations for what was to be a period of six months. But difficult
technical problems sometimes refuse to conform to bureaucratic schedules.
The six month "freeze" lasted fouryears.
For the oneLhundred-nine "pre-freeze" stationswhich had television all
to themselves from 1948-1952, it was a period of financial bonanza
beyond the wildest dreams of avarice. For the educational community it
was a fortuitous opportunity.
The very speed at which televisionwas making a central place for itself
in American life convinced a handful of alert educational leaders that
something must be done to exploit TV's power for more than Mass
entertainment and the sale of consuMer products, or the opportunity
would be lost forever. After the passage of the 1934 Commimications
Act, the Congress had held an inquiry to determine whether 25 percent of
the frequencies for AM radio broadcasting should be reserved for
education, but the- educational interests failed to press the case, and
private sector broadcasters assured all concernedthat school and college
interests would always find-a warm welcome and plenty of free air time
from the commercial stations.
The following decade saw the number of noncommercial radio stations
shrink from more than 300 to about thirty, and leaders like Arthur Adams,
then president of the American Council on Education, we're determined
that the promise of television would not be lost
The Joint Committee on Educational Television included the ACE, the
National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, the
Association of State Universities, the National Education Association,
the American Association of School Administrators, the Council of
Chief Pate School Officers, and the National Association of Educational
broadcasters. Its mission was simple ahd direct to persuade the Federal
Communications Commission that when the freexe was ended, some of
the channels should be set aside for education. When the Commission
issued its Sixth Report and Order in 1952, the Table of Allocations
which matched channels with cities and towns across the nation marked
reserved for noncommercial TV, some 242 assignmentssome in the
VHF band, the rest in the new UHF <spectrum.
Public Policies 37
National Educational Television, the Corporation for Public Broad-
casting, the Public Broadcasting Service, Masterpiece 'Theatre, even
Pledge Week, were then still years in the future, but that future could
never have arrived without timely action in 1950. Television's appearance on
the American scene was so arresting, and the history of educational radio
such a stern warming that the need for educators' participation in
communications policy making was sharp and clear. If the FeC's
extended freeze had not provided the JCET with the time to make the
case for educational television, the opportunity might well have passed
without notice in academe.
Now, as what_ has become "Public Television" begins to-look at
multiple services, including a separate instructionally-oriented PTV-3,
and multiple channels of distribution for such programming the signifi-
cance of the communicatiOns policies urged by education thirty years ago
becomes all the more apparent.
To an educational leadership besieged by pressing and immediate
problems of increasing inflation and falling budgets, demands for confor-
mity to new regulations andfor making good on old promises,issues of
communications policy,which may have their-benefits far in the future,
are easily pushed*aside to deal with Problems whose impacts will be felt
tomorrow. But those who bear the mantle of leadership can hardly
disdain the responsibilities of the statesmanship.
The growth curve of technology and electronic communications has
risen sharply since 1950 and the protection of edudation's long term
-interests in communications chnhot be left to an ad hoc .Proup of
Minutemen who can put down their lecture notes or annual conference
plans and leap into the breach whenever a crisis in communications
policy making occurs. That spberrecognition came in the moment of
victory in 1952, when- the FCC did, indeed, reserve, channels for
educational television. The Joint Committee on Educational Television
reconstituted itself as the Joint Council on EduCational Television (later
changing its title in recognition of the factthat the coming technology
battles would be fought on a wider front than TV). .
Satellites and Cable television, are technologies which, in 1950 were
still beyond the purview of most educators and of most communications
specialists. Sometimes it is not possible to await for the, arrival of the
technology, for a chance to. "try it on for size," before developing
communications policies. Policy decisions can prevent or promote the
birth of new communications technology. Direct broadcasting satellites
are a case in point.
From the viewpoint of the scientist and engineer, the eventual
possibility of satellites capable -of broadcasting television directly to
individual homes has been obvious for twenty years. Whir.-was lacking
38 Public Policies
was the requisite technology. There is a complementary relationship
between the size and power of the satellite and the size and sensitivity of
the associated receiving stations on earth. In the 'Sixties, our limited
launch capability meant that the first satellites were small and weak, their
earth stations very large and very expensive. But by the end of the
decide, the know-how to build satellites powerful epough to beam
programming directly to small, low-cost earth stations had been
In 1969, the Indian Space Research Organization and the U.S.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration signed a Memorandum
of Understanding providing that the hardware for a direct television.
broadcasting experiment to 2,000 village schools in India would be
included on ATS-6, an experimental NASA satellite scheduled for
launch in the early 'Seventies. American educational interests, wanting
to explore the possibility of similar experimentation at home found
existing oammunications policy a major roadblock.
By international agreement, satellite transmissions are restricted to
certain frequency bands where they will no interfere with existing
terrestrial services. By special arrangement, the Indian SITE (Satellite
Instructional Television Experiement)Avould take place in the UHF
band. There are no UHF television broadcast stations operating in the
Indian subcontinent But here, in North America, the UHF band is in use
in this country, Canada and Mexico, so UHF satellite broadcasting was
ruled outeven on an, experimental basis.
An Alternate Route
An "alternate route" was technically possible: the use of nigher
microwave frequencies in the band 2500-2690 MHz. Those frequencies
are also in use, but by schools and colleges for the Instructional
Television 1 ixed Service. Engineering calculations indicated that, under
the proper constraints, satellite broadcasting could take place without
interference to existing ITFS systems.
NASA was convinced, and the Department of Health, Education and
Welfare was prepared to fund satellite experimentationbut existing
international agreements on frequency allocation made no provision for
space services in the 2500 MHz band. (Since radio waves know nothing
about political borders, the allocation of pieces of spectrum to specific
services is coordinated by the International Telecommunications Union,
a UN agency whose agreements have the force of international treaties.)
Preparations had already begun for the ITU World Administrative
Radio Conference on Space Telecommunications to be held in 1971.
Unfortunately, the U.S. positions and proposals were already well
developed .. . and they did not include satellite broadcasting in the ITFS
band. Despite NASA's willingness to cooperate with educators in the
U.S. as well as India. inclusion of an ATS-6 experiment at variance with
Public Policies 39
proposed communications policy- was hardly possible.
Education's fight often begins at home. Policy pkiposals for a World
Administrative Radio Conference are developed by the Department of
State with inputs from other parts of the Federal sector funneled through
the Interdepartmental Radio Advisoty Canmittee (IRAC). Participation
by nongovernmental interests, public and private, go through the Federal
Communications Commission, which typically established a Joint
Government/Industry Coinmittee (JC/IC). The Department of HEW' s
Office of TelecommunicationS Policy (now disbanded) and NASA
worked through IRAC; ,the Comoration for Public Broadcasting and the
JCET attempted to persuade the JC/IC and the Commiision that a last
minute turn-around in the U.S.'s agenda for the Space Telecommuni-
cations WARC was possible and desirable.
To -influence technology policy, it is necessary to understand the
technology. The first task was to convince the seven Federal Communi-
cations Commissioners that their own staff was wrong inits insistence
that the educators were wrong in asserting that satellite broadcasting
could take place without interfering with terrestrial ITFS systems.
Fortunately, the necessary technical studies had been done within the
aerospace. industry. Commissioner H. Rex Lee and his staff studied the
evidence' and he became the educators' invaluable ally.
The result of the last minute FCC turn around was that the U.S. went
'toile-World Administrative Radio Conference on Space Telecommuni-
cations proposing co-allocation of the 2500 MHz band to the Broad-
casting Satellite Service. Thanks in no small measure to the presence of
HEW's Dr. Albert L Haley on the U.S. delegation, the proposal
carried at the. Geneva meeting and the barriers of domestic and
international communications policy were removed.
The immediate result was thatIthe way was cleared for American
satellite broadcasting experiments on NASA's ATS-6. Those experi-
ments in the Rocky Mountains, Alaska,_ and the Appalachian states
demonstrated for the first time that television transmission from space to
small and inexpensive receivers, capable of operation by non-technical
personnel could bring services to hitherto inaccessible educational and
health care institutions. The Alaska and Appalachia experiments laid the
groundwott for today's operational services. In Alaska, RCA's Satcom II
satellite now provides telephone service to every 81askan village, with a
special line for _emergency medical traffic. Mani villages also get
television by satellite, including programs for ttte, schools, and the
University -of Alaska has extehrve plans for extehding its services by
satellite. From the early ATS-6 experiments undertaken by the Appala-
chian Regional Commission has come the .Appalachian Community
Service Network, which is providing a daytime schedule of educational
and instructidhal programming foi all ages through the Use of s atellite and
Our experimencal use of the 2500 MHZ bandfor satellite broadcasting
was not followed up in this country. The Alaska and Appalachian
operational systems use commercial satellites in the 3700-4200 MHz
band. But the WARC allocation is world wide, and the Indian Space
Research Organization will use the 2500 MHz band fof its operational
follow-on to the Site project (the Inset I satellites are already under
construction), and the planned Arabsat includes educational television in
the same band.
The connections between communicatiora policy and education
sometimes have their implications for the priorities and budgets of other
agencies. Those who planned the ATS-6 experiments at 2500 MHz
expected that ATS-6 would be followed by ATS-7, a still more
advanced satellite which gould have had satellite broadcasting for health
and education as its primary mission. When, early in 1972, NASA
trimmed its budget by gutting applicadons R&D, ATS-7, and the
Applications Technology Satellites thatwere to follow it, were canceled.
A second opportunity for educational broadcasting from space
*sated itself in the Communicatkos Technology Satellite, a joint U.S.-
Canadian venture pioneering in yet another frequency band, 12 GHz.
Still more powerful, CTS provided opportunities for mo`re than two
dozen experiments in health, education, and public service communi-
cations in this count*, and in Canada. But whenCTS reached the end of
its useful life, the U.S. experimenters once again found themselves
without a satellite with which thek earth stations were compatible. For
the Canadian experimenters, things were different
NASA is concerned with the needs of the public service community
and the process of technology transfer, and has supported the Public
Service Satellite Consortium, the Appalachian Community Servite
Netyork, and the Joint Council, but its prime responsibility- is the
development of new technology: Developand demonstrate satellite
broadaasting in the 2500 MHz band. Move on and do the same at the
next "frequency frontier," 12 GHz. Now, NASA is looking toward the
development of space communications in the 30/20 GHz bind, with
inviting possibilities for service to rural areas. NASA will welcome
experiments in public service communications, but cannot be expected
to take responsibility for seeking them out
Canadian space communications, however, are under the direction of
the cabinet-level Department of Communications which has a broader
\ mandate. Having demonstrated on CTS the technical feasibility of
Public Policies 41
satellite direct broad4sting to the villages of Canada's Far North, the
Department of Communications sought a means by which an oper-
ational service could grow from such experimental beginning& Canada's
operational satellites are owned ,by a government-carrier partnership
called Telesat Canada. The Department of Communications asked
Telesat to include four 12tGHz channels on its Anik B satellite, offering
to lease the channels for a rpinimum of four years, thus assuring Telesat a
return on its investment
The United States la4s an equiValent Federal mechanism for
considering and advancing pommunications technology and policy ac-
cording to some concept ofhe public interest which goes beyond mere
technology development. C er's- Presidential Directive 47 charged
both NASA and the Natioial Telecommunications and Information
Administration with respons bility Lor promoting communications in
support of public services, but he division of responsibility is not clear...
nor is the future of the NTIA
U.& Executive Branch Part' ipation
The history of Executive Branch concern with communieations policy
is less than endouraging. Until die end of the Johnson administration, the
Office of Telecommunications Management concerned itself only with
the governmenes (ie, Defense, (toast Guard, Forest Service) use of the
spectrum allocated to govern4nt uses (although the White House,
its0:1f, gave strong support to the Itublic Broadcasting Act). A presidential
Task Force on Communications Policy recommended the establishment
of a White -House Office of Telecommunications Policy to formulate
policy and to speak for the Preident That recommendation came to
fruition in the Nixion years, but TP's threats to public broadcasters and
to media critics of the White HOuse gave it an unhealthy political Odor.
The Naticoal TeleccmMunications and Iniamation Administration was
successor to the Nixion OTP and the creation of an early Carter promise
to reduce government agenci ; starting in the Executive Branch. The
Executive Branch was by moving OTP administratively,
although not physically, in the Commerce Department What, if any,
shifts, changes, or deleti can be expected from the new Reagan
administration remains be seen. If education would protect its stake in
the need for a commu cations policy focus, it must do what it can to be
heard on the subj
Sometimes communiCations policy made by the Federal CoOtuni-,
cations Co ssions can be unmade by the courts. As access to the
broadcast/ levision bind for education required action in 1950, two
decades ater it was necessary- to press education's case for access to
42 Public l'olicies
- -cable television. The CoMmission's 1971 cable television rules,reCog-
nized the important role the CATV could play in prdviding more than
improved reception of local and distant,television stafions. The technology
of cable is by its very nature local, and channels can be provided toserve
a.community or even a neighborhood. The Commission's 1971 rulesput
CATV operatOrs on notice that all new systems serving more than 3500
homes should be capable of at least twenty channels and that dedicated
channels would have to be provided for government, education, public
access, and- for lease to commercial interests.
A 1979 court challenge overturned the FCC's access channel
requirements on the grounds that they go beyond-the Commission's
powers in the Communications Act Not challenged, however, is the right
of local governments when granting cable franchises, to incorporate free
channels for education as a contractual condition. The rush for
franchises in each of America's major cities is on, and in many other
communities, franchises granted in the 1960's are up -for renewal. If
school administrators and university presidents are going to Protect their
future4tions to bring classes to homes and offices via cable, they will
have to become informed participants in the battles at the local level.
And not WO there. After seVerat tiniuccessful attempts to rewrite the
Communications Act-of 1934, the new session of Congress will see yet
another proposal from the Senate Subcommittee on Communications. .
The starting point4is expected to be last session's S. 2827, -whose
provisions on access channels were unclear, but thought by some to
undefcut even the city fathers' right to insist on cable channels for public
The Co)nmunication Policies Battles
Unfortunately, the battles for communications policies favorable to
education are more constant than sporadic, and as the example of cable
television dem&Istrates, eternal vigilance is the price ofcommunications.
LastSpring, the COmmission issued a complex of inquiries andproposed
rule makings which threaten edUcation's long-standing frequency reser-
vatiohs for thi Instructional Television Fixed Service. Hittingworked to
open these ,2500MHz frequencies for satellite broadcasting for education
only a feW teari ago, we are now in danger of losing them for multi-
channel instructiOnal television on the ground. The basicissue is that the
Commission finds itself with a pressing demand for,more channelsforthe
technically similar Multipoint Distribution Sel-vice, currently enjoying a
boom as a means of distributing pay television, and Commission staff is
proplosing to meet that deinand by allowing commercial services into the
ITFS'band, a de facto end to reserving these 'frequencies for schools,
colleges, arid-health care agncies.
On.other fronts, the issues, are not so dear dut The Commissionfigs
instituted steps to foster the birth of a whole new class of television
ft Public.Policief ,. 43
broadcasting stations of limited power. While the Commission's TV
'Table of Allocations (in which education got its reserved channels)
specifies a priort which channels are aVailabl'e in which cities and
towns, these new low power stations woolci be approved;Wherever it
could be shown by the applicant that no intetference to er.istmg stations
would be approied wherever it could be shown by if* applicant that no
inierference to existing stations would result How many such new
"mini-statione"-could be created in any given city or towh, or in the U.S.
as a whole, is impossible to predict. By the F't's own estimate, perhaps
ilrousands of low power stations will be Stet
Low POwer TV
For education, opportunities are broadened._Low pOwer TV stations
can be constructed for as little is $50,000 and minimal studio equipment
(not meeting conventional broadeast standards) 'can be used for local
programming: In feet, there is no requirement that the mini-station have
facilities for lOcal programs. As has been done in Alaska on an
experimental basis, a small community can have its own PBS affiliate,
Jebroadcasting programs from the satellite. Small collegeseven
schoolscan get into educatiónarand- public teleVision at suprisingly
Such mini-stations Will be permitted to do nothing butiecal program-
ming or do no local programming at all. they tin be commercial or
noncommercial. They can corny pay TWThe Copunission's proposed
rules would give preference to minority applicants and to those -who
propose- noncommercial serVices, brit the "land _rush" is _already on.
Local stations (including PTV stations)are prohibited from applying for
low poWer operations in their own coverage areae. but the ru1es which
limit any licensee to seven conventi,Ural TV stations do not applyto !Ow
power, and while educators =and minority groups contemplate the
possible opportunities ahead, eager entrepreneurs are beseiging the
Commiesion Fith applications: one, for example; propoees to own more
than one hundred across the nation, anetwork cf, country and western
The questions are complex. Since there is noeasy way to estimate how
=many low power stations can be accceinodated, it is impossible to-assess
whether this spate of comthercial interest is-or is not Closingxlucation's
future access. The 1950 strategy of asking for frequency, re.sarvations
And watch the heavens! While our 1970 efforts secured us a band for
satellite broadbasting at 2500 MHz (and reserved in this country by the
FCC for educational and public service use), the near term possibilities
for an operational satellite in that band seem remote.
44 Public Policies
Direct-To-Home Broadcasting -
In the meantime, direct-to-honur satellite broadcasting is being proposed
as a commercial venture by the Satellite Television Corp., a subsidiary of
Proposed is a three-channel pay television service. butes STC notes.
theoionomicrof bBS are such that the medium can be "to asseMble_an
atulience for programs which would not be economically-viable under-
tikinp for conventional TV broadcaiters." Comsat surveyed more than
1300_ community leaders and members of the general public and found
evidence of a latent andience- forin addition-to movies, sports, and
Broadway showsedUcational, college, medical and scientific courses;
biogaphical and natural science documentaries; and- news,
news analysis, news Magazines, editorials and- business and fmancial
Channel_ A of STC' Proposed service wouid include movies, pop
concerts, theater specials and family entenainment Channel B, Classic
films, children's-TV, variety,-arti and culture and publicaffairs. Channel
C wetild offer adult _education, sports, and special interest programs.
The question of authorizing a direct broadcasting satellite service puts
before the Federal Communications Commission a long list of difficult
polity -questions. The international agreements arrived at at the 1971
World Administrative Radio 'Conference clear away somebut not
allolthe international issues. While frequencies for satellite broad-
casting were established on a world-wide basis in 1971, the specifics of
how those frequencies are to be us4X1 in the Americas is the agenda for a
Regional Radio'Conference in 1983.
What the Federal Communications Conamission must now decide are
such questions as: Should any American 'action wait on the RARC?
When., the potential impact of satellite broadcasting on the viability of
local television broadcasters? Would approval of a commercial DB S
, system presage or preclude the development of noncommercial direct
broadcalting from satellites .. . and how would a noncommercial DBS
service be paid for?
Which ansWers to those questions and a dozen more will build-
communications policies which preserve the greatest number of degrees
of freedom for education's future needs?
The march of communications technology is inexorableand at
double time to boot. Each new development will create its Own
imperative for nel communications policies. The members of the
education community have only two choices: they can participate or they
can leave the decisions to others.
What they cannot do is escape their consequences.
co% Investing in Computer Technology:
c" Criteria and Procedures for System Selection
.c\t Fred T. Hofstetter
is= University of Delaware
UNA Newark Delaware
Matching needs with available technology poses a constant challenge
for educational- decision-makers. Seven years ago the University of
Delaware began what hit become ,a major institutional effort aimed at
determining to what extent theneeds of higher education can be met by
computer-based educational techniques. Essential to the success of this
effort was the identifidation of what available computer-based educa-
tional system offered the most capability. -As the result of a careful
assessment of the characteristics whieh that system should have and a
naticawide search involving both visits to existing computer-based
educational projects and consultation with exPerts in the field, the
PLA TO syttem was selected.
Since 1974 the University of Delaware has -made a considerable
inVestment in its PLA TO capabilities, having installed iti own ceitral
system in 1978, and having since upgraded it on an annual basis to meet
the. needs of its growing user community. Over one huhdred faculty
members- are developing coi.nputer-based learning materials in thirtY
4.. subject areas and-testing them with students using the two, hundred
terminals -connected to the Delaware PLATO system. The progress
140 made toward determining the extent to which PLATO can meet the
L. needs Of higher education at Delaware is deseribed in The FM
Sammative Report qfthe Delaware PIATO Projeot which concludes
with an eleven-part cleisification of the benefits of computing in higher
Ct It was , well known in-1974 that rapid changes were_ occuring in the
cemputer field, and it would appear On the surface that-the University
took a substantial risk in investing in a large central systenflikePLATO.
Indeed, recognized authorities publicly stated in the mid-1970's that
45' 5 6
PLATO was a dinosaur that would never make it into the I980's. Just the
opposite has happeped; PLATO has emerged in the 198Q's in a hew
microcomputer format which combines the power, communications, and
reeord-keeping features of a central system with the microcomputer's
ability to run off-line, to acquire real-time scientific data, and to interface
with new microprocessor-based perioheral devices like videodiscs.
Through comparative study of the capabilities of available educational
computers and through careful analysis of trends in microelectronics and
of vendor commitments to making use of microelectronic advances, the
decision to install PLATO at Delaware was not as risky as it may have
seemed. It is the purpose ot this paper to present the system selection
criteria used at Delaware and to describe the procedurss followed in
making a selection based on those criteria.
System Selection Criteria
Table 1 shows how the system selection criteria used at Delaware
considered support for instructional strategies, requirements of the
student learning station, features for instructors and authors, general
operation'al characteristics, dissemination.networks, and future viability.
Each of these system selection criteria is discussed in turn as follows.
Support for Instructional Strategies
There are a variety of initructional strategies which can be used in
"designing educational computer programs. Some educational computer
sytems are quite limited in. their 'support of instructional strategies.
TICCIT, for example, is designed around a preselected strategy of
objectives, examples, practice problems, and tests;3 forsome applications
this strategy may be appropriate, but there are many others which
TICCIT cannot do. It is important for a University system to support the
gamut of instructional strategies which include tutorials, drills, simula-
tions, games, problem solving, testing, and computef-managed instruction.
Reguirments of the.Student Learning Station
Careful attention must be paid to both the quantitiand the quality of
the features of the student learning station. Not only is the learning
station the only part of the system which the student sees, but it. also
greatly affects how instructional materials are prepared. Resolution is an
important consideration because it affects how much text can be
displayed at one time as weli as how many points can be used in making
graphics. Sugarmans has indicated that a resolution of 512 dots across
by 512 dots down is certainly adequate, and that a resolution of 320 by
240 may also be adequate. At this lower resolution which is typical of
systems using ordinary TVdisplays, 16 lines of 40 characters each would
fill the screen whereas at the higher resolution 32 lines of 64 characters
can be used.
Table 1: Sistem Selection Criteria
1) Supiort for Instructional Strategies
2) Requirements of the Student Learning Station
progrannnable character sets
touch input or light pen
student connol keys
instantaneous response time
support of peripheral devices,
3) Features far Instructors and Authors
indexes and routers
ittident record keeping
4) General Operational Characteristics
5) Dissemination Networks
international program distribution
6) Future Viability
corporate commithem to CBE
flexibility of system design
planned use of microelectronics
. investing 47
In order that the system is not restricted to those characters and
symbols which appear on the typewriter keyboard, there should be
auxiliary memories where new characters can be defmed. System
response time should be instantaneous so that students never have to
wait, and the system should also be fast enough to move characters
around on the screen. Control keys like NEXT, BALK, HELP,
EASIER, HARDER, and ANSWER_ should be available so that
instructors can give students some say as to the sequencing of lesson
material. And the learning station should have connectors whereby
peripheral devices can be attached.
Features for Instructors and Authors -
Often neglected in system selection are the fetures which make it both
easy and less time-consuming for instructors and authors to prepare
lesson materials and to manage student records. It is widely recognized
that the greatest cost in computer-based education is the design,
programming, and evaluation of instructional materials. Important
criteria in system selection are therefore the availability and the quality of
pre-existing materials organized into lesson libraries, indexing systems
whereby instructors can select and structure courses around these
materials, on-line programming aids whereby authors can quickly get
help when they have technical questions, communication options
whereby instructors, authors, and students can share information
regarding lesson development, and student record keeping which allows
instructors to collect data on student achievement and progress in a
lesson. Regarding student record keeping it is important for the systbm
not only to make available standard,-pre-programmed ways of keeping
student data, but also to allow the instructors to design their own ways of
collecting 'and summarizing student records.
General Operational Characteristics
Educational computing services must be reliable. Down-time muSt
never exceeefive--percent of scheduled hours in any one month, and
annual up-time shouldaverage at least ninety-seven percent. Mean time
to failure should not average less than six days. Maintenance support
must be readily available so that equipment problems can be solved
promptly when they occur.
Students, instructors, and authors need to be ableloschedule terminal
time when they need it. Especially if a centralized approachiltilizinjone
large computer is adopted, eare must be taken to insure than variouser
groups do not compete for the same resources. There must be a way of
allocating memory and processing time so that no single groupcan usurp
resources belonging to another. Educational computers must be easy to
use. Human engineering, the effort made by computer vendors to make
their equipment easy to use, is an important consideration in system
There must be an adequate system of passwords, security codes, and
file safeguards in order to insure that information cannot be obtained by
persons who are not allowed access to it. The system must prevent access
to persons trying to use accounts, user numbers, and sign-ons which are
not their own. All users need system documentation that is complete, up-
to-date, and correct. Indexes and libraries of published programs reflect
the extent to which a given system can be used, and they make it possible
to project the amount of programming which may have to be done
locally. The number, extent, power, and ease of use of available
programming languages are important system selection criteria, as are
staff training programs offered by vendors in how to use available
software packages and programming languages.
One of the greatest national problems encountered in education today
is dissemination. For a variety of complex reasons there is a resistance to
using materials developed eleswhere. It is important for vendors of
edueational computers to make available dissemination networks where-
by materials can be published, exchanged, reviewed, and shared.
Electronic links among major development sites facilitate the preparation
of materials that are suitable for inter-institutional use, as do peer review
mechanisms and user groups.
Evidence of long-range corporate plans and commitments to the
systematic development of curricular materials is just as important in
selecting a system as is the evidence that the hardware can be upgraded to
remain compatible with technological advances. Flexibility is a key
term. Educational programs which allow instnictors to select -local
ierininologies and to adjust levels of difficulty and sequencing of material
for different grcups of students will be more widely applicable than those
in which instructional variables cannot be changed Hardware must be
designed for the future. Rapid changes in microelectronics have madeit
necessary for computer hardware to be both modular and redefinalile.
Upward compatability and expandability-are vitally important to its
Procedures Followed in System Selection
Educational uses of computers are becoming increasingly widespread,
and documentation of their effectiveness is growing more complete.
Many institutions have made system selections and are happy with their
decisions, others are re-evaluating their selections, and still others are
selecting a system for the first time. Regardless of the past history of
computing itt an institution, it is important for system selection to be done
in an open manner following objective procedures which will hopefully
lead to an informed decision. Table 2 lists twelve steps followed in
selecting a system at Delaware. The manner in which eachof these steps
contributes to the selection process is discussed in turn.
Table 2: Twelve Steps Followed in Selecting a System
1. Form system selection committee
2. Reach agreement on system selection criteria
3. Compile list of available systems
4. Acquire literature on available systems
5. Compare systems based on selection criteria
6. .Determine which systems are frontrunners
7. Visit projects using frontrunners
8. Consult directors of projects using frontrunners
9. Make.preliminary selection of suitable systems
10. Get pricing information for suitable systems
11. Consult impartial experts on system selection
12. Make final decision regarding system selection
Form System Selection Committee
Itis mportant for the system selection committee to be representative
of various groups in an institution. Administrators, professional staff;
trainers, and faculty members should be included. At Delaware the
system selection committee was a subcommittee of the faculty senate.
The faculty played an important role in the Delaware PLATO Project.1
Reach Agreemerg on System Selection Criteria
The system selection committee should carefully assess the needs for
educational computing and compile a list of the features needed to meet
those needs. Care should be taken not to let preconceived notions of
committee members who might be advocates of particular systems to
influence how these criteria are written. At Delaware only one member
of the sy'stem selection committee had seen a PLATO terminal before
the criteria were written.
Compile List of Available Systems
The first step toward determining if there is a system which meets the
needs of the institution is to compile a list of available systems. Local
computing faculty and professional staff members can be asked to name
the systems of which they are aware, and publications like Computer
World,Byte, and the AEDS Bulletin can be scanned for the names of
systems Used elsewhere. If the system selection committee does not feel
confident that its list of available syStems is complete, outside consultants
can also be asked to look it over and point out any omissions.
Acquire Literature on Available Systems
dne quickway of accomplishing this step is to write to system vendors,
informing them that the institution is planning to make a substantial
investment in educational computing, and asking them to send all
available literature describing the-hardware, software, performance
characteristics, and educational effectiveness of their products. However,
there are -additional sources of information in professional publications
which vendors do not usually supply. Zinn has described these sources of
information and has provided mailing addresses whereby materials can
Compare System Based,on Selection Criteria
At this stage it is helpful to make a table listing at the left side the
system selection criteria and across the top the names of the systems
under consideration'. Ratings of how well the criteria are met by the
respective systems can then be entered on the table resulting in a
composite view from which systems can be compared. McClain and
Thomas have developed such a table for microcomputers.4 At Delaware,
considerable attention was given tothe realtive strengths and weaknesses
of available programming languages, and a separate chartmas made up
just for this one aspect of system selection.
DeterMine Which Systems are Frontrunners
As a result of the previous step a few systems should emerge as
obVious frontrunners, meaning that they meet the system selection
criteria better than most of the available systems. These frontninners
then become the focus of attention for the remaining steps toward making
a final systems selection.
Visit Pmjects Using Frontrunners
The ability to travel to sites where the frontrunners are being used is
very important at this stage. It is one thing to read about the claims which
vendors make in promotional literature, and it is often quite another to
see how a system actually operates in a real instructional environment.
Important information regarding the physical set-up of the site can also
be gathered at this point and used later when arranging for local space
acquisition and modification.
Consult Directors of Projects Using Frontrunners
Directors of existing projects can be extremely helpful in providing
information and advice regarding the operation and organization of
educational computing. Each system has its own idiosyncracies which
affect prciect management, and persons who are experienced in directing
projects can help new prciects avoid problems that they encountered in
the past. Advice given by Dr. Donald Bitzer, the inventor of the PLATO
system at the University of Illinois, and by his associate director, Dr.
Frank Propst, profoundly influenced the organization of the delaware
Make Preliminary Selection of Suitable System(s)
By this time it should become apparent whether any existing systems fit
the criteria well enough to be seriously considered as candidates for a
&ill selection. Ideally there would be more than one system so that
vendors could bid against each other in a competitive situation. At
Delaware there was only one system judged to be suitable.
Get Pricing Information for Suitable Systems
Cost should not be considered until this step is taken. One might argue
that if the consideration of cost is delayed until now, institutions might not
be able to afford the candidates for final system selection. However,
neither can institutions afford to have their needs dictated by cost. A need
exists whether or not a computer-based solution to that need is
affordable. If cost is included earlier as a system selection criteria, then a
second-class alternative may seem to be appropriate when a first-class
system should have been used. Related to this concern is the marked
downward trend in the cost of computer hardware. Cheap systems are
beingsontinually replaced by newer models while advances in micro-
electronics are allowing expensive systems to lower their costs. An
institution which values the investment which its faculty and staff must
make in program development and implementation will carefully
s, consider longevity as well as cost in making a final system selection. If
more than one vendor can supply a system to meet institutional needs,
then competitive bidding will help keep costs down. In any case vendors
should be asked to make educational discounts.
Consult Impartial Eiperts on System Selection
Even if there is cely one vendor u4r consideration at this point,
advice from impartial outside consultants.;vill tend either to reinforce or
to refute the thinking of the system selection committee. Before the final
decision to use PLATO was made *Delaware, the Educational Testing
Service was consulted because it had been awarded aniNSF contract to
evaluate both PLATO and TICCIT and could render an unbiased
opinice as to whether or not it was reasonable to expect that the
University of Delaware could achieve its educational computing goals
using the PLATO system.
Make FinalDecision Regarding System Selection
If all the steps outlined above have been carefully followed, the fmal
'decision will be well documented for any higher committees and
administrators who may be required to review it before funding the
project. One might ask how long it takes to arrive at this fmal decision
point; at Delaware it took sik months.
With the N1:Aiiing interest in an importance of computers in our
society, all educational institutions will need to consider both wah what
criteria to use and what procedures to follow in selecting computer
systems. Whether institutions are doing this for the first firm or have
experience from previous hardware acquisitions, it is important to
consider the objectivity of the procedures and the effect which the
selection criteria will have upon the quality of education. The criteria and
procedures presented in this paper are not the only ones that can be used.
They are ones which were used at the University OfDelaware in 1974,
and no one at Delaware has regretted the rigor with which they were
1. Hofstetter, Fred, T. A model for administering computer-based education. Submitted
to the IFIP Third World Conference on Computers in Education, Lausanne,
Switzerland, July 27-31, 1981.
2. Hofstetter, Fred T. The fifth summative report of the Delaware PLATO Project.
Newark: University of Delaware, 1980.
3. Jones, Michael C. TICCIT applications it, higher education: evaluation results.
ADC'S Proceedings, 1978, pp. 398-419.
4..McClain, Donald and David Thomai. Selecting microcomputers for the classroom.
AEDS Journal, 1979, 13, 67.
5. Sugarman, Robert A second chance for computer-aided instruction. IEEE Spectrum,
1978, 15, Pp. 29-37.
6. Zinn, Karl L Sources of information about computing in instruction. Educational
Technology, 1978, 18, pp. 29-32.
c1Cr New Public Broadcasting Programs
r\I and Services
Pubik Broadcasting Service
Among the many things public television and education hold in
common is a loyal following of doomsayers a cadre of critics clucking
away in pri vt. and speech that we have not fulfilled Our promises to the
nation, that we have become obsolete, that we are inefficient,-that we
will, should be, perhaps even have been, abandoned or replaced by
technological, societal, or demographical changes. On that score, as one
of my favorite authors Mark Twain aptly put it, and one of my favorite
public broadcasters Lany Grossman aptly preempted it, I am happy to
say on behalf of both public television and education, that reports of our
death are greatly exaggerated.
Certainly, we cannot ignore that we face trying times. The economy
has taken its toll. New scientific discoveries, societal changes, and
advancing technologies challenge traditional concepts and traditional
procedures. We face government retrenchment at both local and federal
levels. Luckily for all of us, we can not only survive these pressures, but
we can thrive on them.
Fu from seeing the eighties as a period for gloom and doom, I see the
decade as offering at last the opportunity for public television and higher
`aat education to forge a powerful partnership, a partnership long desired,
collectively sought, progressiiely approaLhed since the advent of
television in the 1940's. Of course, it is accurate to say that television has
not fulfilled itaeckicaticcal potentiaL But, one should add the wOr1 ye4 and
one should also look at new initiatives in education undertaken by the
tk Public Broadcasting Service (PBS); for the future looks bright.
In June, 1979, by a large midority vote, the member stations of the
Public Broadcasting Service voted to establish three programming
services. Thus, PTV-1 to provide programming for the large general
New Public Programs 55
audience during the evening hours; FIT72 to provide targeted audience
programming, and PTV-3- to provide educational programming were
formed. The PBS planning team spend more than a year in extensive
consultation with broadcasters and educators in designing the Educa-
tions; Telecomthunications Programming Service. As of September 2,
that unit is a fully staffed and functioning part of PBS.
Within PTV-3 there are three departments. The Children's and Youth
Programming Service is concerned with the schedule of programming for
children and young people at home. It offers such wellAnown series as
SESAME STREET, ONCE UPON A CLASSIC, UP AND COM-
ING. A second department is responsible for instructickal programming
for in-school use, kindergarten through high school. Faced with a real
shortage of new programming, these Departments are actively seeking
new sources of funding, and untapped, high quality domestic and foreign
products, as well as encouraging and stimulating new program develop-
ment. There is a serious effort to make all series as flexible as possible so
that they can be used effectively in and out of classroms through
development of print components for children, teachers, and parents and
through good scheduling.
The third area, the one w which I am working is the Adult Learning
Department It is the rust programming service devoted entirely to
adult learning, and it em Irces the ambitious goal of providing "a full
range of educational and instructional programs and program related
services for . . . adult audiences for at home and in school use." Perhaps
because it is my field of interestor perhaps 6ecause it is trueit seems
that it is in higher education that the critics are most disappointed about
the use of television for education. As one wag put it, television still
"looms small on the landsCape of higher education." Yet even in higher
education, it is important to remember that if the instrumental television
cup is half empty, it is ago half full. And I am happy to report, the level is
College Level Programming
Tfie last decade was one of exceptionally vigorous growth ofsollege
level programming. Although the beginning of the seventies saw only
what Newton Minow characterized as the grey professor with the grey
lecture on a grey screen, by mid-decade these were giving way to exciting
and effective college credit television courses. By the end of the seventies,
there were over fifty telecourses, produced by individual colleges, public
television stations, or college consortia, that were marketed to other
higher education institutions across the country.
According to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting's "Higher
Education Utilization Study," there were almost a half million students
enrolled in college credit courses in 1978-79. Though most of these were
enrolled in on-campus courses via closed-circuit television, almost
56 New Public Programs
200,000 were distant learners, that is students taking courses at home, at
work places, or in learning centers. Obviously, that number is a very small
percentage of the number of students enrolled in colleges and universities
in 1978-79. However, the numbeis represent significant growth from the
first of the decade, and the demographic make-up of these students is also
significant. Many of them are the `tnew students," the older, part-time
students from which higher education must draw if it is to maintain or
increase enrollments in the next decades.
And the numbers of the enrollees in television courses are growing, as
success storiej in several parts of the country demonstrate. For example,
in Ken , the State Departmentof Education and Kentucky Educa-
tional Television backed a statewide effort to offer college credit
instruction via television. The number of enrollees has climbed steadily
during the first two years of operation. In Texas, the community colleges
serving Dallas County and Tarrant County began in 1977 to use, the
same public televsion station 'to present college credit instruction.
Together they now regularly enroll over 17,000 students a year. The Tri-
State Consortium, recently reorganized as the Eastern Educational
Consortium, has grown to represent fifty colleges in the Northeast (two
year, four year, public, and private institutions), and the enrollments for
television courses have 'increased as dramati6ally as the numbers of
institutions in the organization. And there are other such examples.
However, though there are a few areas where television is successfully
used for adult learning, there are even more places where television is not
used for adult learning at all or is not used very successfully. Now, at last,
... to enhance those efforts already under way and to provide service where
there is none, here is PTV-3, the first PBS national programming service
for adult learning.
Adult Leaining Programming
The details of the PTV-3/Adult Learning Programming Service were
announced at a national teleconference February 26. Over 120 public
broadcasting stations participated in the conference on that day. Others
taped the teleconference for later use with the postsecondary institutions
in their communities. Altliouth we do not yet know how many colleges
we reached, we do know that stations requested about 3,500 packets of
:nforination to send along with invitations to their local institutions, and
we know that over 2,000 public television and higher education
representatives were tuned in to hear the details of the plan I am going to
hare with you now. .
The basic principles underlying the plan have been announced and
pu *shed several times, but they still bear repeating. First, there is a need
for a 'onal delivery system of top quality educational and instructional
television courses and series directed at adult learners with all of the
accompanying economies of scale and potential for excellence that
nitional delivery can provide. Second the choice and the use of these
programs must remain under the control of local broadcasters and
educational institutions. Together, they must decide which of the available
programming they wish to use and when and how. Just as individual PBS
member stations must be the fmal judge as to which programs fit their
missions and their schedules, so local colleges and universities must
decide which programs fit their canicula, and they must grant college
credit ff college credit is to be granted Thus, a stning working relationship
between local stations and the institutions within theircommunities is
imperative. The afin of PTV-3 is Co help establish suck new local
partnerships where hone exist and to enhance the effectiveness of
existing partnerships where they are already functioning. ,
The PIN-3 Adult Learning Programming Service will take a multi-
.faceted approfch to adult learning. It will offer college cralit courses;
non-credit, life-long learning series; and career training and professional
development courses. The first PTV-3/Adult Learning sehedule will
concentrate on Credit courses. These courses were chosen after months
of screenings and formal and informal consultationq/ith the leadership of
educational associations, college and university administrators and
faculty, college consortia, and a specially conver.e4 PTV-3/Adult
Learning Advisory Council of ten distinguished educators and broad-
College Credit Courses
There are, of coarse, several kinds of college credit television,courses.
The most common type, produced by colleges and used primarily on
campuses, is the televised lecture, dither live or taped, which transmits,
virtually intact, a classroom presentation. It may or may not include
elements in addition to those used in the original classroom version, such as
on-campus use, PTV-3 will not be distributing this type of television
Another' kind of college credit course 'using television is called a
telecourse. In this caie, the television programs are productions prepared
for open circuit distribution with general audience viewing in mind.
However,the television series would not have been produced had it not
been part of the telecoutse. The complete telecourse is an integrated
learning system. In addition to the television programs, it includes other
components, such as a textbook, a text bank, a student study guide, an
administrator's guide, a faculty manual, and other materials as needed.
PTV-3 will distribute the best of this kind of college credit coursethat
is, telecourses that include television programs which have open circuit,
broadcast quality, technical and production standards sound academic
content, anid the most effective instructional design.
58 New Public Programs
Headlining the schedule will be UNDERSTANDING HUMAN
BEHAVIOR, produced by Coast Telecourses, in partnership, with
several other producing institutions: Dallas County Community College
District; Miami-Dade Community College District; the State Depart-
ment of Education in Florida; Chicago City Colleges; the Southern
California Consortium for Community College Television; and the
University of Mid-America. A new telecourse featuring the best-selling
psychology textbook by Dr. James McCormell, UNDERSTANDING
HUMAN BEHAVIOR, is being field-tested by the producing partners
and selected institutiOns this spring. It will make its national debut on
The other telecourses in the PTV-3 schedule are AMERICAN
GOYERNMENT SURVEY (produced by Dallas County Community
College District, Coast Community College, Chicago City Colleges,
and Tarrant:County Junior College), a thirty-segment overview of the
governmental system of the United States; THE AMERICAN STORY:
THE BEGINNING TO 1877,(produced by Dallas County Commu-
nity College District), an American history survey; CONTEMPORARY
HEALTH ISSUES (produced by the Southern California Consortium
for COmniunity College, Television), an examination of the critical health
questions facing today's society; HUMANITIES THROUGH THE
ARTS (produced by Coast Community College and City Colleges of
Chicago), a survey of film, drama, music, literature, painting, sculpture,
and architecture, featuring Maya Angekm as narrator; INTERACTION
(produced by Maryland Instructional Television/Maryland Department
of Education), an in-service course for all school instructional personnel,
or a graduate course in teacher education; IT'S EVERYBODY'S
BUSINESS (produced by Dallas County Community College District),an
introduction 10 the complex range of operations which constitute the
contemporary United States' business scene.
Still another kind of college credit course is cglled`a wraparound. This
kind of television course begins with a television series slch as THE
ASCENT OF MAN,which would have been produced and-broadcast
regardless of whether it was to become a part of a college credit course or
not. Ancillary materials prepared during or after the production of the
series integrate ,the television programs into a learning system. The
wraparound is currently the most commonly known and. widely used
type of college credit course on public television, and of course, PTV-3
will _use wraparounds in its distribution schedule. In fact, one of the
important functions of the Adult Learning Department will be to
coordinate the development of the instructional materials with the
production or the television programs for prime-time PBS -series that
have potential for adult learning so that these series can be effectively
New pieblic Progtums 59
utilized from their first airing.
The fall, 1981, schedule includes two wraparounds: COSMOS,which
garnered a higher viewership than any previous PBS weekly show and
now has a full set of integrated instructional materials, and THE
SHAKESPEARE PIAYS, featuring six plays from the past two seasons,
-selected by Dr. John Andrews of the Folger Shakespeare Library. These
plays will be aiSembled with apPropriate print materials to provide a
'Survey of Shakespeare's work The series will include twgtragedies,
(Julius Caesar and Hamlet ); two comedies (Measure for Measure
andTwelfth Night ); and two histories (Richard II and Henry IV, Part
I).The first schedule of Adult Learning Programmingwill begin transmission
via satellite to paitieipating PBS stations on August 29. Each telecourse
program wil be fed on -Saturday from 9:00.a.m. ET to 4:00 p.m. ET
with the first three hours of the schedule repeated from 4:00 p.m. ET to
7:00 p.m. ET to Provide for Pacific and.Mountain time zones. All of the
-telecourse programs will have a daytime, weekday repeat. THE
SHAKESPEARE' PLAYS will be broadcast by, participating stations
on every other Sunday afternoon beginning September 6. COSMOS will
be part of the PBS prime-time schedule beginning (on an evening to be
announced) the week of September 27.
To participate in the service, colleges and universities will pay a small
license fee for each telecourse, plus student enrollment fees. (There are
no PBS fees for wraparound courses.) In return, they will receive the
right to use the courses for credit or non-credit; a full set of administrator
and faculty materials; and permission to tape off-air or act:juke in
advance a full set of videocassettes of the television programs. These
cassettes may be used for the entire license period for makeup and
review, or even as the primary delivery for enrolled telecourse students.
Participating colleges and public television stations will work together to
inform the community about the service, to schedule programs and to
The full details of the PTV-3/Adult Learning Programming Service
are available now: how you can preview and evaluate programs; what
your rights, responsitidities, and costs are in this plan; where you can seek
xtting-up or improving.ah adult learriing television outreach; and
°what you should do next. For this arid other information, you can write to
me at PBS-PTV-3/Adult L..tarning Programming Department,475
L'Enfant Plaza, Washington, D.C. 20024, or call me at (202) 488-
Annenberg Gift to CPB
The prognosis for the development of superior programming for an
adult learning service was greatly enhanced by Ambassador Walter
Annenberg's generous and substantial gift of $150,000,000 to the
60 New Public Programs
Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB). This fund, to be givenat ten
million dollars a year for fifteen years will be used to support the creaton
of high quality college level television and radio programs and other
materials for distribution through existing and developing communica7
tions systems. Recognizing the long history of development of adult
learning through telecommunications, the fund was established tO
develop programs and projects (in collaboration with other organizations
and with higher education institutions) which would result in courses to
be offered generally, but not exclusively, for baccalaureate degree credit.
The administration of this gift, to be called the Project, witha capital P,
will be housed within CPB. A director appointed by CPB and an
Advisory Councilconsisting of two representatives from PBS,two
from National Public Radio, two from CPB, and two from the
Annenberg School ofCommunications, and perhaps two more members
at largewill administer the fund. The goals of the Project are to create
one or more significant collections of new, innovative, high quality
college level materials and to demonstrate the use of communications
systems for addressing unique higher education problems. The primary'
target audiencei are those persons who demonstrate an interest in college
level education, but because of lack of time, or resources, or other
reasons are unable to pursue that education. The fund was formally
presented and accepted the morning of February 26; thus, Lawrence
Grossman, President of PBS, was able to announce this magnificent gift
to education and public television personnel all over the country at the
beginning of the Adult Learning Teleconference.
In addition to programming, the PTV-3 Adult LearningDepartment
will provide a number of related services. Included are two more
teleconferences this spring. A teleconference on March 31 will deal with
implementation strategies for telecourses. Dr. John Flanagan,Associate
Dean for Non-Traditional Programs at Eastern Kentucky University,
and Dr. Terence Kelly, Vice-President for Education at Miami-Dade
Community College, both administrators of successful television outreach.
programs for their institutions, will be featured guests, along with Stephen
Pence, Adjunct Professor at Eastern Kentucky University,and Elizabeth
Koster, Professor of Nursing at Bergen Community College, both
enthusiastic teachers of telecourses. A packet of materials about
implementation will accompany the video presentation.
On April 29, PTV-3, in cooperation with the Public Information and
Advertising Departments of PBS and practicing experts in promotion
and marketing, will present a teleconferencp on promotion. This meeting
willull together the public information staffs and other interested
personnel of colleges and universities with those of the local public
television station to address the problems of informing communities and
New Public Programs 61
recruiting students. PTV-3 will provide press kits, including stories that
can be localized about the service and the courses within the schedule;
photographs; appropriate art work and copy for brochures, newspaper
advertising and direct mail pieces so that the local institutions can easily
adapt them by adding only their names, addresses, and other pertinent
.local information. On-air promotion for public television stations and
public service announcements for commercial radio and television
stations will also be available to participants. All of these materials will
be integrated into a presentation that will suggest several viable
approaches to planning and implementing effective promotion cam-
paigns for adult learning via television.
The PTV-3/Adult Learning ,Programming Service is already well
along in planning for its second Semester in spring of 1982 and its second
academic year 1982-83. Among its goals are earlier announcements of
schedules to provide a longer lead timenine to twelve months inyear
twofor colleges and universities; development of new programs and
services; and a more systematic feedback system involving all of the
participating institutions and stations. We want to get advice from all of
our PTV-3 participants about the courses to select; the courses to
encourage in development; the days and hours courses should be
transmitted; the services needed to make the Adult Learning Pro-
gramming Service effective; and other curricular, instructional, and
Public Subscriber Network
Though PT1!-3/Adult Learning is a functioning department within
PBS, still another PBS national initiative in education is on the drawing
boards. Called first the Grand Alliance, but now named the Public
Subscriber Network, this initiative is a part of the PBS plan for a
subscriber or pay-cable service. The plan was conceivedas a partnership
between PBS and the cultural and performing arts institutions and groups
in the country, and the focus of the evening schedule will be on first class
cultural and performing gt programs. However, the daytime schedule
will be devoted to education. The shape ofthat educational programming
is taking form now. It seems likely that it will be bighly targeted to appeal
to the same audience paying for the evening service, but will also be
particularly usefill to its institutional members, which will include such
entities as school districts, colleges, universities, professional associations,
businesses, hospitals, and industry. Though it is too early to say exactly
what the daytime components will be, perhaps one strip of progxamming
will be devoted to i.he needs of academically talented children and youth;
another block of programming might provide advanced professional
development for scientists, executives, and professionals; still another
might schedule master classes by the world's greatest scholars. These
potentials and others are in sesearch now.
62 New Public Programs
Television has been an increasingly powerful force in our society since
the fifties. Its power in business, in politics, and in all phases of
communication is certainly far advanced. But television has not yet
emerged as the powerful force it can and should be in education. Clearly,
the arrival of PTV-3 and the coming of the Public Subscriber Network
demonstrate that it is time for the good friendship between public
broadcasting and education to become stronger and deeper, to grow into
not so much a marriage, as a partnership. This partnership will be forged
from our combined efforts to achieve our highest goals, for we have long
had mutual needs, common interest, and shared values. And from this
powerful partnership should come the most exciting educational experi-
ences of the eighties.
Computers/Software More for Less
Dorothy K. Deringer
National Science Foundation
Computing has profoundly influenced our society; science, govern-
ment, business -and even our household appliances and our children's
toys have been affected. Indeed, computing is one of those rare
commodities within our society for which the cost continues to decline.
,Or stated in another way, the increase in cost-effectiveness over time has
been exponential. The rule that cost-effectiveness doubles every two
years has held up forthe last decade and current projections indicate that
it will continue to hold for still another decade.1 the character of the
computer industry is 'More &Less."
In a recent report, Technology in Science Education: The Next 10
Years, J.C.R. Licklider of-MIT says "the world is rapidly_ moving into
the Information Age" and information technology is flourishing everywhere
but in the field of education. He concludes that "education is not only
missing a great opportunity, it is failing to discharge a responsibility."
However, in spite of the fact that the computer pervades all segments
of our society and the toy industry has "gone electronic" with computer
based toys, "Less is not Always More" especially in public education.
What is the role of- the education establishment in preparing our
NA,studentsto live and work in this new world and how are we fulfilling this
role? How should the education establishment use the new technologies
to improve our performance as so many other professions-have done?
Many of you at this conference are asking yourselves this question. Some
of us have already decided and wish to learn more about the best ways of
doing it. Icexpect that many of us here will talk about not only the
promises but also the dangers which exist in an increasingly
technologically-based educational syStem.
Some recent reports have delineated many problems and issues in the
use of infonnation technology in education. These reports come from the
exetutive branch of the federal government, the Congress and the field.
NSF and Information Technology
The National Science Foundation's mission for maintaining the health
of science education in the United States leads to our involvement in this
topic in a variety of ways (For NSF, the word "science" includes research
and education in science, mathematics and engineering). NSF's legislation,
the NSF Organic Act (P.L 81-507), gives NSF a speCial mandate to foster
computer technology for research and education. Section 3(a) (4) author-
ized the Foundation "to foster and support the development and use of the
computer and Other scientific methods and technologies primarily for
research and education in the sciences." Underthis mandate, NSF has
invested well over 50 million dollars over the last 10years in technology for
The national concern for the decline in U.S. productivity and the
recent reports of the heavy emphasis of science and technology in the
Soviet curriculum for elementary and high school students led the
President to request a report on the health of American science education
an51 its ability to prepare students to function in a technological world.
The report, Science and EngineerinrEducation for the 80's and
Beyond3 prepared by the Secretary of Education and the Acting
Director of the Natibnal Science Foundation, shows that we will have a
prolonged shortage of engineers and computer scientists. Moreinterest-
ingly, we are fast becoming a nation of technological illiterates. The gap
between those few who study science and technology and themany who
don'.t is great and ever growing such that it portends significant problems
for our society over the long run.
The report recommends computer literacy courses as one of many
possible actions, greater support for university departments ofengineering
and computer science topurchase research equipment so that faculty can
conduct state of the art research in these areas, and it recommends that
the educational profession use the technology itself to improveperformance.
It urges NSF to encourage the development of software for classroom
computers and for the Department of Education to encourage schools to
use it. Schools are urged to use video technology, classroom television and
other technologies in educating students.
The Congress as well has been concerned about the use of information
technology in education. During the most recent hearings, Congressman
George Brown (D, Cal.) in his opening remarks stated that the objectives
of the seminars were "to enhance the awareness of the Congress, the
executive branch, and the private and public sectors of the potential
educational benefits of new information and telecommunications tech-
nologies and ... the possible social and economic impacts resulting from
the widespread use of these technologies in the educational process."4
After witnesses spoke, six panels met to discuss the problems and make
A report synthesizing the recommendations will be available later this
year. Congressional staff members indicate that two central issues are
emerging in theme of information technology for education at all levels
and in all environmentsthe need for trained personnel and for high-
quality courseware and software.
The House Committee itself has taken an innovative step in the use of
technology to share the material of thete hearings. For the first time, a
videotaped report of the hearingsactually three 1 hour tapes and one
half our tapewill be available from Congressman Brown's office. These
tapes have also been shown on the House closed-circuit television system.
Colleagues of mine who have seen these tapes give them high marks for
articulating the probk -ns and issues in discussing the use of information
technology in education.
In December 1980, a conference on National Goals for Computer
Literacy5 was conducted by the Human Resources Research Organization
(HumRRO) and the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium
(MECC). Over 85 experts in computing and education participated.
Though there were some widely differing viewpoints expressed the
group identified the need for
a national commitment to a computer literate society;
software, courseware and curriculum guidelines;
a total effort in the school, the home and the workplace; and
further research, development and policy studies.
The conference participants also pointed out that the availability of the
computer could result in two distinct classes in our society: those who
have the ability to use computers and those who do not. Those who do
not have the ability will be technological illiterates in the technologically
sophisticated society of the 80's and beyond. This will most likely further
widen the gap between the rich and the poor, and serious social, political
and economk consequences, could result. .
Clearly there are many fine policy statements and recommendations
from the executive branch, the Congress, and the field. All of these and
other reports rev.eal a consistency in views of different groups and
organizations on the important problems and issues.
And now, I believe, that the people of the United States not only see the
increasing importance of computing and technology, they are attempting
to use it and teach about it. The question is no longer should the
computer be part of instruction, but how should it be used and studied
best? Enrollments of students in computer science and engineering
courses in higher education are increasing faster than our institutions are
able to provide well trained professors to teach them. Schools are
acquiring micro computers for their classrooms through planned pur-
chasing programs, state-wide purchasing agreements and PTA bake sales.
But our strategies for using these computers and training teachers are
varied. People are searching for sound approaches, as we are here, but
there are no agreed upon solutions. The change in the last five years is
that the number of people searching for solutions has increased
The National Science Foundation Projects in Computing
All of these studies mentioned above are useful if you are trying to
convince advisory committees, school boards, parents, and other
decision makers that information technology should play a vital role in
When one actually takes the step to use technology, however, one
fmds a variety of different approaches to the use of courseware and
software in the education of students, teachers and citizens. The needs
for large quantities of high quality courseware and software and for
trained people are identified by policy makers, but there are many
different and high quality approaches to fulfilling these needs.
NSF's approach is to support a variety of different projects which are
examples and models of the uses of computing in science education.
Then you can pick and choose among these approaches and decide for
yourselves what is best for your local educational needs and objectives.
These federally supported examples provide benefits to many at a much
lower cost than if each institution fmance its own research and ,
I would like to tell you about several ofour projects which are trying to
anticipate the educational needs of the late 80's in science, mathematics
and engineering education. They are characterized by diversity of su bjedt
matter, levels, strategies, focus and environment.
The National Science Foundation concentrates on computing because
to be able to do science and engineering in the 80'sand beyond one has to
know something about computing.
We see three different approaches to the computer in science
I. The computer as a tool of science;
2. The computer as an object of study; and
3. The computer as a deliverer of instruction.
Ftsr the last of thesethe delivery of instructionthere is still
reluctance on the part of many institutions to change. Dr. Joseph Lipson
of NSF in an earlier talk has outlined some reasons for this reluctance.
To know about the computeras a tool of science and an object of study,
however, is becoming a requirement for a well-educated individual. I
believe that it is in these areas which the computer is best received and
used in pre-college and higher education. It is, by far, the area in which
the Foundation has the largest investment.
The Cdtputer as a Tool of Science
Materials in which the computer is used as a tool are being developed
for a variety of different science and engineering topics. All of these
applications are focused on bringing research strategies and techniques
in the discipline to undergraduate and graduate classrooms.
Are you interested in improving the education of our meteorologists?
Sophisticated computer graphics systems such as the one at the
University of Wisconsin/Madison ire used by professional and
research meteorologists to analyze and predict weather systems.
Dr. Donald Johns9n is preparing a version of these color graphics
systems, accompanied by teaching materials, and designed for
use within atmospheric sciences classrooms and laboratories.6'
How about improving the analytical skills of undergraduate
biology students? A package of programs incorporating techniques
from research in biology will be designed for use in the first two
undergraduate years of biology laboratory for data analysis and
simulation by Dr. James Spain. at Michigan Technological
One strategy used by political scientists and economists to predict
the state of the world in the 80's and beyond is a world computer
model which incorporates political, economic and other scientific
data. A simplified version is being constructed for use withinthe
classroom by Dr. Barry Hughes at the University Of Denver.
Computer Litoracy: Strategies for all Ages
If learning how to use the computer and about its use in our society
becoming computer-literateis an important goal for your faculty and
students, consider these different projects in different environments with
If you're involved in elementary schools, curriculum kits for
introducing computing into science and mathematics courses
taught in grades K-8 are being produced by the Human
Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) in Alexandria,
At the middle and high school level, a project at the Minnesota
Educational Computing Consortium directed bY Dr. Ronald
Anderson is producing materials which will be integrated in
mathematics, science, and social sciences classes;
How about mit-of:school learning? Professor Seymour Papert at
MIT will use the 'opportunity afforded by a summer camP to
explore the mathematics learned by early adolescent youngsters
within a computer culture;
If you believe the library should be the center for change in our
information-based society, look at the project conducted by
People's Computer Company at the public library, recreation
center and local business locations. This project will give the
27,000 residents of Menlo Park, California an opportunity to
have a direct experience with a microcomputer.
Computer Development and Revision
One of our recent efforts which has generated strong interest among
mathematicians, educators and the public involves pre-college mathe-
matics education using computers. During Fiscal Year 1980 twenty
projects were supported, nine in cooperation with the National Institute
of Education under the NSF/NIE Improvement of Mathematics
Education using Information Technology effort. These twenty projects
Imitate a diversity of approaches at different age levels.8
If you are looking for materials for gifted young children, games,
inquiry learning sequences and puzzles will be programmedunder
the direction of Dr. Ann Piestrup of Advanced Learning Tech-
nology to help gifted second and third graders learn geometry and
logic. Children will use a variety of input/output mediajoy
sticks, graphics tablets, color graphics and speech;
It you envision a classroom with both calculators and computers,
you might consider the techniques used by Dr. John Miller at the
Lawrence Hall of Science. Calculators and computers will be
combined in the mathematics .classroom ina project to teach 4th,
5th and 6th grade teachers and parents about the potential of
calculators in elementary mathematics instruction;
If you consider the networking of teachers and classrooms an
intriguing technique for improving the interest and motivation of
both teachers and students, consider this project directedby Dr.
Diane Resek at San Francisco State. A network of micro computers
will be used to link middle school students and teachers learning
mathematics through games, simulations and information storage
and retrieval techniques;
Looking for a technique to involve talented but non-science
oriented students in computing 'and mathematics? Tenth grade
students (talented but non-science oriented) will use the computtr
in their roles as mathematics tutors for underachieving sixth grade
students. Dr. Marc Swadener at the University of Denver
anticipates that the mathematics and problem-solving skills Of
both groups will improve as well as their enrollment in math and
Do your students think that math and science are too abstract? At
the All Indian Pueblo Council in Albuquerque, NM, Pueblo story
telling techniques with color graphics will be used to teach Indian
students about energy use in the Pueblo culture.
'a- When your teachers express the desire to use the computer as a
"dynamic blackboard," consider a project at Georgia Tech
directed by Dr. Les Karlovitz and one at Carroll College by Dr.
Gerald Isaacs. In -both of these projects, teacher tools for
illustrating and describing mathematical principles and problems
in the classroom are being developed.
How about a math lab? A mathematics laboratory akin toa high
school physics or chemistry lab will be created by John Staib at
If your school serves adults who need to learn or refresh their high
school mathematics, the mathematics 'clinic at Virginia
Commonwealth University will help adults learn high school
algebra and trigonometry graphing through computer graphics.
Ten to fifteen more prototype projects in mathematics and computing
will be supported in Fiscal 1981.
In conclusion, technology is flourishing everywhere but in education.
The President's report says that in the long range this situation is going to
Have a significant negative impact As we search for trained people torun
our technological society, we will find fewer and fewer of them..
Predictions are that we will soon find a technologically illiterate society.
If we are tO meet the challenges of an information society we must ensure
that we have a literate populace.
NSF has funded programs to stimulate the development of ideas and
systems to assist those who are interested in using technology in the
classroom. Much more is needed.
If we are to integrate the use of technology in all of our nation's
classrooms (not just in pilot projects and prototypes),we need to develop
national strategies to stimulate the large-scale development of high-
quality educational courseware, software and materials and to facilitate
the acquisition of appropriate hardware.
If the pourseware, software, materials, and hardware are to be created
and used effectively in our nation's classrooms, we need a nation of
trained peoplefaculty, teachers and administrators, who ire prepared
to use technology wisely.
If we are to capitalize'on the strengths but avoid the dangers of these
information technologies, we need continued research and development
activities to determine long-term benefits and dangers.
And finally, if we are to remain a technologically sophisticated nation,
we need to establish national policies, goals and strategies to ensure that
our educational system can produce students who can participate in such
1. Licklider, J.C.R., Technology in Science Education: The Next Ten Years, National
Science Foundation, July 1979, U.S. Government Printing Office, Grip 038-000-
00432 ($2.50), p. 3.
2. Ibid, p. 2.
3. Hufstedler, Shirley M. and Donald N. Langenberg, Report to the Presklent of the
United States, Science and EngineerinpEducation for-the 1980's and Beyond,
October 1980, NSF 80-78. All NSF Publications (except 1 above) are available from
the National Science Foundation Publications Office, NSF, Washington, DC 20550.
4. Information Technology in Education. Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on
.Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology and
the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor,
Hoese of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, April 2 and 3,
1980, No. 134, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1980.
Also, Computers and the Learning Society, Hearings before. the Subcommittee on
Domestic and International Scientific Planning, Analysis and Cooperation of the
Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Filth
Congress, First Session, October 4, 6, 12; 13, 18, and 27, 1977; No. 47, U.S.
Government Prifiting Office, Washington, 1978. A report of these hearings is also
available (June 1978).
Information and Communications Technologies Appropriate in Education (In-
cluding HR. 4326), Hearings before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and
Technology of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Represen-
tatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session, October 9; 1979, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington, 1979.
5. Seidel, Robert J. et al., National Goals forComputer Literacy in 1985 _Conference
Proceedings and Recommendations,fortheeming from Human Resources Research
Organization (HumRRO), 300 North Washington 'Street, Alexandria, VA, 22314.
6. SourreBook offtiects, Science Education Development and Research, Fiscal Year
1979, National Science Foundation SE 80-80, p. 49.
7. All of the next awards except Papert/MIT are described in"Development in Science
Education (DISE) Program, Project Awards, Fiscal Year 1980," National Science
Foundation SE 81-52. The MIT award is described in reference 8.
8. The mathematics using computing projects are described inPre-College Mathematics
Education Using Computers, Project Awards, Fiscal Year 1980, Development in
Science Education, National Science Foundation, SE 81-51.
I would like to thank my colleague at the Nation! Science Foundation,
Dr. Andrew Molnar, for his advice and assistance in preparing this
Maiching Educational Needs
What is happening in the Rest of the World
Clifford It Mock
\U.S. Agency for Intemotionai Development
As I prepare this paper in Washington this afternoon, my thOughts turn
to some of the place* on this earth where educational technology is today
being used to makea differenceplaces where it is playing a central role
Ail the educational process. It is early morning inthe South Pacific, and
students of Fiji,Tonga, Western Samoa and eight other islands scattered
over hundreds of thousands of square Miles are preparing to take a
university course in tropical disease control, thanks to audio links
Provided to each island by :NASA satellite 23;000 miles in orbit above,
the earth. FUrther to the West, in the Republic of Korea, in a few,houzs
250,600 primary and junior high schOof students- will attend schools,
where learning is organized in a sophisticated sygem based mina-Stet*
learning concepts, delivered by programmed instruction, radio, tele-
yisiokirafteacher=led exercises, while thousands of Korean adults will
erlater, in Thailand, students will be studying primary -school
highlchool degree through Korea's High School of the Air.
('01 milhentratios provided by radio to their classrooms, and they will be
learrinyift well. In the Ivory Coati of Africa tomorrow morning 580,000
>41. students throughout the mtenor of that country will be Studying through
Gt, 41ssrbonkelevision in almost eVery subject In England, of course, tht;
litatiorlalsiiiiit university will be operating using the postal systemant
:the ficilifiei Of the BBC to bring higher education of estimable quality to
65,000litudentsoneinwhile, in our own hemisphere a similar system is
Pnividingrefief to Venezuela's bulging university classrooms, While even
in SkIfilfed El Salvador education is being provided for niost of that
cciii#5,4 junior-high school stUdents through classroom television.
'-we in 'this country are part of a fabric of experimentation and
commitment- to. new -ways to provide the best educational opportunity
72 iwatching Needs
that can, be' afforded to pur children and to ourselves, no matter the
material; political and cultural differences among Os. 'Fiero issome merit
to the thought that we can learn together from somEof these experi-
encesas well as_ pro!ide a boost our collective morale, as- innovation
wends its-rocky way through the very testing trials of reality.
would- like to give you= some sense of the trends -in educational
technOlogy throughout the world, at least at I see them from my vantage
uoint, where mY job is to _select promising, approaches and concepts
Worldwide and to work with spec& developing countries to -generate
applications to their Problems. It is tettiPtingvery tempting .-7-to
speculate abbtit the new world that we see coming into reality in the next
few years: Whole libraries available on a handful ofyideodisOc students
of all ages learning at home through microcomputers linked by phone
with vast edudational data bases; instant access -by satellite to an
unlimited variety of televised information. But4, like many of the other
contactors believe we have learned that those fundamental changes
will- come to realization, An most cases, only in a gradual and often
evolutionary *ayrather than by soine instantaneous sea change.
Educational institutions, and those within them who learn, and teach,
and adminiiter; need time and experience to incotporate these new ways
of leaning into their individual, social and economic._ patterns of
behavior. The organizational changes to which Many of this book's papets
have referred will take some time, -some fits and starts, and many
adaptive processes ip order to become viable. So instead of speculating
about what could come to pass, I would like to examine cunently existing
trends in the rest Of the wórld; it is these existing trends which are most
likely to condition the educational alternatives of the near future.
I see four basiotrends that now have a firm basis. The best established
is that embodied by the concept of the open universitythat is, "teaching
at a distanec," for motivated adults. The second is an increasing use of
broadCasting to Meet basic -edutitidial nee& within primary and
secondary schools,-particularly the emerging rediscovery of/Indio as a
Rawer* in-school educational Medium, When appropriately program-
med. The third is the now familiar world-wide use of televisionfor early
'Ackildhoodeducation as pioneered by the Children's Television Work-
ihoP in -its Sesanie Street and Electrie Company efforts. And finally,
serving as die intellectual underpinning of many of educational tech-
Woe's sisecess stories in the world's educational marketplade is the
slow but steady growth offastructional systems delign, used as a formal
methodology for developing the content of instruction. 7EACHINGAT
4.4 DISTANCE: 77IE OPEN UNIVERSITy
:Elierivhere_itt the world, as-in our own country, innovations succeed
when--theY are able to combine effective instnictional methods- with
Matching Needs 73
delivery systems that are cheap, reliable and simple for the users to
operate. Even then, they persist only when such innovations become
incorporated into institutions that themselves are stronginstitutions
which are viable because they serve important social needs.
The Open University
The Open University movement fits all these criteria. The British
Government of the late 1960'S and '70's was deeply, politiCally
committed to expanded higher educational opportunity beyond the
selective and indeed elitist university system extant in the United
Kingdom.By using television; radio, and the post, the production skill of
the BBC, the instructional, design skill of its superb educational
technology group, and the content expertise of a first-rate faculty, the
British Open University has grown to more than 65,000 students, by all
odds the largest universityin- Britain and one of the larger ones-in the
World. Its graduates have acquitted themselves so well, and their
intellectual standards are So high, that an Open University degree means
a good deal oven in status-conscious Britain. The model has quickly
become transplanted to other nations where university entance is
difficult to achieve. The Bavarian Open University now enrolls thou-
sands of German students; the model has been extended to Venezuela, to
Pakistan, to at least a dozen other-countries including, of course, the
,United States. We can expect some of the particulars to change from
place to place and to evolvein Britain, for example, the use of the audio
emends creasingly viewed as having advantages for some purposes
over both te1èison 'and radio, and is rapidly becoming a Major element
in the media knix. In _the South Pacificwhere Mailing cassettes or
documents mejns in manyinstances takingthem over dangerous reefs by
longboatitb adcist _techniques are predominate, and there is now
serious experimentation willi slow-scan teleVision.
But the basic elements__ of the Open UniversitS, model remain the
sarneworking adults 4udy in their own homes, or in some countries in
Community centers, using some form of audio or visual instrudtion; their
performance is: Monitored and guided ihrough correspondence, tele-
phone or sony .other means; and in most cases, instructional- systems
design techniqües frame thedevelopment of anstruction content. These
systems generally wOrk well. They are econothically attractive be-Cause-
stadents ,can -still-be_ employed, and they fill a tremendons need for
servical& new populations.
In some develoPing countries, theselsystems,are being used,also to
eitend the societal usefigness of the university. In the South Pacific, for
emnPle, with -cantle help through AID., university faculty in such
fields Is agronokvi pUb1c health,!and economic policy am providing '
spedialyzed in-service courses to_ development Wórkersttl'tinughout the
regionto nurse-inidwives, to r,grieultural_ extension agents, -to :plan-
nersthrough Satellite radio. In the pmcess,incidentally, these faculty
74 Matching Needs
are being profoundly influenced in their regular academic teaching by
their two-way comrnunicatiOn- with those who are facing real-world
problems, on the job. So I expect these open universities to continue to
function, to giow, and to become even more sophisticated educationally.
Because the); are now permanent and important institutions in their
countries or regions, they can take on that task of continued, steady,
instructional improvement, through new instructional techniques and
better testingone of the great promises of educational technology that
has so rarely been fulfilled.
InstrUctional Broadcasting: The Re-Discovery of Radio
Let Ine turn now to basic education and the expanding role of
instvictional broadcasting, increasingly by radio in the developing world.
By basic education I mean the fundamental language and numeracy
skills one is supposed to acquire in primary and junior secondary school.
Here the developing nations are facing even greater burdens thenwe are,
because of their rapid population growth. Although school enrollments
have risep dramatically in the last two decades, in many African
countries fewer than half the children are in school; in India a majority of
school-age children fail to complete the fifth grade; and in Brazil just a
few years ago fully half the school children in the country were in first
grade classrooms, many of them repeating the first giade because of
failure, or simply the absence of schools with higher grade levels
available. In India last month, a noted Indian educator observed to me
that-if India were to keep up educationally with its entirely predictable,
indeed quite certain, population growth over the next twenty years, a new
school would have to be built every ten minutes. In addition, ofcourse,
trained teachers would need to be recruited to live in the difficult
conditions of village India, and to be paid by a very poor nation.
'With conditions like these, some countries have been working
seriously at using the educational technologies to carry a majorpart of the
instructional-burden. To planners in some countries it seems almost
inevitable, and the-only practical hope of coping with the population
explosion, let alone improving educational quality and capitalizingon the
vast human potential in Third World narions. We at A.I.D. have had the
privilege of working with several such countries as they seek out basic
educational alternatives. In at least a few of these countries there has
been the, recognition that fairly fimdamental organizational change will
be a requisite to meeting their needs. Starting a dozen years ago,
television was the chosen medium, and it is those systems which are now
the most mature. When they were developed, the use of instructional
design methods was rarely used in educational broadcasting; Seseme
Street and the Open University had yet to emerge as successful hybrids
of these two approaches to educational technology. Thus, the quality of
these systems might have been limited, to some degree, by their early
Matching Needs 75
birth. But they have had considerable achievements: in El Salvador, for
example, a doubling ofjunior high school enrollment without diminishing
quality (in fact, with significant learning gains) was made possible
through double sessions supported-by classroom television, television
closely integrated with daily teachers' guided and intensive teacher
retraining. At the same time, the curriculum was entirely overhauled.
The system continues. In the Ivory Coast, something of an educational
miracle has taken place. From I WO to 1977, primary school enrollment
expanded from under 80,000 (almost entirely in the cities) to 560,000;
again daily television lessons in every key classroom subject have made
this expansion possible, while teachers have-been giadually trained, in
part by television progiams for that purpose.
But television=based systems are perceived as too costly -by many.
Therefore, we at A.I.D. and later others, such as UNESC6 and the
World Bank, began some years ago to work with selected developing
countries to develop radio as a key medium for distributing much of the
core of instruction. Because radio ha: been around a long time, it was
initially very difficult to interest educational planners in using it in a
significant way. Our strategy has been to try to make it so effective
educationally that people would have to sit up and take notice. In this
enterprise we have had the great advantage of having the leadership of
Professor Patrick Suppes of Stanford and his very able colleagues,
Barbara Searle, Jamesine Friend, and-Klaus Galda, to carry out the
The first result of this new commitment to radio education has been the,
creation ,of a complete, daily, radio7based curriculum for all of primary
school mathematics, widely usable in schools where teachers themselves
are inadequate in mathematics teaching. This curriculum, tested in daily
broadcasting over several years, has shown learning gains over trad-
itional rural schools ranging from 20 percent to 35 percent per year. The
method was first developed and tested in Nicaragua; it is now showing
equal success in the very different culture of Thailand, and is being
examined for possible adoption by several other nations throughout the
world. Its power -derives, incidentally, from adapting many of the
instructional principles associated with computer-assisted instruction to
the mass medium of radio. The progiams, for example, are filled with
' elicktations of active responses by the childrenworking out sums with
bottle caps on their desks, shouting out answers, singing mathematical
songs. The schedule of repetition of drills in particular skills, such as two-
digit multiplication or three-digit subtraction, is deternined by fine-tuned
principles of distributed practice, based in part on students' performance.
And feedback on performance is rapid, frequent and non:perjorative. All
this, plus some creative radio formats that are culturally sensitive and
warm-hearted, has created a system that is a delight, welcomed in the
classroom as a lively guest each day, and that succeeds educationally.
76 Matching Needr
When one sees this system operating in otherwisedreary and sleepy rural
classroOms, it is a jorto see the electric aliveness itcan bringmuch of it
deriving from the delight that is inherent in active learning. If one ever
wanted to puncture the mYth of passivity associated with instructional
broadcasting, these-are the classes to see.
Many of these same' techniques are now being used by A.LD. to
develop a curriculum in the language arts by radio, initially in Kenya. We
soon will be testing elsewhere a complete primary school system for
rethote rural schools, where family members of community volunteers
can play many of the roles of the teacherthe classroom organizer, the
nurturer, the interest-stimulator, while the radiolessons provide a core of
instruction. So, while just out of its infancyor perhaps its second
childhoodinstructional radio is being rediscovered throughout the
world, with significant new uses now emerging in such countries as the
Philippines, India, Korea,- and several Latin American countries.
I must also ,rnention some of the-extraordinary uses to which radio is
being Put to reach adults with both basic edueation and practical
inforntation. In almost every Latin American country, radio schools
daily_ teach tens of thousands of largely illiterateor semi-illiterate farmers
the basics of education, as WelLas a wealth of practical information on
health, agriculture and family economics. There are now 34 such
systems, most of them initiated by the Catholic Church; One of thenvin-
Colombia,' has a regular newSpaper for new literates, the "Campesino,"
with a circu litiorrof-6430;000-
The U.S. has-assisted a number of these effort:s -through-
A.I.D., is helping develop new techniques for making-eadio_a full-scale
information and educational service-for rural people.: We areAssisting
projects which are teaching basic nutritiOnal skills to families by radio,
providing daily detailed agricultural information, and teaching mothers
themselves to deal -.:ven with severe health problems being faced by their
infant children. Fci radio is increasingly educating, informing, training
and even savir g ',lives in the developing world, using techniques
entertaining enc ugh to attract listeners and useful enough to retainThem.
Television for Pre-School Education
The third trend I alluded to earlier, the= adoption of Seiathe Street-
types of television programs for the pre-school instruction, is so well
known I need not dwell upon it. More than thirty countries are using
Sesame Street Or the Electric Company._-Even more importantly, the
Children's Television Workahop has dene a i7eat service by engaging in
co-productions with cOuntries as diverse is Mexico, Germany, and
Saudi Arabia (a total of 6) and so has left these nations with basic skills
on which to build future activities themselves. Since pre-school educa-
tion is generating increased interest in many nations,as it way to
ilnprove school' -success and to overcome intellectually deadening
Matching Needs 77
environments in many of the poorest householdsthe use of this model
will, I am confident, continue to thrive, especially as television becomes
Instructional Systems Design
Now, a word on the fourth trend, the one that underlies, I think the
success of most of the othersthe growing acceptance of instructional
systems design as the framework for developing instructional content, no
matter what the medium. Here, I think, we can take pride in this
peculiarly American intellectual export that is beginningto take root and
flower, and that is of enormous importance to the future of education.
The systems design approach to empirically based instruction, which
grew out of programmed instruction, basic psychological research on
learning, and the use of computers, is in a way the essence of American
pragmatism, as at Avery point in developing a lessonor a systemit
says, "Go see what is really being learned; if it doesn't work, try it again
until it does work." I cannot emphasize enough how radically different
that underlying attitude is from the methods still extant in so many
places"copyrreeite, repeat the knowledge exactly as it is in my head,
or fail;" an approach, incidentally, that seems to work reasonable well for
the few, and seldom works well for the many.
As we have begun to combine these methods of instructional systems
desigg with the wide access provided by the mass media, substantial
movement has begun to occur. One of the most impressive achievements
in this area, incidentally, has been in the Republic of Korea. Eight years
ago, with the help of U.S. A.I.D. and experts from the Florida State
University, led by Professor Rpbert Morgan, Korea set in motion a
-complete-overhaul of its school system, a reform based on instructional
design concepts, esiiialYr-bil mastery-learning,_an on the use of radio,
television and programmed texts. Here, gieat attention has en p-aid
also to chancing clasSroom and school system organization. It_is an
extraordinarily ambitious effort, and one of the few where the instruc-
-tional technologists have been put in charge of the reform of an entire
school system. Last year a near-fmal test of the system in 200 schools
showed major learning gains; the model systern now has begun its
national scale adoption.
Finally, I must briefly mention the revolution that satellite com-
munications promises and that is at its beginning overseas, as it is in this
country. After years of worldwide speculation about the possible use of
satellites to enhance education in the developing world, India in 1975-76
used a NASA experimental satellite, ATS-6, to bring community
educational television to almost 2,400 remote villages throughout India.
It broadcast science lessons: it reaches hundreds of thousands of adults
78 Matching Need.s.
with health .and agricultural information, news, and cultural program-
ming; and it provided in7Service training to 48,000 rural school teachers.
This was the same satellite that in the U.S. spa*ned that now-
blossoming Appalachian Community Service Network and a variety of
educational and health uses in Alaska, and that also served the Rocky
Mountain states. In India, too, the experience encouraged the nation to
develop an operational system; in 1982 India will have its own satellite
(U.S.-made and launched, by the way, and fully paid for by,India) which
among other things will bring educational broadcasts in ten languages
into schools throughont rural India. China has declared its intention to do
the same (although just recently delayed by budgetary constraints), in an
effort to Tapidly overcome the deficits in basic and technical education
produced by .the Cultural Revolution.
The power of newly available satellite communication systems derives
fnihr two factorstheir ability to reach rural people economically, and
their capacity to aggregate learners in any specialized field, without
regard to distant. These capacities will find many applications.
The United States is associated with developing these new opport-
unities through the new AID. Rural Satellite Program, which -will
provide both radio broadcasting and community telephones to rural
freas in several countries, in an effort to show that educational and two-
way communications can, in fact,ebe a catalyst to social and ecmomic
development in the rural areas of the worldwhere, afterall, majority of
the people on this planet live. We are working in developing this program
with Peru, Senegal, several Caribbean nations,and soon, we expect, with
the Philippines and several additional countries. Among other things, we
expect, to making some dramatic new uses of another "old" technology,
the telephone, a "feedback" medium of great flexibility, as well as a
means of access to many sources of information.
Briefly, these projects will use small earth stations to bring radio and
telephone communications to rural towns. We will be assisting local
agencies such as agricultural extension and health provider systems to
fio-47-so"utilize-these-media-to.improve their effectivenessi and we
will be evaluating very carefully theircost, revenues, andeffeels: --
So, in this panorama I hope you've gathered that some important seeds
of productive change are sprouting in education around the world. New,
more educationally powerful, uses of old media such as radio and
telephones are emergin& and instructional methods based On learning
effectiveness are beginning to make difference. Some new institutions,
such as Britain's Open University and Korea's Educational Develop-
ment Institute, have arisen to give some permanence to these new
There is still a very, very long way to go, however, to. effect
Matching Needs 79
fundamental improvements in the basic educational opportunities
available to most of the world's people. In attempting to go that long way,
I look to a lively interchange with the many in the United States who are
?aiming at some of the same objectives, and I also hope that the people oC
this nation will continue to support this effort through the AID.
program. We in this country have a special,professional contribution to
make to this effort because of our well-rooted pragmatism and our
leadership in the new learning technologies. In turn we can perhaps be
inspired by the efforts of other countries to ourselves take bolder and
more rapid steps to overcome our own difficulties. Weare now realistic
enough about our own educational constraints that we can have the very
genuine satisfaction of learning together during this next decade, a
decade which should be exciting and which, together, we can make
Securing Teacher Acceptance
Towson State Unlversity
When addressing the topic of securing teacher acceptance of tech-
nology in schools, a great number of educators today are talking about
bringing computers and computing into the ichools and this means
.change. Bringing computers into schools some years ago might have
been considered a minor change and could have affected only 'a few
teachers, particularly the mathematics teachers, some business teachers,
and those few teachers using Computer Aided Instruction (CIA), since
CIA was too expensive for most schools. Today, however, there is a new
problem. Computers pervade all aspects of our lives. Everyone in our
society needs to know about computers in order to function in the society.
Joseph Lipson in a 1979 report for the National Science Foundation
(NSF) said, "Failure of the Federal Government to move swiftly to
facilitate educational uses of the new technologies will endanger the
economic-and, eventually,-the military security of the country. If our
democratic institutions are to remah stable, we must welcome, rather
than fear or ignore, the imperatives of technological change. It is unlikely
that we can do this without firmly weaving advanced information
technologies into the fabric of our educational system."1
He continued by saying we need a major program to train specialists in
this areacomputer specialists and people with artistic arld instructional
design talent. And herein lies one of our major problems, there are not
and will not in the foreseeable future be sufficient trained personnel for
the-schools-unless-some near miracle occurs.2
Further Lipson said,-"We evr dice-that-only-with-an-inforrned,
public, can the nation hope to move into a computer age with the speed
and sense of purpose required. The adoption of a new technology is
incredibly complex. At almost every stage there is strong intereaction-I
Teacher Acceptance 81
with public attitudes and public understanding. Investments, markets,
legislative positions, enrollment in courses, and selection of careers will
all vary with public awareness and knowledge."3
-Beyond consideration of these problems,_the acquisition ofhardware,
software and courseware for use in the schools must be addressed:"The
dramatic change in capability, and the cost of inr.wmation and image
machines will touch every aspect of our personal lives and health as a
society. And science education . .will face a unique challenge in
responding to the opportunity. Newinowledge and skills can be taught
through new forms of learning experience. Concepts and procedures can
be more, effectively taught to a wide range of students."4
The returns are great if a real commitment is made. The teachers'
commitment is important, but is only one part. For "the acceptance by
teachers of an educational program is a necessary precondition for its
success."5 However, "a school district must have a strong commitment
from the Board of Education add the administration in order to provide
the policies and resources needed to establish goals and implement
systematic_ curriculum change."6 Does this commitment exist to allow
teachers to incorporate the needed technological change?
Aspects. to Consider
There are several aspects that must be examined with regard to teacher
acceptance of technology in the schools. It seems appropriate to consider
the reasons that teachers may not accept technology, the reasonsthat will
persuade teachers to use technology, and fmally to look at the methods
and means that may minimize those factors which inhibit the use of
technology and those that maximize the acceptance of such technology.
Before examining these factors a brief look at history seems appropriate.
Historically there has been only minimal acceptance of technology
and innovation in schools. There has actually been only incremental
change when the long term is considered. Today there is still a great deal
of teacher explanation [lecture presentation], student listening, students
doing assignments and reading from textbooks, and students writing
examinations about the material presented to them.7 That is, there is
great reliance on lecture, text, and test. This is not to say that there has
not been considerable emphasis at times on the use of media other than
blackboard, chalk, and textbooks, but these older materials-irmain
dominant in the majority of classrooms. Dr. Andrew Molnarcites a 1975
National Science Board report stating, "that overhalf of all science and
social studies and two-thirds of all mathematics classes use a single
textbook and many teachers use no supplementary aids other than the
chalkboard."8 The question' is why is this so? Why are television
-teaching, programmed learning materials, films, direct-dial access
systems, and language laboratories- not more dominant? There is no
single answer. Some of the explanations for the failure to use these
82 Teacher A cceptance
technologies in schools include: little concrete evidence of the effective-
ness of the use of these..media, teacher resistance to change, lack of
training in the use of eqiiiphient, the lack of adequate hardware, software
and courseware, the deed to change teaching style to use the technology,
and thaact that extra time_ ahd preparation are required to use these
technologies. Acceptance, the other hand, occurs when the teacher
feels 'that the technology is effective with students, the teacher has
adequate training to effectively andefficiently use the technology, there is
adequate hardware, softWare and courseware, and the technology fits the
teaching stYl-e.Of the teacher.
Almost parenthetically it seems appropriate to mention that one of the
technologies that has succeeded is the language laboratory. Here the
special feature seems to be the active rather than passive involvement of
the learner.9 This and the experienceof most teachers seems to agree that
active involvement of the learner in the learning process is more effective
than passive involvement..
The primary factor most teachers consider in relation to the use of
technology in the classroom is its effectiveness in the teaching.learning
environment. Nearly all technology will requite an investment of time
and effort on the part of the teacher, if they are to use it in their classroom.
Unless the teacher is thorougly convinced that this is Worthwhile for
students, the teacher will not be motivated to expend time and/or effort in
preparing for the use of the technology.
Today, the technology that seems Paramount in the minds of most
educators is computers, more particularly microcomputers, and micro-
computers with videodisks. In terms of schools this is a very recent
development. Computers were unheard of in the schools in 1950.
Indeed, there were only 15 computers in the United States in 195010 and
in 1951 the first commercial computer, a UNIVAC, was deliveredto the
Census Bureau.11 It was 1954 before a commercial computer was
delivered to other than a governmental agency. But computertechnology
developed rapidlY and by the late fifties there were alitady many
"second generation" computers.12 These comPuters were more reliable,
faster and less expensive. At that time many schools acquired their first
computers, business and induStry recognized the need for computer
specialists, and the general interest in this new technolou spurred the
development of courses in programming and the useofthe computer. A
.few experimental programs were developed in the late fifties and a
scattering of credit and non-credit courses appeared at various educa-
tional levels. The problems of the emerging new disciplinewere apparent
from the beginningequipment, teaching staff, texts and curricula.13
On the secondary level a pilot program in Livermore, California in
1957-9 was one of the _earliest reportethcourses.14 This_successful
Teacher Acceptance 83
program led- to the introduction of a regular course in computer
programming in 1958. Designed for mathematics and science students,
the purpose was enlightenment and,enrichrnent of their programs. Local
business and industry provided computer facilities, materials, and
instructors. It should be noted that this was one of the few areas of the
country where firms hal computers at this early date and where they
were willing to donate so generously of their time, facilities and
personnel. This cooperation between sehool and industry was present in
the early states of many programs.15
Until the mid-sixties progress was slow. In 1963 the PIP Newsletter
listed all the courses and programs known to the Project on Information
Processing, a committee of the National Science Teachers Associatidn.
The report showed that only a scatteringof courses were being offered:
There was evidence of a lack of equipment and of trained personnelfor
teaching. The lists of available texts and visual aids revealed a dearth of
suitable materials. Many non-credit courses were offered by business
and professional associations16 for the enrichment of the regular Ihigh
school program. Significantly, two distinct varieties of programs were
reported, the one with a mathematical scientificorientation and the other
with a business orientation. Hard facts as to the number of secondary
schools teaching data processing are not available, but one estimte is
that in 1966 one-fifth of all high schools had access to data processing
equipment for instructional purposes, though most of the equipment was
\unit record equipment.17 Another report at that time indicated that
nationwide about 400 secondary schools were psing computers for
programming scientific problems.18 Throughout the sixtiesthe problems
were still:cquipment, teachers, texts, and curricula. But.some schools
were finding solutions.19 Time-Sharing services provided the equipment
at a price many could afford. Some teachers obtained training at local
colleges or attended summer institutes sponsored by the National
Science Foundation. Some texts were appearing, though not always of
good quality, and the results of experimental andearly course offerings of
a few schools provided the basis for curriculum development.
The situation ai the seventies began is well summarized by Warren
Stenberg of the University of Minnesota:
Computer science courses have not as yet played a major role in
computer use at the secondary scene but they now seem to be coming
up fast ... [Even tough no standard curriculum has yet been
developed ...(and] textbooks are not generally used.20
Courses in data processing"are still in the category ofpipe dreams since
the teaching personnel just does not exist."21
But events in the seventies changedlthis picture. Today there is a
sudden increase in the numt er of schools across the nation which are
84 Teacher Acceptance
beginning to use computers or are considering the use of computers in the
claisroom. There are two major forces behind this movement. First,
computers are, with the advent of the microcomputer, relatively
inexpensive. Second, the computer has become such a pervaiive factor._
in our daily lives that nearly every citizen must have some knowledge of
computers to function in the society. This means that schools must
educate students to function in a society where they will interact, airectly
or indirectly, with comptfters.
Surveys of teachers indicate that most teachers believetaar all
students should learn about the computer. Not all teachers are cOnvinced
that they should use computers in their own classrooms, and §ome of
those who are not interested in using computers indicate that they are
unaware of the possible uses of the computer in the classrook22
Other factors which cause teachers to be reluctant to use computers
include earlier claims that the computer will replace the teacher, their
own lack of knowledge about computers, the feeling that computers will
deliver a less personalized education for the student, a lack of under-
standing of the adVantages and modes of use of computers in the
classroom, being ill-at-ease when ,using computers, and having, seen
examples of problems with the uie of computers in various school
For those teachers who are convinced that computers are an important
part of the classroom, there May remain some reluctance to use
computers. This reluctance comes from anxiety in dealing with equip-
ment, .a feeling of loss of control of the teaching-learning situation,
inadequate hardware, software, courseware, and support, or because of
the considerable time and effort required to obtain adequate training, to
remain current in the field and to use computers in appropriate ways in
What will persuade teachers to use computers?
First appropriate training is essential. Through pre-service, in-service
and professional development the leaders in education need to see that
teachers understand that the computer is to be viewed not as a
replacement of the teacher, but rather as a sophisticated tool to be-used
by the teacher to allow the teacher to do a better job in the classroom.
This means that teachers must realizeThe potential of the computer in the,
classroom, that the computer can be used in many modes, as a tutor to
provide information- and-drill and practice, as a tool in courses that
require a calculator or information retrieval device, and as a machine to
be instructed. Teachers should be given ample, opportunity to see
computers used in all these ways and to see how they may effectively be
. used in their own classroom. Seeing examples of quality uses of
computers should allay misgivings and motivate teachers-to consider
Teacher Acceptance 85
-using computers in their own classrooms.
Second, adequate hardware, software andsupport must be assured. At
the present time manyschools face tight budgets and this naturally means
strict limitations onfunds for hardware, sOftware and support. There are
areas Which are trying innovatiVe programs for the use of computers
through sharing of facilities, one school using the microcomputer for a
few weeks and then passing it on to another school. This is certainly
preferable to no computer at all, but.it is far from adequate. In fact for
most usesone computer for a classroom is inadequate. While research
supports the use of onernicrocompuer or terminal by a pair of students !..t
one- time,23 in a classroom` of twenty toihirty students, one computer
means that theteacher cannot help the students usingthe computer and
negleet the vastmajority of the students in the room. Ideally, a computer
for every four students is suggested. A single laboratory in the school,
where students may go to use the computer, might be a good solution.
The teacher could accompany the students and various classes could be
scheduled to use the loboratory, or the laboratorymight'function in much
the same wr, as thelibrary. Even now it is being suggested at Carnegie
Mellon University that each student should have his/her own micro-
computer.24 This is certainly along way off forpublic secondary schools,
but gives sortie idea of the thinking of someprofessional educators about
the importance of computers for students.
Software is beginning tobe developed for usein schools. At the present
time much of the software that is being used hasibeen developed by the
teachers who are using it, or has been givin to them by friends and
acquaintances, or swapped through user's groups. A current projeci of
the North WestRegional Laboratory in Portland, Oregon, headedby Dr.
Judith Edwards and funded by NSF, is evaluating and cataloging
software for use in schools. Other materials, primarily for use in higher
education, are availablethrough"CONDUIT at the UniversiV of Iowa.
Several microcomputer vendors are also active in assisting in the
exchange of software among their users. WI,"e there is not at the present
time an abundance of software,_positive ..,eps are being taken in the
development and dessimination of quality software. This is an area
which needs continued attention.
There must, at leastfor the present, bb a realization that the classroom
teacher requires support in the use of computer. or computers in "the.
classroom. Many teachers, especially in the initial stages, are unfamiliar
with computers and fmd such small problems as hooking up and
adjusting the _color monitor or TV, tightening up a connection, and
checking out the machine' for proper functioning to be overwhelming.
For some time after the initial introduction into the classroom the teaCher
needs someone towhoin to turn in case of a malfunction, someone to be a
'86 Teacher Acceptance
resource when questions arise in the use of software and for lesson
planning.This seems essential if the transition into the classroom is to be
smooth. One "expert" in the schooi blinding who has the time, expertise',
and assignment fo assist other teachers seems to alleviate many
Third, teachers must be given time for training to use a cornputer with
ease in the classroom, time is also needed to remaincurrent in this rapidly
changing field. The amount and type of traMing that an individual teacher
needS will vary considerably. depending on the previous training of the
teacher and the mode and extent to which the computer is to be used in
the classroom. For those teachers who will use only prewritten software,
'the training need not be extensive. However, for teachers who are
teaching computer literacy and computer programming much more
training will be necessary and frequent updating will be necessary since
the field is so dynamic.
What can administrators and educational leaders do to encourage the
use of computers in classrooms?
There are no simple answers to bringingcomputers into the classroom.
Indeed it has been a long process and it will not occur imMediately.
However, it is crucial that the process of bringing computers into the
classroom be addressed in this decade. Dr. Andrew Molnar of NSF sees
this as a critical issue for schools. Change .cannot be -mandated, but
leaders can persuade. This is an appropriate time because the public is
aware of-the importance of compiners,-Nrents are-seeking; in-many
cases, for computers to be introduced-into schools. News magazines,
such as TIME, indicate that the USA is falling behind Japan in
technology, particularly in computerized robots. Many leadars point
to the need for better science training, which means training in the use of
cOmputers. With this stimulus, it is time to aevelop a plan of action which
1. Provide teachers with an opportunityto learn about appropriate
uses of computers in the classroom.
2. Provide pre-service and in-service training for teachers.
3. Provide adequate, not token, equipment for the classroom.
4. Provide software packages for use in classrooms.
5. Provide auxiliary teaching resourceifilms, texts, lesson plans,
and curriculum guides.
6. Provide a specialLt tO consult withclassroom teachers concerning
hardware, software and classroom usage of the computer.
7. Reward good teaching with cOmputers.
8. Provide examples of teachers doing superior teaching with
Teacher Acceptance 87
Though this lists seems long, and some items involve considerable
expense, we must consider the cost of not providing these items for our
teachers and students. Because "the computer has, today had an impact
on the lives of each and every one of us; already, most-of our financial
affairs and many of our social affairs are subtly controlled or structured
by the computer, and the future promises only more of the same,"25 we
must see that every student has a "basic understanding of the computer
.. a critical component of the knowledge of any educated man or
We must realize that the status of computer literacy among the
students in our schools today is woefully low, Dr. Ronald E. Andersonof
the Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC) reported
in December 1980 at the National Computer Literacy Goals for 1985
Conference in Reston, Virginia that
In brief; the best data we have suggest that few students in either senior
or junior high school have opportunities for computer eperience; few
have algorithmic problem-solving skills;and many lack an awareness
of the role and value of computers, Since these findings are true for 17
year old students, most of whom were in 1 1th grade, we would
speculate. that many students are graduating from high school and
perhaps from college without a minimal level of computer literacy.
What is equally disturbing is the evidence in the data that what little
literacy exists in the nation's students is unequally distributed .across
social groups. Computer experience is much less common among
minorities, womenoind those living in the Southeastern U.S. or ruF1
areas. Not only is computer experience lw common among these
groups but there is good evidence that computer knowledge and skills
All students must become computer literate. We must see to-it-that-
computer education is equitable and that we do not develop a gronp that
is information and computation rich and a group that is information and
computation poor. For information and computational ability are power
and these belong to all.
Learning from the Successes
Finally, it is instructive to look at some examples of computers in
schools and to try to determine how they came about and why they
succeeded. There are many examples that should be considered and here
only a few are mentioned. One of the earliest known programs in a pulic
schOol was in Livermore, California in 1957. Here parents wanted their
children to learn about computers and programming. Some ofthe parents
and local professionals taught the course and the programs were taken to
local facilities to be run. There are many similar examples of parents
teaching a course or courses, providing adcess to equipment and giving
excellent support to the classroom teacher. A program of this type can
work in the initial phases, but eventually it must become a regular part of
88 Teacher Acceptance
the curriculum and be handled bya regular teacher.
One of the important examples of an entire state takingthe initiative in
bringing computing into the schools is in Minnesota. nit Minnesota
Educational Computing Consortium has been very successful in this
respect They began by using a system of time-shared computers with
terminals in the schools and now are also using microcomputers. They
provide- teacher training, software, group purchase of hardware,
curriculum guidelines and support. State and local school systems in
other areas can gain considerable expertise from publications ofMECC.
You will be able to learn more about this in the next sessionwhen Dr.
John Haugo, Director -of MECC, talks in the session "Managing
Technological Change in the Schools."
The, impressive work in the Philadelphia Public Schools under the
direction of Ms. Sylvia Charp is an excellent example on a local level.
People from around the world visit this project and emulate many of the
fine parts of this program
Many, of the secondary schools in New England owe much of their
succesi to Dartmouth College which not onlY made computer resources
available to these schools, through their time-sharing system, but
-Dartmouth also trained teachers and encouraged-the development and
exchange cf software.
The early and successfulprograms in computing in Oregon owe much
to Dr. David Moursund who obtained NSF grants to fund summer
training sessions for secondary school teachers at the University of
Oregon. ArL outgrowth of this was the establishment of the Oregon
Council on Computer Education and the Publication The Oregon
Computing Teacher which has recently become The Computing
Teacher and is distributed nationally.
These are but a few of the projects that have had an effect on the local
or state schools, but they are important and we can learn much from
them. In every case there was at least one very dedicated individual who
gave guidance to the project, there was training of teachers, there was
involvement in acquiring of hardware, there was development and
dissemination of software, andthere was ongoing support forthe teacher
in the classroom. These are the essential ingredients to encourage
teachers to use computers effectively in their classrooms.
1. Josephl. Lipton, "Technology Program Recomthendisticins," Technology in Science
Education: The Next 10 Years (Report for NSF , July 1979, ISE-79-57)), p. 32.
2. Peter J. " U.S. Productivity in Crisis," Communications ofACM (November,
1980), pp. 617-619.
3. Lipeon, p. 33.
4. Lipson, pp. 36-36,
'Teacher Acceptance 89
5. Mar lo Leyton Soto, "Teachers, Parents and Community DataSources," Handbook
of Curriculum Evaluation. Aneh Lewy, ed. (New York: Longman, Inc., 1977), p.
6. Beverly Hunter, An Approach to Integrating Computer Literacy Into the K8
Curriculum (Alexandria, Virginia: HurnRRO, 1980), p. 8.
7. A.E. Conord, "How the Computer Can Bring Teacher andStudent Closer Together,"
AEDS JournaL (Fall, 1973), pp.11.
8. Andrew Molnar, "The Next Great Crisis in American Education: Computer
Literacy," AEDS Journal, (Fall, 1978), p. 12.
9. A. Kent Morton, "Provoking Educational Change Within Existing Academic
Structures," AEDS Journal, (Spring, 1975), pp. 19-81.
10. Eric A. Weiss (ed.), Computer Usage/Fundamentals (New York: McGraw-Hill,
Inc., 1969), p. 10.
11. Richard N. Schmidt and William E. Meyers,Introduction to Computer Science and
.Data Processing, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. 1965), p. 25.
12. Carl F eingold,Introduct ion to Data Processi g , (Dubuque, Iowa: William C. Brown
Company Publishers, 1971), pp. 26:27.
13. Howard E. Topmkins, "Computer Education," in Advances in Computers, (eds.)
Franz L. Alt and Morns Rubinoff (New York: Academic Press, 1963), Vol. 4, pp.
14. Darrel G. Littlefield, "Computer Programming for High Sctools and Junior
Colleges," in The Mathematics Teacher, LIV (April, 1961), pp. 220-223.
15. Reports of experimental programs appear in several sources. See particularly PIP
Newsletter, 1963-1965. Curricula for programs at all levels exist in fakabundance in
several ,volumes of AFIPS Conference Proceedings and SIGCSE Bulktin. Many
articles from these sources were compared to formulate the statements of this paper.
16. George C. Heller, "KCiimputer Curriculum for the High School,"Dataniation,VIII
(May, 1962), pp. 23-26.
17. C.B.S. Grant, "Data Processing Instruction Predicted for Most High Schools Within
5 Years," Business Automation, XIV (Septimber, 1967);- pp: 36-37.
18. Charles H. McCoach, "Computers in the Classroom," Software Age, III (April,
1969), p. 44.
19. Ibid., pp. 46, 48.
20. Warren Stenberg, "Computing in the High Schools-Past, Present and Future-and
Its Unreasonable Effectiveness in the Teachingof Mathematics,"AFIPS Conference
Proceedbrgs, XL (Montvale, New Jersey: AFIPS Press, 1972), p. 1052.
21. Dorothy Jo Stevens, "How, Educators Perceive Computers in the Classroom,"
AEDS Journal (Spring, 1980) jip. 221-232.
22. Doris K..Lidtke, "Paired and Individual Learning in Computer Programmins An
Evaluation of Student Achievement and CostEffectiveness," Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Oregon, 1979.
23. Jack Magarrell, "Universal Access to Personal Computers is Urged for College
Students, Professors," Chronicle of Higher EduCation, (January, 1981) pp. 1, 14.
24. William S. Davis and Allison McCormacic, The Information Age (Rea&g, MA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing 'Company, 1979) p. 15.
25. Ronald E. Anderson, "National ComputerLiteraq, 1985." A paper presented at the
"National Computer Literacy Grials for 1985," Reston, Virginia, December18-20,
Effectiveness of Technology in the Schools
Public and, Taxpayers Response
CT% Catherine E. Morgan
-CD Edikational Consultant
_EN.1 Kensington; Maryland
Tradition is defmed as "the passing aownof elements of a culture from
generation to generation" of"a mode of thought or behavior followed by
a people continuously froni generation to generation" or "a set of such
customs viewed as a coherent body of precedents influencing the
present" These defmitions providejustifications for what is taught and
how it is taught. Any field or method which has the aura oftradition needs
no justification for inclusion in the school program. As an example of
tradition, consider that although metric measurements and decimal
notations are almost universallyused, we continue to spend an inordinate
amount of time on common fractions and English measurements iu the
elementary schools. These traditional emphases appear to need little or
no justification and are, in fact, difficult to drop from the curriculum.
On the othei hand, innovation means "something new or different."
Where does non-traditional technology fit into the schools? Television
and r:ompuers represent innovative instructional subjects and tools
which are nbt accepted readily by educators or the public. Interestingli
eneugh, these twg media are of recent vintage but are well accepted as
media for entertainment andbusiness. Television has been part of most
of our entertainment lives since thelate 1940s. Computers have infringed
on our business and economic lives since the late 50s and now are
making their way into our homes.
However, in education, the use,of computers and television requires
11 that it be "sold" to a variety ofconstituencies. These groups include: (1)
the decision-makers the guperintendents, members of Boards of
Education, curriculum specialists;(2) the implementorsprincipals and
teachers; (3) the publicparent and non-parent taxpayers; and (4) the
Effectiveness in the Schools 91
Uses of Computers in Education
Let's l;egin by examining where computers are used in education and
how they got into the schools.
In almost every public school, as well as the college and university, a
computer was leased or purchased for business applicationsouch as
payroll and accounting. In that capacity, the computer is firmly
entrenched in our educational institutions.
As a Subject of Instruction
A second area is that in which the computer is The actual subject of
instruction. Vocational data processing in high schools began in the
1960s and was justified as job preparation. Most of the equipment was
called unit record equipment and young men and women learned such
skills as key punching and sorting. At the same time, colleges and
universities began teaching computer science and their graduates had no
difficulty setting employment in a rapidly growing field.
During and since that period of time, certian public schools and
particularly certain teachers began to recognize the need for all students
to acquire a new literacycomputer literacy. The subject teachers, who
were most likely to be interested, were mathematics teachers. Here is
where the idea that improved problem solving skills results when students
are taught to program the computer. I recall believing this to be u fact and
stating it unequivocally at a board of education meeting in 1973. My gut
feel still is that it is true but we couldn t prove it and no one else to date has
proved it, despite many past and on-going studies. I'm grateful that we no
longer need to prove it. Universal computer-knowledge is a legitimate
goal in itself. School systems should develop policies under which they
support computer experience fotall students. The computer is here to
stay; our children will use computers in their work and in their homes.
They need to know how to access information from a variety of data
bases; how to read documentation and run computer programs; and how
to make judgments and decisions about computer uses. Many of our
students will need to know how to program a computer. All will need to
know how to exploit and control their uses.
Fortunately, technology has changed the ermomics of acquiring
-computer equipment for literacy and programming. The microcomputers
available for several hundred dollars can be used by many students to
learn a, programming language and Acquire the necessary degree of
computer literacy to function in the modem world. The languages are
part of the machines and the students write their own programs in the
available language to solve problems. Their programs can be stored on
inexpensive reusable cassette tapes. If a school system now is doing
little or nothing with computers, this area should be its fust thrust.
92 Effectiveness in the Schools
As a Source of Instruction
The most controversial area for the studentuse of computers is when it
is the source of the instruction. Since the early 1960s, educators have
been experimenting with the use of the computer as a direct aid to
instruction: computer-assisted instruction. In this mode, the computer
takes on all or part of the teacher's role. Instructional programs may
provide the actual teaching dialogue. The student interacts with the
machine in a primitive tutor/student relationship. More commonly, the
machine supports the normal classroom instruction by providing drill
and practice, remedial instiuction or a simulation. This latter mode may
be used when a classroom laboratory experience may be too lengthy, too
expensive or too dangerous.°
Adyocates of computer-assisted instructionstress that the need exists
to individualize instruction and make student and teacher time more
productive. A student who only needs ten practice problems before
progressing to a new level will get only ten whilea classmate may need 50
or more before,attaining the same proficiency. A student who cannot
factor a polynomial would not progress to solving quadratic equations
which require factoring Nationally known experts made statements
assessing that computer instruction for remediation would go far toward
overcoming educational deficiencies and inequalities. Computer equip-
ment and supporting instructional materials were purchased with monies
for disadvantaged students. The city of Chicago bought hundreds of
computer terminals to be used by deprived students using TitleI funds.
Now let's look at the economics of this type of instruction. In the past
and, even today with large computers and teleprocessing, the equipment
and supports-needed for computer-assisted instruction represented add-
on cost of $108 per year per student for drill and practice in arithmetic.
school system decision-makers were familiar. Justifiably, these people
want io know: Does this new type of instruction make a difference in
achievement? Is the difference worth the cost?-Are we able to do some
things the- an not be done without computers? Are there any side-
effects? Are the niachines dehumanizing? All of these legitimate
questions need to be answered.
The costs have decreased` at a startling rate. For example, in 1974, in
Montgamery County, we provided the Board of Education with an add-
on,cost of $108 per year per student for drill and practive inarithmetic.
This $10.8 figure gave each student one-half hourofCA I per week during
the regular school year. A major portion of that cost was for computer
and communciations equipment. The $108 figures was predicated on
involving approximately 4,000 children in the program.
Today using the same parameters and assuming that the costs of a
fairly elaborate microcomputer at $3,000 plus maintenance over a four-
year period, the cost of providing the same half-hour per week over a
Effectiveness in the Schools 93
school year.would be less than $18 for equipment. The equipment cost
would be constant if there were one or 50 computers. Obviously, if a
large number of micros were purchased at the sametime, the cost would
A more important question to ask about computer-assisted instruction .
is that ofeffectiveness. Are there differencesin achievement when CAI is
employed? Many research reports describing the useof drill and practice
CAI programs have shown that student achievement increases sigpifi-
candy. Favorable results were shown in Chicago, Illinois, with Title I
children, in Los Nietos, California, with Mexican-American students
.and in Montgomery County Public Schools, Maryland, with mostly
middle class students.
Other examples can be cited, such as those reported by the Penn-
sylvania State Univeisity, an early leader in the field of computerrassisted
instruction. The two Professors Cartwright developed a series of courses
called CARE, which provided classroom teachers with information on
how to accommodate blind, deaf and other handicapped children into the
regular classroom. At registration, students were placed randomly into
the conventional college lecture course or into the CAI laboratory to
work at a computer terminal with an individuSlized program. The
content of the ,course, Introduction to the Education of Exceptional
Children, was identical. Only the mode of instruction differed. The
course time under conventional methods was 37.5 hours while the mean
time for completion of the CAI program was 25.2 hours. The fmal
examination contained 75 items with the conventional class having a
mean of 52.78 with a standarddeviation of 4.68 while the CAI group had
a mean of 65.89 with a-standard deviation of 5.89the difference was
significant at the .001 level. These results represent a 24 percent higher
mean grade on the final examination and 35 percent less time required for
course completion. Similar studies in the military and in industry show
significant differences in training time when all trainees are required to
meet a standard level of competency.
In the area of special education, the use of the computer has been
particularly intriguing. Students in special education, unique in many
respects, require remediation and attention unlike that needed by other
students. For exampie, maintenance of skills by mentally retarded high
schooi age students is difficult and an actual increase in achievement is
highly unusual. Yet, for selected students, the computer has been a
remarkable motivational and teaching tool. In a Montgomery County,
Maryland, study 10 mentally retarded adolescents, with an average IQ
of 74, participated in a CAI arithmetic program once a week from
January to June, 1972, and made an average gain score of 7.6 months in
arithmetic achievement with a standard deviation of .4. In spite of their
low mean IQ, their gains which ranged from 3 months to 1.7 years, were
analyzed as though ihey were normal.
94 Electiveness in the Schools
Currently, computers are being used with deaf, blind, orthopedically
handicapped, learning disabled, mentally retarded and emotionally
disturbed children. Enhancements for computers include audio, color,
graphics, touch panels, light pens and other devices. These special
additions to an already motivational tool increase its versatility, both for
teaching special student groups and for the presentation of subjects like
music, art and foreign languages.
Is the difference worth the cost? This question is a valid one and should
be asked of all programs. For example, in the same year that the $108
add-on figures was cited for CAL\ the cost of providing diagnostic-
prescriptive tutoring for a single chikkwas approximately $500 yearly.
No proof existed that this program made any difference but the time-
honored tradition of one-to-one tutoring comes down from the Greeks,
and as such needs no justification.
A cost/benefit analysis can be made for industry where the less time
required for training places the employee into production earlier. If the
training normally occurs at another city, travel andper diem expenses are
actual cash savings'. However, in public education, the cost/benefits of
saving student time is not of immediate value to the school system. IF
fact, it may raise pew complications. What happens is 5 students finish
Algebral in March, 8 in April, 10 in May and 4 the following October?
Similar difficulties exist in public education for costing out effectiveness.
What does a month's gain in achievement normally cost? If a student
makes a half-year grain during a school year, is his education twice as
expensive as that of the childwho makes a year's growth? The long range
effects of poor school achievement are well-known and may cost
taxpayers millions of dollars for maintaining people on welfare and in
Are there some things that cannot be done without a computer?
Management of instruction may be one. This type of program provided
the classroom teacher with profiles of the students in many skills and
concepts and keeps these records uP to date. These reports reflect
individual and group needs and strengths assisting the teacher with
planning If records were kept in 25 areas of two subjects, mathematics
and reading, the teacherwould have 1,250 pieces ofinformation on each
child! And when a parent wants to know can Johnny add; measure and
solve problems, the teacher has information supported by data.
Another area in whichschools can prcivide new services may be when
insufficient enrollment in a course causes it to be cancelled. What about
Latin IV for two students? Could students in different schools study
Statistics at computer terminals three days a week and meet with a
teacher once a week to discussproblems and go over difficult assignments?
Will, in the future, students work on most skill areas at computer
terminals in their own homes and attend schools much less time than
currently? Alvin Tofler suggests this possibility in his latest book.
Effectiveness in the Schools 95
Are 'the machines dehumanizing? Not in my experience, In fact,
students say, "The computer says the same thing to me that it says to
everyone else." Students in Montgomery County wrote personal and
endearing notes to "Dear Computer." Studies in Los Nietos, California
showed that Mexican-American students made significant gains in self-
concept after using computer mathematics programs. Children are not
only engrossed in their interactive computer work but they are loath to
give the terminals up when their turns are over. There is an old English
proverb which states that "when kids stand quiet, they have done some
'harm." Computer kids don't stand quiet.
The computer situation in public schools has changed radically during
the past year or two. Prior to 1978, educational technologists in public
schools were begging to retain whatever equipment they had in place.
Today large numbers of microcomputers are being purchased and
installed in schools; many times into situations in which no one in the
systems knows what to do with them. Monies from general funds, year-
end surpluses and PTA's are being expended and no planning for their
use has been made.
Current gational Situation
A recent report published by the Task Force on Computer Assisted
Learning Subcommittee in the Secondary/Elementary Schools
Association for Computing Machinery (July 1980), stated that they had
surveyed 974 school districts and had a 62.3 percent return. The
association determined that the response was balanced as to geographic
and urban/rural districts. Analysis indicated that 74 percent of the
districts used the computer for instruction with projections to 87 percent
by 1985, and 54 percent reported usage in the form of computer-assisted,
instruction with projections to 74 percent by 1985.
Further the report stated that major impediments to increased use were
fmancial, lack of knowledge about computers and their use in instruction,
attitudes of faculty and the need for more and better instructional
If your school system is a novice in the computer field or would like to
increase its usage but presently has no plan as to how to proceed, I would
recommend the following steps:
I. Key school personnel and board members should become
knowledgeable about computers and their uses in instruction.
This can be accomplished by attending workshops or seminars
which are given by national organizations or by planning for in-
2. A careful I.Jeds assessment should be undertaken. An analysis of
what equipment and expertise exists within the district. This
1 0 6
96 Rffectiveness in the Schools
needs assessmen,. should begin to delineate where the district
would like to be to, 1985. At the same time, an examination of
academic areis id which students are having difficulty should be
undertaken. The literature in the computer field should be
researched to learn if any areas of deficiency can be addressed by
3. The school system should formulate a policy *ting to instruc-
tional uses of computers.
4. The school system should designate an instructional leader to
develop short and long-range plans for the implementation of the
policy. Care should be given to acquisition of equipment,
guidelines for selecting or developing instructional materials,
staff development needs and the process for implementation.
One goal of each school system '.tiould be Computer literacy for. all
graduating students by 198$.
Let' s prepare kids to function inan information rich world remembering
the words of Elbert Hubbard when he said, "The object of teaching a
child is to enable hini to get along without a teacher."
1 o 7
The South Caroling TelecommUnications
Thomas L Stepp
South Carolina Educational Television Networic
tolumbia, South Carolina
I would like to address the topic of technology in schools, not from a
broad, superficial point of view, but rather from thepoint of view of local
impact in local schools.
The reason that this perspective is important(from my experience) is
that all of the applications of educational technology which exist are
completely moot if individual students and teacheis in schools and other
educationalinstitutiors are not motivated to use the productwhich those
of us who are program distributors provide. We can engage in a lot of
planning. We can engage in a lot of sophisticated instructional design.
We can spend vast sums of money producing highly attractive radio and
television courses. We can provide tape recorders in classrooms to
improve the smooth integration of our product into overall instructional
plans. But if our products do net suit the educational needs of individual
students and teachers they are valueless. The grandest scheme for
production and distribution is worthless if it is not utilized.
South Carolina System
In South Carolina we transmit signals hundreds ofmiles. Our national
programs travel 22,300 miles to a satellite half-way point, returning to
earth over wide geographic terrain. None of that is of any merit if a one-
quarter inch, off-on button on a tel visioa screen or radio receiver
negates the use of our s Orvices by students for whom they are
intended. It is impossible to consider t ology in schools without
contiidering the impact of an individual program on an individual student
.inii splxific classroom under the supervision of a dedicated teacher in a
school system devoted to principles of improving instruction for all of its
98 The South Carolina System
I don't want to boreyou bydescribing the South CaroliniEducational
Telecommunications System. I think perhaps many of you 'know
something about what we do. For those of you who do not, let me briefly
state that within South Carolina weAheSouth Carolina ETV Network
operate 10 television transmitting stations, 6 FM radio stations and an
extremely Complicated closed circuit, statewide network made --u-p of
leased cable, ITF S, state-owned microwave, and the physical deliveryof
tape. In South Carolina,.Ave apply this technologir to all of the
preschoolers, for the elenientary grades, for secondary schools, for
college credit (in fact, offering more courses for college credit than any
other institution in the world, more than 60 last year), for post-graduate
education (including two dynamically unique programs through which a
student can achieve a Masters Degree in either Business Administration
or Engineering during evening hours from any geographic location in the
State). We extend our college credit to home viewers, in an "open
university concept." And, ofcourse, we provide the entire array of public
television and radio programming for, all of South Carolina.
In .cooperation with NOAA, we operate the State's comprehensive
twenty-four hour weather and emergency weather services. And I an
very, Very proud of the efforts we make in providing 12 hows per day of
special programming for the visually handicapped broadcast on the
4subcerriers of our FM radio stations.
Many times, when discussingmy trade in public, I speak from three
rhijor points bf reference and they-generally deal with, fitit, the inipactof
electronic telecommunciations 'on the lives of each of us. The second
point is the information explosion and the usefulness of telecommunica-
tions delivery in meeting the- demands for increased educational
opportunities and needs. And, third, both at home and out of thestate, I
like to talk about die economy of telecommunications as an important
and significanf new means of providing educational opportunity to all
citizens no matter how remote they might be in socioeconomic status or
geography from the traditional centers of learning.
I think .that you will probably join me in understanding the now
traditiceal concept that the application of man's most powerful communi-
cations tooltelevision--toour daily lives his changed the waywe live.
-My late friend and colleague, Marshall Mciiihan, was the proponent of
"probes" dating from the early '50s about the flow of electronit
communications into our daily lives and the resultant impact on us.
We're lila fish who are not aware of the water hi which they live, in that
we live in an'electronic ecology and are not always, I think, aware of the
impact of that ecology on us day by day. Parents often tell me they are
:startled to learn that, according to recent Nelson data, children under
the South Carolina System 99
five watch television 2314 hours a week. I don't know why they're
surprised. The same data reflects that they watch television 44 hours a
week.Arthur Clark, creator of 2001 said, "The single greatest industry ofthe
future is going to be education. For every person, education will have to-
continue throughout life. That will be essential in a world where half the
things a man knows at 40 hadn't even been discovered when he was 20;
and half the things he knows at 20 are no longer true by the time heis 40."
Ninety percent of the scientists who have ever lived are alive today.
Our task in educational communications is to try to make just coping
with the information explosion even possible.
To put our efforts in perspective, I would like to make a few points
about the impact of the South Carolina System in areas other than the
public schools before turning directly to the specifics that you have asked
me to present today. A major arid most exciting development in our
operation is that we have moved actively into a significant degree of
statewide teleconferencing. We are pioneering in this area, which is going
to become increasingly important as state agencies are forced by the
pressures of inflation to become more cost conscious.Teleconferencing
is a way forwoups to meet and receive essential training without
expensive travel to a central location. The very best experts on any
subject can be brought in to provide information and to conduct meetings.
Their audience can be at any of SouthCarolina's technical education
__centers University of South Carolina regional campuses, health care
centers, hospitals and many high scholls. Through teleconferences, state
agencies have been conducting training, making surveys and meeting
other management communciations needs. Viewers in the field talk to
experts at the ETV Center in Columbia by way of telephone talkback
The State of South Carolina saves per diem, mileage, lodging costs,
training costs, lost time from the job, and wear and tear on vehicles by
meeting through teleconferences. ETV saves money for the State by
moving information to peopleelectmnicallyrather than by transporting
peopleat great cost--to the traditional information centers. This is a
nut* basis ofjustification of our System to policy makers and decision
makers. I do not mean just teleconferencing; I mean the presentation of
the advantages of economy and efficiency of telecommunications
services. When a comprehensive telecommunciations center exists, the
economics of scale of its operation are the most dynamic and forceful
reasons by which to explain its importance. Itis certainly-a mainstay of
how we justify our institution to the State of South Carolina.
100 The South Carolina System
Now, quickly, I must insert that, yes, it is most importaThtat we
speak to the quality of product which we deliver and to the quality of
educatigtal opportunities thatwe provide to students of all ages, in all
However, in these harsh economic times it is crucial that we also
justify ourselves on the scale of economic efficiency. And that is what we
Take teleconferencing, fOr example. In the last three years ETV has
specialized training for 74,000 people. The use of our closed circuit
network for teleconferences during that period of time has provided
services that could have cost the State eight to nine million dollars by
traditional methods. That figure is equal to the total three-year leasing
cost for the entire closed circuit system, with only a smallpercentage of
the time of the closed circuit being required for the teleconferencing
activities which achieve these savings. The remainder of the time is
available for, and heavily usedfor, in-school instruction, highereducation,
medical education, and many other services.
Le me give you just one spe/1fic example of the economic inipact of
teleconferencing. Prior to each general election the State of SoUth
Carolina has some .8,000 poll workers who must undergo mandatory
training by the State Election Commission. Prior to the last three
elections, these 8,000 workers have received their two days Of
training through ETV at a savings to the State and to the individuals
involved (who are volunteers) in lost time from the job, mileage, lodging
per diem and instructor costs ofover $1,300,000 per statewide election.
That is a total savings of nearly $4 million during a six-year period.
That is language that legislative leaders, school boards, college
trustees, governors and citizens understand,
There is no longer any question that it is much more economical to
take education to people than .to take people to education. Marshall
McLuhan, to whom I referred earlier, once said that ". .. when two
seemingly disparate situations are placed in opposition, often startling
results occur." So it is with the energy crisis and increased tele-
A central argument for theexistence of the South Carolina Educational
Telecommunications System fellows art economic theme. In 1961,
shortly after we began serving schools in South Carolina, we taught
3,300 students at a cost per student of $19485. By. 1919, Ave-were
serving 1,691,069 course enmllees-at a Coit of $5.83 per course
-deliveredld it student. Let me repeat the dollar numbers : 1961$195,
Let's look at that in a slightly different way. Ten years ago the delivery
of a television course to a school in South Carolina costroughtly $10 per
course per student. In those ten years, the cost of that delivery of
The South Carolina System liej
television instruction has dropped to $5.83, a drop of 47.3 percent. At
the same time, the average cost of a school textbook in South Carolina
increased approximately 300 percent A $2.59 textbook in 1975 now
Justify telecommunciations education? Why not use a dollars and
cents approach? The entire South Carolina Educational Telecommuni-
cations System, which_has one out of every seven South Carolinians
enrolled in at least one of the 346 courses of instruction offered through
thlt is the cost of th z. entire delivery system and progams for public
television and radio viewers and listeners, progams for children in
school, programs for college credit, for continuing professional education,
for technical education, for doctors, lawyers, ,nurses, the visually
handicapped and others. -
For 1.2 percent of the South Carolina *edlication budget, we deliver
176 television lessons in a typical school day. Yes, on our multi-channel
system that amounts to over 80 hours per day of instructional television
delivery. And, don't forget radio in addition.
Thus, I have no trouble in looking toward the future to predict that
telecommuilications will play an increasingly major role in education
particularly as adapted, specialized and particularized for local educa-:
tional needs. Telecommunications improves the quality of instruction. It .
imparts knowledge skillfully and permits one to learn wherever he is in
the-educational process. And it permits him to learn equally with others
no matter where he is in a geographic sense. Educational telecommunica-
tions is like a beam oflight It provides illumination to help us cut through
the fog of change that could otherwise obscure the world ahead.
Telecommunications allows us to more quickly and ably move from one
point to another as we strive to generate creative worth from our
intellectual enterprise. Communications technology is an integral part of
the process transforining our lives and shaping our destiny.
But in a more overriding sense, it is economics which will compel the
use of telecommunciations in education. Our system in South Carolina
has shown this clearly. There are many other justifications. But rather
014n_ki9k arcAndfor means to justify our existence; I am proud of the fact
thif, in iouth C irolina, we have taken a strong stand on the usefulness of
television and radio in education and have proceeded to put those
dynamic-tools-to-work. In putting them-to-work-we have found that one
service stacks naturally on top of another service and additional services
compound the efficiency of delivery geometrically: -Herein lie vast
economies of scale which make use of the system compelling.
102 The South Carolina System
No user has to use any program which we provide. Therefore, the
statistics concerning the enrollment in our courses are very significantto
us in that enrollment is voluntary and engaged in solely at the discretion
of the user. Increases in in-school utilization alone are indicative of a
great dear of success in what we have accomplished. Innovations in
providing new services are equally impressive andjuideed,hambeguato--
become part of our basic justification of the System.
I think we need to be careful, however, thatwe do not let the need to
justify the system control its purpose, direction, or the motivations for its
use. The South Carolina System was created to enhance the educational
opportunities for every citizen in the State. We are beginning, after 22
years of hard effort, to work our way toward doing that. The capacity
required for delivery of our services was virtually unpredictable. Each
new service generates another. The number of users we serve is startling,
compared to two decades ago.
Serving these people is the reaso:. we are in existence. Edward R.
Murrow once said that "The trouble with television is that it is like a
sword rusting in the scabbard during a battle for survival." Frequently,
however, I confess that the more pragmatic way to explain the impact of
what we do must include both economies as well as philosophy and
In South Carolina I sincerely believe that with the support of teachers,
superintendents, State education officials, boards of education, colleges,
universities, legislatures and goyernors, we havethrough the years
proved that there is a major place and a major role for a significant
educational broadcasting system to impact on the educational progress
of in entire state.
Higher Education Uses of TV andikadio_
Corporation For Public Broadcasting
For years, colleges and universities have used television and radii.) for
instruction but until recently we had little systematic dataon the nature or
extent of those uses. Since 1978, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting
has been working with the National Center for Education Statistics
(NCES) andthe national higher education associationsto document the
extent of use and to explore factors which were thought to affect use.
The information which I will discuss is drawn from two studies
conducted by the Corporation in eonjunction with NCES and the
following education associations: American Association of Community
and Junior Colleges, American Association of State Colleges and
Universities, Association of American Colleges, Associationof American
Universities, National Association of State Universitiesand Land Grant
Colleges, National Institute of Independent Colleges and Universities.
The information was gathered in two phases: the first, conducted in
1979, was a universe study of all 3,000 colleges and universities in the
countrybut looked only at television and involved only one administrator
at each institution; the second, conducted in 1980, included radio/audio
as well as television and involved a 'sample of 120 institutions, 960
faculty members, and 1,920 students. Together, these two studies
provide a wealth of information about current uses of television and radio
as well as a wide variety of opinion about the factors that most affect
Institution al Level
More than 70 percent of all institutions of higher education (IHEs)
make some use of television: 10 percent use it only for non-instructional
purposes such as promotion/recruitment or staff development; 61
percent use it for instruction, including 25 percent which offer courses
103 1:1 4
104 Higher Education Uses
over television and 36 percent which use it to supplement existing
Looking only at the instructional uses, the greatest portion of the effort
is spent for on-campus credit offerings (66 percent), followed by off-
campus credit offerings (17 percent), then on-campus non-credit offerings
(12 percent). So, while many contend that television is a way to reach
o ge o campus, we fmd that 78 percent of the
instructional television effort at colleges is devoted to on-campus uses of
the medium. -'
Tracking the exact number or students enrolled in courses using
television is complicated by problems of defmition and unavailability of
adequate data. However, from the data we have obtained, we are
confident in estimating that in 1979, about 1/2 million students were
enrolled in more than 6,000 courses offered over television. While some
colleges and universities make extensive instructional use of television,
the most common experience is for a college to offer one course per year
over television and to enroll 20 students in that course.
Technology for delivering television progremming seems to fall into
four categories by the extent wo which they are used: more than 90
percent of the institutions reported using self-contained video tape units;
approximately 75 percent reported using public and commercial tele-
vision stations; about 50 percent reported cable and closed circuit
systems; and 10Ipercent reported using satellite ,distribution and
Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS).
More than one in four IHEs (28 percent) is a member of a formal
consortium offering or producing televised courses. Another 17 percent
are members of informal consortia. The services most often provided by
the formal consortia include: program previews (77 percent), progam
exchanges (74 percent), and goup buys and/or acquisition of program
rights (63 percent). Three out of four members of formal consortia
expressed satisfaction with the services provided by the consortia and 86
percent planned to remain members of those consortia for at least the
next three years'.
The television equipment resources of colleges and universities vary
greatly: 94 percent of those that use television have TV cameras but only
58 percent have control rooms or studio facilities. (This seems to indicate
that mobile production is more prevalent than fixed studio equipment.)
7.4..percent,of TV-userspro_duce their-own programs. Abouttallhave
closed circuit or master antenna lefilEriildrandblack--and-white-TV
sets are about ,equally available.
Institutional expenditures for television seems to be increasing or level
but not decreasing: funds for equipment and staff have increased over the
past 3 years (in 55 percent of the cases) or remained the same (30
percent) and will continue to grow (45 percent) or remain the same (35
percent) over the next 3 years. Projected increases are geater for
Higher Education Uses 105
equipment than for staff. '
These studies have identified the major barriers to the use of television
for instruction at IHEs as the following:
Lack of institutional funds and support 70%
%.1 ment 55
Cost and availability "of courses 50
Lack of trained support personnel 45
Lack of record rights 40
Poor broadcast times 35
Insufficient advance notice "30
Data on the use of radio tie just beginning to be available. ThOse data
indicate that 53 percent of all IHEs used radio/audio for instructional
purposes in 1979. Those colleges and universities offered a total of
almost 10,000 courses involving substantial use of radio/audio and
enrolled almost 1/2 million students in those courses.
Eighty-four percent of IHEs which used radio/audio for instruction
had on-campus production facilities. Seventy-six percent usedavailable
facilities to produce original programming for instruction.
The barriers to the use of radio/audio for instruction are exactly the
same as those for televisionlack ofinstitutional funds and support, lack
of faculty commitment, cost and availability of courses, lack of trained
support personnel, lack of record rights, poor broadcast times and
insufficient notice. These findings, as well as the use patterns, suggest
that radio/audio's use is more like than unlike television's use.
More than half of all faculty members reported using television for
educational purposes either in 1979 (43 percent) or prior to the 1978-79
academic year (22 percent). Those who had used the medium for
educational purposes averaged 6 years of Use. Most reported having
videotape playback units available (85 percent), as well as TV cameras
(84 percent), TV receivers (73 percent with color receivers and 71
percent with black-and-white receivers), and control room and studio
facilities (62 percent). Most reported using videotape playback units (82
percent) and TV receivers (58 percent color and 48 percent black-and-
The delivery system most often iffedW facultY- wife: Self-CO-ntated
videotape playback units (73 percent), public television stations (57
percent), commercial television stations (37 percent) and campus closed
Funds for the acquisition of television equipmc--ilre
come from non-departmental accounts whereasKinds for the acquisition
of instructional programs is likely to come from departmental accounts.
Eight-five percent of faculty members who used television for
educational purposes repotted that production facilities were available
106 Higher Education Uses
for their use. Fifty-six percent reported having participated in a
production at their institutions.
Twenty-nine percent of those using television for educational purposes
haft had formal training for such use. Fitly-seven percent reported that
they had taken_a_college_course-in which-teleon-played-mbstariti-W
role. When those faculty members used television in their own courses,
the dominant production modes were lecture/monologue and demon-
Even in courses where television was reported to have played a
substantial role, only 12 percent ofthe course hours were televised.
Faculty members reported the folloc.ving factors as major hindrances
to their use of television for instruction:
Lack of adequate departmental funds 56%
Programs do not meet adademic needs
and/or standards 49
Cost of available courses 39
Poor broadcast times 35
Insufficient advance notice 34
It was the opinion ofmany faculty member respondents, the use of
television for educational purposes is not readily accepted by the
profession or the institution. They view their course framework as
unadaptable.to television, maintainthat the-use of television adds to their
work, and feel that the institutional and professional reward structures do
not recognize efforts spent in developing and using television course
materials. Interestingly, faculty members see none of their major barriers
coming from the students.
More than one out of four faculty members (28 percent) reported that
they used or assigned radio/audio for educational purposes in 1979; 7
percent of all faculty members reported tLitthey used radio/audio in an
average of 2 courses each, enrolling an average of 27 students in each.
Ninety-two percent of all faculty members reported that radio/audio
production facilities were available to them.
The barriers to the use of radio/audio for instruction are exactly the
same as those for television: lack ofdepartmental funds, unsuitability of
available courses, cost of available courses, poor broadcast timesr.and_
Almost all students have used or expect to use television for
educational purposes during their college careers; 47 percent, or 5.5
million students used TV as part of their college programs in 1979;
an6thTF3:51MIkiii hId used TV prior föl 979-add1:5-ttilliotrap-etta
to use it within the next three years.
Slightly more than one in fourstudents (28 perent) who used television
.44611igher Education Uses 107
in 079 used college-owned equipment, especially videocassette play-
back units (88 percent) and color TV sets (44 percent) and black-and-
white TV sets (39 percent). Most of the use was in traditional college
classrooms (70 percent) asopposed to non-college housing (29 percent).
e evision in I 979Teported that such use was
voluntary (63 percent), did not.constitute a substantial portion of the
course (76 percent):and that the courses which used television cost the
same as courses which did not (82 percent).
The major barriers to the use of television for instruction as reported by
the students were: .
Poor broadcast times 33%
Inadequate equipment 26
Insufficient advance notice 23
Inadequate courses 20
Students did not view the use of television in courses as too
burdensome, depersonalizing, or an easy way to get credit. Neither did
they see courses with television as being particularly more relevant and
informative than other courses. In general, they viewed courses with
television as worthwhile and appropriate for their areas of study.
More than one out of three students (35 percent) reported that they had
used radio/audio for some of their courses in 1979; 13 percent of all
students reported that radio/audio was used for a substantial portion of
one or more of their courses.
The major barriers to the use of radio/audio reported by the student
Lack of appropriate radio/aUdio courses 41%
Inadequate courses available 20
Poor radio/audio reception 16
Poor broadcast times 13
Insufficient advance notice 14
In all other opinions about the suitability ot radio/audio for college
instruction, the student resrionses closely paralleled their opinions on
-- These data-and-the limhed-analyses-alreadyperfonnedorithenibtgin-
to provide use with an appreciation for the roles of television and
radio/audio in college and university instruction. Analyses will continue
and the implications of these findings will be carefully examined over the
next 12 months. For instance, we already know that differences exist in
the ways in which different types of colleges use television for instruction.
Further analyses might disclose some of the reasOns for those differences.
At least they should help to further describe the nature and magnitude of
c\J" Making the Case for Changing Public Policy
Normr E. Watson
Coast Communky Colleges
Costa Mesa, C3l1fornia
The community college today, as an institution, is entering a period of
extremely rapid and sudden change. During the decade of the 70's, the
community college was an institution in transition. It was learning to
become a "matUre" institution, one which had experienced significant
growth in numbers, in facilities, and in students served. During the
decade of the SO's, the community college will be an institution in
transformation, moving from the traditionally accepted goals of its early
years to a heightened and expanded mission to, provide lifelong
Some of the critical problems that will face community colleges as they
move into a new era will be public policy, state laws, and administrative
regulations. In times of rapid change,,the old rules and social arrange-
ments can become rigid barriers standing in the way of adaptations and
modifications.to new environmental conditions.
Teclmological developments in delivery systems that are laking place
today have immense potential for the community colleges in connection
with their ability to fulfill the mission of lifelong education. Already,
hundreds of community Colleges throughout the United States are
utilizing broadcasting to offer additional opportunities for learning to the
adults they serve. An mcreasing number are using cable to make learning
opportunities more available. And, as the technology develops, tape
cassettes, discs, teletext, the satellite, and the computer will see greater
use.In order to fully utilize much of the new technology, traditional ways of
dealing with personnel, with reporting procedures, and with funding
mechanisms will require close study and scrutiny in order to ascertain the
extent to which they assist or obstruct an institution's ability to meet neiv
Changing Public Policy 109
Without entering into a long and dusty discourse on the origin and
listorical development of the community colleges in California, I would
like to select by means of chronological timelines, a few examples of
policy, and administrative difficulties which have had to be
addressed in allowing institutions to cha-lirWeilthihrtimeb.
Public Education Regulations
To betem, community colleges in California evolved from the public
school, or K-12 segments ofeducation. They started, in fact, as a 13th
and 14th grade appendage to the K-12 segment and for many years were
tied administratively, legally, and by funding mechanisms to that
sesment of public education. With such a heritage, many Of the
regulations that the community college was required to enforce were
regulations that were developed over a period of time as appropriate for
the K-12 segment but that had little relev,ance or worth for community
One such definition which existed in administrativc: regulations was
the definition of "immediate supervision." For attendance accounting
purposes, "immediate supervision" was defined as having acertificated
instructor physically present with students when learning was taking
place. Only those hours of attendance where "immediate supervision"
could be certified were eligible for state support. Such a regulation,
obviously, was admirably suited to keePing unruly adolescent boys and
girls under reasonable control in a standard size box-likeclassroom, but
had serious deficiencies when it came to the use of learning centers,
tutorial labs, television, etc.
The first movement away from the strict construction of the terin
"immediate supervision" was spearheaded by vocational educators in
allowing cooperative work experience to be funded by state allocations.
Riding on the coattails of the success of the vocational educatorswhich
had necessitated both changes in state law as well as administrative
regulations,a number of us in the community colleges set out to broaden
further the meaning of "immediatesupervision" by permitting the use of
modem technology. A task force wasformed, a research committee was
put in motion, and in advisory- coinmittee was activated--all in an
attempt to open the door a crack for modern technology. This activity,
years of research and study, resulted in a report, signed off by the
California Junior College Association, which became a position paper to
support legislation modifying one provision of Education Code Section
11251. We created a new temi called "Coordinated Jnstmction SyStems"
to describe the process being advocated. The paper's purpose was to call
attention to the critical need for development of new coordinated
instrudion systems which combine classroom lecture with modem
technoiogy to improve the effectiveness and ef&iency of instructional
programs in community colleges; and to identify a problem areain the
110 Changing Public Policy
_California Education Code which serves as a deterrent to progress
toward that goal."
The paper went on to point out that 'coordinated instruction systems,
combining the resources of modern technology with traditional proce-
.1. IIi44 I
iAstruction. Television instruction, computer-assisted instruction, auto-
mated slide-sound tapes, single-concept film loops, and other technical
resources serve to strengthen the teaching process."
Ever aware of the watchful eyes of the professional teachers' gyoups,
the paper painstakingly pointed out that "the role of the community
college instructor is expanded with coordinated instruction systems to
encompass more instructional development, learning management, and
evaluation of student progress. Instruction is more flexible with greater
opportunity for student success. Educational progress and competenty
of students are coordinated and evaluated by professional community
college instructors." The paper documented research on the effectiveness
of such instruction, pointed out that there would be no increase in cost,
and concluded that "legislation is needed to provide the same Average
Daily Attendance (ADA) apportionment for, students earning credit
through community college coordinated instruCtion systems techniques
as though traditional programs limited toClassroomlecture techniques.
The paper was comprehensive in thes.overage of the problems that
existing legislation posed, and the necessity for modification of code
requirements,"Developinent of adequate coordinated instruction systems
in California community colleges will not occur until changes,are made
in the procedure of ADA apportionment for students enrolled in these
kinds of classes. Programs must have an adequate base of fmancial
support within the school budget if they are to exist."
Next came the immense task of mobilizing the support of the many
diverse educational and professional Organizations for the new legislation,
finding an author for the bill, presenting testimony at various.hearings,
and making nIcessary changes in the legislation in order to obtain the
support needed for its passage.
Years of effort, and many work hours of input later, the two following
miniscule changes made it possible for the community.colleges to move
into the Twentieth Century. I will remid you that "Ws oecurred as
recently as 1970. '
1. "One student contact hour is to be counted for each unit ofCoordinated
Instruction Systems credit in which a community college student is
enrolled during any census period."
2. "For purposes of community college Coordinated Instruction
System, 'immediate supervision' of instruction should be defmed as
student participation in approved Coordinated Instruction Systems
programs of instruction using such modem technology as television,
Changing Public Policy 111
computer-assisted instruction, automated slide-tape systems. and pro-
grammed learning materials under the coordination and evaluation of
certified college instruction."
All was well thus far. However, it then became necessary, in order to
and guarantees which were to be elaborated in Title V, Administrative
Regulations. These, in themselves, barely escaped throttling the new
code provision with rigid requirements which colleges were compelled to
meet. Rather than treating Coordinated Instruction Systems on the same
level as lecture courses, the regulations required such things as: prior
state approval course by course, a proof of credentialed supervision, a
rigid interpretation as to what could be considered as current costs, a
restrictive limitation on the amount of state support (only 50 percent of
current cost), the elimination of anrcapital expenditure, and the
requirement of detailed evaluation reports to the state for each cerse
offered at the-close of each semester.
Is it any wonder, then, that television instniction was extremely slow in
taking off in California, even after the new legislation allowed it to be
offered'in the early 70's. For many districts, and for many administrators,
the added paper work and bureaucratic requirements were just too much,
added to the Already heavy burden of acquiring hardware and software,
and of attempting.to fend off the attacks of a considerable body of
But the door was ajar,,ever so slightly, and with great-effort.
The next hurdle that had to be overcome was the interpretation by the
state office that a specified number of hours of television broadcast
material would have to equate with each upit of credit offered: Such an
interpretation, of course, overlooked all elements of the coordinated
instructional system except those which actually went over the air, and
did-not, address, in any-fashion at all, eie rigor of the materials or the
learning objectives, At this stage of the game, the state office was willing
to "buy" fifteen one-half hourlelevision programs for one hour of credit,
but no less that that, accepting the principle that there was a certain
amount of compression in television-courses, and that other le4rning
activities took place in some, fashion.
The Modification of that regulation set the stage for an entire re-
examination of Coordinated Instructional Systems., A task force ws set
up by llie state office in 1976. With the goal that "The Board of
Governors shall encourage the development of instructional tech-
nologies, varied learning modes, and resources to-more adequately meet
the diversity of student characteristics and learning styies," the task force
was charged with identifying problems, recommending revisions in
Atatutes and/or regulations, and developng a prospectus report.
112 Changhig Public-Pcilicy
The task force considered whether the defmition should be broadened
:to-includeodietbistmctional Method514*i than hardwareand software
whether developmental costs should be reimbursed, whether the 50
percent cost factor should be eliminated, and whether only current costs
should be reimbursed.
As a result of the report of the task force, the definition broadened. As a
Matter- Of hict; Coordinated Instruction System, with all its good points
and bad points,- was eliminated from statutes andreplaced with a neW
piece of legislatien entitled "independent study."
With the amendment of -the law in 1978 setting up ".independent
studif," it was necessary -to formulate and adopt a new set of Title 5
regulations for its administration. Once again the battle heated up
between those who were attempting to move community colleges into an
innovative and changing direction, and those who would hope to prevent
the community colleges from doing anything that was not traditional.
The following proposali were Made to the Board of Governors as
needing to be included in the new regulations::
1. State apportionment would be based on passing grades at the end of
the -ternia completely -different standard from that imposed on any
2. The number of students assigned to any one instructor should not
exceed ten perceig more than -the average number-Of students per
instructor at the college unless exempted -by waiver from the State
The number of independent-Study courses at a college shall not
exceed 4.en percent of ,the credit couries. certified for transfer unless
exempted by waiver from the State Chancellor.
Obvionsly,,the adoption of suchregriations, in the faceof the fact that
television courses- were accepted4Or transfer by all state and private
colleges in California 'for full tredit, would have been a giant step
Then followed the long series of hearings, the testimony, the written
arguments, the counter proposals at the state level in an attempt to
prevent the loss of all the ground that had been gainedsince the original
legislation in 1970.
A new task force was formed and issued the following statement:
In general, these regulations would discourage the offering of
independent study, specifically CIS courses, in community colleges.
They assume that students all learn the same way, in avlassrooti with
a lecture and texts. They would freeze community colleges into one
form of instruction and an "average faculty-studentratio. Btit, in a time
of financial limitations, there is a need to encourage fleXibility and
innovation as well as continur the standards of quility instruction
which have distinguished community colleges in this state up to now.
Under the proponed regulation community colleges will,- for all
practical purposes, find it impossible to continiie to offer alternative
Changing Public Policy 113
modes of education. The nontraditional student, many of whom-are
unable to attend a regular academic program, will not be able to earn
academic credit.This.ineani that a direct and foreseeabk.resuliof the
regulation will be discrimination against the nontraditional and often
disadvantage student including homebound, seniors, and handicapped
student. It is ironic and unfortunate thatthe Board of Governors would
consider cutting back on such programs at the very-time that society
has recognized the need for such programs."
The Edlication Policy Committee of the Board of Governors, in turn,
requested that proposed regulations be "tightened up" to reduce the
potential for abuse and/or misunderstanding. The staff was also
requested to put a ceiling on the student-teacher ratio for independent
study courses, although no ceiling exists for any other type of course.
The new regulations were adopted, willi some softening of the
language. The college must certify to a number of requireMents with
regard to independent study courses. The restrictions on the number of
students in the course and the number of courses which may be offered
remaAn in the regulations and we have been forced to request a waiver, as
permitted by the regulations, from the State ,Chancellor.
What conclusions can we draw from the California case studies
beyond the obvioils one that "it ain't easy to get from here to there"? We
can probably come up with three rather important conclusions:
1. Our laws and regulations are beset by countless archaic provisions
which now thwart and will continue to impede progress toward meeting
new environmental demands.
2. Public policy can be changed and must continue to be modified if
the community colleges _are ta continue --to -be the innovati-ve, flexibie
institutions of postsemiaafy education.
3: External vigilance is essential in order that simple-minded solutions
to complex. questions do not become'part and parcel of our bureicratic
Our community colleges, in our fifty states, function in highly
differentiated environments. Although we share many common goals
and are -influenced by broad and pervasive changes in society and by
developments in technology, we exist in different structures with varying
legislative frameworks. It is essential that we exercise our influence, to
the strongest extent possible, in interpreting the traneormation which
must take place in the xommunity college during the coming decades.
Local boards, state boards, accrediting commissions, state commissions
on higher education, departments of finance, and state legislators must be
brought to See what it is the community colleges are attempting to achieve
and what must be done in order that they can fulfill their function. In this
connection, the Coast Community Colleges are currently attempting
through membership on the Telecommunications Advisory Committee
114 Changing Public-Policy
and the California Postsecondary Education Commission, to influence
the direction of future public policy. Included as a special category of
society'5on:going needs for education identified by the Commission are
the needs- of significant portions of the populations that have special
problems or barriers. These include the imprisoned, the physically
handicapped, the homebound with dependents, displaced homemakers,
and mid-career people pressed to change careers. The Commission
states, "Providing reasonable access to education for these groups of
adults mast be seen as another dimension of publici.e. societal
needs."_California possesso vast resources in the area of telecOmmun-
nications to meet the changintsocietal needs of the state. The community
colleges are equipped by inclination and experience to coordinate such
activities. It is vital that we give close and continuing attention to evolving
Faculty Response to the Use of Technology
Dallas K. Deal
President State Univershy College
Fredonia, New York
I will begin this paper with a qualification diat requires expression, one
whichis_4_re.statement of_the obvicusitis-asimpossible-to-reference
"a!_facultyresponse to the use of technology as itis to characterizea"
faculty on almost any matter or issue you may care to mention. For
example, on my own faculty, a recently retired political science professor
reliably cast a single opposing vote on any occasion where unaMmity
prevailed on the principle of retaining the "purity" of a persitent
minority viewpoint as a benchmark characteristic of true faculty loyalty
to the. academy.
Of course, there are faculty responses to the use of technology for
instructional purposes as you might well expect; clearly, the liters:tare on
the subject documents a range of views not unlike the response io the use
of anything else except perhaps the book, or the library. But keep in
mindLineberry is quoted in Willett's Modernizing the Little Red
.School House as saying, "the antitechnologists of antiquity were
convinced that even the book, by downgrading memory, could produce
only a race of imbeciles."
The safer and more creditable reference to Make about faculty
response is that it is best seen by the current instructional Methodologies
they emtiloy. Our planners should be pleased to know that the evidence
in surveys and studies by Stern, Evans, Kozma, Cogan, and others
clearly warrants the convening of a National Conference on Technology
and Education. But for a pitifully few college and university exceptions,
the collegiate response to technology fits the discomforting view
expressed by C.P. Snow almost twenty years ago (Evans):
"In a society like ours, academic patterns change more slowly than any
others. In my lifetime, in England, they have crystallized rather than
loosened. I used to think that it would be about as hard to change say,
116 Faculty Response
the Oxford and Cambridge scholarship examinations as to conduct a
major revolution. I now believe that I was over optimistic."
My own belief is that progress is being madehowever slowly and
there is reason'to-believe that the-pace-of progress will accelerate in the
years ahead if the academy wills that it be given high priority.
I would like to touch upon a few of the available research studies which
deal with faculty response to innovation; the 'technology currently
available to colleget and universities in the public sector; a set of
assumptions which to me set in place the principal guideposts for charting
the course of progress; and, I shall conclude with a brief description of a
Major proposal to spur progress jointly sponsored by AASCU and
Although the study is along in years (1967), the comprehensive study
by Evans and Lippman reported in their book, Resistance to Innovation
in Higher Education is classic and is really quite relevant and topical.
The a-uthui exaniffled an academic czmmunity's response to Instruc-
onal-Televisiosing-a-mmther-of-variablEs=and-obtained data on
the general beliefs and the personality orientation of the faculty of nine
colleges- and universities which they visited. Among their observations
and findings are the following which are pertinent to our discussion at this
To put our work in perspective we are reminded:
"As early as 1965, the textbook committee of a state legislatUre
holding hearings on high school biology texts was confronted by an
impressive group of literate citizens who bitterly opposed the teaching of
evolution in the public schools. When we consider furthermore, that in
our own research case historyone of the respondents, a college
professor, remarked that television is the 'invention of the devil,' we might
indeed predict that Copernicus would have had a hard time introducing
some innovations to our generation as he did in his own time." (Evans)
Evans and Lippman go on the declare, and in my view, quite
"The greatest resistance to change will be found in those institutions
whose traditional primary function has been the perpetuation of a
society's folkways, mores, and values, such as religious and educational
Indeed, beyond being no surprise to the student of higher education,
there is in this resistance to change a needed sense of dependabi lity which
society in general must feel and appreciate and which is referred to by the
authors when they state:
"Educational institutions would be derelict in their &ligation to
society if they were totally responsive to fads and fashions of the
Faculty Response 117
What was learned about faculty response to the use of technology?
Evans and LipPman report:
"There is little empirical evidence to support the assumption that
faculty and administratorseven though they carry the responsibility of
imparting both old and new knowledge and are viewed as experts-in
evaluating new developmentswill choose methodological innovations
which seem to provide the greatest potential for learning."
They go onto say:
"It is undoubtedly clear by now that the present study proceeded from
the assumption that the attitudes which most of our faculty members held
toward ITV did not exist in isolation but were often inter-connected in
varying degrees with other attitudes, such as those -toward teaching
machines and teaching methods versus content. They were even inter-
connected with the respondent's attitude toward himself and his general
philosophy- of -life."
In the above connection andfurther from the analysis of attitudes and
beliefs of profesw
"Forty perceulofthevgessors believedthaledge-efeontent-is
a sUfficient prerequisite for university teaching, thirty-five percent felt
that method is of some importance, and only ten percent felt they were of
equal importance." (Evans)
And a very significant and humbling clue to any of us who dares
'believe he or she is destined to be a significant agent of instructional
change, is the discovery that
"In effect Professors were saying, 'The machine cannot provide those
ingredients which I, myself, can provide. I am personal and provide
discussion; I Inotivate students, and I am creative.' Therefore:
"The college professor sees himself in the traditional role of standing
before a class, delivering a lecture on which his students take notes
notes he expects them to commit to memory, supplemented by readings
in their textbooks and some additional work in the library."
Even the more negative responses in this study (Evans) take on at times
humorous incongruities such as:
"ITV is a fine instructional medium and should be encouraged for all
to improve instruction, but not for my subject area," and
"ITV is the best means of teaching in the long run, but/ would leave
college teaching if / had to use it."
However, it is interesting to note that there also surfaces in the survey
literature, professional types who are pro-IV and they can be described
and I presume identified on our faculties.
The study by Evans pictures them as being "more adventuresome,
flexible, and mobile in thinking and teaching... whosee the university as
asocialas well asacademic community ... mbre free to experiment with
new methods and techniques."
And although such categorical typing may be useful early in the
118 Faculty Response
development of strategy for innovation and implementation, it is
important to teep in mind that:
"Although we have given evidence to show that some professors have
consistent attitudes toward innovation in general,we think it quite likely
that other professors are very selective about the kind of innovation they
are willing to accept." (Evans)
The research findings do not altogether present a bleak picture about
the current readiness of faculty to climb aboard technological vehicles
which may hold promise for the improvement in and the satisfactionfaculty
seek to gain from teaching. What seems clear iS the evidence that
approaches to faculty have not been well designed, showed a lack of
concem for readiness, and have too frequently not given sufficient
attention to the importance of self-motivation toward tangible rewards
provided by the "system." For example:
"To utilize ITV many professors stemed to think that much training,
aching goals and activities
Avould-be-requiredevidence-seemed-to-intliaTe-thirif a complex
innovation can be broken down into palatable bitsat least partial
acceptance will be more rapidly affected." And, further:
" ... evidence suggests that the degree of acceptance ofan innovation
by professors may partly depend on whether they viewedthe innovation
as being instituted by the university administration or.... within their own
dcademic departments as a result of their own planning."
" ... evidence suggests also a reversion effectoccurs most often where
reinforcers are not programmed beyond certain minimum limits
reinforcers include salary increments, promotions, and overt administra-
tive approval" and it is:
". . . highly plausible that an individual's position in the university
(rankjob security) bears some relation to receptivity to innovation."
A point so often overlooked in the context of effecting change is
mentioned by Cogan:
"Any plan that seeks to rationalize the process of innovation in our
schools will perforce be slowed down by the imperative necessity to train
the men affd-women who will be centrally involved. And that delay will
be a blessing if it serves to educate us to understand that the phases of
education are long, longer than the phases of a fad, style and local and
Telling it more stridently, Stem and Keislarin reporting their survey of
five thousand references on teacher attitudes conclude:
"The success of any broad-based educational innovation is not simply
a result of whether the proper procedures have been technically carried
out; rather, if innovation is imposed authoritatively on the teacher, with
no attempt to understand and enlist support, it yill not succeed."
The above surveyors suggest six categories of guidelines for considers-
tiorrin the development- ofra, strategy for-innovation:
1. Accepting environmentlargely an administrative responsibility.
2. Assurance of personal involvement.
3. Acceptance of personal responsibility.
4. Role models.
5. Incentives for change.
A more recent experiment dealing withFaculty Development and the
AdoptiOn and Diplision of Classroom Innovations by Kozma and
funded by FIPSE is reported in- the Journal of Higher Education.
In a faculty fellowship project at the University of Michigan the
findings showed that the incentive of fellowship_grants. increased
significantly the fellows use of innovations as compared to a random
fellowships had relatively little success in influencing fellow faculty
members to adopt instructional innovations as a result of discussions.
I suppose any examination of research fmdings should end on a note of
caution and in this instance, a bit more pithy than the typical dissertation
conclusion which concludes the need for more study.
Willett, Swanson and Nelson say in Modernizing the Little Red
School House bring into view a rather fascinating comparison between
thefeaSibility and the logic of change as itapplies to the introduction of
"The feasibility of change to man-machine systems of education is
clearly seen in the dollar savings . ..the logic for change is another
matter . ..the educational establishment represents an intrenced
moving to man-machine systems of education will receive quick
moving to man-machine systems of education will receive quick acceptance
should be viewed with reservations."
Availability of Technology
Until recently those of us concerned with expanding the use of
instructional technology in the public sector of higher education had
available as evidence of its availability only isolated reports of commit-
ments by campuses across the country.
In the late 70's, AASCU and NASULGC cpnducted the first
national survey of existing technology available to the faculties in over
four hundred member colleges and universities. The results of this survey
may be known to some of you; however, its highlights should serve an
important documentary purpose of this conference.
The survey covered three major areas: availability and description of
present communications technology facilities, the instructional use
served by this technology, and the plans for expansion. Responses to the
national survey indicate that member institutions of both associations
exhibit a strong commitment to the use of cornmunications technology in
their educational programs. Many institutions in the study operate
television and radio broadcasting stations whicfiare used for educational
programming. In factAASCU and NASULGC institutions constitute
approximately one,third_ of -the station membership of the Public
Seventy-nine percent of the NASULGC institutions in the survey
operated non-commercial broadcasting and fifty-four percent of the
AASCU members carried-non-commercial radio programming. FM
frequencies were licensed by seventy-five percent of the NASULGC
and fifty-tWo percent of the AASCU institutions.
Closed cirduit television systems were found to bequite coMmon and
in addition,"the public colleges and universities in the two associations
produced educational programs for the broadcasting stati
.percent). They utilized
Cable TV to distribute even more progrants. NASULGC cable utilizers
totalled fifty-two percent and AASCUresponders totalled forty percent
in "the Cable TV category.
The survey covered also the provision for faculty utilization of
telecommunication facilities for instructional purposes. In excess of
ninety percent of the member institutions stated media services were
available to faculty and staff and over eighty percent reported the
availability of telecommunications facilities to the adult public. Instruc-
tional programs include credit and non-credit courses, continuing
education units and open learning and external e.tgree programs. .
With a view toward expansion, member institutions who operate
telecommunications systems in both associations, as well as those who
do not, indicated expansion plans especially in the areas of instructional
media facilities, radio broadcasting and cable television.
It seems reasonable to conclude from this nationwide survey of public
colleges and universities that a surprising array of educational technology
is presently available to faculty for their 11S4, and the awareness of the
emerging significance of this technology as a means of enhancing-and
extending outward the teaching boundaries of the campus is ofconcern
and importance.to these public institutions. With this advantage clearly
in view, there is reason to hope thatwith proper trainingand inducement,
faculty in increasing numbers will rise to form the critical linkage
between the communication., technology found to be in place with the
needs of students in a variety of educational settings.
Some Working Assumptions(Six, in Fact)
From the standpoint ofa working administrator who has spent some
time immersed in the process of learning and thinimg about the current
state of instructional technology, and who also has endeavored to bring
into being a small amount of change, I have drawn assumptions, some.
FOeul0 Response 121
of which I hope you will fmd worthy of consideration and perhaps even
Assumption Number I
There rentains ab-road in the land a legacy of unfilled promises
promulgated by hardware advocates who, during the sixties, in
particular, convincingly influenced the purchase of vast amaunts of
instrUctional equipment with the promise of relieving the then shortage
of faculty and at the-aame rime reducing the cost of instruction.
State budget analysts and, indeed, many, legislators make painful
reference to the millions "wasted" in purchasing educational hardware to
equip new buildings during the sixties. The space utilization studies
which yearly demonstrate our failure to make sufficient use of large
!whirr halls and inventoreis of dial access equipment. TV studios and the
like are too often silent and also_unfortunatelestimony against proposed
new initiatives at a time when higher education is strapped for funds.
It is my view that any progress we hope to make toward the goal of
more effective use of new technology in teaching, even with faculty
motivation at a high peak, must be calculated within the existing
constraints of continuing inflation, unfriendly budget examiners and
public policies which reflect an attitude on the part of decision makers
that higher education has had its =tient on the stage and now must make
way for other pressing societal needs.
Our requirements for new equipment, if met at all, will be drawn from a
convincing demonstration of yearly savings through more efficient
management and the never ending search for dollars which must flow
from gifts and grants.
We can, I believe, overcome the unfortunate legacy of our past
stewardship of instructional technology. It is not unrealistic to suggest
that the necessity of such a struggle is after all our best insurance that
progress will be more sustainable because it will have been so hard won.
Assumption Number 2
Most college faculty have insufficient experience as learners via
technology for us to expect them to be advocates of Vie implementation
of available communications technology eller as a teaching tool or a
mom comprehensive teaching methodology.
There is little or no evidence to suggest that graduate students
preparing for careers in teaching have been taught other than the lessons
of scholarship and research. Whatever teaching methods they adopted
came as a result of imitation of their mentors or by trial and error, rather
than studied examination of the teaching process. From this direction as,
a starting point -is where we must begin as we introduce also into the
current equation faculties which are unionized and who are forced to
pereeiv depreiging immobility as a carrer reality.
122 Faculty Response
An exaggeration, perhaps, but our overly sanguine assumptions in the
pastwhich overlooked the critical necessity to begin where faculty
areresulted frequently in the wrongheaded purchase of "hardware
_methodology" -far ahead:of-any attention-to- the needs, expeditions,
abilities and realities ofour faculties.
Faculty development initiatives generated largely by faculty them-
selves, and primed and sustained by administrators whdunderstand the
role of "facilitator" hold the plonnse of bringing abouta gradual, ierhaps
even an assuredly sustainable involvement of faculty in the use of a vast
array of new and more available educational technology.
Assumption Number 3
The pervasive and fewful spectre of broad exposure to the risk of
failure, before de eyes of watc4ful colleagues is intimidating and 'a
retaniant obstacle in the oath uf the mosrsecureofinstructionalfaculty.
Itis-the-rare-faculty-meMberwho-would spearniolEeTthin fearless
tones about the educationalvalue of an occasionalfailure. Usually in this
context of failure our reference point is the students whom we instruct
The .carryover of this belief into the very diferent and personal risk
context of teaching methodology demonstrates clearly a considerably
different and largely hesitant faculty responseat the very least those of .
us interested in building a strategy for change should assume so.
The intramurals ofpeer evaluation for reappointment, promotion, and
retrenchinent mechanisms engaged as a result ofshortages of funds and
reduCtion in generated student hours in the latter instance surface
resistance factors even from faculty who have traditionallrbelieved
themselves to be secure in their positions. The perceived exposure to
criticism felt by even the best professors sometimes_ easily sets in.
motion subtle and curiously department-wide episodes of resistance
rather than acts of courage.
Overcoming the anxietiesmarried to potential failure is most success-
fully accoinplished in a general sense by the recognition of its presence.
Steps which follow are largely situation specific and are better locally
planned and constructed, except for the all-impiitant necessity of
confidence building that comes from early if only modest success and
followed by deserved recognition.
As'sumption Number 4
The sanguine declaration that excellence through resource enrich-
ment is hardly creditable during the current andprolonged era of the
equivalent.ofzero-based budgets,faculty retrenchmcn4 and long-term
The sooner we engage the operational assumption that resource
enrichment belongs to a bygone era of educational finance, the better will
be the operational design of instructional schemes which make use of
Priorities will of necessity require reordering. Programs and earlier
mibsions may be called into question and consequently', be repleced by
current plans for instructional improvement which require the shifting of
resources. Indeed, there may emerge a new "art" ofcreative management
that allows, for a process ofsubStitUtion rather than addition.
We should not fail to recognize that higher education management
requires the similar challenge of rethinking and reassessment of attitudes
and methodologies as does the instructional process; indeed, it is not
presumptuous to recommend such a process as a beginning expectation
of any plan designed to change substantially instructional modes of
Assumption NuMber 5
Promotion workload considerations, financial, and success in-
re high on the list of reward factors which spur faculty
If we dream of a world of change absent of thesecompelling factors we
dream of a time that will never be. They are, indeed, stituational and
often personal, but they persist as perceived and real expectations. They
are for the faculty, the tangible outcomes that make the effort worthy.
They are for the faculty, outcomes related to ego fillfillment which out-
distance institutional goals atid expectations. They can bf.1 silent killers of
change or the very real difference between the success and failure of a
strategy. At the very least; faculty must perceive an administration
involved in and willing to articulate with conviction and to document with
creditability, positive action that the university reward system is
responsive to faculty willing to make substantive commitments to
Assumption Numter 6
There is no foreseeable technological substitute for the creative,
learner oriented andhighly knowledgeable "director" of the learning
enterpriserather, there exists a mounting array of workable instruc-
tional tools aroundwhich to surround and assist those prepared and
motivated to use them.
In eariier times evea some thoughtfill educationists took the highly
questionable leap from the knowledge base directly to the learner via.
available handware. Witness, for example,- the dismal failure and
regression that accompanied the wholesale distribution of the "teaching
machine.", One is reminded of the earlier experiments in man's
fascination with flight, and the do-it-yourself contraptions which were
fastened to arms and legseach in its own way destined to fail because of
a lack of knowledgeable application of correct theory and creatively
directed into practice.
It is my view that effective utilization and progress in the use of
124 Faculty Responsi \,
technology will succeed to the extent that the process remains directly in
the hands of the teacher with prior knowledge of le subject and
compassidnately aware of the needs of the learners.
A -model- of =the.director- of- learnintset forth 'by-tonic media pto-
fessionals places the professor within a centerpiece similar to the role of a
nightly newscaster. He or she directs the conduct of the enterprise,
selects the content, chooses from an array of sources and resources and is
responsible for a format design which is appropriate to the viewing
audience orlearners as the case may be. Portions may be altogether pre-
cast. Other segments are flexibly utilized to meet the changing deltoids
of the situation.
The point to keep in mind is the requirement of a, learner-oriented
knowledgeable manager of theprocess to_ have resources of his choosing
available on demand, and appropriatelymatched to the broadly based
needs of students. The achievement ofa systeni-that responds to these
demands complerand demanding challenge and cannOt be viewed as
However, the degree to which it may be more expensive over the longer
run than present instruction requires muchmore study and experience.
The Response of Two As-Sociations (AASCUNASULGC)
The American Association of State Colleges and Universities and the
Nztional Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges
have given increasing concern to proposals which may result, in the.
establishment of an gn-going system with the potential .of dealing
effectively with the potential of facultiesto exploit instructional enhance-
ment through technology., It is their beliefthat progress has been retarded
and can be pttributable to:
(.1) the lack of understandingamong most faculty of appropriate and
pedagogical applications of technology, and
(2) the fear of losing creatiVe control of their classes and course
work by using the materials developed by others.
The proposal set forth through the combined efforts of the associations
has the potential of involving some seventeen member institutions and
over one hundred sixty instructional fpOulty, academic deans, and
-instructional supportstaff. Essential to the success of the proPosal is the
requirement that institutions as well as faculty commit themselves to a
continuing involvement in the projectthroughout its duration through the
allocation of a portion of the support c&tsof the proposal, the remaining
cosisqo be covered by an outside agency.
Following* each orientation Conference, faculty will be required to
"formulate their own ideas for applications 4 technology to aCademic
,subjects which they teach. irti their own. institutions. Delegations from
institutions chbsen to participate also will be *encouraged to work as a
"team" ddring the training institutes.
As an ultimate outcome and beyond the hoped-for advantages to
Partici Paling faculty will be the dissemination of what has been learned
ind achieved to Other colleges and universities.
I chose to end on a bright note of hope. for reasons which go well
beyond dmy own involvement ia the advancement of instructional
improvement Indeed, the fact of our generally low morele, the
doomsayer piedictions of.the future and our failures in the past can, I
believe, be tailed to productive use. We have perhaps come of age. We
are hard headed, more So than in tile put, not so easily led and curiously
demanding more accoUntability of ourselves.
It niay very well come to piss that the 80's will bring forth a faculty
"iespOnse" to technology that surpasses our imagination in part because
---wearepoorer-,-yerwiser; butdue in part also ta the- understanding and
I. Evans, Richa:d I., Resistance to Innovation in Higher Edueatian'Jasey-Bass, Inc.
2. Journal of kesearch and Development in Education, Vol. 10, Number 2, Winter '77:
"1"eachr Attitudes arid Attitudes Change: A Research Review by Stern and Keislar.
3. Thozny Into Practice; Vol. XV, Number 3, June '76.' "Educational Innovation:
Educational Workload" by Cog,an. '
4. Willett, Swanson and Nein:in, Modemiring the Little Red Sehaol House, Educational
Teclmology Publications, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 1979.
Evaluati the Use of Technology
Difector, Corn Dosed Instructional Development
J. Terence Kelly
President for Education
mi-Dode Cwnmunity College
There are probably few, if any, assignments more difficult or evasive
than esiiluating the use of technology, in education. The impondefables
could fill up pages. Therefore, one must immediately ask: "What do we
mean by technology?" "Whit is a logical classification system for the
various technologies that cunently exist?" The same types of questions
must be asked about the meaning of evaluation. Bufeven beyond the
definition stage, one must consider other elements associated with
evaluation, such as the philosophy of an institution and the goals of
particular instrUctional programs, in order to determine what is to be
evaluated and how it is to be evaluated -
Frustration and aggravation mount when legislators and others who
are-outside-the bducational-arena-ask the question: "Is technology cost
effective?" Frankly, we have never understood those terms, and are not
sole whether those who ask the question fiilly comprehend the complexi-
ties associated with-what appears to be a rather simple and straightforward
question. Overall, one might even make an argument that perhaps
education by itself is not cost effective, whatever that might mean.
However, if a price tag can be computed for ignorance and its impact on
society, one might have a different perspective regarding education's cost
effectiveness at all levels throughout the, country.
This preamble is not intended in any way to suggest that one cannot
Evaluating the Use 127
discuss the topic of evaluating technology or to simply say that there are
no answers. Answers I can be found, but one must be cautious and
understand precisely what it is we are trying to evaluate. Often we think
of how educational television was nearly doomed' by its uses in the fifties
and the sixties. Part of the reason for those early failures centered around
some of the misunderstandings of what its capabilities were and what it
was attempting to,do. In certain instructional settings, it simply mas an
instrument to increase productivity in terms of ficulty-teaCher ratios, nr$
necessarily to improve learning. It is not surprising, therefore that we
found huge auditoriums with thousands of students listening ;to a TV
lecture given by one faculty member. If one were evaluating the
prOductivity of its use, it would he rated as a rousing success. However, if
Students' satisfaction and learning were_ considered, thosetarly educa-
tional TV days might well deserve tcy be classified as a dismal failure.
This, for the purPose of this paper at least, let us defme the framework
within which the present topic will be discussed.
Technology that is used in education can:be divided into five major ,
Categories: 1) Print technology is the most widely used technology
thotigh it is not always thought of as one. 2) Telecommunications include
telephones, radios, and twomay communication systems which are just
barely beginning to make their mark in variout instructional applications.
3)-M-6tion piettire.altd vide?, technology reptegents-a-combinatitin-of
visual, 'motkit, animation, and audio components. 4) Computer tech-
nology is exploding with unbelievable dimensions into every phase of our
lives. 5) Biological mamPulation, perhaps the most frightening of ali,
links all the other technologies to modify human behavior.
,'The single most decisive observation that' one can make about
technology todey as it relates to educatiOnal use is that the hardware
developments far out-distance the -human and software developments,
< thus making it impoisible to capitalize on the hardware capabilities. If
one agrees with this preinise, which we think can be demonstrated
thout much difficulty, one can better understand the results of the
,evaluation of technology in education. Fot example, the studies on two
popular computer interactive syttems, PLATO- and 77CCIr, did not
bear out the .high expectatiOns for their effect on student learning
results occurred because the most imp( eant facetsthe human and
software developmentswere not attended to in a manner that would
have permitted the entire technological innovation to be fully implemented
and fairly evaluated.- .
Benjamin Bltiom2 discusses two roles of evaluationformative and
summative. Fonnative evaluation pertains to the process of developing a
program, while summation evaluetion focuses bn the completed program.
The former is "the Use of systematic evaluation in the process of
curriculum construction, teaching and learning for the purpose of
128 Evaluating the Use
improving any of these three processes" (p. 117). Mostevaluations with
respect to technological innovations failed to include formative evaluation
and are thus beset with mixed fmdings. Rather than be discouraged by
this situation, we should relentlessly explore the numerous ways to
exploit the capabilities of the technological innovations in order to
momplish our educational goals.
Evaluative studies_ focus_on different objectiveseconomics, faculty
acceptance, number of students reached, their motivation and per-
formance. All of them are valid objectives worthy., of independent
evaluation, but they wit.provide meaningful information of practical
significance only if they are considered together. In reviewing the
research literature on the use of technology in education, we would like
to introduce the concept of the three E'sExtensiveness, Effectiveness,
and Endurance. Extensiveness refers to how widespread is the use of
technology in education; effectiveness refers to improvement in human
(faculty and student) satisfaction, student motivation, retention, and
learning and endurance refers to the long-lasting continuation of an
What has become of the ,1Q.1.1.gas5aillt ortilighpreducation bvnedia.and- --
technology enthusiasts? Do traditional systems of teaching prevail
against all odds? Based on approximately 1,000 in-depthinterviews with
state commissioners, administrators, faculty, students, and alumni in six
states, the question is raised: "Does Education Want What Technology
Can Delivell"3 This study concluded that what is generally in. use
(meaningwhat more than three-quarters'of the educationalinstitutions of
a particular type are using) is not very much different from what was
generally in use'in the 50'schalkboard, a piece of chalk, some books,
filmstrips, audio cassettes, projector of some sort, or an occasional
computer terminal. 'Examined from a different perspective, in the late
70's, expenditure for technology constituted 0.3-0.5 percent of total
expenditures at the elementary and secondary schools, 0.2-0.4 percent
in vocational and 2-year colleges, and 0.5-1.1 percent in 4-year colleges
and universities. In other words, the technological innovation that has
skyrocketed in industry is rather limited and isolatedin education. This is
not surprising because technological innovation in educationwas mostly
prompted by what technology could offer rather than what educators
wanted. Even though media andlechnology enthusiasts oversell their
products, the capabilities of technology will not in and of themselves
create or even prompt changes in our educational activities. It is the
people who are going to make a difference.
In terms of extensiveness, printed materials have outscored every
other technology. Although they have become second nature to use in
education, they also had their day of being rejected and resisted. At the
Evaluating the Use 129
time.when the printing press was introduced, people's objections rallied
around much the same themes as they do today against computersloss
ot human factors, loss of jobs, necessity to learn new skills, discarding of
traditionally cherished values, etc. Decades passed before the potentials
of the printing press were acknowledged, utilized, and appreciated. The
text and the printed word have endured in higher education for so long
that no one cwill dream of questioning its effectiveness. Ironically, the
computer technology that is resisted so much today will perhaps see the
demise of the printing press, although new print technologies hold far-
reaching promises. It has been estimated that by the end 'of the 80's,
computer information transfer will be less expensive than print technology
and will allow us to store whole libraries roughly the size of the Library of
Congress in a computer.4 I.itoponents of video-disc claim that they can do
the same or better with their discs.
Telephone and radio, although widespread in their use for personal
and commercial purposes, are rarely used in education. There are some
isolated trials going on with this technology that require our consideration
and exploration. These are the Satellite Tele Education Program
( STEP), Roche Laboratories, experiment on teleconferencing, the Cono
Educational Network (CEN) in lows, and American Issues Radio
Forum. Because the application of the telephone and radio in education
is rather Ili-lilt-4ft is premature to discuss theiF effeetiveness and
How extensive is the use of television in education? Next to the
printing press, television perhaps enjoys an extensiveness of use that is
worthy of being evaluated. With the initiation of distance learning (or
open learning, as it is sometimes called), we can truly say that television
has come of age. A 1980 report prepared for The Station College
Executive Project in Adult Learning5 states that more than 1,800 of the
nations' 2,993 colleges and universities use broadcast and nonbroadcast
television for instruction. In 1978-79, 735 institutions offered more than
2,300 courses over television, enrolling 500,000 students in those
courses. At the community college level, 789 out of 1,088 institutions
(75 percent) make use of television for instruction. Of these, 349 colleges
offered courses over broadcast television enrolling approximately
162,000 students in 1978-79.6
Intitast of colfiptirerre-elfirology,-the Unite-d-Statesis-the prime user
and major exporter of computers. The report by the American Federation
of Information Processing Societies7 mentioned that approximately 60
percent of the world's computers are used in this country. How does the
use of computers in education measure up to this phenomegal growth of
computers in industry? The Fourth Inventory of Computers in U.S.
Higher Education and a servey conduced by CONDUII8 ( a national
organization that evaluates and distributes computer-based instructional
software) covering 3,595 departments and 4,489 faculty reveal the
130 Evaluating the yse
following and we quote:
The computer_ is an integral part of higher education only in the
disciplines where it is a required skill for post-baccalaureate
The computer Ls a teaching aid-is not widely used in higher
education, but interest in applications such as tutorial materials
in mathematics is growing
A significant number of schools make little or no use of
computing in the undergraduate institution.
Computing equipment and software currently in place for
instructional use is barely adequate for moderate use and
inadequate for extensive use.
Effective instructional soft.ware is increasingly the major factor
in using the computeM in teaching
Among those institutions not using the computer today, lack of
faculty training is cited as the most important reason.
Despite seridus baniers to the use of instructional computing
an overwhelming number of department heads and instructors
see their use of instructional computing increasing in the figure.
Effectiveness of Instructionil Television
ItiolFiNfill*-emnsiveness- of the use Cif technology in
education is not exhilarating, the topic of effectiveness' is somewhat
distressing. In the first place, research is available only in the areas 'of
television and computers. The best results we can bring to your attention
on instructional television (ITV) are by way of extensive review reports
published periodically. One of these reviews9 published in 1967
summarizes the results of 421 comparisons between ITV andiraditional
NUMBER OF CASES
No $ignificant ITV More TI More
Level Difference gffective gffective
Elementary 50 10
Secondary 82 24 16
College 15224 22 ,
TOTAL 308 63 50
Another review10 examined 191 comparisons at the college level and
reported that 102 of these comparisons favored ITV and 89 favored TI,
although most of the differences were not significant When attitlides
were considered, administratm were more likely to befavorable to ITV
than teachers. At the college level, students seemed to prefer small
discussion closes to television classes, and television classes to large
lecture classes. In general, students were more favorable toward ITV
Evaluating' the Use 13 1
after they experienCed it than before. Unfortunately, liking ITV was not
always correlated with learning from it.
In the 70's, similar reviews were available. For instance, one review! I
discussed approximately 862 studies that compared the effectiveness of
ITV and TI and concluded that there was strong evidence that ITV which
closely simulates TI was as effective as TI.Although there was very little
evidence concerning the effectiveness ofITV used in ways that utilized
-the unique capabilities of the medium, at least the uniqueness of the
medium was recognized as an important factor. A number of students
and teached had an unfavorable attitude to ITV, but the incidence of
such attitude diminished as *institutions gained experience with the_
ITV in distance learning programs seems to have yielded somewhat
different results. Research conducted by the University of Mid America12
pointed but that ITV in distade learning perhaps acted as a pacer,
motivating the students to keep up with their work. The completion rate
was markedly improved for courses that included television broadcasts.
Correspondence courses that did not use any television had an average
completion rate of 25 percent, whereas those with broadcast television
Jegistered an average completion rate of 65 percent. More spectacular was
e cise in w -c 361 sufents-enrolleciln a diita-riceliaiiiiiig-Ebtide
television .broadcasts were compared to 185 enrollees in a non-television
course. The completion rates were74 percent and 44 percent respectively.
Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education
There is-no simple uniform conclusion that can be drawn about the
effectiveness of computer-based instruction. The instructional uses of the
computer can be classified as: 1) learning about the computer, 2) learning
through the computer, 3) learning with the computer, and 4) learning
with oomputer support.13 Learning about the computer is the most
rapidly growing aiea of instructional computing commonly known as
data processing. Learning through the computer is more popularly called
CAI (Computer Assisted /nstruction) and is represented by a student
directly interacting with the computer for drill and practice. diaznostic
'testing, and tutorials. PLATO is a good example of this classification.
gwiththecomputerrepresents-thecomputer-as-an-aid to learning
and as an adjunct for the learner. Practical uses include simulation,
gaming, problem solving, etc. Learning with computer support is
probably the most expanding aspect of instructional computing within
higher education. This is known as CMI (ComputerManaged/nstruction)
and the expansion is taking place quietly and often without any notice of
the computer's role. A significant percentage of colleges are using
computer systems to aid in classroom management.
In a summary of the studies conducted in the late 60!s and early 70's
by institutions such as Florida State University, State University of New
132 Evaluating the We
YOrk, University of Illinois, Univetsity of TeXas, and Stanford University,
a conservative conclusion was that CAI is about as effective as
traditional instruction when used as a replacement.14 The review
concluded that the pattern of no significant difference in achievement is
depressing, to say the least. This is an uncomfortable position. On the
one hand, it is almost inevitable that the colleges will require the use of
technology if they wish to increase productivity. On the other hand, in
spite of considerable expenditures on educational technology, we have
yet to find positive evidence of its impact on productivity. If cost
. reduction (productivity) were the goal oftechnology rather than learning,
there might be a greater chance of utilizingtechnology ana doing it well.
In 1977,15 anotherreyiew article presented the research of the 70's on
CAI. Despite the large number of CAI projects in existence, the number
of methodologically sound evaluations was -quite meager, the results
were conflicting, and what exists leads to the conclusion that CAI was at
least as good as, if not better than, traditional ornon-traditional methods
in terms of performance scores. However, nearly in allcases, there were
time savings with CAL One can conclude, then, that research has shown
CAI as a possible alternativeto the, other methods but hasnotestablished--.
'Vet another review of research On instructional computing published
by the Florida Commissioner of Education Advisory Board on Instruc-
tional Computing16 examined the most recent studies-36on CAI, half
of which were experimental,20 on CMI, and 12 on Computer Assisted
Guidance (CAG). This report also included three major reviews
published in 1974, 1975, and.1979. What the report has to say is this:
"In summary, results of research on CAI, CMI, and CAG seem to
indicate that computerized methods of all kinds are either better than or
at least as effective as notl-computerized- methods in bringing about
learning gains" (p. B-12). The report further stated that computer-
managed learning seems to make a greater difference in productivity and
lqprning and is more acceptable to teachers than computer-assisted
One of the problems with CAI is its simplistic approach to learning,
Applications of CAI have notattemptediotonsider-studentvharattens-
tics-andliibjecfffiatter tiiiqueness. The frame-oriented approach in CAI
develops a data base oflessons and expects the computer to transfer this,
frame by frame, to thestudent. The student is routed through the lesson.
This passive view of students is a legacy that CAI inheritedfrom the
stimtilus-respOnse theory. The current trend is away from frame
orientation towards the development of generativeCAI systems in which
algorithms are used to generate problems, questions, answers, and
diagnostics. This approach is influenced by cognitive theories. In this
area lies the challenge of the 80's for the use of computer technology in
.Evaluating the Use 133
Individualization of learning is a necessity worthy of our attention and
effort. Note that we have used the term "learning" instead of"instruction."
We have done it deliberately to make our point that our attention and
effort should focus OQ student learning. If the researsh ofthe"60's and
70's has a message for .us, 'it is that the capabilities of computer
technology need to be exploited by the ingenuity of facility to create
educationally sound environments for learning. Kearsley" describes
four levels of individualization as follows: 1) arranging a predetermined
instructional sequence conditional on different responses to pre-specified
questions (the emphasis is on immediate feedback); 2) choosing
subsequent instructiombased on a dynamic measure of performance on
previous materials; 3) providing different presentation modes or instruc-
tional sequences based on individual differences such as aptitudes,
interests, or personality; 4) hypothesizing a 'Model of learning for each
student consisting of procedures for presentation of instructional materials
and assessment of performance (as learning occurs, the model is
modified; this level enables the student to learn the material and gain
What do these levels mean for us in education? Although a vast
majority of the existing CAI programs belong in Level I , we have to raise
the question: "Is it economically and educatiOnally sensible to com-
puterize programmed texts?" We should also raise the question: "Is
immediate feedback necessary and sufficient for all types of learning?"
We think not. "Is there a need to promote reflective learning (self-
correction learning) prior to providing feedback?" If your answer is
"yes" (which of course is the case with us), then perhaps the effectiveness
ofCMI at Levels 2 and 3 should be explored. This leaves us with Level 4
which, m our estimate, should be the subject for CAI programs.
For the pase 10 years, the faculty, advisors, and administrators at
Miami-Dade CoMmunity College are using a multipurpose flexible
CM1 system called RSVP (Response System with Variable Prescriptions).
In the world of iiWP, you will not see stuaents sitting at the terminals
interacting directly with the computer. In fact, there is nothing we can
show you about the computer. Instead, we will show you faculty who are
quitely redesigning their curriculum plans in order to provide indi-
vidualized instruction for their students. The not-so-obyious changes that
are taking place in this setup have led to collaborative work among
educational technologists and content specialists, peer review and
revision of curriculum design, learning activities and assessment tools,
well thought out individualized and prescriptive feedback, and formative
and summative evaluation.
At the administrative level, the management of individualized learning
the accuracy of record-keeping, the availability of research data for
134 Evaluating the Use
evaluating and improving instruction, the, generation of statistics for
federal and state reports, and the sharing of quality work among faculty
are chief among the benefits mentioned for RSVP.
At the faculty level, the possibilities for creating innovative RSVP
coursewares, for providing necessary individual attention and response
to snodents when they need reinforcement rather than when the faculty
are reedy to give it, for making efficient and meaningful use of the time
when f'aculty interact with their students, for being analytical about
evaluating the RSVP coursewares, and for becoming expansive in their
conceptualization of the teaching-learning pi ocess are frequently men-
tioned by the faculty who are using RSVP.
At the student level, RSVP is a decisive winner. Whether RSVPois
used in the lab or classroom or remote setting, the students endorse the
RSVP system of instruction unequivocally. They cherish the privacy in
becoming aware of their errors and the personalized feedback for
correcting their errors, appreciate the "caring" shown by their faculty,
and like the provision for self-paced learning.
illustrated by the following two quotations. Particia Cross18 says:
The Miami-Dade experience with the use of computers to manage
individualization is pulling the rug out from under the defense of group
instruction and semesters on grounds of fiscal and administrative
necessitywhich is not necessarily to deny that group instruction may
have its own contributions to Make to some forms of student learning.
But the fact is that it is no longer necessary for economic or
administrative reasons to organize education into semester-long
courses taught to groups of students. We now have the freedom and the
obligation to reassess the usefulness of our organization of education
for its contribution to student learning (p. 17).
Based on their study of the users of computer technology in higher
education in the United States, Great Britain, and the European
countries, McMahon and others19 state:
We have chosen to include a short study of RSVP and its use at Miami-
Dade because it is probably the most extensive, and in many ways the
most effective, compute rrmanaged open learning system now oeprating
in the workL.. The RSVP System at Miami-Dade Community College
is more effectively institutionalized than any date CML systems now
operational in the United Kingdom (pp. 21, 25).
Often people ask: "What is the payoff for Miami-Dade in using
RSVP? Is retention improved? Are grades improved?" Although we
cannot answer many of these questions in the affirmative with any degree
of certainty, and clearly not with hard-core data, except in a few cases,
we have found indications that RSVP improves student attitude and
motivation and thereby their retention and performance. In one applica-
tion in which RSVP is used to provide individualized prescriptive
Evaluating the Use 135
feedback on students' writing, a significant difference between RSVP
ahd non-RSVP groups was observed in the objectivetestComparative
Guidance and Placement Program: Written English Expression. Since
the completion of the experimental study in Winter, 1979, the RSVP
writing program has continued to be used by more faculty for a greater
number of students."
Summary of Effectiveness
Most ofthe studies on educational technology engaged in sumrnative
evaluation without proper formative evaluation. Consequently, the not-
so-positiVe results should not,be viewed with alarm but reflected upon
carefully. It is common knowledge that a variety of technologies is
available for communication. What is ignored, however, is that each of
the technologies has developed a quality and character of its own.
Flexibility and selectivity are the cornerstones for buildirg a technology-
based instructional wpm .21
am Flexibility provides various avenues for
learning The student population is as heterogeneous as the nation's
'tics. What one can learn from an ITV, another might learn equally well, if
not better, from print materials. Although.group-based delivery systems
.generally do not cater to the individual student's needs, the potential to
meet these learning preferences by virtue nf the use of multi-media
Each medium has its strengths and weaknesses. From the learners'
perspectives, the medii can arouse their einOtionalinvolvement; pace
their efforts, transmit information, highlight significant ideas, illustrate
abstract concepts, clarify complex themes, stimulate thinking, foster
problem-solving skills, and provide feedback. Selectivity means selecting
a purpose for learning and selecting the medium that best matches the
purpose for a particular student.
Which of these techniques will endure in the future? In answering this
question, we can present some speculations and forecasting. Christopher
Dede,22 professor at the University of Houston, Texas, and President of
the Education Section of the World Future Society, claims (in fact
recommends) that the following avenues should be explored: 4) home
TV, 2) portable _computers, 3) home terminals hooked to large
computers, 4) videodiscs and personal compuers, 5) electroniccommuni-
cation and information processing.
Future Survey, a publication of the World Future Society, provides us
some forecasti that are also worthy of ourconsideration. For instance, in
the November, 1980 issue,23 we fmd the following projections frail the
.review of the most recent books: 1) Compiners will become dramatically
smaller, the amount of information they can hold will continue to
136 Evalitating the Use
increase, and costs will decline. In the early 1980's, computers will
become the leading industry in the world. 2) Bookswill be compressed
into chip form, with the new computerized version of a book available at
something like 204, as raw material and distribution costs reduce
sensationally with miniaturiz The long-term future will be
dominated by the evolutio of machine intelligence to the Ultra-
Intelligent Machine: a comp ter programmed to perform anyintellectual
activity at least marginally better than man. 4) By the end of 1981, three
incompatible videodisc systems will be battling for a U.S. consumer
market that promises to outstrip the $65 billion annual color TV
business. The array of incompatible players Will slow the market down at
first But eventually, coupled with computer poOier, videodiscs promise
to change the way that employees are trained, equipment is maintained,
students are taught, and products are sold. 5) The convergence of the
telephone, video, and print indsutries is now at hand, bringing changes,
dismptions, threats, and opportunities to all of the major participants in
these industries. Key.catalysts in this convergence include the develop-
-services, and partial deregulation of the telephone and cable TV
With all these exuberadt projections, we need.to remember that the
traditional classroom instruction and fixed time frame for assessment
have prevailed in higher education. Beyondthe chalkboard, the overhead
projector is more often used in the classroom than all the other visual
equipment A classic example of "old habitsdie hard': is the Dvorak vs.
Qwerty typewriter keyboards. Despite the fact that the rearrangement of
the keys in the Dvorak keyboard reduced training time by half and
increased typing speed by 60 percent, the standard Qwerty keyboard has
persisted because of tradition.
The major decision of new technology in education will be shaped by
economic, social, and political factors. However, thebenefits of changes
tan be enhanced through careful attention to desirable faculty roles,
student preparation, and more humane applications of technology.
Technology is neVer independent of people. In fact, it is worthy of our
concern only because it touches our lives Ls we create, understand, and
use it. As we enter the 80's we are fortunate that the research Of the 60's
and 70's has given us the realization thit the chip arid the transistor are
no more than physical objects until their properties are realized by one or
more human beings. Therefore, a true study of technology is the study of
its relationship with those who create it and use. 124
As writers in this field note, the technology is moving ahead quickly
with or without the planning of the educational community. Immediate
action in planning f6r the future appears to be a general recommendation.
Evaluating the Use '137
If, in our preoccupation with itjqorclay responsiblities, we fail to
reanhize the pervasive impact oftechnoligihl revolution and actively
plan for its-proper Utilization in education, we will be neglecting our
mission to shape the society whichdepends on quality outcomes from its
educational system. It is a mind-boggling challenge. As we have stated
elsewhere, "Those educators who have a vision beyond the learning
environment of today, a receptive attitude toward change, and a
pioneering spirit to persevere will have the privilege of shaping and
controlling the technological inn6yations in education for inspirational
and imaginative forms of learning. Conversely, fear, insecurity and
anxiety will prevail for those Who choOse to dismiss the waves of the
fu 5 (p: 80).-
I. Alderman. D.L, Appel, LR.,ina Murphy, R.T. "PLATO AND TICCIT: AN
Evaluation of CAI in the Community College," Educational Technology, April
1978, pp. 40-45. LT and Madams, G.F. Handbook on Formative and
Company, 1971, pp. 61-86.
3. Ali, D.H. "Does Education Want What Technology Can Deliver?" in Computers
and Communications-Implicationsfor Education (Eds) Seidel, R.J. and Rubin;
M.L, New York: Academic Pmss Inc., 1977.
4. Molnar, A.R. "Viable Goals for New Educational Technology Efforts in Science
Education," Edicatiorial Technology, September 1975, pp. 16-22.
5. Munshi, KS. Telecourses: Reflections '80, Washington, D.C.: Corporation for
6. Kressel, M. (Ed) Adult Learning and Public Broadcasting, Washington, D.C.:
American Association of Communityand Junior Colleges, 1980.
7. World Markets for Electronic Data Processing EquiPment, New Jersey:(the
American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1971.
8. Johnson, J.W. "Getting fromHeretoThere: The Status of Instructional Computing in
Higher Edueation," Technobgical Horizons in Education Journal, December
1980, pp. 48-53, 57.
9. Chu, G.C. and Schramm, W. Learning from Television: What the Research Says.
Stanfoni, California: Institute for Communications Rematch, 1967.
10. -Dubrm, R. and Hadley, RA. The Medium May Be Related tothe Message College
Instruction by TY. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1969.
11. Jamison, D., Suppea, P., aml Wells, S. "The Effectivenessof Alternative Instxuctional
Media: A Survey," Review ofEducational Research, 1974, 44: pp. 1-68.
12. Lipson, J. "Technology and Adult Education: A Report on the University of Mid-
America Experiment," Technological Horizons in Education Journal, September
1977, pp. 36-38.
13. Zinn, K.L "Instructional Uses of Computers in Higher Education," in The Fourth
Inventory qf Compufers in Higher:Education: An Intetpretive Report, Princeton,
New Jersey: EDUCDM, 1979.
14. Jamison, D. et aL, Op. cit. 0
15. Kearaley, G.P. "Sonic Conceptual Issues In Computer-Assisted Instruction,"
Journal of Computer-BasedInstruction, August 1977, 4: pp.'8-16.
16. State of Florida. More Hands for Teachers, Report of theCommissioner's Advisory
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17. Keasley, G.P. "Sane Conceptual Issues in Computer-Assisted Insuuction."
Journal of Compiger-Based Instruction, August 1977, 4: pp. 8-16.
138 Evaluating the Use
.18. Cross, P.K. "What WoulsdHappen if ...?" A paperpresented at the conference of
the League fee Inrielation in the Community College, Newport Beach, California,
19. McMahon, H.F., Anderson, LS.A., and Anderson, T.H. The Cornputer in the
Management of Open Learning Systems, Report of the Council for Educational
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20. Anandam, K., Eisel,