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Programming Hive

Edward Capriolo, Dean Wampler, and Jason Rutherglen

Beijing • Cambridge • Farnham • Köln • Sebastopol • Tokyo

Programming Hive
by Edward Capriolo, Dean Wampler, and Jason Rutherglen
Copyright © 2012 Edward Capriolo, Aspect Research Associates, and Jason Rutherglen. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America.
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ISBN: 978-1-449-31933-5

Table of Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
An Overview of Hadoop and MapReduce
Hive in the Hadoop Ecosystem
Cascading, Crunch, and Others
Java Versus Hive: The Word Count Algorithm
What’s Next


2. Getting Started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Installing a Preconfigured Virtual Machine
Detailed Installation
Installing Java
Installing Hadoop
Local Mode, Pseudodistributed Mode, and Distributed Mode
Testing Hadoop
Installing Hive
What Is Inside Hive?
Starting Hive
Configuring Your Hadoop Environment
Local Mode Configuration
Distributed and Pseudodistributed Mode Configuration
Metastore Using JDBC
The Hive Command
Command Options
The Command-Line Interface
CLI Options
Variables and Properties
Hive “One Shot” Commands



Executing Hive Queries from Files
The .hiverc File
More on Using the Hive CLI
Command History
Shell Execution
Hadoop dfs Commands from Inside Hive
Comments in Hive Scripts
Query Column Headers


3. Data Types and File Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Primitive Data Types
Collection Data Types
Text File Encoding of Data Values
Schema on Read


4. HiveQL: Data Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Databases in Hive
Alter Database
Creating Tables
Managed Tables
External Tables
Partitioned, Managed Tables
External Partitioned Tables
Customizing Table Storage Formats
Dropping Tables
Alter Table
Renaming a Table
Adding, Modifying, and Dropping a Table Partition
Changing Columns
Adding Columns
Deleting or Replacing Columns
Alter Table Properties
Alter Storage Properties
Miscellaneous Alter Table Statements


5. HiveQL: Data Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Loading Data into Managed Tables
Inserting Data into Tables from Queries
Dynamic Partition Inserts
Creating Tables and Loading Them in One Query
Exporting Data

iv | Table of Contents


6. HiveQL: Queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Specify Columns with Regular Expressions
Computing with Column Values
Arithmetic Operators
Using Functions
LIMIT Clause
Column Aliases
Nested SELECT Statements
CASE … WHEN … THEN Statements
When Hive Can Avoid MapReduce
WHERE Clauses
Predicate Operators
Gotchas with Floating-Point Comparisons
GROUP BY Clauses
HAVING Clauses
JOIN Statements
Inner JOIN
Join Optimizations
Cartesian Product JOINs
Map-side Joins
Casting BINARY Values
Queries that Sample Data
Block Sampling
Input Pruning for Bucket Tables


7. HiveQL: Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Views to Reduce Query Complexity
Views that Restrict Data Based on Conditions
Views and Map Type for Dynamic Tables
View Odds and Ends


Table of Contents | v

8. HiveQL: Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Creating an Index
Bitmap Indexes
Rebuilding the Index
Showing an Index
Dropping an Index
Implementing a Custom Index Handler


9. Schema Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Over Partitioning
Unique Keys and Normalization
Making Multiple Passes over the Same Data
The Case for Partitioning Every Table
Bucketing Table Data Storage
Adding Columns to a Table
Using Columnar Tables
Repeated Data
Many Columns
(Almost) Always Use Compression!


10. Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Limit Tuning
Optimized Joins
Local Mode
Parallel Execution
Strict Mode
Tuning the Number of Mappers and Reducers
JVM Reuse
Dynamic Partition Tuning
Speculative Execution
Single MapReduce MultiGROUP BY
Virtual Columns


11. Other File Formats and Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Determining Installed Codecs
Choosing a Compression Codec
Enabling Intermediate Compression
Final Output Compression
Sequence Files
vi | Table of Contents


Compression in Action
Archive Partition
Compression: Wrapping Up


12. Developing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Changing Log4J Properties
Connecting a Java Debugger to Hive
Building Hive from Source
Running Hive Test Cases
Execution Hooks
Setting Up Hive and Eclipse
Hive in a Maven Project
Unit Testing in Hive with hive_test
The New Plugin Developer Kit


13. Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Discovering and Describing Functions
Calling Functions
Standard Functions
Aggregate Functions
Table Generating Functions
A UDF for Finding a Zodiac Sign from a Day
UDF Versus GenericUDF
Permanent Functions
User-Defined Aggregate Functions
User-Defined Table Generating Functions
UDTFs that Produce Multiple Rows
UDTFs that Produce a Single Row with Multiple Columns
UDTFs that Simulate Complex Types
Accessing the Distributed Cache from a UDF
Annotations for Use with Functions


14. Streaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Identity Transformation
Changing Types
Projecting Transformation
Manipulative Transformations
Using the Distributed Cache

Table of Contents | vii

Producing Multiple Rows from a Single Row
Calculating Aggregates with Streaming
GenericMR Tools for Streaming to Java
Calculating Cogroups


15. Customizing Hive File and Record Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
File Versus Record Formats
Demystifying CREATE TABLE Statements
File Formats
Example of a Custom Input Format: DualInputFormat
Record Formats: SerDes
CSV and TSV SerDes
Think Big Hive Reflection ObjectInspector
XPath-Related Functions
Avro Hive SerDe
Defining Avro Schema Using Table Properties
Defining a Schema from a URI
Evolving Schema
Binary Output


16. Hive Thrift Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Starting the Thrift Server
Setting Up Groovy to Connect to HiveService
Connecting to HiveServer
Getting Cluster Status
Result Set Schema
Fetching Results
Retrieving Query Plan
Metastore Methods
Example Table Checker
Administrating HiveServer
Productionizing HiveService
Hive ThriftMetastore
ThriftMetastore Configuration
Client Configuration

viii | Table of Contents


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17. Storage Handlers and NoSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Storage Handler Background
Static Column Mapping
Transposed Column Mapping for Dynamic Columns
Cassandra SerDe Properties


18. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Integration with Hadoop Security
Authentication with Hive
Authorization in Hive
Users, Groups, and Roles
Privileges to Grant and Revoke
Partition-Level Privileges
Automatic Grants


19. Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Locking Support in Hive with Zookeeper
Explicit, Exclusive Locks


20. Hive Integration with Oozie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Oozie Actions
Hive Thrift Service Action
A Two-Query Workflow
Oozie Web Console
Variables in Workflows
Capturing Output
Capturing Output to Variables


21. Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Why Elastic MapReduce?
Before You Start
Managing Your EMR Hive Cluster
Thrift Server on EMR Hive
Instance Groups on EMR
Configuring Your EMR Cluster
Deploying hive-site.xml
Deploying a .hiverc Script


Table of Contents | ix

Setting Up a Memory-Intensive Configuration
Persistence and the Metastore on EMR
HDFS and S3 on EMR Cluster
Putting Resources, Configs, and Bootstrap Scripts on S3
Logs on S3
Spot Instances
Security Groups
EMR Versus EC2 and Apache Hive
Wrapping Up


22. HCatalog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Reading Data
Writing Data
Command Line
Security Model


23. Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 (Media6Degrees)
Data Science at M6D Using Hive and R
M6D UDF Pseudorank
M6D Managing Hive Data Across Multiple MapReduce Clusters
In-Site Referrer Identification
Counting Uniques
NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory
The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System
Our Experience: Why Hive?
Some Challenges and How We Overcame Them
Big Data at Photobucket
What Hardware Do We Use for Hive?
What’s in Hive?
Who Does It Support?
Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches
A Karmasphere Perspective
Use Case Examples from the Customer Trenches

x | Table of Contents


Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Appendix: References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Table of Contents | xi


Programming Hive introduces Hive, an essential tool in the Hadoop ecosystem that
provides an SQL (Structured Query Language) dialect for querying data stored in the
Hadoop Distributed Filesystem (HDFS), other filesystems that integrate with Hadoop,
such as MapR-FS and Amazon’s S3 and databases like HBase (the Hadoop database)
and Cassandra.
Most data warehouse applications are implemented using relational databases that use
SQL as the query language. Hive lowers the barrier for moving these applications to
Hadoop. People who know SQL can learn Hive easily. Without Hive, these users must
learn new languages and tools to become productive again. Similarly, Hive makes it
easier for developers to port SQL-based applications to Hadoop, compared to other
tool options. Without Hive, developers would face a daunting challenge when porting
their SQL applications to Hadoop.
Still, there are aspects of Hive that are different from other SQL-based environments.
Documentation for Hive users and Hadoop developers has been sparse. We decided
to write this book to fill that gap. We provide a pragmatic, comprehensive introduction
to Hive that is suitable for SQL experts, such as database designers and business analysts. We also cover the in-depth technical details that Hadoop developers require for
tuning and customizing Hive.
You can learn more at the book’s catalog page (

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What Brought Us to Hive?
The three of us arrived here from different directions.

Edward Capriolo
When I first became involved with Hadoop, I saw the distributed filesystem and MapReduce as a great way to tackle computer-intensive problems. However, programming
in the MapReduce model was a paradigm shift for me. Hive offered a fast and simple
way to take advantage of MapReduce in an SQL-like world I was comfortable in. This
approach also made it easy to prototype proof-of-concept applications and also to
Preface | xv

champion Hadoop as a solution internally. Even though I am now very familiar with
Hadoop internals, Hive is still my primary method of working with Hadoop.
It is an honor to write a Hive book. Being a Hive Committer and a member of the
Apache Software Foundation is my most valued accolade.

Dean Wampler
As a “big data” consultant at Think Big Analytics, I work with experienced “data people”
who eat and breathe SQL. For them, Hive is a necessary and sufficient condition for
Hadoop to be a viable tool to leverage their investment in SQL and open up new opportunities for data analytics.
Hive has lacked good documentation. I suggested to my previous editor at O’Reilly,
Mike Loukides, that a Hive book was needed by the community. So, here we are…

Jason Rutherglen
I work at Think Big Analytics as a software architect. My career has involved an array
of technologies including search, Hadoop, mobile, cryptography, and natural language
processing. Hive is the ultimate way to build a data warehouse using open technologies
on any amount of data. I use Hive regularly on a variety of projects.

Everyone involved with Hive. This includes committers, contributors, as well as end
Mark Grover wrote the chapter on Hive and Amazon Web Services. He is a contributor
to the Apache Hive project and is active helping others on the Hive IRC channel.
David Ha and Rumit Patel, at M6D, contributed the case study and code on the Rank
function. The ability to do Rank in Hive is a significant feature.
Ori Stitelman, at M6D, contributed the case study, Data Science using Hive and R,
which demonstrates how Hive can be used to make first pass on large data sets and
produce results to be used by a second R process.
David Funk contributed three use cases on in-site referrer identification, sessionization,
and counting unique visitors. David’s techniques show how rewriting and optimizing
Hive queries can make large scale map reduce data analysis more efficient.
Ian Robertson read the entire first draft of the book and provided very helpful feedback
on it. We’re grateful to him for providing that feedback on short notice and a tight

xvi | Preface

John Sichi provided technical review for the book. John was also instrumental in driving
through some of the newer features in Hive like StorageHandlers and Indexing Support.
He has been actively growing and supporting the Hive community.
Alan Gates, author of Programming Pig, contributed the HCatalog chapter. Nanda
Vijaydev contributed the chapter on how Karmasphere offers productized enhancements for Hive. Eric Lubow contributed the SimpleReach case study. Chris A. Mattmann, Paul Zimdars, Cameron Goodale, Andrew F. Hart, Jinwon Kim, Duane Waliser,
and Peter Lean contributed the NASA JPL case study.

Preface | xvii



From the early days of the Internet’s mainstream breakout, the major search engines
and ecommerce companies wrestled with ever-growing quantities of data. More recently, social networking sites experienced the same problem. Today, many organizations realize that the data they gather is a valuable resource for understanding their
customers, the performance of their business in the marketplace, and the effectiveness
of their infrastructure.
The Hadoop ecosystem emerged as a cost-effective way of working with such large data
sets. It imposes a particular programming model, called MapReduce, for breaking up
computation tasks into units that can be distributed around a cluster of commodity,
server class hardware, thereby providing cost-effective, horizontal scalability. Underneath this computation model is a distributed file system called the Hadoop Distributed
Filesystem (HDFS). Although the filesystem is “pluggable,” there are now several commercial and open source alternatives.
However, a challenge remains; how do you move an existing data infrastructure to
Hadoop, when that infrastructure is based on traditional relational databases and the
Structured Query Language (SQL)? What about the large base of SQL users, both expert
database designers and administrators, as well as casual users who use SQL to extract
information from their data warehouses?
This is where Hive comes in. Hive provides an SQL dialect, called Hive Query Language (abbreviated HiveQL or just HQL) for querying data stored in a Hadoop cluster.
SQL knowledge is widespread for a reason; it’s an effective, reasonably intuitive model
for organizing and using data. Mapping these familiar data operations to the low-level
MapReduce Java API can be daunting, even for experienced Java developers. Hive does
this dirty work for you, so you can focus on the query itself. Hive translates most queries
to MapReduce jobs, thereby exploiting the scalability of Hadoop, while presenting a
familiar SQL abstraction. If you don’t believe us, see “Java Versus Hive: The Word
Count Algorithm” on page 10 later in this chapter.


Hive is most suited for data warehouse applications, where relatively static data is analyzed, fast response times are not required, and when the data is not changing rapidly.
Hive is not a full database. The design constraints and limitations of Hadoop and HDFS
impose limits on what Hive can do. The biggest limitation is that Hive does not provide
record-level update, insert, nor delete. You can generate new tables from queries or
output query results to files. Also, because Hadoop is a batch-oriented system, Hive
queries have higher latency, due to the start-up overhead for MapReduce jobs. Queries
that would finish in seconds for a traditional database take longer for Hive, even for
relatively small data sets.1 Finally, Hive does not provide transactions.
So, Hive doesn’t provide crucial features required for OLTP, Online Transaction Processing. It’s closer to being an OLAP tool, Online Analytic Processing, but as we’ll see,
Hive isn’t ideal for satisfying the “online” part of OLAP, at least today, since there can
be significant latency between issuing a query and receiving a reply, both due to the
overhead of Hadoop and due to the size of the data sets Hadoop was designed to serve.
If you need OLTP features for large-scale data, you should consider using a NoSQL
database. Examples include HBase, a NoSQL database integrated with Hadoop,2 Cassandra,3 and DynamoDB, if you are using Amazon’s Elastic MapReduce (EMR) or
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).4 You can even integrate Hive with these databases
(among others), as we’ll discuss in Chapter 17.
So, Hive is best suited for data warehouse applications, where a large data set is maintained and mined for insights, reports, etc.
Because most data warehouse applications are implemented using SQL-based relational databases, Hive lowers the barrier for moving these applications to Hadoop.
People who know SQL can learn Hive easily. Without Hive, these users would need to
learn new languages and tools to be productive again.
Similarly, Hive makes it easier for developers to port SQL-based applications to
Hadoop, compared with other Hadoop languages and tools.
However, like most SQL dialects, HiveQL does not conform to the ANSI SQL standard
and it differs in various ways from the familiar SQL dialects provided by Oracle,
MySQL, and SQL Server. (However, it is closest to MySQL’s dialect of SQL.)

1. However, for the big data sets Hive is designed for, this start-up overhead is trivial compared to the actual
processing time.
2. See the Apache HBase website,, and HBase: The Definitive Guide by Lars George
3. See the Cassandra website,, and High Performance Cassandra Cookbook by
Edward Capriolo (Packt).
4. See the DynamoDB website,

2 | Chapter 1: Introduction

So, this book has a dual purpose. First, it provides a comprehensive, example-driven
introduction to HiveQL for all users, from developers, database administrators and
architects, to less technical users, such as business analysts.
Second, the book provides the in-depth technical details required by developers and
Hadoop administrators to tune Hive query performance and to customize Hive with
user-defined functions, custom data formats, etc.
We wrote this book out of frustration that Hive lacked good documentation, especially
for new users who aren’t developers and aren’t accustomed to browsing project artifacts
like bug and feature databases, source code, etc., to get the information they need. The
Hive Wiki5 is an invaluable source of information, but its explanations are sometimes
sparse and not always up to date. We hope this book remedies those issues, providing
a single, comprehensive guide to all the essential features of Hive and how to use them

An Overview of Hadoop and MapReduce
If you’re already familiar with Hadoop and the MapReduce computing model, you can
skip this section. While you don’t need an intimate knowledge of MapReduce to use
Hive, understanding the basic principles of MapReduce will help you understand what
Hive is doing behind the scenes and how you can use Hive more effectively.
We provide a brief overview of Hadoop and MapReduce here. For more details, see
Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White (O’Reilly).

MapReduce is a computing model that decomposes large data manipulation jobs into
individual tasks that can be executed in parallel across a cluster of servers. The results
of the tasks can be joined together to compute the final results.
The MapReduce programming model was developed at Google and described in an
influential paper called MapReduce: simplified data processing on large clusters (see the
Appendix) on page 309. The Google Filesystem was described a year earlier in a paper
called The Google filesystem on page 310. Both papers inspired the creation of Hadoop
by Doug Cutting.
The term MapReduce comes from the two fundamental data-transformation operations
used, map and reduce. A map operation converts the elements of a collection from one
form to another. In this case, input key-value pairs are converted to zero-to-many

5. See
6. It’s worth bookmarking the wiki link, however, because the wiki contains some more obscure information
we won’t cover here.

An Overview of Hadoop and MapReduce | 3

output key-value pairs, where the input and output keys might be completely different
and the input and output values might be completely different.
In MapReduce, all the key-pairs for a given key are sent to the same reduce operation.
Specifically, the key and a collection of the values are passed to the reducer. The goal
of “reduction” is to convert the collection to a value, such as summing or averaging a
collection of numbers, or to another collection. A final key-value pair is emitted by the
reducer. Again, the input versus output keys and values may be different. Note that if
the job requires no reduction step, then it can be skipped.
An implementation infrastructure like the one provided by Hadoop handles most of
the chores required to make jobs run successfully. For example, Hadoop determines
how to decompose the submitted job into individual map and reduce tasks to run, it
schedules those tasks given the available resources, it decides where to send a particular
task in the cluster (usually where the corresponding data is located, when possible, to
minimize network overhead), it monitors each task to ensure successful completion,
and it restarts tasks that fail.
The Hadoop Distributed Filesystem, HDFS, or a similar distributed filesystem, manages
data across the cluster. Each block is replicated several times (three copies is the usual
default), so that no single hard drive or server failure results in data loss. Also, because
the goal is to optimize the processing of very large data sets, HDFS and similar filesystems use very large block sizes, typically 64 MB or multiples thereof. Such large blocks
can be stored contiguously on hard drives so they can be written and read with minimal
seeking of the drive heads, thereby maximizing write and read performance.
To make MapReduce more clear, let’s walk through a simple example, the Word
Count algorithm that has become the “Hello World” of MapReduce.7 Word Count
returns a list of all the words that appear in a corpus (one or more documents) and the
count of how many times each word appears. The output shows each word found and
its count, one per line. By common convention, the word (output key) and count (output value) are usually separated by a tab separator.
Figure 1-1 shows how Word Count works in MapReduce.
There is a lot going on here, so let’s walk through it from left to right.
Each Input box on the left-hand side of Figure 1-1 is a separate document. Here are
four documents, the third of which is empty and the others contain just a few words,
to keep things simple.
By default, a separate Mapper process is invoked to process each document. In real
scenarios, large documents might be split and each split would be sent to a separate
Mapper. Also, there are techniques for combining many small documents into a single
split for a Mapper. We won’t worry about those details now.
7. If you’re not a developer, a “Hello World” program is the traditional first program you write when learning
a new language or tool set.

4 | Chapter 1: Introduction

Figure 1-1. Word Count algorithm using MapReduce

The fundamental data structure for input and output in MapReduce is the key-value
pair. After each Mapper is started, it is called repeatedly for each line of text from the
document. For each call, the key passed to the mapper is the character offset into the
document at the start of the line. The corresponding value is the text of the line.
In Word Count, the character offset (key) is discarded. The value, the line of text, is
tokenized into words, using one of several possible techniques (e.g., splitting on whitespace is the simplest, but it can leave in undesirable punctuation). We’ll also assume
that the Mapper converts each word to lowercase, so for example, “FUN” and “fun”
will be counted as the same word.
Finally, for each word in the line, the mapper outputs a key-value pair, with the word
as the key and the number 1 as the value (i.e., the count of “one occurrence”). Note
that the output types of the keys and values are different from the input types.
Part of Hadoop’s magic is the Sort and Shuffle phase that comes next. Hadoop sorts
the key-value pairs by key and it “shuffles” all pairs with the same key to the same
Reducer. There are several possible techniques that can be used to decide which reducer
gets which range of keys. We won’t worry about that here, but for illustrative purposes,
we have assumed in the figure that a particular alphanumeric partitioning was used. In
a real implementation, it would be different.
For the mapper to simply output a count of 1 every time a word is seen is a bit wasteful
of network and disk I/O used in the sort and shuffle. (It does minimize the memory
used in the Mappers, however.) One optimization is to keep track of the count for each
word and then output only one count for each word when the Mapper finishes. There

An Overview of Hadoop and MapReduce | 5

are several ways to do this optimization, but the simple approach is logically correct
and sufficient for this discussion.
The inputs to each Reducer are again key-value pairs, but this time, each key will be
one of the words found by the mappers and the value will be a collection of all the counts
emitted by all the mappers for that word. Note that the type of the key and the type of
the value collection elements are the same as the types used in the Mapper’s output.
That is, the key type is a character string and the value collection element type is an
To finish the algorithm, all the reducer has to do is add up all the counts in the value
collection and write a final key-value pair consisting of each word and the count for
that word.
Word Count isn’t a toy example. The data it produces is used in spell checkers, language
detection and translation systems, and other applications.

Hive in the Hadoop Ecosystem
The Word Count algorithm, like most that you might implement with Hadoop, is a
little involved. When you actually implement such algorithms using the Hadoop Java
API, there are even more low-level details you have to manage yourself. It’s a job that’s
only suitable for an experienced Java developer, potentially putting Hadoop out of
reach of users who aren’t programmers, even when they understand the algorithm they
want to use.
In fact, many of those low-level details are actually quite repetitive from one job to the
next, from low-level chores like wiring together Mappers and Reducers to certain data
manipulation constructs, like filtering for just the data you want and performing SQLlike joins on data sets. There’s a real opportunity to eliminate reinventing these idioms
by letting “higher-level” tools handle them automatically.
That’s where Hive comes in. It not only provides a familiar programming model for
people who know SQL, it also eliminates lots of boilerplate and sometimes-tricky
coding you would have to do in Java.
This is why Hive is so important to Hadoop, whether you are a DBA or a Java developer.
Hive lets you complete a lot of work with relatively little effort.
Figure 1-2 shows the major “modules” of Hive and how they work with Hadoop.
There are several ways to interact with Hive. In this book, we will mostly focus on the
CLI, command-line interface. For people who prefer graphical user interfaces, commercial and open source options are starting to appear, including a commercial product
from Karmasphere (, Cloudera’s open source Hue (https://git, a new “Hive-as-a-service” offering from Qubole (http://qubole
.com), and others.

6 | Chapter 1: Introduction

Download from Wow! eBook 

Figure 1-2. Hive modules

Bundled with the Hive distribution is the CLI, a simple web interface called Hive web
interface (HWI), and programmatic access through JDBC, ODBC, and a Thrift server
(see Chapter 16).
All commands and queries go to the Driver, which compiles the input, optimizes the
computation required, and executes the required steps, usually with MapReduce jobs.
When MapReduce jobs are required, Hive doesn’t generate Java MapReduce programs.
Instead, it uses built-in, generic Mapper and Reducer modules that are driven by an
XML file representing the “job plan.” In other words, these generic modules function
like mini language interpreters and the “language” to drive the computation is encoded
in XML.
Hive communicates with the JobTracker to initiate the MapReduce job. Hive does not
have to be running on the same master node with the JobTracker. In larger clusters,
it’s common to have edge nodes where tools like Hive run. They communicate remotely
with the JobTracker on the master node to execute jobs. Usually, the data files to be
processed are in HDFS, which is managed by the NameNode.
The Metastore is a separate relational database (usually a MySQL instance) where Hive
persists table schemas and other system metadata. We’ll discuss it in detail in Chapter 2.
While this is a book about Hive, it’s worth mentioning other higher-level tools that you
should consider for your needs. Hive is best suited for data warehouse applications,
where real-time responsiveness to queries and record-level inserts, updates, and deletes
Hive in the Hadoop Ecosystem | 7

are not required. Of course, Hive is also very nice for people who know SQL already.
However, some of your work may be easier to accomplish with alternative tools.

The best known alternative to Hive is Pig (see, which was developed at Yahoo! about the same time Facebook was developing Hive. Pig is also now a
top-level Apache project that is closely associated with Hadoop.
Suppose you have one or more sources of input data and you need to perform a complex
set of transformations to generate one or more collections of output data. Using Hive,
you might be able to do this with nested queries (as we’ll see), but at some point it will
be necessary to resort to temporary tables (which you have to manage yourself) to
manage the complexity.
Pig is described as a data flow language, rather than a query language. In Pig, you write
a series of declarative statements that define relations from other relations, where each
new relation performs some new data transformation. Pig looks at these declarations
and then builds up a sequence of MapReduce jobs to perform the transformations until
the final results are computed the way that you want.
This step-by-step “flow” of data can be more intuitive than a complex set of queries.
For this reason, Pig is often used as part of ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) processes used to ingest external data into a Hadoop cluster and transform it into a more
desirable form.
A drawback of Pig is that it uses a custom language not based on SQL. This is appropriate, since it is not designed as a query language, but it also means that Pig is less
suitable for porting over SQL applications and experienced SQL users will have a larger
learning curve with Pig.
Nevertheless, it’s common for Hadoop teams to use a combination of Hive and Pig,
selecting the appropriate tool for particular jobs.
Programming Pig by Alan Gates (O’Reilly) provides a comprehensive introduction to

What if you need the database features that Hive doesn’t provide, like row-level
updates, rapid query response times, and transactions?
HBase is a distributed and scalable data store that supports row-level updates, rapid
queries, and row-level transactions (but not multirow transactions).
HBase is inspired by Google’s Big Table, although it doesn’t implement all Big Table
features. One of the important features HBase supports is column-oriented storage,
where columns can be organized into column families. Column families are physically

8 | Chapter 1: Introduction

stored together in a distributed cluster, which makes reads and writes faster when the
typical query scenarios involve a small subset of the columns. Rather than reading entire
rows and discarding most of the columns, you read only the columns you need.
HBase can be used like a key-value store, where a single key is used for each row to
provide very fast reads and writes of the row’s columns or column families. HBase also
keeps a configurable number of versions of each column’s values (marked by timestamps), so it’s possible to go “back in time” to previous values, when needed.
Finally, what is the relationship between HBase and Hadoop? HBase uses HDFS (or
one of the other distributed filesystems) for durable file storage of data. To provide
row-level updates and fast queries, HBase also uses in-memory caching of data and
local files for the append log of updates. Periodically, the durable files are updated with
all the append log updates, etc.
HBase doesn’t provide a query language like SQL, but Hive is now integrated with
HBase. We’ll discuss this integration in “HBase” on page 222.
For more on HBase, see the HBase website, and HBase: The Definitive Guide by Lars

Cascading, Crunch, and Others
There are several other “high-level” languages that have emerged outside of the Apache
Hadoop umbrella, which also provide nice abstractions on top of Hadoop to reduce
the amount of low-level boilerplate code required for typical jobs. For completeness,
we list several of them here. All are JVM (Java Virtual Machine) libraries that can be
used from programming languages like Java, Clojure, Scala, JRuby, Groovy, and Jython, as opposed to tools with their own languages, like Hive and Pig.
Using one of these programming languages has advantages and disadvantages. It makes
these tools less attractive to nonprogrammers who already know SQL. However, for
developers, these tools provide the full power of a Turing complete programming language. Neither Hive nor Pig are Turing complete. We’ll learn how to extend Hive with
Java code when we need additional functionality that Hive doesn’t provide (Table 1-1).
Table 1-1. Alternative higher-level libraries for Hadoop




Java API with Data Processing abstractions. There are now
many Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) for Cascading in other
languages, e.g., Scala, Groovy, JRuby, and Jython.


A Clojure DSL for Cascading that provides additional functionality inspired by Datalog for data processing and query abstractions.


A Java and Scala API for defining data flow pipelines.

Hive in the Hadoop Ecosystem | 9

Because Hadoop is a batch-oriented system, there are tools with different distributed
computing models that are better suited for event stream processing, where closer to
“real-time” responsiveness is required. Here we list several of the many alternatives
(Table 1-2).
Table 1-2. Distributed data processing tools that don’t use MapReduce




A distributed computing framework based on the idea of distributed data sets with a Scala API. It can work with HDFS files
and it offers notable performance improvements over Hadoop
MapReduce for many computations. There is also a project to
port Hive to Spark, called Shark (


A real-time event stream processing system.


A distributed publish-subscribe messaging system.

Finally, it’s important to consider when you don’t need a full cluster (e.g., for smaller
data sets or when the time to perform a computation is less critical). Also, many alternative tools are easier to use when prototyping algorithms or doing exploration with a
subset of data. Some of the more popular options are listed in Table 1-3.
Table 1-3. Other data processing languages and tools




An open source language for statistical analysis and graphing
of data that is popular with statisticians, economists, etc. It’s
not a distributed system, so the data sizes it can handle are
limited. There are efforts to integrate R with Hadoop.


A commercial system for data analysis and numerical methods
that is popular with engineers and scientists.


An open source clone of MatLab.


A commercial data analysis, symbolic manipulation, and numerical methods system that is also popular with scientists and

SciPy, NumPy

Extensive software package for scientific programming in
Python, which is widely used by data scientists.

Java Versus Hive: The Word Count Algorithm
If you are not a Java programmer, you can skip to the next section.
If you are a Java programmer, you might be reading this book because you’ll need to
support the Hive users in your organization. You might be skeptical about using Hive
for your own work. If so, consider the following example that implements the Word
10 | Chapter 1: Introduction

Count algorithm we discussed above, first using the Java MapReduce API and then
using Hive.
It’s very common to use Word Count as the first Java MapReduce program that people
write, because the algorithm is simple to understand, so you can focus on the API.
Hence, it has become the “Hello World” of the Hadoop world.
The following Java implementation is included in the Apache Hadoop distribution.8 If
you don’t know Java (and you’re still reading this section), don’t worry, we’re only
showing you the code for the size comparison:
package org.myorg;
import java.util.*;


public class WordCount {
public static class Map extends Mapper {
private final static IntWritable one = new IntWritable(1);
private Text word = new Text();


public void map(LongWritable key, Text value, Context context)
throws IOException, InterruptedException {
String line = value.toString();
StringTokenizer tokenizer = new StringTokenizer(line);
while (tokenizer.hasMoreTokens()) {
context.write(word, one);
public static class Reduce extends Reducer {
public void reduce(Text key, Iterable values, Context context)
throws IOException, InterruptedException {
int sum = 0;
for (IntWritable val : values) {
sum += val.get();
context.write(key, new IntWritable(sum));

8. Apache Hadoop word count:

Java Versus Hive: The Word Count Algorithm | 11

public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
Configuration conf = new Configuration();
Job job = new Job(conf, "wordcount");
FileInputFormat.addInputPath(job, new Path(args[0]));
FileOutputFormat.setOutputPath(job, new Path(args[1]));



That was 63 lines of Java code. We won’t explain the API details.9 Here is the same
calculation written in HiveQL, which is just 8 lines of code, and does not require compilation nor the creation of a “JAR” (Java ARchive) file:
CREATE TABLE word_counts AS
SELECT word, count(1) AS count FROM
(SELECT explode(split(line, '\s')) AS word FROM docs) w
ORDER BY word;

We’ll explain all this HiveQL syntax later on.

9. See Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White for the details.

12 | Chapter 1: Introduction

In both examples, the files were tokenized into words using the simplest possible approach; splitting on whitespace boundaries. This approach doesn’t properly handle
punctuation, it doesn’t recognize that singular and plural forms of words are the same
word, etc. However, it’s good enough for our purposes here.10
The virtue of the Java API is the ability to customize and fine-tune every detail of an
algorithm implementation. However, most of the time, you just don’t need that level
of control and it slows you down considerably when you have to manage all those
If you’re not a programmer, then writing Java MapReduce code is out of reach. However, if you already know SQL, learning Hive is relatively straightforward and many
applications are quick and easy to implement.

What’s Next
We described the important role that Hive plays in the Hadoop ecosystem. Now let’s
get started!

10. There is one other minor difference. The Hive query hardcodes a path to the data, while the Java code
takes the path as an argument. In Chapter 2, we’ll learn how to use Hive variables in scripts to avoid
hardcoding such details.

What’s Next | 13


Getting Started

Let’s install Hadoop and Hive on our personal workstation. This is a convenient way
to learn and experiment with Hadoop. Then we’ll discuss how to configure Hive for
use on Hadoop clusters.
If you already use Amazon Web Services, the fastest path to setting up Hive for learning
is to run a Hive-configured job flow on Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR). We discuss
this option in Chapter 21.
If you have access to a Hadoop cluster with Hive already installed, we encourage
you to skim the first part of this chapter and pick up again at “What Is Inside
Hive?” on page 22.

Installing a Preconfigured Virtual Machine
There are several ways you can install Hadoop and Hive. An easy way to install a complete Hadoop system, including Hive, is to download a preconfigured virtual machine (VM) that runs in VMWare1 or VirtualBox2. For VMWare, either VMWare
Player for Windows and Linux (free) or VMWare Fusion for Mac OS X (inexpensive)
can be used. VirtualBox is free for all these platforms, and also Solaris.
The virtual machines use Linux as the operating system, which is currently the only
recommended operating system for running Hadoop in production.3
Using a virtual machine is currently the only way to run Hadoop on
Windows systems, even when Cygwin or similar Unix-like software is

3. However, some vendors are starting to support Hadoop on other systems. Hadoop has been used in
production on various Unix systems and it works fine on Mac OS X for development use.


Most of the preconfigured virtual machines (VMs) available are only designed for
VMWare, but if you prefer VirtualBox you may find instructions on the Web that
explain how to import a particular VM into VirtualBox.
You can download preconfigured virtual machines from one of the websites given in
Table 2-1.4 Follow the instructions on these web sites for loading the VM into VMWare.
Table 2-1. Preconfigured Hadoop virtual machines for VMWare



Cloudera, Inc.

Uses Cloudera’s own distribution
of Hadoop, CDH3 or CDH4.

MapR, Inc.

MapR’s Hadoop distribution,
which replaces HDFS with the
MapR Filesystem (MapR-FS).


Based on the latest, stable Apache

Think Big Analytics, Inc.


Based on the latest, stable Apache

Next, go to “What Is Inside Hive?” on page 22.

Detailed Installation
While using a preconfigured virtual machine may be an easy way to run Hive, installing
Hadoop and Hive yourself will give you valuable insights into how these tools work,
especially if you are a developer.
The instructions that follow describe the minimum necessary Hadoop and Hive
installation steps for your personal Linux or Mac OS X workstation. For production
installations, consult the recommended installation procedures for your Hadoop

Installing Java
Hive requires Hadoop and Hadoop requires Java. Ensure your system has a recent
v1.6.X or v1.7.X JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Although the JRE (Java Runtime Environment) is all you need to run Hive, you will need the full JDK (Java Development
Kit) to build examples in this book that demonstrate how to extend Hive with Java
code. However, if you are not a programmer, the companion source code distribution
for this book (see the Preface) contains prebuilt examples.

4. These are the current URLs at the time of this writing.

16 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

After the installation is complete, you’ll need to ensure that Java is in your path and
the JAVA_HOME environment variable is set.

Linux-specific Java steps
On Linux systems, the following instructions set up a bash file in the /etc/profile.d/
directory that defines JAVA_HOME for all users. Changing environmental settings in
this folder requires root access and affects all users of the system. (We’re using $ as the
bash shell prompt.) The Oracle JVM installer typically installs the software in /usr/java/
jdk-1.6.X (for v1.6) and it creates sym-links from /usr/java/default and /usr/java/latest
to the installation:
$ /usr/java/latest/bin/java -version
java version "1.6.0_23"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.6.0_23-b05)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 19.0-b09, mixed mode)
$ sudo echo "export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest" > /etc/profile.d/
$ sudo echo "PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin" >> /etc/profile.d/
$ . /etc/profile
$ echo $JAVA_HOME

If you’ve never used sudo (“super user do something”) before to run a
command as a “privileged” user, as in two of the commands, just type
your normal password when you’re asked for it. If you’re on a personal
machine, your user account probably has “sudo rights.” If not, ask your
administrator to run those commands.
However, if you don’t want to make permanent changes that affect all
users of the system, an alternative is to put the definitions shown for
PATH and JAVA_HOME in your $HOME/.bashrc file:
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/java/latest
export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin

Mac OS X−specific Java steps
Mac OS X systems don’t have the /etc/profile.d directory and they are typically
single-user systems, so it’s best to put the environment variable definitions in your
$HOME/.bashrc. The Java paths are different, too, and they may be in one of several
Here are a few examples. You’ll need to determine where Java is installed on your Mac
and adjust the definitions accordingly. Here is a Java 1.6 example for Mac OS X:
$ export JAVA_HOME=/System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Versions/1.6/Home
$ export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin

5. At least that’s the current situation on Dean’s Mac. This discrepancy may actually reflect the fact that
stewardship of the Mac OS X Java port is transitioning from Apple to Oracle as of Java 1.7.

Detailed Installation | 17

Here is a Java 1.7 example for Mac OS X:
$ export JAVA_HOME=/Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines/1.7.0.jdk/Contents/Home
$ export PATH=$PATH:$JAVA_HOME/bin

OpenJDK 1.7 releases also install under /Library/Java/JavaVirtualMachines.

Installing Hadoop
Hive runs on top of Hadoop. Hadoop is an active open source project with many releases and branches. Also, many commercial software companies are now producing
their own distributions of Hadoop, sometimes with custom enhancements or replacements for some components. This situation promotes innovation, but also potential
confusion and compatibility issues.
Keeping software up to date lets you exploit the latest performance enhancements and
bug fixes. However, sometimes you introduce new bugs and compatibility issues. So,
for this book, we’ll show you how to install the Apache Hadoop release v0.20.2. This
edition is not the most recent stable release, but it has been the reliable gold standard
for some time for performance and compatibility.
However, you should be able to choose a different version, distribution, or release
without problems for learning and using Hive, such as the Apache Hadoop v0.20.205
or 1.0.X releases, Cloudera CDH3 or CDH4, MapR M3 or M5, and the forthcoming
Hortonworks distribution. Note that the bundled Cloudera, MapR, and planned
Hortonworks distributions all include a Hive release.
However, we don’t recommend installing the new, alpha-quality, “Next Generation”
Hadoop v2.0 (also known as v0.23), at least for the purposes of this book. While this
release will bring significant enhancements to the Hadoop ecosystem, it is too new for
our purposes.
To install Hadoop on a Linux system, run the following commands. Note that we
wrapped the long line for the wget command:
$ cd ~
# or use another directory of your choice.
$ wget \
$ tar -xzf hadoop-0.20.2.tar.gz
$ sudo echo "export HADOOP_HOME=$PWD/hadoop-0.20.2" > /etc/profile.d/
$ sudo echo "PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_HOME/bin" >> /etc/profile.d/
$ . /etc/profile

To install Hadoop on a Mac OS X system, run the following commands. Note that we
wrapped the long line for the curl command:
$ cd ~
# or use another directory of your choice.
$ curl -o \
$ tar -xzf hadoop-0.20.2.tar.gz
$ echo "export HADOOP_HOME=$PWD/hadoop-0.20.2" >> $HOME/.bashrc

18 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

$ echo "PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_HOME/bin" >> $HOME/.bashrc
$ . $HOME/.bashrc

In what follows, we will assume that you added $HADOOP_HOME/bin to your path, as in
the previous commands. This will allow you to simply type the hadoop command
without the path prefix.

Local Mode, Pseudodistributed Mode, and Distributed Mode
Before we proceed, let’s clarify the different runtime modes for Hadoop. We mentioned
above that the default mode is local mode, where filesystem references use the local
filesystem. Also in local mode, when Hadoop jobs are executed (including most Hive
queries), the Map and Reduce tasks are run as part of the same process.
Actual clusters are configured in distributed mode, where all filesystem references that
aren’t full URIs default to the distributed filesystem (usually HDFS) and jobs are managed by the JobTracker service, with individual tasks executed in separate processes.
A dilemma for developers working on personal machines is the fact that local mode
doesn’t closely resemble the behavior of a real cluster, which is important to remember
when testing applications. To address this need, a single machine can be configured to
run in pseudodistributed mode, where the behavior is identical to distributed mode,
namely filesystem references default to the distributed filesystem and jobs are managed
by the JobTracker service, but there is just a single machine. Hence, for example, HDFS
file block replication is limited to one copy. In other words, the behavior is like a singlenode “cluster.” We’ll discuss these configuration options in “Configuring Your Hadoop Environment” on page 24.
Because Hive uses Hadoop jobs for most of its work, its behavior reflects the Hadoop
mode you’re using. However, even when running in distributed mode, Hive can decide
on a per-query basis whether or not it can perform the query using just local mode,
where it reads the data files and manages the MapReduce tasks itself, providing faster
turnaround. Hence, the distinction between the different modes is more of an
execution style for Hive than a deployment style, as it is for Hadoop.
For most of the book, it won’t matter which mode you’re using. We’ll assume you’re
working on a personal machine in local mode and we’ll discuss the cases where the
mode matters.
When working with small data sets, using local mode execution
will make Hive queries much faster. Setting the property set; will cause Hive to use this mode more
aggressively, even when you are running Hadoop in distributed or pseudodistributed mode. To always use this setting, add the command to
your $HOME/.hiverc file (see “The .hiverc File” on page 36).

Detailed Installation | 19

Testing Hadoop
Assuming you’re using local mode, let’s look at the local filesystem two different ways.
The following output of the Linux ls command shows the typical contents of the “root”
directory of a Linux system:
$ ls /
bin cgroup
boot dev




root selinux
null proc sbin srv




Hadoop provides a dfs tool that offers basic filesystem functionality like ls for the
default filesystem. Since we’re using local mode, the default filesystem is the local filesystem:6
$ hadoop dfs -ls /
Found 26 items
- root
- root
drwx------ root
- root
dr-xr-x--- root






If instead you get an error message that hadoop isn’t found, either invoke the command
with the full path (e.g., $HOME/hadoop-0.20.2/bin/hadoop) or add the bin directory to
your PATH variable, as discussed in “Installing Hadoop” on page 18 above.
If you find yourself using the hadoop dfs command frequently, it’s
convenient to define an alias for it (e.g., alias hdfs="hadoop dfs").

Hadoop offers a framework for MapReduce. The Hadoop distribution contains an
implementation of the Word Count algorithm we discussed in Chapter 1. Let’s run it!
Start by creating an input directory (inside your current working directory) with files
to be processed by Hadoop:
$ mkdir wc-in
$ echo "bla bla" > wc-in/a.txt
$ echo "bla wa wa " > wc-in/b.txt

Use the hadoop command to launch the Word Count application on the input directory
we just created. Note that it’s conventional to always specify directories for input and
output, not individual files, since there will often be multiple input and/or output files
per directory, a consequence of the parallelism of the system.

6. Unfortunately, the dfs -ls command only provides a “long listing” format. There is no short format, like
the default for the Linux ls command.

20 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

If you are running these commands on your local installation that was configured to
use local mode, the hadoop command will launch the MapReduce components in the
same process. If you are running on a cluster or on a single machine using pseudodistributed mode, the hadoop command will launch one or more separate processes using
the JobTracker service (and the output below will be slightly different). Also, if you are
running with a different version of Hadoop, change the name of the examples.jar as
$ hadoop

jar $HADOOP_HOME/hadoop-0.20.2-examples.jar wordcount wc-in wc-out
15:40:26 INFO input.FileInputFormat: Total input paths to process : 2


mapred.JobClient: Running job: job_local_0001
mapred.JobClient: map 100% reduce 0%
mapred.JobClient: map 100% reduce 100%
mapred.JobClient: Job complete: job_local_0001

The results of the Word count application can be viewed through local filesystem
$ ls wc-out/*
$ cat wc-out/*

They can also be viewed by the equivalent dfs command (again, because we assume
you are running in local mode):
$ hadoop dfs -cat wc-out/*

For very big files, if you want to view just the first or last parts, there is
no -more, -head, nor -tail subcommand. Instead, just pipe the output
of the -cat command through the shell’s more, head, or tail. For example: hadoop dfs -cat wc-out/* | more.

Now that we have installed and tested an installation of Hadoop, we can install Hive.

Installing Hive
Installing Hive is similar to installing Hadoop. We will download and extract a tarball
for Hive, which does not include an embedded version of Hadoop. A single Hive binary
is designed to work with multiple versions of Hadoop. This means it’s often easier and
less risky to upgrade to newer Hive releases than it is to upgrade to newer Hadoop
Hive uses the environment variable HADOOP_HOME to locate the Hadoop JARs and configuration files. So, make sure you set that variable as discussed above before proceeding. The following commands work for both Linux and Mac OS X:
Detailed Installation | 21


cd ~
# or use another directory of your choice.
curl -o
tar -xzf hive-0.9.0.tar.gz
sudo mkdir -p /user/hive/warehouse
sudo chmod a+rwx /user/hive/warehouse

As you can infer from these commands, we are using the latest stable release of Hive
at the time of this writing, v0.9.0. However, most of the material in this book works
with Hive v0.7.X and v0.8.X. We’ll call out the differences as we come to them.
You’ll want to add the hive command to your path, like we did for the hadoop command.
We’ll follow the same approach, by first defining a HIVE_HOME variable, but unlike
HADOOP_HOME, this variable isn’t really essential. We’ll assume it’s defined for some examples later in the book.
For Linux, run these commands:
$ sudo echo "export HIVE_HOME=$PWD/hive-0.9.0" > /etc/profile.d/
$ sudo echo "PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin >> /etc/profile.d/
$ . /etc/profile

For Mac OS X, run these commands:
$ echo "export HIVE_HOME=$PWD/hive-0.9.0" >> $HOME/.bashrc
$ echo "PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin" >> $HOME/.bashrc
$ . $HOME/.bashrc

What Is Inside Hive?
The core of a Hive binary distribution contains three parts. The main part is the Java
code itself. Multiple JAR (Java archive) files such as hive-exec*.jar and hive-meta
store*.jar are found under the $HIVE_HOME/lib directory. Each JAR file implements
a particular subset of Hive’s functionality, but the details don’t concern us now.
The $HIVE_HOME/bin directory contains executable scripts that launch various Hive
services, including the hive command-line interface (CLI). The CLI is the most popular
way to use Hive. We will use hive (in lowercase, with a fixed-width font) to refer to the
CLI, except where noted. The CLI can be used interactively to type in statements one
at a time or it can be used to run “scripts” of Hive statements, as we’ll see.
Hive also has other components. A Thrift service provides remote access from other
processes. Access using JDBC and ODBC are provided, too. They are implemented on
top of the Thrift service. We’ll describe these features in later chapters.
All Hive installations require a metastore service, which Hive uses to store table schemas
and other metadata. It is typically implemented using tables in a relational database.
By default, Hive uses a built-in Derby SQL server, which provides limited, singleprocess storage. For example, when using Derby, you can’t run two simultaneous instances of the Hive CLI. However, this is fine for learning Hive on a personal machine

22 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

Download from Wow! eBook 

and some developer tasks. For clusters, MySQL or a similar relational database is
required. We will discuss the details in “Metastore Using JDBC” on page 28.
Finally, a simple web interface, called Hive Web Interface (HWI), provides remote
access to Hive.
The conf directory contains the files that configure Hive. Hive has a number of configuration properties that we will discuss as needed. These properties control features
such as the metastore (where data is stored), various optimizations, and “safety
controls,” etc.

Starting Hive
Let’s finally start the Hive command-line interface (CLI) and run a few commands!
We’ll briefly comment on what’s happening, but save the details for discussion later.
In the following session, we’ll use the $HIVE_HOME/bin/hive command, which is a
bash shell script, to start the CLI. Substitute the directory where Hive is installed on
your system whenever $HIVE_HOME is listed in the following script. Or, if you added
$HIVE_HOME/bin to your PATH, you can just type hive to run the command. We’ll make
that assumption for the rest of the book.
As before, $ is the bash prompt. In the Hive CLI, the hive> string is the hive prompt,
and the indented > is the secondary prompt. Here is a sample session, where we have
added a blank line after the output of each command, for clarity:
$ bin/hive
Hive history file=/tmp/myname/hive_job_log_myname_201201271126_1992326118.txt
hive> CREATE TABLE x (a INT);
Time taken: 3.543 seconds
hive> SELECT * FROM x;
Time taken: 0.231 seconds
hive> SELECT *
> FROM x;
Time taken: 0.072 seconds
hive> DROP TABLE x;
Time taken: 0.834 seconds
hive> exit;

The first line printed by the CLI is the local filesystem location where the CLI writes
log data about the commands and queries you execute. If a command or query is

Starting Hive | 23

successful, the first line of output will be OK, followed by the output, and finished by
the line showing the amount of time taken to run the command or query.
Throughout the book, we will follow the SQL convention of showing
Hive keywords in uppercase (e.g., CREATE, TABLE, SELECT and FROM), even
though case is ignored by Hive, following SQL conventions.
Going forward, we’ll usually add the blank line after the command output for all sessions. Also, when starting a session, we’ll omit the line
about the logfile. For individual commands and queries, we’ll omit the
OK and Time taken:... lines, too, except in special cases, such as when
we want to emphasize that a command or query was successful, but it
had no other output.

At the successive prompts, we create a simple table named x with a single INT (4-byte
integer) column named a, then query it twice, the second time showing how queries
and commands can spread across multiple lines. Finally, we drop the table.
If you are running with the default Derby database for the metastore, you’ll notice that
your current working directory now contains a new subdirectory called metastore_db
that was created by Derby during the short hive session you just executed. If you are
running one of the VMs, it’s possible it has configured different behavior, as we’ll discuss later.
Creating a metastore_db subdirectory under whatever working directory you happen
to be in is not convenient, as Derby “forgets” about previous metastores when you
change to a new working directory! In the next section, we’ll see how to configure a
permanent location for the metastore database, as well as make other changes.

Configuring Your Hadoop Environment
Let’s dive a little deeper into the different Hadoop modes and discuss more configuration issues relevant to Hive.
You can skip this section if you’re using Hadoop on an existing cluster or you are using
a virtual machine instance. If you are a developer or you installed Hadoop and Hive
yourself, you’ll want to understand the rest of this section. However, we won’t provide
a complete discussion. See Appendix A of Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White
for the full details on configuring the different modes.

Local Mode Configuration
Recall that in local mode, all references to files go to your local filesystem, not the
distributed filesystem. There are no services running. Instead, your jobs run all tasks
in a single JVM instance.

24 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

Figure 2-1 illustrates a Hadoop job running in local mode.

Figure 2-1. Hadoop in local mode

If you plan to use the local mode regularly, it’s worth configuring a standard location
for the Derby metastore_db, where Hive stores metadata about your tables, etc.
You can also configure a different directory for Hive to store table data, if you don’t
want to use the default location, which is file:///user/hive/warehouse, for local mode,
and hdfs://namenode_server/user/hive/warehouse for the other modes discussed next.
First, go to the $HIVE_HOME/conf directory. The curious may want to peek at the
large hive-default.xml.template file, which shows the different configuration properties
supported by Hive and their default values. Most of these properties you can safely
ignore. Changes to your configuration are done by editing the hive-site.xml file. Create
one if it doesn’t already exist.
Here is an example configuration file where we set several properties for local mode
execution (Example 2-1).
Example 2-1. Local-mode hive-site.xml


Local or HDFS directory where Hive keeps table contents.


Configuring Your Hadoop Environment | 25


Use false if a production metastore server is used.


The JDBC connection URL.

You can remove any of these ... tags you don’t want to change.
As the  tags indicate, the hive.metastore.warehouse.dir tells Hive where
in your local filesystem to keep the data contents for Hive’s tables. (This value is appended to the value of defined in the Hadoop configuration and defaults to file:///.) You can use any directory path you want for the value. Note that this
directory will not be used to store the table metadata, which goes in the separate
The hive.metastore.local property defaults to true, so we don’t really need to show
it in Example 2-1. It’s there more for documentation purposes. This property controls
whether to connect to a remote metastore server or open a new metastore server as part
of the Hive Client JVM. This setting is almost always set to true and JDBC is used to
communicate directly to a relational database. When it is set to false, Hive will
communicate through a metastore server, which we’ll discuss in “Metastore Methods” on page 216.
The value for the javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL property makes one small but convenient change to the default value for this property. This property tells Hive how to
connect to the metastore server. By default, it uses the current working directory for
the databaseName part of the value string. As shown in Example 2-1, we use database
Name=/home/me/hive/metastore_db as the absolute path instead, which is the location
where the metastore_db directory will always be located. This change eliminates the
problem of Hive dropping the metastore_db directory in the current working directory
every time we start a new Hive session. Now, we’ll always have access to all our
metadata, no matter what directory we are working in.

Distributed and Pseudodistributed Mode Configuration
In distributed mode, several services run in the cluster. The JobTracker manages jobs
and the NameNode is the HDFS master. Worker nodes run individual job tasks, managed by a TaskTracker service on each node, and then hold blocks for files in the
distributed filesystem, managed by DataNode services.
Figure 2-2 shows a typical distributed mode configuration for a Hadoop cluster.
26 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

Figure 2-2. Hadoop in distributed mode

We’re using the convention that *.domain.pvt is our DNS naming convention for the
cluster’s private, internal network.
Pseudodistributed mode is nearly identical; it’s effectively a one-node cluster.
We’ll assume that your administrator has already configured Hadoop, including your
distributed filesystem (e.g., HDFS, or see Appendix A of Hadoop: The Definitive
Guide by Tom White). Here, we’ll focus on the unique configuration steps required by
One Hive property you might want to configure is the top-level directory for table
storage, which is specified by the property hive.metastore.warehouse.dir, which we
also discussed in “Local Mode Configuration” on page 24.
The default value for this property is /user/hive/warehouse in the Apache Hadoop and
MapR distributions, which will be interpreted as a distributed filesystem path when
Hadoop is configured for distributed or pseudodistributed mode. For Amazon Elastic
MapReduce (EMR), the default value is /mnt/hive_0M_N/warehouse when using Hive
v0.M.N (e.g., /mnt/hive_08_1/warehouse).
Specifying a different value here allows each user to define their own warehouse directory, so they don’t affect other system users. Hence, each user might use the following
statement to define their own warehouse directory:
set hive.metastore.warehouse.dir=/user/myname/hive/warehouse;

It’s tedious to type this each time you start the Hive CLI or to remember to add it to
every Hive script. Of course, it’s also easy to forget to define this property. Instead, it’s
Configuring Your Hadoop Environment | 27

best to put commands like this in the $HOME/.hiverc file, which will be processed
when Hive starts. See “The .hiverc File” on page 36 for more details.
We’ll assume the value is /user/hive/warehouse from here on.

Metastore Using JDBC
Hive requires only one extra component that Hadoop does not already have; the
metastore component. The metastore stores metadata such as table schema and partition information that you specify when you run commands such as create table
x..., or alter table y..., etc. Because multiple users and systems are likely to need
concurrent access to the metastore, the default embedded database is not suitable for
If you are using a single node in pseudodistributed mode, you may not
find it useful to set up a full relational database for the metastore. Rather,
you may wish to continue using the default Derby store, but configure
it to use a central location for its data, as described in “Local Mode
Configuration” on page 24.

Any JDBC-compliant database can be used for the metastore. In practice, most installations of Hive use MySQL. We’ll discuss how to use MySQL. It is straightforward to
adapt this information to other JDBC-compliant databases.
The information required for table schema, partition information, etc.,
is small, typically much smaller than the large quantity of data stored in
Hive. As a result, you typically don’t need a powerful dedicated database
server for the metastore. However because it represents a Single Point
of Failure (SPOF), it is strongly recommended that you replicate and
back up this database using the standard techniques you would normally use with other relational database instances. We won’t discuss
those techniques here.

For our MySQL configuration, we need to know the host and port the service is running
on. We will assume db1.mydomain.pvt and port 3306, which is the standard MySQL
port. Finally, we will assume that hive_db is the name of our catalog. We define these
properties in Example 2-2.
Example 2-2. Metastore database configuration in hive-site.xml


28 | Chapter 2: Getting Started




You may have noticed the ConnectionURL property starts with a prefix of jdbc:mysql.
For Hive to be able to connect to MySQL, we need to place the JDBC driver in our
classpath. Download the MySQL JDBC driver (Jconnector) from http://www.mysql
.com/downloads/connector/j/. The driver can be placed in the Hive library path,
$HIVE_HOME/lib. Some teams put all such support libraries in their Hadoop lib
With the driver and the configuration settings in place, Hive will store its metastore
information in MySQL.

The Hive Command
The $HIVE_HOME/bin/hive shell command, which we’ll simply refer to as hive from now
on, is the gateway to Hive services, including the command-line interface or CLI.
We’ll also assume that you have added $HIVE_HOME/bin to your environment’s PATH so
you can type hive at the shell prompt and your shell environment (e.g., bash) will find
the command.

Command Options
If you run the following command, you’ll see a brief list of the options for the hive
command. Here is the output for Hive v0.8.X and v0.9.X:
$ bin/hive --help
Usage ./hive  --service serviceName 
Service List: cli help hiveserver hwi jar lineage metastore rcfilecat
Parameters parsed:
--auxpath : Auxiliary jars
--config : Hive configuration directory
--service : Starts specific service/component. cli is default
Parameters used:
HADOOP_HOME : Hadoop install directory
HIVE_OPT : Hive options

The Hive Command | 29

For help on a particular service:
./hive --service serviceName --help
Debug help: ./hive --debug --help

Note the Service List. There are several services available, including the CLI that we
will spend most of our time using. You can invoke a service using the --service name
option, although there are shorthand invocations for some of the services, as well.
Table 2-2 describes the most useful services.
Table 2-2. Hive services




Command-line interface

Used to define tables, run queries, etc. It is the default service
if no other service is specified. See “The Command-Line Interface” on page 30.


Hive Server

A daemon that listens for Thrift connections from other processes. See Chapter 16 for more details.


Hive Web Interface

A simple web interface for running queries and other commands without logging into a cluster machine and using the


An extension of the hadoop jar command for running an
application that also requires the Hive environment.


Start an external Hive metastore service to support multiple
clients (see also “Metastore Using JDBC” on page 28).


A tool for printing the contents of an RCFile (see
“RCFile” on page 202).

The --auxpath option lets you specify a colon-separated list of “auxiliary” Java archive
(JAR) files that contain custom extensions, etc., that you might require.
The --config directory is mostly useful if you have to override the default configuration
properties in $HIVE_HOME/conf in a new directory.

The Command-Line Interface
The command-line interface or CLI is the most common way to interact with Hive.
Using the CLI, you can create tables, inspect schema and query tables, etc.

30 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

CLI Options
The following command shows a brief list of the options for the CLI. Here we show
the output for Hive v0.8.X and v0.9.X:
$ hive --help --service cli
usage: hive

Variable substitution to apply to hive
commands. e.g. -d A=B or --define A=B
SQL from command line
SQL from files
Print help information
connecting to Hive Server on remote host
Use value for given property
Variable substitution to apply to hive
commands. e.g. --hivevar A=B
Initialization SQL file
connecting to Hive Server on port number
Silent mode in interactive shell
Verbose mode (echo executed SQL to the

A shorter version of this command is hive -h. However, that’s technically an unsupported option, but it produces the help output with an additional line that complains
about Missing argument for option: h.
For Hive v0.7.X, the -d, --hivevar, and -p options are not supported.
Let’s explore these options in more detail.

Variables and Properties
The --define key=value option is effectively equivalent to the --hivevar key=value
option. Both let you define on the command line custom variables that you can reference in Hive scripts to customize execution. This feature is only supported in Hive
v0.8.0 and later versions.
When you use this feature, Hive puts the key-value pair in the hivevar “namespace” to
distinguish these definitions from three other built-in namespaces, hiveconf, system,
and env.
The terms variable or property are used in different contexts, but they
function the same way in most cases.

The namespace options are described in Table 2-3.

The Command-Line Interface | 31

Table 2-3. Hive namespaces for variables and properties





(v0.8.0 and later) User-defined custom variables.



Hive-specific configuration properties.



Configuration properties defined by Java.


Read only

Environment variables defined by the shell environment (e.g.,

Hive’s variables are internally stored as Java Strings. You can reference variables in
queries; Hive replaces the reference with the variable’s value before sending the query
to the query processor.
Inside the CLI, variables are displayed and changed using the SET command. For example, the following session shows the value for one variable, in the env namespace,
and then all variable definitions! Here is a Hive session where some output has been
omitted and we have added a blank line after the output of each command for clarity:
$ hive
hive> set env:HOME;
hive> set;
... lots of output including these variables:
hive> set -v;
... even more output!...

Without the -v flag, set prints all the variables in the namespaces hivevar, hiveconf,
system, and env. With the -v option, it also prints all the properties defined by Hadoop,
such as properties controlling HDFS and MapReduce.
The set command is also used to set new values for variables. Let’s look specifically at
the hivevar namespace and a variable that is defined for it on the command line:
$ hive --define foo=bar
hive> set foo;
hive> set hivevar:foo;
hive> set hivevar:foo=bar2;
hive> set foo;

32 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

hive> set hivevar:foo;

As we can see, the hivevar: prefix is optional. The --hivevar flag is the same as the
--define flag.
Variable references in queries are replaced in the CLI before the query is sent to the
query processor. Consider the following hive CLI session (v0.8.X only):
hive> create table toss1(i int, ${hivevar:foo} string);
hive> describe toss1;
hive> create table toss2(i2 int, ${foo} string);
hive> describe toss2;
hive> drop table toss1;
hive> drop table toss2;

Let’s look at the --hiveconf option, which is supported in Hive v0.7.X. It is used for
all properties that configure Hive behavior. We’ll use it with a property
hive.cli.print.current.db that was added in Hive v0.8.0. It turns on printing of the
current working database name in the CLI prompt. (See “Databases in
Hive” on page 49 for more on Hive databases.) The default database is named
default. This property is false by default:
$ hive --hiveconf hive.cli.print.current.db=true
hive (default)> set hive.cli.print.current.db;
hive (default)> set hiveconf:hive.cli.print.current.db;
hive (default)> set hiveconf:hive.cli.print.current.db=false;
hive> set hiveconf:hive.cli.print.current.db=true;
hive (default)> ...

We can even add new hiveconf entries, which is the only supported option for Hive
versions earlier than v0.8.0:
$ hive --hiveconf y=5
hive> set y;
hive> CREATE TABLE whatsit(i int);
hive> ... load data into whatsit ...

The Command-Line Interface | 33

hive> SELECT * FROM whatsit WHERE i = ${hiveconf:y};

It’s also useful to know about the system namespace, which provides read-write access
to Java system properties, and the env namespace, which provides read-only access to
environment variables:
hive> set;
hive> set;
hive> set;
hive> set env:HOME;
hive> set env:HOME;
env:* variables can not be set.

Unlike hivevar variables, you have to use the system: or env: prefix with system properties and environment variables.
The env namespace is useful as an alternative way to pass variable definitions to Hive,
especially for Hive v0.7.X. Consider the following example:
$ YEAR=2012 hive -e "SELECT * FROM mytable WHERE year = ${env:YEAR}";

The query processor will see the literal number 2012 in the WHERE clause.
If you are using Hive v0.7.X, some of the examples in this book that use
parameters and variables may not work as written. If so, replace the
variable reference with the corresponding value.

All of Hive’s built-in properties are listed in $HIVE_HOME/conf/hivedefault.xml.template, the “sample” configuration file. It also shows the
default values for each property.

Hive “One Shot” Commands
The user may wish to run one or more queries (semicolon separated) and then have
the hive CLI exit immediately after completion. The CLI accepts a -e command argument
that enables this feature. If mytable has a string and integer column, we might see the
following output:
$ hive -e "SELECT * FROM mytable LIMIT 3";
name1 10
name2 20
name3 30

34 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

Time taken: 4.955 seconds

A quick and dirty technique is to use this feature to output the query results to a file.
Adding the -S for silent mode removes the OK and Time taken ... lines, as well as other
inessential output, as in this example:
$ hive -S -e "select * FROM mytable LIMIT 3" > /tmp/myquery
$ cat /tmp/myquery
name1 10
name2 20
name3 30

Note that hive wrote the output to the standard output and the shell command redirected that output to the local filesystem, not to HDFS.
Finally, here is a useful trick for finding a property name that you can’t quite remember,
without having to scroll through the list of the set output. Suppose you can’t remember
the name of the property that specifies the “warehouse” location for managed tables:
$ hive -S -e "set" | grep warehouse

It’s the first one.

Executing Hive Queries from Files
Hive can execute one or more queries that were saved to a file using the -f file argument. By convention, saved Hive query files use the .q or .hql extension.
$ hive -f /path/to/file/withqueries.hql

If you are already inside the Hive shell you can use the SOURCE command to execute a
script file. Here is an example:
$ cat /path/to/file/withqueries.hql
SELECT x.* FROM src x;
$ hive
hive> source /path/to/file/withqueries.hql;

By the way, we’ll occasionally use the name src (“source”) for tables in queries when
the name of the table is irrelevant for the example. This convention is taken from the
unit tests in Hive’s source code; first create a src table before all tests.
For example, when experimenting with a built-in function, it’s convenient to write a
“query” that passes literal arguments to the function, as in the following example taken
from later in the book, “XPath-Related Functions” on page 207:
hive> SELECT xpath(\'b1b2\',\'//@id\')
> FROM src LIMIT 1;

The Command-Line Interface | 35

The details for xpath don’t concern us here, but note that we pass string literals to the
xpath function and use FROM src LIMIT 1 to specify the required FROM clause and to limit
the output. Substitute src with the name of a table you have already created or create
a dummy table named src:

Also the source table must have at least one row of content in it:
$ echo "one row" > /tmp/myfile
$ hive -e "LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '/tmp/myfile' INTO TABLE src;

The .hiverc File
The last CLI option we’ll discuss is the -i file option, which lets you specify a file of
commands for the CLI to run as it starts, before showing you the prompt. Hive automatically looks for a file named .hiverc in your HOME directory and runs the commands
it contains, if any.
These files are convenient for commands that you run frequently, such as setting
system properties (see “Variables and Properties” on page 31) or adding Java archives
(JAR files) of custom Hive extensions to Hadoop’s distributed cache (as discussed in
Chapter 15).
The following shows an example of a typical $HOME/.hiverc file:
ADD JAR /path/to/custom_hive_extensions.jar;
set hive.cli.print.current.db=true;

The first line adds a JAR file to the Hadoop distributed cache. The second line modifies
the CLI prompt to show the current working Hive database, as we described earlier in
“Variables and Properties” on page 31. The last line “encourages” Hive to be more
aggressive about using local-mode execution when possible, even when Hadoop is
running in distributed or pseudo-distributed mode, which speeds up queries for small
data sets.
An easy mistake to make is to forget the semicolon at the end of lines
like this. When you make this mistake, the definition of the property
will include all the text from all the subsequent lines in the file until the
next semicolon.

More on Using the Hive CLI
The CLI supports a number of other useful features.

36 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

If you start typing and hit the Tab key, the CLI will autocomplete possible keywords
and function names. For example, if you type SELE and then the Tab key, the CLI will
complete the word SELECT.
If you type the Tab key at the prompt, you’ll get this reply:
Display all 407 possibilities? (y or n)

If you enter y, you’ll get a long list of all the keywords and built-in functions.
A common source of error and confusion when pasting statements into
the CLI occurs where some lines begin with a tab. You’ll get the prompt
about displaying all possibilities, and subsequent characters in the
stream will get misinterpreted as answers to the prompt, causing the
command to fail.

Command History
You can use the up and down arrow keys to scroll through previous commands. Actually, each previous line of input is shown separately; the CLI does not combine multiline commands and queries into a single history entry. Hive saves the last 100,00 lines
into a file $HOME/.hivehistory.
If you want to repeat a previous command, scroll to it and hit Enter. If you want to edit
the line before entering it, use the left and right arrow keys to navigate to the point
where changes are required and edit the line. You can hit Return to submit it without
returning to the end of the line.
Most navigation keystrokes using the Control key work as they do for
the bash shell (e.g., Control-A goes to the beginning of the line and
Control-E goes to the end of the line). However, similar “meta,” Option,
or Escape keys don’t work (e.g., Option-F to move forward a word at a
time). Similarly, the Delete key will delete the character to the left of the
cursor, but the Forward Delete key doesn’t delete the character under
the cursor.

Shell Execution
You don’t need to leave the hive CLI to run simple bash shell commands. Simply
type ! followed by the command and terminate the line with a semicolon (;):
hive> ! /bin/echo "what up dog";
"what up dog"
hive> ! pwd;

The Command-Line Interface | 37

Don’t invoke interactive commands that require user input. Shell “pipes” don’t work
and neither do file “globs.” For example, ! ls *.hql; will look for a file named *.hql;,
rather than all files that end with the .hql extension.

Hadoop dfs Commands from Inside Hive
You can run the hadoop dfs ... commands from within the hive CLI; just drop the
hadoop word from the command and add the semicolon at the end:
hive> dfs -ls / ;
Found 3 items
drwxr-xr-x - root supergroup
- edward supergroup
drwxrwxr-x - hadoop supergroup

0 2011-08-17 16:27 /etl
0 2012-01-18 15:51 /flag
0 2010-02-03 17:50 /users

This method of accessing hadoop commands is actually more efficient than using the
hadoop dfs ... equivalent at the bash shell, because the latter starts up a new JVM
instance each time, whereas Hive just runs the same code in its current process.
You can see a full listing of help on the options supported by dfs using this command:
hive> dfs -help;

See also or
similar documentation for your Hadoop distribution.

Comments in Hive Scripts
As of Hive v0.8.0, you can embed lines of comments that start with the string --, for
-- Copyright (c) 2012 Megacorp, LLC.
-- This is the best Hive script evar!!
SELECT * FROM massive_table;

The CLI does not parse these comment lines. If you paste them into the
CLI, you’ll get errors. They only work when used in scripts executed
with hive -f script_name.

Query Column Headers
As a final example that pulls together a few things we’ve learned, let’s tell the CLI to
print column headers, which is disabled by default. We can enable this feature by setting
the hiveconf property hive.cli.print.header to true:

38 | Chapter 2: Getting Started

hive> set hive.cli.print.header=true;
hive> SELECT * FROM system_logs
tstamp severity server message
1335667117.337715 ERROR server1
1335667117.338012 WARN server1
1335667117.339234 WARN server2

Hard drive hd1 is 90% full!
Slow response from server2.
Uh, Dude, I'm kinda busy right now...

If you always prefer seeing the headers, put the first line in your $HOME/.hiverc file.

The Command-Line Interface | 39


Data Types and File Formats

Hive supports many of the primitive data types you find in relational databases, as well
as three collection data types that are rarely found in relational databases, for reasons
we’ll discuss shortly.
A related concern is how these types are represented in text files, as well as alternatives
to text storage that address various performance and other concerns. A unique feature
of Hive, compared to most databases, is that it provides great flexibility in how data is
encoded in files. Most databases take total control of the data, both how it is persisted
to disk and its life cycle. By letting you control all these aspects, Hive makes it easier
to manage and process data with a variety of tools.

Primitive Data Types
Hive supports several sizes of integer and floating-point types, a Boolean type, and
character strings of arbitrary length. Hive v0.8.0 added types for timestamps and binary
Table 3-1 lists the primitive types supported by Hive.
Table 3-1. Primitive data types


Literal syntax examples


1 byte signed integer.



2 byte signed integer.



4 byte signed integer.



8 byte signed integer.



Boolean true or false.



Single precision floating point.



Double precision floating point.





Literal syntax examples


Sequence of characters. The character
set can be specified. Single or double
quotes can be used.

'Now is the time', "for all
good men"

TIMESTAMP (v0.8.0+)

Integer, float, or string.

1327882394 (Unix epoch seconds),
1327882394.123456789 (Unix ep-

och seconds plus nanoseconds), and

12:34:56.123456789' (JDBCcompliant java.sql.Timestamp

BINARY (v0.8.0+)

Array of bytes.

See discussion below

As for other SQL dialects, the case of these names is ignored.
It’s useful to remember that each of these types is implemented in Java, so the particular
behavior details will be exactly what you would expect from the corresponding Java
types. For example, STRING is implemented by the Java String, FLOAT is implemented
by Java float, etc.
Note that Hive does not support “character arrays” (strings) with maximum-allowed
lengths, as is common in other SQL dialects. Relational databases offer this feature as
a performance optimization; fixed-length records are easier to index, scan, etc. In the
“looser” world in which Hive lives, where it may not own the data files and has to be
flexible on file format, Hive relies on the presence of delimiters to separate fields. Also,
Hadoop and Hive emphasize optimizing disk reading and writing performance, where
fixing the lengths of column values is relatively unimportant.
Values of the new TIMESTAMP type can be integers, which are interpreted as seconds since
the Unix epoch time (Midnight, January 1, 1970), floats, which are interpreted as seconds since the epoch time with nanosecond resolution (up to 9 decimal places), and
strings, which are interpreted according to the JDBC date string format convention,
YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss.fffffffff.
TIMESTAMPS are interpreted as UTC times. Built-in functions for conversion to and from
timezones are provided by Hive, to_utc_timestamp and from_utc_timestamp, respec-

tively (see Chapter 13 for more details).
The BINARY type is similar to the VARBINARY type found in many relational databases.
It’s not like a BLOB type, since BINARY columns are stored within the record, not separately like BLOBs. BINARY can be used as a way of including arbitrary bytes in a record
and preventing Hive from attempting to parse them as numbers, strings, etc.
Note that you don’t need BINARY if your goal is to ignore the tail end of each record. If
a table schema specifies three columns and the data files contain five values for each
record, the last two will be ignored by Hive.

42 | Chapter 3: Data Types and File Formats

What if you run a query that wants to compare a float column to a double column or
compare a value of one integer type with a value of a different integer type? Hive will
implicitly cast any integer to the larger of the two integer types, cast FLOAT to DOUBLE,
and cast any integer value to DOUBLE, as needed, so it is comparing identical types.
What if you run a query that wants to interpret a string column as a number? You can
explicitly cast one type to another as in the following example, where s is a string
column that holds a value representing an integer:
... cast(s AS INT) ...;

(To be clear, the AS INT are keywords, so lowercase would be fine.)
We’ll discuss data conversions in more depth in “Casting” on page 109.

Collection Data Types
Hive supports columns that are structs, maps, and arrays. Note that the literal syntax
examples in Table 3-2 are actually calls to built-in functions.
Table 3-2. Collection data types


Literal syntax examples


Analogous to a C struct or an “object.” Fields can be accessed
using the “dot” notation. For example, if a column name is of
type STRUCT {first STRING; last STRING}, then
the first name field can be referenced using name.first.

struct('John', 'Doe')


A collection of key-value tuples, where the fields are accessed
using array notation (e.g., ['key']). For example, if a column
name is of type MAP with key→value pairs
'first'→'John' and 'last'→'Doe', then the last
name can be referenced using name['last'].

map('first', 'John',
'last', 'Doe')


Ordered sequences of the same type that are indexable using
zero-based integers. For example, if a column name is of type
ARRAY of strings with the value ['John', 'Doe'], then
the second element can be referenced using name[1].

array('John', 'Doe')

As for simple types, the case of the type name is ignored.
Most relational databases don’t support such collection types, because using them
tends to break normal form. For example, in traditional data models, structs might be
captured in separate tables, with foreign key relations between the tables, as
A practical problem with breaking normal form is the greater risk of data duplication,
leading to unnecessary disk space consumption and potential data inconsistencies, as
duplicate copies can grow out of sync as changes are made.

Collection Data Types | 43

However, in Big Data systems, a benefit of sacrificing normal form is higher processing
throughput. Scanning data off hard disks with minimal “head seeks” is essential when
processing terabytes to petabytes of data. Embedding collections in records makes retrieval faster with minimal seeks. Navigating each foreign key relationship requires
seeking across the disk, with significant performance overhead.
Hive doesn’t have the concept of keys. However, you can index tables,
as we’ll see in Chapter 7.

Here is a table declaration that demonstrates how to use these types, an employees table
in a fictitious Human Resources application:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

The name is a simple string and for most employees, a float is large enough for the salary.
The list of subordinates is an array of string values, where we treat the name as a “primary
key,” so each element in subordinates would reference another record in the table.
Employees without subordinates would have an empty array. In a traditional model,
the relationship would go the other way, from an employee to his or her manager. We’re
not arguing that our model is better for Hive; it’s just a contrived example to illustrate
the use of arrays.
The deductions is a map that holds a key-value pair for every deduction that will be
subtracted from the employee’s salary when paychecks are produced. The key is the
name of the deduction (e.g., “Federal Taxes”), and the key would either be a percentage
value or an absolute number. In a traditional data model, there might be separate tables
for deduction type (each key in our map), where the rows contain particular deduction
values and a foreign key pointing back to the corresponding employee record.
Finally, the home address of each employee is represented as a struct, where each field
is named and has a particular type.
Note that Java syntax conventions for generics are followed for the collection types. For
example, MAP means that every key in the map will be of type STRING
and every value will be of type FLOAT. For an ARRAY, every item in the array will
be a STRING. STRUCTs can mix different types, but the locations are fixed to the declared
position in the STRUCT.

44 | Chapter 3: Data Types and File Formats

Text File Encoding of Data Values
Let’s begin our exploration of file formats by looking at the simplest example, text files.
You are no doubt familiar with text files delimited with commas or tabs, the so-called
comma-separated values (CSVs) or tab-separated values (TSVs), respectively. Hive can
use those formats if you want and we’ll show you how shortly. However, there is a
drawback to both formats; you have to be careful about commas or tabs embedded in
text and not intended as field or column delimiters. For this reason, Hive uses various
control characters by default, which are less likely to appear in value strings. Hive uses
the term field when overriding the default delimiter, as we’ll see shortly. They are listed
in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3. Hive’s default record and field delimiters



For text files, each line is a record, so the line feed character separates records.

^A (“control” A)

Separates all fields (columns). Written using the octal code \001 when explicitly
specified in CREATE TABLE statements.


Separate the elements in an ARRAY or STRUCT, or the key-value pairs in a MAP.
Written using the octal code \002 when explicitly specified in CREATE TABLE


Separate the key from the corresponding value in MAP key-value pairs. Written using
the octal code \003 when explicitly specified in CREATE TABLE statements.

Records for the employees table declared in the previous section would look like the
following example, where we use ^A, etc., to represent the field delimiters. A text editor
like Emacs will show the delimiters this way. Note that the lines have been wrapped in
the example because they are too long for the printed page. To clearly indicate the
division between records, we have added blank lines between them that would not
appear in the file:
John Doe^A100000.0^AMary Smith^BTodd Jones^AFederal Taxes^C.2^BState
Taxes^C.05^BInsurance^C.1^A1 Michigan Ave.^BChicago^BIL^B60600
Mary Smith^A80000.0^ABill King^AFederal Taxes^C.2^BState
05^BInsurance^C.1^A100 Ontario St.^BChicago^BIL^B60601


Todd Jones^A70000.0^AFederal Taxes^C.15^BState Taxes^C.03^BInsurance^C.
1^A200 Chicago Ave.^BOak Park^BIL^B60700
Bill King^A60000.0^AFederal Taxes^C.15^BState Taxes^C.03^BInsurance^C.
1^A300 Obscure Dr.^BObscuria^BIL^B60100
This is a little hard to read, but you would normally let Hive do that for you, of course.
Let’s walk through the first line to understand the structure. First, here is what it would

Text File Encoding of Data Values | 45

look like in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), where we have also inserted the names
from the table schema:


"name": "John Doe",
"salary": 100000.0,
"subordinates": ["Mary Smith", "Todd Jones"],
"deductions": {
"Federal Taxes": .2,
"State Taxes": .05,
"address": {
"street": "1 Michigan Ave.",
"city": "Chicago",
"state": "IL",

You’ll note that maps and structs are effectively the same thing in JSON.
Now, here’s how the first line of the text file breaks down:

John Doe is the name.
100000.0 is the salary.
Mary Smith^BTodd Jones are the subordinates “Mary Smith” and “Todd Jones.”
Federal Taxes^C.2^BState Taxes^C.05^BInsurance^C.1 are the deductions, where

20% is deducted for “Federal Taxes,” 5% is deducted for “State Taxes,” and 10%
is deducted for “Insurance.”
• 1 Michigan Ave.^BChicago^BIL^B60600 is the address, “1 Michigan Ave., Chicago,
You can override these default delimiters. This might be necessary if another application writes the data using a different convention. Here is the same table declaration
again, this time with all the format defaults explicitly specified:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

46 | Chapter 3: Data Types and File Formats

The ROW FORMAT DELIMITED sequence of keywords must appear before any of the other
clauses, with the exception of the STORED AS … clause.
The character \001 is the octal code for ^A. The clause ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS
TERMINATED BY '\001' means that Hive will use the ^A character to separate fields.
Similarly, the character \002 is the octal code for ^B. The clause ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
COLLECTION ITEMS TERMINATED BY '\002' means that Hive will use the ^B character to
separate collection items.
Finally, the character \003 is the octal code for ^C. The clause ROW FORMAT DELIMITED
MAP KEYS TERMINATED BY '\003' means that Hive will use the ^C character to separate
map keys from values.
The clause LINES TERMINATED BY '…' and STORED AS … do not require the ROW FORMAT
DELIMITED keywords.
Actually, it turns out that Hive does not currently support any character for LINES
TERMINATED BY … other than '\n'. So this clause has limited utility today.
You can override the field, collection, and key-value separators and still use the default
text file format, so the clause STORED AS TEXTFILE is rarely used. For most of this book,
we will use the default TEXTFILE file format.
There are other file format options, but we’ll defer discussing them until Chapter 15.
A related issue is compression of files, which we’ll discuss in Chapter 11.
So, while you can specify all these clauses explicitly, using the default separators most
of the time, you normally only provide the clauses for explicit overrides.
These specifications only affect what Hive expects to see when it reads
files. Except in a few limited cases, it’s up to you to write the data files
in the correct format.

For example, here is a table definition where the data will contain comma-delimited
CREATE TABLE some_data (
first FLOAT,
second FLOAT,
third FLOAT

Use '\t' for tab-delimited fields.

Text File Encoding of Data Values | 47

This example does not properly handle the general case of files in CSV
(comma-separated values) and TSV (tab-separated values) formats. They
can include a header row with column names and column string values
might be quoted and they might contain embedded commas or tabs,
respectively. See Chapter 15 for details on handling these file types more

This powerful customization feature makes it much easier to use Hive with files created
by other tools and various ETL (extract, transform, and load) processes.

Schema on Read
When you write data to a traditional database, either through loading external data,
writing the output of a query, doing UPDATE statements, etc., the database has total
control over the storage. The database is the “gatekeeper.” An important implication
of this control is that the database can enforce the schema as data is written. This is
called schema on write.
Hive has no such control over the underlying storage. There are many ways to create,
modify, and even damage the data that Hive will query. Therefore, Hive can only enforce queries on read. This is called schema on read.
So what if the schema doesn’t match the file contents? Hive does the best that it can to
read the data. You will get lots of null values if there aren’t enough fields in each record
to match the schema. If some fields are numbers and Hive encounters nonnumeric
strings, it will return nulls for those fields. Above all else, Hive tries to recover from all
errors as best it can.

48 | Chapter 3: Data Types and File Formats


HiveQL: Data Definition

HiveQL is the Hive query language. Like all SQL dialects in widespread use, it doesn’t
fully conform to any particular revision of the ANSI SQL standard. It is perhaps closest
to MySQL’s dialect, but with significant differences. Hive offers no support for rowlevel inserts, updates, and deletes. Hive doesn’t support transactions. Hive adds extensions to provide better performance in the context of Hadoop and to integrate with
custom extensions and even external programs.
Still, much of HiveQL will be familiar. This chapter and the ones that follow discuss
the features of HiveQL using representative examples. In some cases, we will briefly
mention details for completeness, then explore them more fully in later chapters.
This chapter starts with the so-called data definition language parts of HiveQL, which
are used for creating, altering, and dropping databases, tables, views, functions, and
indexes. We’ll discuss databases and tables in this chapter, deferring the discussion of
views until Chapter 7, indexes until Chapter 8, and functions until Chapter 13.
We’ll also discuss the SHOW and DESCRIBE commands for listing and describing items as
we go.
Subsequent chapters explore the data manipulation language parts of HiveQL that are
used to put data into Hive tables and to extract data to the filesystem, and how to
explore and manipulate data with queries, grouping, filtering, joining, etc.

Databases in Hive
The Hive concept of a database is essentially just a catalog or namespace of tables.
However, they are very useful for larger clusters with multiple teams and users, as a
way of avoiding table name collisions. It’s also common to use databases to organize
production tables into logical groups.
If you don’t specify a database, the default database is used.
The simplest syntax for creating a database is shown in the following example:


hive> CREATE DATABASE financials;

Hive will throw an error if financials already exists. You can suppress these warnings
with this variation:

While normally you might like to be warned if a database of the same name already
exists, the IF NOT EXISTS clause is useful for scripts that should create a database onthe-fly, if necessary, before proceeding.
You can also use the keyword SCHEMA instead of DATABASE in all the database-related
At any time, you can see the databases that already exist as follows:
hive> CREATE DATABASE human_resources;

If you have a lot of databases, you can restrict the ones listed using a regular expression, a concept we’ll explain in “LIKE and RLIKE” on page 96, if it is new to you. The
following example lists only those databases that start with the letter h and end with
any other characters (the .* part):
hive> ...

Hive will create a directory for each database. Tables in that database will be stored in
subdirectories of the database directory. The exception is tables in the default database,
which doesn’t have its own directory.
The database directory is created under a top-level directory specified by the property
hive.metastore.warehouse.dir, which we discussed in “Local Mode Configuration” on page 24 and “Distributed and Pseudodistributed Mode Configuration” on page 26. Assuming you are using the default value for this property, /user/hive/
warehouse, when the financials database is created, Hive will create the directory /user/
hive/warehouse/financials.db. Note the .db extension.
You can override this default location for the new directory as shown in this example:
hive> CREATE DATABASE financials
> LOCATION '/my/preferred/directory';

You can add a descriptive comment to the database, which will be shown by the

50 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

hive> CREATE DATABASE financials
> COMMENT 'Holds all financial tables';
hive> DESCRIBE DATABASE financials;
financials Holds all financial tables

Note that DESCRIBE DATABASE also shows the directory location for the database. In this
example, the URI scheme is hdfs. For a MapR installation, it would be maprfs. For an
Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) cluster, it would also be hdfs, but you could set
hive.metastore.warehouse.dir to use Amazon S3 explicitly (i.e., by specifying s3n://
bucketname/… as the property value). You could use s3 as the scheme, but the newer
s3n is preferred.
In the output of DESCRIBE DATABASE, we’re showing master-server to indicate the URI
authority, in this case a DNS name and optional port number (i.e., server:port) for the
“master node” of the filesystem (i.e., where the NameNode service is running for
HDFS). If you are running in pseudo-distributed mode, then the master server will be
localhost. For local mode, the path will be a local path, file:///user/hive/warehouse/
If the authority is omitted, Hive uses the master-server name and port defined by
the property in the Hadoop configuration files, found in the
$HADOOP_HOME/conf directory.
To be clear, hdfs:///user/hive/warehouse/financials.db is equivalent to hdfs://masterserver/user/hive/warehouse/financials.db, where master-server is your master node’s
DNS name and optional port.
For completeness, when you specify a relative path (e.g., some/relative/path), Hive will
put this under your home directory in the distributed filesystem (e.g., hdfs:///user/) for HDFS. However, if you are running in local mode, your current working
directory is used as the parent of some/relative/path.
For script portability, it’s typical to omit the authority, only specifying it when referring
to another distributed filesystem instance (including S3 buckets).
Lastly, you can associate key-value properties with the database, although their only
function currently is to provide a way of adding information to the output of DESCRIBE
hive> CREATE DATABASE financials
> WITH DBPROPERTIES ('creator' = 'Mark Moneybags', 'date' = '2012-01-02');
hive> DESCRIBE DATABASE financials;
financials hdfs://master-server/user/hive/warehouse/financials.db
financials hdfs://master-server/user/hive/warehouse/financials.db
{date=2012-01-02, creator=Mark Moneybags);

Databases in Hive | 51

The USE command sets a database as your working database, analogous to changing
working directories in a filesystem:
hive> USE financials;

Now, commands such as SHOW TABLES; will list the tables in this database.
Unfortunately, there is no command to show you which database is your current
working database! Fortunately, it’s always safe to repeat the USE … command; there is
no concept in Hive of nesting of databases.
Recall that we pointed out a useful trick in “Variables and Properties” on page 31 for
setting a property to print the current database as part of the prompt (Hive v0.8.0 and
hive> set hive.cli.print.current.db=true;
hive (financials)> USE default;
hive (default)> set hive.cli.print.current.db=false;
hive> ...

Finally, you can drop a database:
hive> DROP DATABASE IF EXISTS financials;

The IF EXISTS is optional and suppresses warnings if financials doesn’t exist.
By default, Hive won’t permit you to drop a database if it contains tables. You can either
drop the tables first or append the CASCADE keyword to the command, which will cause
the Hive to drop the tables in the database first:

Using the RESTRICT keyword instead of CASCADE is equivalent to the default behavior,
where existing tables must be dropped before dropping the database.
When a database is dropped, its directory is also deleted.

Alter Database
You can set key-value pairs in the DBPROPERTIES associated with a database using the
ALTER DATABASE command. No other metadata about the database can be changed,
including its name and directory location:
hive> ALTER DATABASE financials SET DBPROPERTIES ('edited-by' = 'Joe Dba');

There is no way to delete or “unset” a DBPROPERTY.

52 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

Creating Tables
The CREATE TABLE statement follows SQL conventions, but Hive’s version offers significant extensions to support a wide range of flexibility where the data files for tables
are stored, the formats used, etc. We discussed many of these options in “Text File
Encoding of Data Values” on page 45 and we’ll return to more advanced options later
in Chapter 15. In this section, we describe the other options available for the CREATE
TABLE statement, adapting the employees table declaration we used previously in “Collection Data Types” on page 43:
STRING COMMENT 'Employee name',
FLOAT COMMENT 'Employee salary',
subordinates ARRAY COMMENT 'Names of subordinates',
deductions MAP
COMMENT 'Keys are deductions names, values are percentages',
COMMENT 'Home address')
COMMENT 'Description of the table'
TBLPROPERTIES ('creator'='me', 'created_at'='2012-01-02 10:00:00', ...)
LOCATION '/user/hive/warehouse/mydb.db/employees';

First, note that you can prefix a database name, mydb in this case, if you’re not currently
working in the target database.
If you add the option IF NOT EXISTS, Hive will silently ignore the statement if the table
already exists. This is useful in scripts that should create a table the first time they run.
However, the clause has a gotcha you should know. If the schema specified differs from
the schema in the table that already exists, Hive won’t warn you. If your intention is
for this table to have the new schema, you’ll have to drop the old table, losing your
data, and then re-create it. Consider if you should use one or more ALTER TABLE statements to change the existing table schema instead. See “Alter Table” on page 66 for
If you use IF NOT EXISTS and the existing table has a different schema
than the schema in the CREATE TABLE statement, Hive will ignore the

You can add a comment to any column, after the type. Like databases, you can attach
a comment to the table itself and you can define one or more table properties. In most
cases, the primary benefit of TBLPROPERTIES is to add additional documentation in a
key-value format. However, when we examine Hive’s integration with databases such
as DynamoDB (see “DynamoDB” on page 225), we’ll see that the TBLPROPERTIES can
be used to express essential metadata about the database connection.

Creating Tables | 53

Hive automatically adds two table properties: last_modified_by holds the username of
the last user to modify the table, and last_modified_time holds the epoch time in seconds of that modification.
A planned enhancement for Hive v0.10.0 is to add a SHOW TBLPROPERTIES
table_name command that will list just the TBLPROPERTIES for a table.

Finally, you can optionally specify a location for the table data (as opposed to metadata, which the metastore will always hold). In this example, we are showing the default
location that Hive would use, /user/hive/warehouse/mydb.db/employees, where /user/
hive/warehouse is the default “warehouse” location (as discussed previously),
mydb.db is the database directory, and employees is the table directory.
By default, Hive always creates the table’s directory under the directory for the enclosing database. The exception is the default database. It doesn’t have a directory under /user/hive/warehouse, so a table in the default database will have its directory created
directly in /user/hive/warehouse (unless explicitly overridden).
To avoid potential confusion, it’s usually better to use an external table
if you don’t want to use the default location table. See “External
Tables” on page 56 for details.

You can also copy the schema (but not the data) of an existing table:
LIKE mydb.employees;

This version also accepts the optional LOCATION clause, but note that no other properties,
including the schema, can be defined; they are determined from the original table.
The SHOW TABLES command lists the tables. With no additional arguments, it shows the
tables in the current working database. Let’s assume we have already created a few
other tables, table1 and table2, and we did so in the mydb database:
hive> USE mydb;

If we aren’t in the same database, we can still list the tables in that database:
hive> USE default;
hive> SHOW TABLES IN mydb;

54 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition


If we have a lot of tables, we can limit the ones listed using a regular expression, a
concept we’ll discuss in detail in “LIKE and RLIKE” on page 96:
hive> USE mydb;
hive> SHOW TABLES 'empl.*';

Not all regular expression features are supported. If you know regular expressions, it’s
better to test a candidate regular expression to make sure it actually works!
The regular expression in the single quote looks for all tables with names starting with
empl and ending with any other characters (the .* part).
Using the IN database_name clause and a regular expression for the table
names together is not supported.

We can also use the DESCRIBE EXTENDED mydb.employees command to show details about
the table. (We can drop the mydb. prefix if we’re currently using the mydb database.) We
have reformatted the output for easier reading and we have suppressed many details
to focus on the items that interest us now:
hive> DESCRIBE EXTENDED mydb.employees;
string Employee name
salary float Employee salary
array Names of subordinates
map Keys are deductions names, values are percentages
address struct Home address
Detailed Table Information
Table(tableName:employees, dbName:mydb, owner:me,
parameters:{creator=me, created_at='2012-01-02 10:00:00',
last_modified_user=me, last_modified_time=1337544510,
comment:Description of the table, ...}, ...)

Replacing EXTENDED with FORMATTED provides more readable but also more verbose
The first section shows the output of DESCRIBE without EXTENDED or FORMATTED (i.e., the
schema including the comments for each column).
If you only want to see the schema for a particular column, append the column to the
table name. Here, EXTENDED adds no additional output:
hive> DESCRIBE mydb.employees.salary;
salary float Employee salary

Creating Tables | 55

Download from Wow! eBook 

Returning to the extended output, note the line in the description that starts with
location:. It shows the full URI path in HDFS to the directory where Hive will keep
all the data for this table, as we discussed above.
We said that the last_modified_by and last_modified_time table properties are automatically created. However, they are only shown in the
Detailed Table Information if a user-specified table property has also
been defined!

Managed Tables
The tables we have created so far are called managed tables or sometimes called internal tables, because Hive controls the lifecycle of their data (more or less). As we’ve seen,
Hive stores the data for these tables in a subdirectory under the directory defined by
hive.metastore.warehouse.dir (e.g., /user/hive/warehouse), by default.
When we drop a managed table (see “Dropping Tables” on page 66), Hive deletes
the data in the table.
However, managed tables are less convenient for sharing with other tools. For example,
suppose we have data that is created and used primarily by Pig or other tools, but we
want to run some queries against it, but not give Hive ownership of the data. We can
define an external table that points to that data, but doesn’t take ownership of it.

External Tables
Suppose we are analyzing data from the stock markets. Periodically, we ingest the data
for NASDAQ and the NYSE from a source like Infochimps (
tasets) and we want to study this data with many tools. (See the data sets named
infochimps_dataset_4777_download_16185 and infochimps_dataset_4778_download_
16677, respectively, which are actually sourced from Yahoo! Finance.) The schema we’ll
use next matches the schemas of both these data sources. Let’s assume the data files
are in the distributed filesystem directory /data/stocks.
The following table declaration creates an external table that can read all the data files
for this comma-delimited data in /data/stocks:
price_adj_close FLOAT)
LOCATION '/data/stocks';

56 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

The EXTERNAL keyword tells Hive this table is external and the LOCATION … clause is
required to tell Hive where it’s located.
Because it’s external, Hive does not assume it owns the data. Therefore, dropping the
table does not delete the data, although the metadata for the table will be deleted.
There are a few other small differences between managed and external tables, where
some HiveQL constructs are not permitted for external tables. We’ll discuss those when
we come to them.
However, it’s important to note that the differences between managed and external
tables are smaller than they appear at first. Even for managed tables, you know where
they are located, so you can use other tools, hadoop dfs commands, etc., to modify and
even delete the files in the directories for managed tables. Hive may technically own
these directories and files, but it doesn’t have full control over them! Recall, in “Schema
on Read” on page 48, we said that Hive really has no control over the integrity of the
files used for storage and whether or not their contents are consistent with the table
schema. Even managed tables don’t give us this control.
Still, a general principle of good software design is to express intent. If the data is shared
between tools, then creating an external table makes this ownership explicit.
You can tell whether or not a table is managed or external using the output of DESCRIBE
EXTENDED tablename. Near the end of the Detailed Table Information output, you will
see the following for managed tables:
... tableType:MANAGED_TABLE)

For external tables, you will see the following:
... tableType:EXTERNAL_TABLE)

As for managed tables, you can also copy the schema (but not the data) of an existing
LIKE mydb.employees
LOCATION '/path/to/data';

If you omit the EXTERNAL keyword and the original table is external, the
new table will also be external. If you omit EXTERNAL and the original
table is managed, the new table will also be managed. However, if you
include the EXTERNAL keyword and the original table is managed, the new
table will be external. Even in this scenario, the LOCATION clause will
still be optional.

Creating Tables | 57

Partitioned, Managed Tables
The general notion of partitioning data is an old one. It can take many forms, but often
it’s used for distributing load horizontally, moving data physically closer to its most
frequent users, and other purposes.
Hive has the notion of partitioned tables. We’ll see that they have important
performance benefits, and they can help organize data in a logical fashion, such as
We’ll discuss partitioned managed tables first. Let’s return to our employees table and
imagine that we work for a very large multinational corporation. Our HR people often
run queries with WHERE clauses that restrict the results to a particular country or to a
particular first-level subdivision (e.g., state in the United States or province in Canada).
(First-level subdivision is an actual term, used here, for example: http://www.common We’ll just use the word state for simplicity. We have
redundant state information in the address field. It is distinct from the state partition.
We could remove the state element from address. There is no ambiguity in queries,
since we have to use address.state to project the value inside the address. So, let’s
partition the data first by country and then by state:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

Partitioning tables changes how Hive structures the data storage. If we create this table
in the mydb database, there will still be an employees directory for the table:

However, Hive will now create subdirectories reflecting the partitioning structure. For

Yes, those are the actual directory names. The state directories will contain zero or more
files for the employees in those states.

58 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

Once created, the partition keys (country and state, in this case) behave like regular
columns. There is one known exception, due to a bug (see “Aggregate functions” on page 85). In fact, users of the table don’t need to care if these “columns”
are partitions or not, except when they want to optimize query performance.
For example, the following query selects all employees in the state of Illinois in the
United States:
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE country = 'US' AND state = 'IL';

Note that because the country and state values are encoded in directory names, there
is no reason to have this data in the data files themselves. In fact, the data just gets in
the way in the files, since you have to account for it in the table schema, and this data
wastes space.
Perhaps the most important reason to partition data is for faster queries. In the previous
query, which limits the results to employees in Illinois, it is only necessary to scan the
contents of one directory. Even if we have thousands of country and state directories,
all but one can be ignored. For very large data sets, partitioning can dramatically improve query performance, but only if the partitioning scheme reflects common range
filtering (e.g., by locations, timestamp ranges).
When we add predicates to WHERE clauses that filter on partition values, these predicates
are called partition filters.
Even if you do a query across the entire US, Hive only reads the 65 directories covering
the 50 states, 9 territories, and the District of Columbia, and 6 military “states” used
by the armed services. You can see the full list here:
Of course, if you need to do a query for all employees around the globe, you can still
do it. Hive will have to read every directory, but hopefully these broader disk scans will
be relatively rare.
However, a query across all partitions could trigger an enormous MapReduce job if the
table data and number of partitions are large. A highly suggested safety measure is
putting Hive into “strict” mode, which prohibits queries of partitioned tables without
a WHERE clause that filters on partitions. You can set the mode to “nonstrict,” as in the
following session:
hive> set hive.mapred.mode=strict;
hive> SELECT, e.salary FROM employees e LIMIT 100;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: No partition predicate found for
Alias "e" Table "employees"
hive> set hive.mapred.mode=nonstrict;
hive> SELECT, e.salary FROM employees e LIMIT 100;

Partitioned, Managed Tables | 59

John Doe


You can see the partitions that exist with the SHOW PARTITIONS command:
hive> SHOW PARTITIONS employees;

If you have a lot of partitions and you want to see if partitions have been defined for
particular partition keys, you can further restrict the command with an optional PARTI
TION clause that specifies one or more of the partitions with specific values:
hive> SHOW PARTITIONS employees PARTITION(country='US');
hive> SHOW PARTITIONS employees PARTITION(country='US', state='AK');

The DESCRIBE EXTENDED employees command shows the partition keys:
hive> DESCRIBE EXTENDED employees;
Detailed Table Information...
partitionKeys:[FieldSchema(name:country, type:string, comment:null),
FieldSchema(name:state, type:string, comment:null)],

The schema part of the output lists the country and state with the other columns,
because they are columns as far as queries are concerned. The Detailed Table Infor
mation includes the country and state as partition keys. The comments for both of these
keys are null; we could have added comments just as for regular columns.
You create partitions in managed tables by loading data into them. The following example creates a US and CA (California) partition while loading data into it from a local
directory, $HOME/california-employees. You must specify a value for each partition
column. Notice how we reference the HOME environment variable in HiveQL:
LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/california-employees'
INTO TABLE employees
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'CA');

60 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

The directory for this partition, …/employees/country=US/state=CA, will be created by
Hive and all data files in $HOME/california-employees will be copied into it. See
“Loading Data into Managed Tables” on page 71 for more information on populating

External Partitioned Tables
You can use partitioning with external tables. In fact, you may find that this is your
most common scenario for managing large production data sets. The combination gives you a way to “share” data with other tools, while still optimizing query
You also have more flexibility in the directory structure used, as you define it yourself.
We’ll see a particularly useful example in a moment.
Let’s consider a new example that fits this scenario well: logfile analysis. Most organizations use a standard format for log messages, recording a timestamp, severity (e.g.,
ERROR, WARNING, INFO), perhaps a server name and process ID, and then an arbitrary text
message. Suppose our Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL) process ingests and aggregates logfiles in our environment, converting each log message to a tab-delimited record
and also decomposing the timestamp into separate year, month, and day fields, and a
combined hms field for the remaining hour, minute, and second parts of the timestamp,
for reasons that will become clear in a moment. You could do this parsing of log messages using the string parsing functions built into Hive or Pig, for example. Alternatively, we could use smaller integer types for some of the timestamp-related fields to
conserve space. Here, we are ignoring subsequent resolution.
Here’s how we might define the corresponding Hive table:
PARTITIONED BY (year INT, month INT, day INT)

We’re assuming that a day’s worth of log data is about the correct size for a useful
partition and finer grain queries over a day’s data will be fast enough.
Recall that when we created the nonpartitioned external stocks table, a LOCATION …
clause was required. It isn’t used for external partitioned tables. Instead, an ALTER
TABLE statement is used to add each partition separately. It must specify a value for each
partition key, the year, month, and day, in this case (see “Alter Table” on page 66 for
more details on this feature). Here is an example, where we add a partition for January
2nd, 2012:
ALTER TABLE log_messages ADD PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 2)
LOCATION 'hdfs://master_server/data/log_messages/2012/01/02';

Partitioned, Managed Tables | 61

The directory convention we use is completely up to us. Here, we follow a hierarchical
directory structure, because it’s a logical way to organize our data, but there is no
requirement to do so. We could follow Hive’s directory naming convention (e.g., …/
exchange=NASDAQ/symbol=AAPL), but there is no requirement to do so.
An interesting benefit of this flexibility is that we can archive old data on inexpensive
storage, like Amazon’s S3, while keeping newer, more “interesting” data in HDFS. For
example, each day we might use the following procedure to move data older than a
month to S3:
• Copy the data for the partition being moved to S3. For example, you can use the
hadoop distcp command:
hadoop distcp /data/log_messages/2011/12/02 s3n://ourbucket/logs/2011/12/02

• Alter the table to point the partition to the S3 location:
ALTER TABLE log_messages PARTITION(year = 2011, month = 12, day = 2)
SET LOCATION 's3n://ourbucket/logs/2011/01/02';

• Remove the HDFS copy of the partition using the hadoop fs -rmr command:
hadoop fs -rmr /data/log_messages/2011/01/02

You don’t have to be an Amazon Elastic MapReduce user to use S3 this way. S3 support
is part of the Apache Hadoop distribution. You can still query this data, even queries
that cross the month-old “boundary,” where some data is read from HDFS and some
data is read from S3!
By the way, Hive doesn’t care if a partition directory doesn’t exist for a partition or if
it has no files. In both cases, you’ll just get no results for a query that filters for the
partition. This is convenient when you want to set up partitions before a separate process starts writing data to them. As soon as data is there, queries will return results from
that data.
This feature illustrates another benefit: new data can be written to a dedicated directory
with a clear distinction from older data in other directories. Also, whether you move
old data to an “archive” location or delete it outright, the risk of tampering with newer
data is reduced since the data subsets are in separate directories.
As for nonpartitioned external tables, Hive does not own the data and it does not delete
the data if the table is dropped.
As for managed partitioned tables, you can see an external table’s partitions with SHOW
hive> SHOW PARTITIONS log_messages;

62 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

Similarly, the DESCRIBE EXTENDED log_messages shows the partition keys both as part
of the schema and in the list of partitionKeys:
hive> DESCRIBE EXTENDED log_messages;
Detailed Table Information...
partitionKeys:[FieldSchema(name:year, type:int, comment:null),
FieldSchema(name:month, type:int, comment:null),
FieldSchema(name:day, type:int, comment:null)],

This output is missing a useful bit of information, the actual location of the partition
data. There is a location field, but it only shows Hive’s default directory that would be
used if the table were a managed table. However, we can get a partition’s location as
hive> DESCRIBE EXTENDED log_messages PARTITION (year=2012, month=1, day=2);

We frequently use external partitioned tables because of the many benefits they provide, such as logical data management, performant queries, etc.
ALTER TABLE … ADD PARTITION is not limited to external tables. You can use it with

managed tables, too, when you have (or will have) data for partitions in directories
created outside of the LOAD and INSERT options we discussed above. You’ll need to
remember that not all of the table’s data will be under the usual Hive “warehouse”
directory, and this data won’t be deleted when you drop the managed table! Hence,
from a “sanity” perspective, it’s questionable whether you should dare to use this feature with managed tables.

Customizing Table Storage Formats
In “Text File Encoding of Data Values” on page 45, we discussed that Hive defaults to
a text file format, which is indicated by the optional clause STORED AS TEXTFILE, and
you can overload the default values for the various delimiters when creating the table.
Here we repeat the definition of the employees table we used in that discussion:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

Partitioned, Managed Tables | 63


TEXTFILE implies that all fields are encoded using alphanumeric characters, including

those from international character sets, although we observed that Hive uses nonprinting characters as “terminators” (delimiters), by default. When TEXTFILE is used,
each line is considered a separate record.
You can replace TEXTFILE with one of the other built-in file formats supported by Hive,
including SEQUENCEFILE and RCFILE, both of which optimize disk space usage and I/O
bandwidth performance using binary encoding and optional compression. These formats are discussed in more detail in Chapter 11 and Chapter 15.
Hive draws a distinction between how records are encoded into files and how columns
are encoded into records. You customize these behaviors separately.
The record encoding is handled by an input format object (e.g., the Java code behind
TEXTFILE.) Hive uses a Java class (compiled module) named org.apache
.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat. If you are unfamiliar with Java, the dotted name syntax indicates a hierarchical namespace tree of packages that actually corresponds to the
directory structure for the Java code. The last name, TextInputFormat, is a class in the
lowest-level package mapred.
The record parsing is handled by a serializer/deserializer or SerDe for short. For TEXT
FILE and the encoding we described in Chapter 3 and repeated in the example above,
the SerDe Hive uses is another Java class called org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.lazy.
For completeness, there is also an output format that Hive uses for writing the
output of queries to files and to the console. For TEXTFILE, the Java class
named is used for
Hive uses an input format to split input streams into records, an output
format to format records into output streams (i.e., the output of queries), and a SerDe to parse records into columns, when reading, and
encodes columns into records, when writing. We’ll explore these distinctions in greater depth in Chapter 15.

Third-party input and output formats and SerDes can be specified, a feature which
permits users to customize Hive for a wide range of file formats not supported natively.
Here is a complete example that uses a custom SerDe, input format, and output format
for files accessible through the Avro protocol, which we will discuss in detail in “Avro
Hive SerDe” on page 209:

64 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

PARTITIONED BY (ds string)
ROW FORMAT SERDE 'com.linkedin.haivvreo.AvroSerDe'
WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ('schema.url'='http://schema_provider/kst.avsc')
INPUTFORMAT 'com.linkedin.haivvreo.AvroContainerInputFormat'
OUTPUTFORMAT 'com.linkedin.haivvreo.AvroContainerOutputFormat';

The ROW FORMAT SERDE … specifies the SerDe to use. Hive provides the WITH SERDEPRO
PERTIES feature that allows users to pass configuration information to the SerDe. Hive
knows nothing about the meaning of these properties. It’s up to the SerDe to decide
their meaning. Note that the name and value of each property must be a quoted string.
Finally, the STORED AS INPUTFORMAT … OUTPUTFORMAT … clause specifies the Java classes
to use for the input and output formats, respectively. If you specify one of these formats,
you are required to specify both of them.
Note that the DESCRIBE EXTENDED table command lists the input and output formats,
the SerDe, and any SerDe properties in the DETAILED TABLE INFORMATION. For our example, we would see the following:

Finally, there are a few additional CREATE TABLE clauses that describe more details about
how the data is supposed to be stored. Let’s extend our previous stocks table example
from “External Tables” on page 56:
price_adj_close FLOAT)
CLUSTERED BY (exchange, symbol)
LOCATION '/data/stocks';

The CLUSTERED BY … INTO … BUCKETS clause, with an optional SORTED BY … clause is used
to optimize certain kinds of queries, which we discuss in detail in “Bucketing Table
Data Storage” on page 125.
Partitioned, Managed Tables | 65

Dropping Tables
The familiar DROP TABLE command from SQL is supported:

The IF EXISTS keywords are optional. If not used and the table doesn’t exist, Hive
returns an error.
For managed tables, the table metadata and data are deleted.
Actually, if you enable the Hadoop Trash feature, which is not on by
default, the data is moved to the .Trash directory in the distributed
filesystem for the user, which in HDFS is /user/$USER/.Trash. To enable
this feature, set the property fs.trash.interval to a reasonable positive
number. It’s the number of minutes between “trash checkpoints”; 1,440
would be 24 hours. While it’s not guaranteed to work for all versions of
all distributed filesystems, if you accidentally drop a managed table with
important data, you may be able to re-create the table, re-create any
partitions, and then move the files from .Trash to the correct directories
(using the filesystem commands) to restore the data.

For external tables, the metadata is deleted but the data is not.

Alter Table
Most table properties can be altered with ALTER TABLE statements, which change
metadata about the table but not the data itself. These statements can be used to fix
mistakes in schema, move partition locations (as we saw in “External Partitioned
Tables” on page 61), and do other operations.
ALTER TABLE modifies table metadata only. The data for the table is

untouched. It’s up to you to ensure that any modifications are consistent
with the actual data.

Renaming a Table
Use this statement to rename the table log_messages to logmsgs:
ALTER TABLE log_messages RENAME TO logmsgs;

Adding, Modifying, and Dropping a Table Partition
As we saw previously, ALTER TABLE table ADD PARTITION … is used to add a new partition
to a table (usually an external table). Here we repeat the same command shown previously with the additional options available:

66 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

ALTER TABLE log_messages ADD IF
PARTITION (year = 2011, month =
PARTITION (year = 2011, month =
PARTITION (year = 2011, month =

1, day = 1) LOCATION '/logs/2011/01/01'
1, day = 2) LOCATION '/logs/2011/01/02'
1, day = 3) LOCATION '/logs/2011/01/03'

Multiple partitions can be added in the same query when using Hive v0.8.0 and later.
As always, IF NOT EXISTS is optional and has the usual meaning.
Hive v0.7.X allows you to use the syntax with multiple partition specifications, but it actually uses just the first partition specification, silently
ignoring the others! Instead, use a separate ALTER STATEMENT statement
for each partition.

Similarly, you can change a partition location, effectively moving it:
ALTER TABLE log_messages PARTITION(year = 2011, month = 12, day = 2)
SET LOCATION 's3n://ourbucket/logs/2011/01/02';

This command does not move the data from the old location, nor does it delete the old
Finally, you can drop a partition:
ALTER TABLE log_messages DROP IF EXISTS PARTITION(year = 2011, month = 12, day = 2);

The IF EXISTS clause is optional, as usual. For managed tables, the data for the partition
is deleted, along with the metadata, even if the partition was created using ALTER TABLE
… ADD PARTITION. For external tables, the data is not deleted.
There are a few more ALTER statements that affect partitions discussed later
in “Alter Storage Properties” on page 68 and “Miscellaneous Alter Table Statements” on page 69.

Changing Columns
You can rename a column, change its position, type, or comment:
ALTER TABLE log_messages
CHANGE COLUMN hms hours_minutes_seconds INT
COMMENT 'The hours, minutes, and seconds part of the timestamp'
AFTER severity;

You have to specify the old name, a new name, and the type, even if the name or type
is not changing. The keyword COLUMN is optional as is the COMMENT clause. If you aren’t
moving the column, the AFTER other_column clause is not necessary. In the example
shown, we move the column after the severity column. If you want to move the column
to the first position, use FIRST instead of AFTER other_column.
As always, this command changes metadata only. If you are moving columns, the data
must already match the new schema or you must change it to match by some other
Alter Table | 67

Adding Columns
You can add new columns to the end of the existing columns, before any partition
app_name STRING COMMENT 'Application name',
session_id LONG COMMENT 'The current session id');

The COMMENT clauses are optional, as usual. If any of the new columns are in the wrong
position, use an ALTER COLUMN table CHANGE COLUMN statement for each one to move it
to the correct position.

Deleting or Replacing Columns
The following example removes all the existing columns and replaces them with the
new columns specified:
hours_mins_secs INT
COMMENT 'hour, minute, seconds from timestamp',
STRING COMMENT 'The message severity'
STRING COMMENT 'The rest of the message');

This statement effectively renames the original hms column and removes the server and
process_id columns from the original schema definition. As for all ALTER statements,
only the table metadata is changed.
The REPLACE statement can only be used with tables that use one of the native SerDe
modules: DynamicSerDe or MetadataTypedColumnsetSerDe. Recall that the SerDe determines how records are parsed into columns (deserialization) and how a record’s columns are written to storage (serialization). See Chapter 15 for more details on SerDes.

Alter Table Properties
You can add additional table properties or modify existing properties, but not remove
'notes' = 'The process id is no longer captured; this column is always NULL');

Alter Storage Properties
There are several ALTER TABLE statements for modifying format and SerDe properties.
The following statement changes the storage format for a partition to be SEQUENCE
FILE, as we discussed in “Creating Tables” on page 53 (see “Sequence
Files” on page 148 and Chapter 15 for more information):
ALTER TABLE log_messages
PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1)

68 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition

The PARTITION clause is required if the table is partitioned.
You can specify a new SerDe along with SerDe properties or change the properties for
the existing SerDe. The following example specifies that a table will use a Java class
named com.example.JSONSerDe to process a file of JSON-encoded records:
ALTER TABLE table_using_JSON_storage
SET SERDE 'com.example.JSONSerDe'
'prop1' = 'value1',
'prop2' = 'value2');

The SERDEPROPERTIES are passed to the SerDe module (the Java class com.example.JSON
SerDe, in this case). Note that both the property names (e.g., prop1) and the values (e.g.,
value1) must be quoted strings.
The SERDEPROPERTIES feature is a convenient mechanism that SerDe implementations
can exploit to permit user customization. We’ll see a real-world example of a JSON
SerDe and how it uses SERDEPROPERTIES in “JSON SerDe” on page 208.
The following example demonstrates how to add new SERDEPROPERTIES for the current
ALTER TABLE table_using_JSON_storage
'prop3' = 'value3',
'prop4' = 'value4');

You can alter the storage properties that we discussed in “Creating Tables”
on page 53:
CLUSTERED BY (exchange, symbol)
SORTED BY (symbol)

The SORTED BY clause is optional, but the CLUSTER BY and INTO … BUCKETS are required.
(See also “Bucketing Table Data Storage” on page 125 for information on the use of
data bucketing.)

Miscellaneous Alter Table Statements
In “Execution Hooks” on page 158, we’ll discuss a technique for adding execution
“hooks” for various operations. The ALTER TABLE … TOUCH statement is used to trigger
these hooks:
ALTER TABLE log_messages TOUCH
PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1);

The PARTITION clause is required for partitioned tables. A typical scenario for this statement is to trigger execution of the hooks when table storage files have been modified
outside of Hive. For example, a script that has just written new files for the 2012/01/01
partition for log_message can make the following call to the Hive CLI:
Alter Table | 69

hive -e 'ALTER TABLE log_messages TOUCH PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1);'

This statement won’t create the table or partition if it doesn’t already exist. Use the
appropriate creation commands in that case.
The ALTER TABLE … ARCHIVE PARTITION statement captures the partition files into a Hadoop archive (HAR) file. This only reduces the number of files in the filesystem, reducing the load on the NameNode, but doesn’t provide any space savings (e.g., through
PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1);

To reverse the operation, substitute UNARCHIVE for ARCHIVE. This feature is only available
for individual partitions of partitioned tables.
Finally, various protections are available. The following statements prevent the partition from being dropped and queried:
ALTER TABLE log_messages
PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1) ENABLE NO_DROP;
ALTER TABLE log_messages
PARTITION(year = 2012, month = 1, day = 1) ENABLE OFFLINE;

To reverse either operation, replace ENABLE with DISABLE. These operations also can’t
be used with nonpartitioned tables.

70 | Chapter 4: HiveQL: Data Definition


HiveQL: Data Manipulation

This chapter continues our discussion of HiveQL, the Hive query language, focusing
on the data manipulation language parts that are used to put data into tables and to
extract data from tables to the filesystem.
This chapter uses SELECT ... WHERE clauses extensively when we discuss populating
tables with data queried from other tables. So, why aren’t we covering SELECT ...
WHERE clauses first, instead of waiting until the next chapter, Chapter 6?
Since we just finished discussing how to create tables, we wanted to cover the next
obvious topic: how to get data into these tables so you’ll have something to query! We
assume you already understand the basics of SQL, so these clauses won’t be new to
you. If they are, please refer to Chapter 6 for details.

Loading Data into Managed Tables
Since Hive has no row-level insert, update, and delete operations, the only way to put
data into an table is to use one of the “bulk” load operations. Or you can just write files
in the correct directories by other means.
We saw an example of how to load data into a managed table in “Partitioned, Managed
Tables” on page 58, which we repeat here with an addition, the use of the OVERWRITE
LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/california-employees'
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'CA');

This command will first create the directory for the partition, if it doesn’t already exist,
then copy the data to it.
If the target table is not partitioned, you omit the PARTITION clause.
It is conventional practice to specify a path that is a directory, rather than an individual
file. Hive will copy all the files in the directory, which give you the flexibility of organizing the data into multiple files and changing the file naming convention, without

requiring a change to your Hive scripts. Either way, the files will be copied to the appropriate location for the table and the names will be the same.
If the LOCAL keyword is used, the path is assumed to be in the local filesystem. The data
is copied into the final location. If LOCAL is omitted, the path is assumed to be in the
distributed filesystem. In this case, the data is moved from the path to the final location.
LOAD DATA LOCAL ... copies the local data to the final location in the
distributed filesystem, while LOAD DATA ... (i.e., without LOCAL) moves

the data to the final location.

The rationale for this inconsistency is the assumption that you usually don’t want
duplicate copies of your data files in the distributed filesystem.
Also, because files are moved in this case, Hive requires the source and target files and
directories to be in the same filesystem. For example, you can’t use LOAD DATA to load
(move) data from one HDFS cluster to another.
It is more robust to specify a full path, but relative paths can be used. When running
in local mode, the relative path is interpreted relative to the user’s working directory
when the Hive CLI was started. For distributed or pseudo-distributed mode, the path
is interpreted relative to the user’s home directory in the distributed filesystem, which
is /user/$USER by default in HDFS and MapRFS.
If you specify the OVERWRITE keyword, any data already present in the target directory
will be deleted first. Without the keyword, the new files are simply added to the target
directory. However, if files already exist in the target directory that match filenames
being loaded, the old files are overwritten.
Versions of Hive before v0.9.0 had the following bug: when the OVER
WRITE keyword was not used, an existing data file in the target directory
would be overwritten if its name matched the name of a data file being
written to the directory. Hence, data would be lost. This bug was fixed
in the v0.9.0 release.

The PARTITION clause is required if the table is partitioned and you must specify a value
for each partition key.
In the example, the data will now exist in the following directory:

Another limit on the file path used, the INPATH clause, is that it cannot contain any

72 | Chapter 5: HiveQL: Data Manipulation

Hive does not verify that the data you are loading matches the schema for the table.
However, it will verify that the file format matches the table definition. For example,
if the table was created with SEQUENCEFILE storage, the loaded files must be sequence

Inserting Data into Tables from Queries
The INSERT statement lets you load data into a table from a query. Reusing our employ
ees example from the previous chapter, here is an example for the state of Oregon,
where we presume the data is already in another table called staged_employees. For
reasons we’ll discuss shortly, let’s use different names for the country and state fields
in staged_employees, calling them cnty and st, respectively:
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'OR')
SELECT * FROM staged_employees se
WHERE se.cnty = 'US' AND = 'OR';

With OVERWRITE, any previous contents of the partition (or whole table if not partitioned) are replaced.
If you drop the keyword OVERWRITE or replace it with INTO, Hive appends the data rather
than replaces it. This feature is only available in Hive v0.8.0 or later.
This example suggests one common scenario where this feature is useful: data has been
staged in a directory, exposed to Hive as an external table, and now you want to put it
into the final, partitioned table. A workflow like this is also useful if you want the target
table to have a different record format than the source table (e.g., a different field delimiter).
However, if staged_employees is very large and you run 65 of these statements to cover
all states, then it means you are scanning staged_employees 65 times! Hive offers an
alternative INSERT syntax that allows you to scan the input data once and split it multiple
ways. The following example shows this feature for creating the employees partitions
for three states:
FROM staged_employees se
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'OR')
SELECT * WHERE se.cnty = 'US' AND = 'OR'
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'CA')
SELECT * WHERE se.cnty = 'US' AND = 'CA'
PARTITION (country = 'US', state = 'IL')
SELECT * WHERE se.cnty = 'US' AND = 'IL';

We have used indentation to make it clearer how the clauses group together. Each
record read from staged_employees will be evaluated with each SELECT … WHERE … clause.
Those clauses are evaluated independently; this is not an IF … THEN … ELSE … construct!
Inserting Data into Tables from Queries | 73

In fact, by using this construct, some records from the source table can be written to
multiple partitions of the destination table or none of them.
If a record satisfied a given SELECT … WHERE … clause, it gets written to the specified table
and partition. To be clear, each INSERT clause can insert into a different table, when
desired, and some of those tables could be partitioned while others aren’t.
Hence, some records from the input might get written to multiple output locations and
others might get dropped!
You can mix INSERT OVERWRITE clauses and INSERT INTO clauses, as well.

Dynamic Partition Inserts
There’s still one problem with this syntax: if you have a lot of partitions to create, you
have to write a lot of SQL! Fortunately, Hive also supports a dynamic partition feature,
where it can infer the partitions to create based on query parameters. By comparison,
up until now we have considered only static partitions.
Consider this change to the previous example:
PARTITION (country, state)
SELECT ..., se.cnty,
FROM staged_employees se;

Hive determines the values of the partition keys, country and state, from the last two
columns in the SELECT clause. This is why we used different names in staged_employ
ees, to emphasize that the relationship between the source column values and the output partition values is by position only and not by matching on names.
Suppose that staged_employees has data for a total of 100 country and state pairs. After
running this query, employees will have 100 partitions!
You can also mix dynamic and static partitions. This variation of the previous query
specifies a static value for the country (US) and a dynamic value for the state:
PARTITION (country = 'US', state)
SELECT ..., se.cnty,
FROM staged_employees se
WHERE se.cnty = 'US';

The static partition keys must come before the dynamic partition keys.
Dynamic partitioning is not enabled by default. When it is enabled, it works in “strict”
mode by default, where it expects at least some columns to be static. This helps protect
against a badly designed query that generates a gigantic number of partitions. For example, you partition by timestamp and generate a separate partition for each second!
Perhaps you meant to partition by day or maybe hour instead. Several other properties
are also used to limit excess resource utilization. Table 5-1 describes these properties.

74 | Chapter 5: HiveQL: Data Manipulation

Download from Wow! eBook 

Table 5-1. Dynamic partitions properties





Set to true to enable dynamic partitioning.



Set to nonstrict to enable all partitions to be determined



The maximum number of dynamic partitions that can be created by each mapper or reducer. Raises a fatal error if one
mapper or reducer attempts to create more than the threshold.



The total number of dynamic partitions that can be created by
one statement with dynamic partitioning. Raises a fatal error
if the limit is exceeded.



The maximum total number of files that can be created globally.
A Hadoop counter is used to track the number of files created.
Raises a fatal error if the limit is exceeded.

So, for example, our first example using dynamic partitioning for all partitions might
actually look this, where we set the desired properties just before use:
hive> set hive.exec.dynamic.partition=true;
hive> set hive.exec.dynamic.partition.mode=nonstrict;
hive> set hive.exec.max.dynamic.partitions.pernode=1000;

PARTITION (country, state)
SELECT ..., se.cty,
FROM staged_employees se;

Creating Tables and Loading Them in One Query
You can also create a table and insert query results into it in one statement:
CREATE TABLE ca_employees
AS SELECT name, salary, address
FROM employees
WHERE se.state = 'CA';

This table contains just the name, salary, and address columns from the employee table
records for employees in California. The schema for the new table is taken from the
SELECT clause.
A common use for this feature is to extract a convenient subset of data from a larger,
more unwieldy table.
This feature can’t be used with external tables. Recall that “populating” a partition for
an external table is done with an ALTER TABLE statement, where we aren’t “loading”
data, per se, but pointing metadata to a location where the data can be found.

Creating Tables and Loading Them in One Query | 75

Exporting Data
How do we get data out of tables? If the data files are already formatted the way you
want, then it’s simple enough to copy the directories or files:
hadoop fs -cp source_path target_path

Otherwise, you can use INSERT … DIRECTORY …, as in this example:
SELECT name, salary, address
FROM employees
WHERE se.state = 'CA';

OVERWRITE and LOCAL have the same interpretations as before and paths are interpreted

following the usual rules. One or more files will be written to /tmp/ca_employees,
depending on the number of reducers invoked.
The specified path can also be a full URI (e.g., hdfs://master-server/tmp/ca_employees).
Independent of how the data is actually stored in the source table, it is written to files
with all fields serialized as strings. Hive uses the same encoding in the generated output
files as it uses for the tables internal storage.
As a reminder, we can look at the results from within the hive CLI:
hive> ! ls /tmp/ca_employees;
hive> ! cat /tmp/payroll/000000_0
John Doe100000.0201 San Antonio CircleMountain ViewCA94040
Mary Smith80000.01 Infinity LoopCupertinoCA95014

Yes, the filename is 000000_0. If there were two or more reducers writing output, we
would have additional files with similar names (e.g., 000001_0).
The fields appear to be joined together without delimiters because the ^A and ^B
separators aren’t rendered.
Just like inserting data to tables, you can specify multiple inserts to directories:
FROM staged_employees se
SELECT * WHERE se.cty = 'US' and = 'OR'
SELECT * WHERE se.cty = 'US' and = 'CA'
SELECT * WHERE se.cty = 'US' and = 'IL';

There are some limited options for customizing the output of the data (other than
writing a custom OUTPUTFORMAT, as discussed in “Customizing Table Storage Formats” on page 63). To format columns, the built-in functions include those for
formatting strings, such as converting case, padding output, and more. See “Other
built-in functions” on page 88 for more details.

76 | Chapter 5: HiveQL: Data Manipulation

The field delimiter for the table can be problematic. For example, if it uses the default
^A delimiter. If you export table data frequently, it might be appropriate to use comma
or tab delimiters.
Another workaround is to define a “temporary” table with the storage configured to
match the desired output format (e.g., tab-delimited fields). Then write a query result
to that table and use INSERT OVERWRITE DIRECTORY, selecting from the temporary table.
Unlike many relational databases, there is no temporary table feature in Hive. You have
to manually drop any tables you create that aren’t intended to be permanent.

Exporting Data | 77


HiveQL: Queries

After learning the many ways we can define and format tables, let’s learn how to run
queries. Of course, we have assumed all along that you have some prior knowledge of
SQL. We’ve used some queries already to illustrate several concepts, such as loading
query data into other tables in Chapter 5. Now we’ll fill in most of the details. Some
special topics will be covered in subsequent chapters.
We’ll move quickly through details that are familiar to users with prior SQL experience
and focus on what’s unique to HiveQL, including syntax and feature differences, as
well as performance implications.

SELECT is the projection operator in SQL. The FROM clause identifies from which table,

view, or nested query we select records (see Chapter 7).
For a given record, SELECT specifies the columns to keep, as well as the outputs of
function calls on one or more columns (e.g., the aggregation functions like count(*)).
Recall again our partitioned employees table:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

Let’s assume we have the same contents we showed in “Text File Encoding of Data
Values” on page 45 for four employees in the US state of Illinois (abbreviated IL). Here
are queries of this table and the output they produce:
hive> SELECT name, salary FROM employees;
John Doe
Mary Smith 80000.0


Todd Jones
Bill King


The following two queries are identical. The second version uses a table alias e, which
is not very useful in this query, but becomes necessary in queries with JOINs (see “JOIN
Statements” on page 98) where several different tables are used:
hive> SELECT name, salary FROM employees;
hive> SELECT, e.salary FROM employees e;

When you select columns that are one of the collection types, Hive uses JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) syntax for the output. First, let’s select the subordinates, an
ARRAY, where a comma-separated list surrounded with […] is used. Note that STRING
elements of the collection are quoted, while the primitive STRING name column is not:
hive> SELECT name, subordinates FROM employees;
John Doe
["Mary Smith","Todd Jones"]
Mary Smith ["Bill King"]
Todd Jones []
Bill King []

The deductions is a MAP, where the JSON representation for maps is used, namely a
comma-separated list of key:value pairs, surrounded with {...}:
hive> SELECT name, deductions FROM employees;
John Doe
{"Federal Taxes":0.2,"State Taxes":0.05,"Insurance":0.1}
Mary Smith {"Federal Taxes":0.2,"State Taxes":0.05,"Insurance":0.1}
Todd Jones {"Federal Taxes":0.15,"State Taxes":0.03,"Insurance":0.1}
Bill King {"Federal Taxes":0.15,"State Taxes":0.03,"Insurance":0.1}

Finally, the address is a STRUCT, which is also written using the JSON map format:
hive> SELECT name, address FROM employees;
John Doe
{"street":"1 Michigan Ave.","city":"Chicago","state":"IL","zip":60600}
Mary Smith {"street":"100 Ontario St.","city":"Chicago","state":"IL","zip":60601}
Todd Jones {"street":"200 Chicago Ave.","city":"Oak Park","state":"IL","zip":60700}
Bill King {"street":"300 Obscure Dr.","city":"Obscuria","state":"IL","zip":60100}

Next, let’s see how to reference elements of collections.
First, ARRAY indexing is 0-based, as in Java. Here is a query that selects the first element
of the subordinates array:
hive> SELECT name, subordinates[0] FROM employees;
John Doe
Mary Smith
Mary Smith Bill King
Todd Jones NULL
Bill King NULL

Note that referencing a nonexistent element returns NULL. Also, the extracted STRING
values are no longer quoted!
To reference a MAP element, you also use ARRAY[...] syntax, but with key values instead
of integer indices:
hive> SELECT name, deductions["State Taxes"] FROM employees;
John Doe

80 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

Mary Smith 0.05
Todd Jones 0.03
Bill King 0.03

Finally, to reference an element in a STRUCT, you use “dot” notation, similar to the
table_alias.column mentioned above:
hive> SELECT name, FROM employees;
John Doe
Mary Smith Chicago
Todd Jones Oak Park
Bill King Obscuria

These same referencing techniques are also used in WHERE clauses, which we discuss in
“WHERE Clauses” on page 92.

Specify Columns with Regular Expressions
We can even use regular expressions to select the columns we want. The following query
selects the symbol column and all columns from stocks whose names start with the
prefix price:1
hive> SELECT symbol, `price.*`
195.69 197.88 194.0
192.63 196.0 190.85
196.73 198.37 191.57
195.17 200.2
195.91 196.32 193.38

FROM stocks;
194.12 194.12
195.46 195.46
192.05 192.05
199.23 199.23
195.86 195.86

We’ll talk more about Hive’s use of regular expressions in the section “LIKE and
RLIKE” on page 96.

Computing with Column Values
Not only can you select columns in a table, but you can manipulate column values
using function calls and arithmetic expressions.
For example, let’s select the employees’ names converted to uppercase, their salaries,
federal taxes percentage, and the value that results if we subtract the federal taxes portion from their salaries and round to the nearest integer. We could call a built-in function map_values to extract all the values from the deductions map and then add them
up with the built-in sum function.
The following query is long enough that we’ll split it over two lines. Note the secondary
prompt that Hive uses, an indented greater-than sign (>):
hive> SELECT upper(name), salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"],
> round(salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])) FROM employees;

1. At the time of this writing, the Hive Wiki shows an incorrect syntax for specifying columns using regular

SELECT … FROM Clauses | 81


100000.0 0.2
SMITH 80000.0 0.2
JONES 70000.0 0.15 59500
60000.0 0.15 51000

Let’s discuss arithmetic operators and then discuss the use of functions in expressions.

Arithmetic Operators
All the typical arithmetic operators are supported. Table 6-1 describes the specific
Table 6-1. Arithmetic operators



A + B


Add A and B.

A - B


Subtract B from A.

A * B


Multiply A and B.

A / B


Divide A with B. If the operands are integer types, the quotient of the division
is returned.

A % B


The remainder of dividing A with B.

A & B


Bitwise AND of A and B.

A | B


Bitwise OR of A and B.

A ^ B


Bitwise XOR of A and B.



Bitwise NOT of A.

Arithmetic operators take any numeric type. No type coercion is performed if the two
operands are of the same numeric type. Otherwise, if the types differ, then the value of
the smaller of the two types is promoted to wider type of the other value. (Wider in the
sense that a type with more bytes can hold a wider range of values.) For example, for
INT and BIGINT operands, the INT is promoted to BIGINT. For INT and FLOAT operands,
the INT is promoted to FLOAT. Note that our query contained (1 - deductions[…]). Since
the deductions are FLOATS, the 1 was promoted to FLOAT.
You have to be careful about data overflow or underflow when doing arithmetic. Hive
follows the rules for the underlying Java types, where no attempt is made to automatically convert a result to a wider type if one exists, when overflow or underflow will
occur. Multiplication and division are most likely to trigger this problem.
It pays to be aware of the ranges of your numeric data values, whether or not those
values approach the upper or lower range limits of the types you are using in the corresponding schema, and what kinds of calculations people might do with the data.
If you are concerned about overflow or underflow, consider using wider types in the
schema. The drawback is the extra memory each data value will occupy.
82 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

You can also convert values to wider types in specific expressions, called casting. See
Table 6-2 below and “Casting” on page 109 for details.
Finally, it is sometimes useful to scale data values, such as dividing by powers of 10,
using log values, and so on. Scaling can also improve the accuracy and numerical stability of algorithms used in certain machine learning calculations, for example.

Using Functions
Our tax-deduction example also uses a built-in mathematical function, round(), for
finding the nearest integer for a DOUBLE value.

Mathematical functions
Table 6-2 describes the built-in mathematical functions, as of Hive v0.8.0, for working
with single columns of data.
Table 6-2. Mathematical functions
Return type





Return the BIGINT for the rounded value of DOUBLE d.


round(d, N)

Return the DOUBLE for the value of d, a DOUBLE, rounded to
N decimal places.



Return the largest BIGINT that is <= d, a DOUBLE.


ceil(d), ceiling(DOUBLE d)

Return the smallest BIGINT that is >= d.


rand(), rand(seed)

Return a pseudorandom DOUBLE that changes for each row.
Passing in an integer seed makes the return value



Return e to the d, a DOUBLE.



Return the natural logarithm of d, a DOUBLE.



Return the base-10 logarithm of d, a DOUBLE.



Return the base-2 logarithm of d, a DOUBLE.


log(base, d)

Return the base-base logarithm of d, where base and d are


pow(d, p), power(d, p)

Return d raised to the power p, where d and p are DOUBLEs.



Return the square root of d, a DOUBLE.







Return the STRING representing the binary value of i, a


Return the STRING representing the hexadecimal value of i, a


Return the STRING representing the hexadecimal value of s,
where each two characters in the STRING s is converted to its
hexadecimal representation.

SELECT … FROM Clauses | 83

Return type





The inverse of hex(str).


conv(i, from_base, to_base)

Return the STRING in base to_base, an INT, representing the
value of i, a BIGINT, in base from_base, an INT.


conv(str, from_base,

Return the STRING in base to_base, an INT, representing the
value of str, a STRING, in base from_base, an INT.



Return the DOUBLE that is the absolute value of d, a DOUBLE.


pmod(i1, i2)

Return the positive module INT for two INTs, i1 mod i2.


pmod(d1, d2)

Return the positive module DOUBLE for two DOUBLEs, d1 mod



Return the DOUBLE that is the sin of d, a DOUBLE, in radians.



Return the DOUBLE that is the arcsin of d, a DOUBLE, in radians.



Return the DOUBLE that is the cosine of d, a DOUBLE, in radians.



Return the DOUBLE that is the arccosine of d, a DOUBLE, in



Return the DOUBLE that is the tangent of d, a DOUBLE, in radians.



Return the DOUBLE that is the arctangent of d, a DOUBLE, in



Return the DOUBLE that is the value of d, a DOUBLE, converted
from radians to degrees.



Return the DOUBLE that is the value of d, a DOUBLE, converted
from degrees to radians.







Return the negative of the INT value of i (i.e., it’s effectively the
expression -i).



Return the negative of the DOUBLE value of d; effectively, the
expression -d.



Return the FLOAT value 1.0 if d, a DOUBLE, is positive; return
the FLOAT value -1.0 if d is negative; otherwise return 0.0.



Return the DOUBLE that is the value of the constant e,



Return the DOUBLE that is the value of the constant pi,

Return the INT value of i (i.e., it’s effectively the expression \


Return the DOUBLE value of d (i.e., it’s effectively the expression


Note the functions floor, round, and ceil (“ceiling”) for converting DOUBLE to BIGINT,
which is floating-point numbers to integer numbers. These functions are the preferred
technique, rather than using the cast operator we mentioned above.

84 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

Also, there are functions for converting integers to strings in different bases (e.g.,

Aggregate functions
A special kind of function is the aggregate function that returns a single value resulting
from some computation over many rows. More precisely, this is the User Defined Aggregate Function, as we’ll see in “Aggregate Functions” on page 164. Perhaps the two
best known examples are count, which counts the number of rows (or values for a
specific column), and avg, which returns the average value of the specified column
Here is a query that counts the number of our example employees and averages their
hive> SELECT count(*), avg(salary) FROM employees;
4 77500.0

We’ll see other examples when we discuss GROUP BY in the section “GROUP BY Clauses” on page 97.
Table 6-3 lists Hive’s built-in aggregate functions.
Table 6-3. Aggregate functions
Return type





Return the total number of retrieved rows, including rows
containing NULL values.



Return the number of rows for which the supplied
expression is not NULL.


count(DISTINCT expr[, expr_.])

Return the number of rows for which the supplied
expression(s) are unique and not NULL.



Return the sum of the values.


sum(DISTINCT col)

Return the sum of the distinct values.



Return the average of the values.


avg(DISTINCT col)

Return the average of the distinct values.



Return the minimum value of the values.



Return the maximum value of the values.


variance(col), var_pop(col)

Return the variance of a set of numbers in a collection:



Return the sample variance of a set of numbers.



Return the standard deviation of a set of numbers.



Return the sample standard deviation of a set of numbers.


covar_pop(col1, col2)

Return the covariance of a set of numbers.


covar_samp(col1, col2)

Return the sample covariance of a set of numbers.

SELECT … FROM Clauses | 85

Return type




corr(col1, col2)

Return the correlation of two sets of numbers.


percentile(int_expr, p)

Return the percentile of int_expr at p (range: [0,1]),
where p is a DOUBLE.


[p1, ...])

Return the percentiles of int_expr at p (range: [0,1]),
where p is a DOUBLE array.


p , NB)

Return the approximate percentiles of int_expr at p
(range: [0,1]), where p is a DOUBLE and NB is the number
of histogram bins for estimating (default: 10,000 if not


[p1, ...] , NB)

Return the approximate percentiles of int_expr at p
(range: [0,1]), where p is a DOUBLE array and NB is the
number of histogram bins for estimating (default: 10,000
if not specified).


histogram_numeric(col, NB)

Return an array of NB histogram bins, where the x value
is the center and the y value is the height of the bin.



Return a set with the duplicate elements from collection
col removed.

You can usually improve the performance of aggregation by setting the following property to true,, as shown here:
hive> SET;
hive> SELECT count(*), avg(salary) FROM employees;

This setting will attempt to do “top-level” aggregation in the map phase, as in this
example. (An aggregation that isn’t top-level would be aggregation after performing a
GROUP BY.) However, this setting will require more memory.
As Table 6-3 shows, several functions accept DISTINCT … expressions. For example, we
could count the unique stock symbols this way:
hive> SELECT count(DISTINCT symbol) FROM stocks;

Wait, zero?? There is a bug when trying to use count(DISTINCT col)
when col is a partition column. The answer should be 743 for NASDAQ
and NYSE, at least as of early 2010 in the data set we

Note that the Hive wiki currently claims that you can’t use more than one function(DIS
TINCT …) expression in a query. For example, the following is supposed to be disallowed,
but it actually works:
hive> SELECT count(DISTINCT ymd), count(DISTINCT volume) FROM stocks;
12110 26144

86 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

So, there are 12,110 trading days of data, over 40 years worth.

Table generating functions
The “inverse” of aggregate functions are so-called table generating functions, which take
single columns and expand them to multiple columns or rows. We will discuss them
extensively in “Table Generating Functions” on page 165, but to complete the contents
of this section, we will discuss them briefly now and list the few built-in table generating
functions available in Hive.
To explain by way of an example, the following query converts the subordinate array
in each employees record into zero or more new records. If an employee record has an
empty subordinates array, then no new records are generated. Otherwise, one new
record per subordinate is generated:
hive> SELECT explode(subordinates) AS sub FROM employees;
Mary Smith
Todd Jones
Bill King

We used a column alias, sub, defined using the AS sub clause. When using table generating functions, column aliases are required by Hive. There are many other particular
details that you must understand to use these functions correctly. We’ll wait until
“Table Generating Functions” on page 165 to discuss the details.
Table 6-4 lists the built-in table generating functions.
Table 6-4. Table generating functions
Return type



N rows


Return 0 to many rows, one row for each element from
the input array.

N rows


(v0.8.0 and later) Return 0 to many rows, one row for each
map key-value pair, with a field for each map key and a
field for the map value.


json_tuple(jsonStr, p1, p2, …,

Like get_json_object, but it takes multiple names
and returns a tuple. All the input parameters and output
column types are STRING.


parse_url_tuple(url, part
name1, partname2, …, partna
meN) where N >= 1

Extract N parts from a URL. It takes a URL and the part
names to extract, returning a tuple. All the input parameters and output column types are STRING. The valid
partnames are case-sensitive and should only contain
a minimum of white space: HOST, PATH, QUERY, REF,

N rows

stack(n, col1, …, colM)

Convert M columns into N rows of size M/N each.

SELECT … FROM Clauses | 87

Here is an example that uses parse_url_tuple where we assume a url_table exists that
contains a column of URLs called url:
SELECT parse_url_tuple(url, 'HOST', 'PATH', 'QUERY') as (host, path, query)
FROM url_table;

Compare parse_url_tuple with parse_url in Table 6-5 below.

Other built-in functions
Table 6-5 describes the rest of the built-in functions for working with strings, maps,
arrays, JSON, and timestamps, with or without the recently introduced TIMESTAMP type
(see “Primitive Data Types” on page 41).
Table 6-5. Other built-in functions
Return type




test in(val1, val2, …)

Return true if test equals one of the values in the list.



Return the length of the string.



Return a reverse copy of the string.


concat(s1, s2, …)

Return the string resulting from s1 joined with s2, etc.
For example, concat('ab', 'cd') results in
'abcd'. You can pass an arbitrary number of string arguments and the result will contain all of them joined


concat_ws(separator, s1, s2,

Like concat, but using the specified separator.


substr(s, start_index)

Return the substring of s starting from the
start_index position, where 1 is the index of the first
character, until the end of s. For example,
substr('abcd', 3) results in 'cd'.


substr(s, int start, int

Return the substring of s starting from the start position with the given length, e.g., substr('abc
defgh', 3, 2) results in 'cd'.



Return the string that results from converting all characters of s to upper case, e.g., upper('hIvE') results in



A synonym for upper().



Return the string that results from converting all characters of s to lower case, e.g., lower('hIvE') results in



A synonym for lower().



Return the string that results from removing whitespace
from both ends of s, e.g., trim(' hive ') results in

88 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

Return type





Return the string resulting from trimming spaces from
the beginning (lefthand side) of s, e.g., ltrim(' hive
') results in 'hive '.



Return the string resulting from trimming spaces from
the end (righthand side) of s, e.g., rtrim(' hive
') results in ' hive'.


regexp_replace(s, regex,

Return the string resulting from replacing all substrings
in s that match the Java regular expression re with
replacement.a If replacement is blank, the
matches are effectively deleted, e.g.,
regexp_replace('hive', '[ie]', 'z')
returns 'hzvz'.


regex_pattern, index)

Returns the substring for the index’s match using the


parse_url(url, partname, key)

Extracts the specified part from a URL. It takes a URL and
the partname to extract. The valid partnames are
case-sensitive: HOST, PATH, QUERY, REF, PROTOCOL,
optional key is used for the last QUERY: request.
Compare with parse_url_tuple described in Table 6-4.



Return the number of elements in the map.



Return the number of elements in the array.

value of type

cast( as )

Convert (“cast”) the result of the expression expr to
type, e.g., cast('1' as BIGINT) will convert the
string '1' to its integral representation. A NULL is returned if the conversion does not succeed.


from_unixtime(int unixtime)

Convert the number of seconds from the Unix epoch
(1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC) to a string representing the
timestamp of that moment in the current system time
zone in the format of '1970-01-01 00:00:00'.



Return the date part of a timestamp string, e.g.,
to_date("1970-01-01 00:00:00") returns



Return the year part as an INT of a timestamp string, e.g.,
year("1970-11-01 00:00:00") returns 1970.



Return the month part as an INT of a timestamp string,
e.g., month("1970-11-01 00:00:00") returns



Return the day part as an INT of a timestamp string, e.g.,
day("1970-11-01 00:00:00") returns 1.



Extract the JSON object from a JSON string based on the
given JSON path, and return the JSON string of the
SELECT … FROM Clauses | 89


Return type


extracted object. NULL is returned if the input JSON string
is invalid.



Returns n spaces.


repeat(s, n)

Repeats s n times.



Returns the integer value for the first ASCII character in
the string s.


lpad(s, len, pad)

Returns s exactly len length, prepending instances of
the string pad on its left, if necessary, to reach len characters. If s is longer than len, it is truncated.


rpad(s, len, pad)

Returns s exactly len length, appending instances of the
string pad on its right, if necessary, to reach len characters. If s is longer than len, it is truncated.


split(s, pattern)

Returns an array of substrings of s, split on occurrences
of pattern.


find_in_set(s, commaSeparated

Returns the index of the comma-separated string where
s is found, or NULL if it is not found.


locate(substr, str, pos])

Returns the index of str after pos where substr is


instr(str, substr)

Returns the index of str where substr is found.


str_to_map(s, delim1, delim2)

Creates a map by parsing s, using delim1 as the separator between key-value pairs and delim2 as the keyvalue separator.


sentences(s, lang, locale)

Splits s into arrays of sentences, where each sentence is
an array of words. The lang and country arguments
are optional; if omitted, the default locale is used.


N, K, pf)

Estimates the top-K n-grams in the text. pf is the precision


text_ngrams(array>,array,int K, int

Like ngrams, but looks for n-grams that begin with the
second array of words in each outer array.


in_file(s, filename)

Returns true if s appears in the file named filename.

See for more on Java regular expression syntax.

Note that the time-related functions (near the end of the table) take integer or string
arguments. As of Hive v0.8.0, these functions also take TIMESTAMP arguments, but they
will continue to take integer or string arguments for backwards compatibility.

90 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

LIMIT Clause
The results of a typical query can return a large number of rows. The LIMIT clause puts
an upper limit on the number of rows returned:
hive> SELECT upper(name), salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"],
> round(salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])) FROM employees
> LIMIT 2;
100000.0 0.2
80000.0 0.2

Column Aliases
You can think of the previous example query as returning a new relation with new
columns, some of which are anonymous results of manipulating columns in
employees. It’s sometimes useful to give those anonymous columns a name, called a
column alias. Here is the previous query with column aliases for the third and fourth
columns returned by the query, fed_taxes and salary_minus_fed_taxes, respectively:
hive> SELECT upper(name), salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"] as fed_taxes,
> round(salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])) as salary_minus_fed_taxes
> FROM employees LIMIT 2;
100000.0 0.2
80000.0 0.2

Nested SELECT Statements
The column alias feature is especially useful in nested select statements. Let’s use the
previous example as a nested query:
hive> FROM (
> SELECT upper(name), salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"] as fed_taxes,
> round(salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])) as salary_minus_fed_taxes
> FROM employees
> ) e
> SELECT, e.salary_minus_fed_taxes
> WHERE e.salary_minus_fed_taxes > 70000;
100000.0 0.2

The previous result set is aliased as e, from which we perform a second query to select
the name and the salary_minus_fed_taxes, where the latter is greater than 70,000. (We’ll
cover WHERE clauses in “WHERE Clauses” on page 92 below.)

CASE … WHEN … THEN Statements
The CASE … WHEN … THEN clauses are like if statements for individual columns in query
results. For example:
hive> SELECT name, salary,
WHEN salary < 50000.0 THEN 'low'

SELECT … FROM Clauses | 91

WHEN salary >= 50000.0 AND salary < 70000.0 THEN 'middle'
WHEN salary >= 70000.0 AND salary < 100000.0 THEN 'high'
ELSE 'very high'
END AS bracket FROM employees;
John Doe
very high
Mary Smith
Todd Jones
Bill King
Boss Man
200000.0 very high
Fred Finance
150000.0 very high
Stacy Accountant 60000.0 middle

When Hive Can Avoid MapReduce
If you have been running the queries in this book so far, you have probably noticed
that a MapReduce job is started in most cases. Hive implements some kinds of queries
without using MapReduce, in so-called local mode, for example:
SELECT * FROM employees;

In this case, Hive can simply read the records from employees and dump the formatted
output to the console.
This even works for WHERE clauses that only filter on partition keys, with or without
LIMIT clauses:
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE country = 'US' AND state = 'CA'
LIMIT 100;

Furthermore, Hive will attempt to run other operations in local mode if the property is set to true:

Otherwise, Hive uses MapReduce to run all other queries.
Trust us, you want to add set; to your
$HOME/.hiverc file.

WHERE Clauses
While SELECT clauses select columns, WHERE clauses are filters; they select which records
to return. Like SELECT clauses, we have already used many simple examples of WHERE
clauses before defining the clause, on the assumption you have seen them before. Now
we’ll explore them in a bit more detail.

92 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

WHERE clauses use predicate expressions, applying predicate operators, which we’ll describe in a moment, to columns. Several predicate expressions can be joined with AND
and OR clauses. When the predicate expressions evaluate to true, the corresponding
rows are retained in the output.

We just used the following example that restricts the results to employees in the state
of California:
SELECT * FROM employees
WHERE country = 'US' AND state = 'CA';

The predicates can reference the same variety of computations over column values that
can be used in SELECT clauses. Here we adapt our previously used query involving
Federal Taxes, filtering for those rows where the salary minus the federal taxes is greater
than 70,000:
hive> SELECT name, salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"],
> salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])
> FROM employees
> WHERE round(salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"])) > 70000;
John Doe
100000.0 0.2

This query is a bit ugly, because the complex expression on the second line is duplicated
in the WHERE clause. The following variation eliminates the duplication, using a column
alias, but unfortunately it’s not valid:
hive> SELECT name, salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"],
salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"]) as salary_minus_fed_taxes
> FROM employees
> WHERE round(salary_minus_fed_taxes) > 70000;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: Line 4:13 Invalid table alias or
column reference 'salary_minus_fed_taxes': (possible column names are:
name, salary, subordinates, deductions, address)

As the error message says, we can’t reference column aliases in the WHERE clause. However, we can use a nested SELECT statement:
hive> SELECT e.* FROM
> (SELECT name, salary, deductions["Federal Taxes"] as ded,
salary * (1 - deductions["Federal Taxes"]) as salary_minus_fed_taxes
> FROM employees) e
> WHERE round(e.salary_minus_fed_taxes) > 70000;
John Doe
Boss Man
Fred Finance

Predicate Operators
Table 6-6 describes the predicate operators, which are also used in JOIN … ON and
HAVING clauses.

WHERE Clauses | 93

Table 6-6. Predicate operators



A = B

Primitive types

True if A equals B. False otherwise.

A <> B, A != B

Primitive types

NULL if A or B is NULL; true if A is not equal to B; false

A < B

Primitive types

NULL if A or B is NULL; true if A is less than B; false

A <= B

Primitive types

NULL if A or B is NULL; true if A is less than or equal to
B; false otherwise.

A > B

Primitive types

NULL if A or B is NULL; true if A is greater than B; false

A >= B

Primitive types

NULL if A or B is NULL; true if A is greater than or equal
to B; false otherwise.


All types

True if A evaluates to NULL; false otherwise.


All types

False if A evaluates to NULL; true otherwise.



True if A matches the SQL simplified regular expression
specification given by B; false otherwise. B is interpreted
as follows: 'x%' means A must begin with the prefix 'x',
'%x' means A must end with the suffix 'x', and '%x
%' means A must begin with, end with, or contain the
substring 'x'. Similarly, the underscore '_' matches a
single character. B must match the whole string A.



True if A matches the regular expression given by B; false
otherwise. Matching is done by the JDK regular expression
library and hence it follows the rules of that library. For
example, the regular expression must match the entire
string A, not just a subset. See below for more information
about regular expressions.

We’ll discuss LIKE and RLIKE in detail below (“LIKE and RLIKE” on page 96). First,
let’s point out an issue with comparing floating-point numbers that you should

Gotchas with Floating-Point Comparisons
A common gotcha arises when you compare floating-point numbers of different types
(i.e., FLOAT versus DOUBLE). Consider the following query of the employees table, which
is designed to return the employee’s name, salary, and federal taxes deduction, but only
if that tax deduction exceeds 0.2 (20%) of his or her salary:
hive> SELECT name, salary, deductions['Federal Taxes']
> FROM employees WHERE deductions['Federal Taxes'] > 0.2;
John Doe
Mary Smith

94 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

Boss Man
Fred Finance



Wait! Why are records with deductions['Federal Taxes'] = 0.2 being returned?
Is it a Hive bug? There is a bug filed against Hive for this issue, but it actually reflects
the behavior of the internal representation of floating-point numbers when they are
compared and it affects almost all software written in most languages on all modern
digital computers (see
When you write a floating-point literal value like 0.2, Hive uses a DOUBLE to hold the
value. We defined the deductions map values to be FLOAT, which means that Hive will
implicitly convert the tax deduction value to DOUBLE to do the comparison. This should
work, right?
Actually, it doesn’t work. Here’s why. The number 0.2 can’t be represented exactly in
.html for an in-depth discussion of floating-point number issues.) In this particular case,
the closest exact value is just slightly greater than 0.2, with a few nonzero bits at the
least significant end of the number.
To simplify things a bit, let’s say that 0.2 is actually 0.2000001 for FLOAT and
0.200000000001 for DOUBLE, because an 8-byte DOUBLE has more significant digits (after
the decimal point). When the FLOAT value from the table is converted to DOUBLE by Hive,
it produces the DOUBLE value 0.200000100000, which is greater than 0.200000000001.
That’s why the query results appear to use >= not >!
This issue is not unique to Hive nor Java, in which Hive is implemented. Rather, it’s a
general problem for all systems that use the IEEE standard for encoding floating-point
However, there are two workarounds we can use in Hive.
First, if we read the data from a TEXTFILE (see Chapter 15), which is what we have been
assuming so far, then Hive reads the string “0.2” from the data file and converts it to a
real number. We could use DOUBLE instead of FLOAT in our schema. Then we would be
comparing a DOUBLE for the deductions['Federal Taxes'] with a double for the literal
0.2. However, this change will increase the memory footprint of our queries. Also, we
can’t simply change the schema like this if the data file is a binary file format like
SEQUENCEFILE (discussed in Chapter 15).
The second workaround is to explicitly cast the 0.2 literal value to FLOAT. Java has a
nice way of doing this: you append the letter f or F to the end of the number (e.g.,
0.2f). Unfortunately, Hive doesn’t support this syntax; we have to use the cast
Here is a modified query that casts the 0.2 literal value to FLOAT. With this change, the
expected results are returned by the query:
hive> SELECT name, salary, deductions['Federal Taxes'] FROM employees
> WHERE deductions['Federal Taxes'] > cast(0.2 AS FLOAT);

WHERE Clauses | 95

Download from Wow! eBook 

Boss Man
Fred Finance



Note the syntax inside the cast operator: number AS FLOAT.
Actually, there is also a third solution: avoid floating-point numbers for anything involving money.
Use extreme caution when comparing floating-point numbers. Avoid
all implicit casts from smaller to wider types.

Table 6-6 describes the LIKE and RLIKE predicate operators. You have probably seen
LIKE before, a standard SQL operator. It lets us match on strings that begin with or end
with a particular substring, or when the substring appears anywhere within the string.
For example, the following three queries select the employee names and addresses
where the street ends with Ave., the city begins with O, and the street contains Chicago:
hive> SELECT name, address.street FROM employees WHERE address.street LIKE '%Ave.';
John Doe
1 Michigan Ave.
Todd Jones
200 Chicago Ave.
hive> SELECT name, FROM employees WHERE LIKE 'O%';
Todd Jones
Oak Park
Bill King
hive> SELECT name, address.street FROM employees WHERE address.street LIKE '%Chi%';
Todd Jones
200 Chicago Ave.

A Hive extension is the RLIKE clause, which lets us use Java regular expressions, a more
powerful minilanguage for specifying matches. The rich details of regular expression
syntax and features are beyond the scope of this book. The entry for RLIKE in Table 6-6 provides links to resources with more details on regular expressions. Here, we
demonstrate their use with an example, which finds all the employees whose street
contains the word Chicago or Ontario:
hive> SELECT name, address.street
> FROM employees WHERE address.street RLIKE '.*(Chicago|Ontario).*';
Mary Smith
100 Ontario St.
Todd Jones
200 Chicago Ave.

The string after the RLIKE keyword has the following interpretation. A period (.) matches
any character and a star (*) means repeat the “thing to the left” (period, in the two cases
shown) zero to many times. The expression (x|y) means match either x or y.
Hence, there might be no characters before “Chicago” or “Ontario” and there might
be no characters after them. Of course, we could have written this particular example
with two LIKE clauses:

96 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

SELECT name, address FROM employees
WHERE address.street LIKE '%Chicago%' OR address.street LIKE '%Ontario%';

General regular expression matches will let us express much richer matching criteria
that would become very unwieldy with joined LIKE clauses such as these.
For more details about regular expressions as implemented by Hive using Java, see the
documentation for the Java regular expression syntax at
6/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html or see Regular Expression Pocket Reference by
Tony Stubblebine (O’Reilly), Regular Expressions Cookbook by Jan Goyvaerts and Steven Levithan (O’Reilly), or Mastering Regular Expressions, 3rd Edition, by Jeffrey E.F.
Friedl (O’Reilly).

GROUP BY Clauses
The GROUP BY statement is often used in conjunction with aggregate functions to
group the result set by one or more columns and then perform an aggregation over each
Let’s return to the stocks table we defined in “External Tables” on page 56. The following query groups stock records for Apple by year, then averages the closing price
for each year:
hive> SELECT year(ymd), avg(price_close) FROM stocks
> WHERE exchange = 'NASDAQ' AND symbol = 'AAPL'
> GROUP BY year(ymd);

HAVING Clauses
The HAVING clause lets you constrain the groups produced by GROUP BY in a way that
could be expressed with a subquery, using a syntax that’s easier to express. Here’s the
previous query with an additional HAVING clause that limits the results to years where
the average closing price was greater than $50.0:

GROUP BY Clauses | 97

hive> SELECT year(ymd), avg(price_close) FROM stocks
> WHERE exchange = 'NASDAQ' AND symbol = 'AAPL'
> GROUP BY year(ymd)
> HAVING avg(price_close) > 50.0;

Without the HAVING clause, this query would require a nested SELECT statement:

SELECT s2.year, s2.avg FROM
(SELECT year(ymd) AS year, avg(price_close) AS avg FROM stocks
WHERE exchange = 'NASDAQ' AND symbol = 'AAPL'
GROUP BY year(ymd)) s2
WHERE s2.avg > 50.0;

JOIN Statements
Hive supports the classic SQL JOIN statement, but only equi-joins are supported.

Inner JOIN
In an inner JOIN, records are discarded unless join criteria finds matching records in
every table being joined. For example, the following query compares Apple (symbol
AAPL) and IBM (symbol IBM). The stocks table is joined against itself, a self-join, where
the dates, ymd (year-month-day) values must be equal in both tables. We say that the
ymd columns are the join keys in this query:
hive> SELECT a.ymd, a.price_close, b.price_close
> FROM stocks a JOIN stocks b ON a.ymd = b.ymd
> WHERE a.symbol = 'AAPL' AND b.symbol = 'IBM';
214.01 132.45
214.38 130.85
210.97 130.0
210.58 129.55
211.98 130.85
210.11 129.48

The ON clause specifies the conditions for joining records between the two tables. The
WHERE clause limits the lefthand table to AAPL records and the righthand table to IBM
records. You can also see that using table aliases for the two occurrences of stocks is
essential in this query.
As you may know, IBM is an older company than Apple. It has been a publicly traded
stock for much longer than Apple. However, since this is an inner JOIN, no IBM records
98 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

will be returned older than September 7, 1984, which was the first day that Apple was
publicly traded!
Standard SQL allows a non-equi-join on the join keys, such as the following example
that shows Apple versus IBM, but with all older records for Apple paired up with each
day of IBM data. It would be a lot of data (Example 6-1)!
Example 6-1. Query that will not work in Hive
SELECT a.ymd, a.price_close, b.price_close
FROM stocks a JOIN stocks b
ON a.ymd <= b.ymd
WHERE a.symbol = 'AAPL' AND b.symbol = 'IBM';

This is not valid in Hive, primarily because it is difficult to implement these kinds of
joins in MapReduce. It turns out that Pig offers a cross product feature that makes it
possible to implement this join, even though Pig’s native join feature doesn’t support
it, either.
Also, Hive does not currently support using OR between predicates in ON clauses.
To see a nonself join, let’s introduce the corresponding dividends data, also
available from, as described in “External Tables” on page 56:

Here is an inner JOIN between stocks and dividends for Apple, where we use the ymd
and symbol columns as join keys:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

Yes, Apple paid a dividend years ago and only recently announced it would start doing
so again! Note that because we have an inner JOIN, we only see records approximately
every three months, the typical schedule of dividend payments, which are announced
when reporting quarterly results.
You can join more than two tables together. Let’s compare Apple, IBM, and GE side
by side:

JOIN Statements | 99

hive> SELECT a.ymd, a.price_close, b.price_close , c.price_close
> FROM stocks a JOIN stocks b ON a.ymd = b.ymd
JOIN stocks c ON a.ymd = c.ymd
> WHERE a.symbol = 'AAPL' AND b.symbol = 'IBM' AND c.symbol = 'GE';
214.01 132.45 15.45
214.38 130.85 15.53
210.97 130.0 15.45
210.58 129.55 16.25
211.98 130.85 16.6
210.11 129.48 16.76

Most of the time, Hive will use a separate MapReduce job for each pair of things to
join. In this example, it would use one job for tables a and b, then a second job to join
the output of the first join with c.
Why not join b and c first? Hive goes from left to right.

However, this example actually benefits from an optimization we’ll discuss next.

Join Optimizations
In the previous example, every ON clause uses a.ymd as one of the join keys. In this case,
Hive can apply an optimization where it joins all three tables in a single MapReduce
job. The optimization would also be used if b.ymd were used in both ON clauses.
When joining three or more tables, if every ON clause uses the same join
key, a single MapReduce job will be used.

Hive also assumes that the last table in the query is the largest. It attempts to buffer the
other tables and then stream the last table through, while performing joins on individual
records. Therefore, you should structure your join queries so the largest table is last.
Recall our previous join between stocks and dividends. We actually made the mistake
of using the smaller dividends table last:
SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
FROM stocks s JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

We should switch the positions of stocks and dividends:
SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
FROM dividends d JOIN stocks s ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

100 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

It turns out that these data sets are too small to see a noticeable performance difference,
but for larger data sets, you’ll want to exploit this optimization.
Fortunately, you don’t have to put the largest table last in the query. Hive also provides
a “hint” mechanism to tell the query optimizer which table should be streamed:
SELECT /*+ STREAMTABLE(s) */ s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
FROM stocks s JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

Now Hive will attempt to stream the stocks table, even though it’s not the last table in
the query.
There is another important optimization called map-side joins that we’ll return to in
“Map-side Joins” on page 105.

The left-outer join is indicated by adding the LEFT OUTER keywords:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s LEFT OUTER JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

In this join, all the records from the lefthand table that match the WHERE clause are
returned. If the righthand table doesn’t have a record that matches the ON criteria,
NULL is used for each column selected from the righthand table.
Hence, in this result set, we see that the every Apple stock record is returned and the
d.dividend value is usually NULL, except on days when a dividend was paid (May 11th,
1987, in this output).

Before we discuss the other outer joins, let’s discuss a gotcha you should understand.

JOIN Statements | 101

Recall what we said previously about speeding up queries by adding partition filters in
the WHERE clause. To speed up our previous query, we might choose to add predicates
that select on the exchange in both tables:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s LEFT OUTER JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL'

However, the output has changed, even though we thought we were just adding an
optimization! We’re back to having approximately four stock records per year and we
have non-NULL entries for all the dividend values. In other words, we are back to the
original inner join!
This is actually common behavior for all outer joins in most SQL implementations. It
occurs because the JOIN clause is evaluated first, then the results are passed through
the WHERE clause. By the time the WHERE clause is reached, is NULL most of the
time, so the “optimization” actually filters out all records except those on the day of
dividend payments.
One solution is straightforward; remove the clauses in the WHERE clause that reference
the dividends table:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s LEFT OUTER JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL' AND = 'NASDAQ';

This isn’t very satisfactory. You might wonder if you can move the predicates from the
WHERE clause into the ON clause, at least the partition filters. This does not work for outer
joins, despite documentation on the Hive Wiki that claims it should work (https://cwiki
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s LEFT OUTER JOIN dividends d
> ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> AND s.symbol = 'AAPL' AND = 'NASDAQ' AND = 'NASDAQ';

102 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries



571.25 NULL
560.0 NULL

The partition filters are ignored for OUTER JOINTS. However, using such filter predicates
in ON clauses for inner joins does work!
Fortunately, there is solution that works for all joins; use nested SELECT statements:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend FROM
> (SELECT * FROM stocks WHERE symbol = 'AAPL' AND exchange = 'NASDAQ') s
> (SELECT * FROM dividends WHERE symbol = 'AAPL' AND exchange = 'NASDAQ') d
> ON s.ymd = d.ymd;
40.63 NULL
41.25 NULL
41.88 NULL

The nested SELECT statement performs the required “push down” to apply the partition
filters before data is joined.
WHERE clauses are evaluated after joins are performed, so WHERE clauses

should use predicates that only filter on column values that won’t be
NULL. Also, contrary to Hive documentation, partition filters don’t work
in ON clauses for OUTER JOINS, although they do work for INNER JOINS!

Right-outer joins return all records in the righthand table that match the WHERE clause.
NULL is used for fields of missing records in the lefthand table.
Here we switch the places of stocks and dividends and perform a righthand join, but
leave the SELECT statement unchanged:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM dividends d RIGHT OUTER JOIN stocks s ON d.ymd = s.ymd AND d.symbol = s.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';
80.25 NULL

JOIN Statements | 103

Finally, a full-outer join returns all records from all tables that match the WHERE clause.
NULL is used for fields in missing records in either table.

If we convert the previous query to a full-outer join, we’ll actually get the same results,
since there is never a case where a dividend record exists without a matching stock
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM dividends d FULL OUTER JOIN stocks s ON d.ymd = s.ymd AND d.symbol = s.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

A left semi-join returns records from the lefthand table if records are found in the righthand table that satisfy the ON predicates. It’s a special, optimized case of the more general
inner join. Most SQL dialects support an IN ... EXISTS construct to do the same thing.
For instance, the following query in Example 6-2 attempts to return stock records only
on the days of dividend payments, but it doesn’t work in Hive.
Example 6-2. Query that will not work in Hive
SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close FROM stocks s
WHERE s.ymd, s.symbol IN
(SELECT d.ymd, d.symbol FROM dividends d);

Instead, you use the following LEFT SEMI JOIN syntax:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close
> FROM stocks s LEFT SEMI JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol;

Note that the SELECT and WHERE clauses can’t reference columns from the righthand
Right semi-joins are not supported in Hive.

104 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

The reason semi-joins are more efficient than the more general inner join is as follows.
For a given record in the lefthand table, Hive can stop looking for matching records in
the righthand table as soon as any match is found. At that point, the selected columns
from the lefthand table record can be projected.

Cartesian Product JOINs
A Cartesian product is a join where all the tuples in the left side of the join are paired
with all the tuples of the right table. If the left table has 5 rows and the right table has
6 rows, 30 rows of output will be produced:
SELECTS * FROM stocks JOIN dividends;

Using the table of stocks and dividends, it is hard to find a reason for a join of this type,
as the dividend of one stock is not usually paired with another. Additionally, Cartesian
products create a lot of data. Unlike other join types, Cartesian products are not executed in parallel, and they are not optimized in any way using MapReduce.
It is critical to point out that using the wrong join syntax will cause a long, slow-running
Cartesian product query. For example, the following query will be optimized to an
inner join in many databases, but not in Hive:
hive > SELECT * FROM stocks JOIN dividends
> WHERE stock.symbol = dividends.symbol and stock.symbol='AAPL';

In Hive, this query computes the full Cartesian product before applying the WHERE
clause. It could take a very long time to finish. When the property hive.mapred.mode is
set to strict, Hive prevents users from inadvertently issuing a Cartesian product query.
We’ll discuss the features of strict mode more extensively in Chapter 10.
Cartesian product queries can be useful. For example, suppose there is
a table of user preferences, a table of news articles, and an algorithm
that predicts which articles a user would like to read. A Cartesian product is required to generate the set of all users and all pages.

Map-side Joins
If all but one table is small, the largest table can be streamed through the mappers while
the small tables are cached in memory. Hive can do all the joining map-side, since it
can look up every possible match against the small tables in memory, thereby eliminating the reduce step required in the more common join scenarios. Even on smaller
data sets, this optimization is noticeably faster than the normal join. Not only does it
eliminate reduce steps, it sometimes reduces the number of map steps, too.
The joins between stocks and dividends can exploit this optimization, as the dividends
data set is small enough to be cached.

JOIN Statements | 105

Before Hive v0.7, it was necessary to add a hint to the query to enable this optimization.
Returning to our inner join example:
SELECT /*+ MAPJOIN(d) */ s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
FROM stocks s JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

Running this query versus the original on a fast MacBook Pro laptop yielded times of
approximately 23 seconds versus 33 seconds for the original unoptimized query, which
is roughly 30% faster using our sample stock data.
The hint still works, but it’s now deprecated as of Hive v0.7. However, you still have
to set a property,, to true before Hive will attempt the optimization. It’s false by default:
hive> set;
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close, d.dividend
> FROM stocks s JOIN dividends d ON s.ymd = d.ymd AND s.symbol = d.symbol
> WHERE s.symbol = 'AAPL';

Note that you can also configure the threshold size for table files considered small
enough to use this optimization. Here is the default definition of the property (in bytes):

If you always want Hive to attempt this optimization, set one or both of these properties
in your $HOME/.hiverc file.
Hive does not support the optimization for right- and full-outer joins.
This optimization can also be used for larger tables under certain conditions when
the data for every table is bucketed, as discussed in “Bucketing Table Data Storage” on page 125. Briefly, the data must be bucketed on the keys used in the ON clause
and the number of buckets for one table must be a multiple of the number of buckets
for the other table. When these conditions are met, Hive can join individual buckets
between tables in the map phase, because it does not need to fetch the entire contents
of one table to match against each bucket in the other table.
However, this optimization is not turned on by default. It must be enabled by setting
the property hive.optimize.bucketmapjoin:
set hive.optimize.bucketmapjoin=true;

If the bucketed tables actually have the same number of buckets and the data is sorted
by the join/bucket keys, then Hive can perform an even faster sort-merge join. Once
again, properties must be set to enable the optimization:
set hive.optimize.bucketmapjoin=true;
set hive.optimize.bucketmapjoin.sortedmerge=true;

106 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

The ORDER BY clause is familiar from other SQL dialects. It performs a total ordering of
the query result set. This means that all the data is passed through a single reducer,
which may take an unacceptably long time to execute for larger data sets.
Hive adds an alternative, SORT BY, that orders the data only within each reducer, thereby
performing a local ordering, where each reducer’s output will be sorted. Better performance is traded for total ordering.
In both cases, the syntax differs only by the use of the ORDER or SORT keyword. You can
specify any columns you wish and specify whether or not the columns are ascending
using the ASC keyword (the default) or descending using the DESC keyword.
Here is an example using ORDER BY:
SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close
FROM stocks s
ORDER BY s.ymd ASC, s.symbol DESC;

Here is the same example using SORT BY instead:
SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close
FROM stocks s
SORT BY s.ymd ASC, s.symbol DESC;

The two queries look almost identical, but if more than one reducer is invoked, the
output will be sorted differently. While each reducer’s output files will be sorted, the
data will probably overlap with the output of other reducers.
Because ORDER BY can result in excessively long run times, Hive will require a LIMIT
clause with ORDER BY if the property hive.mapred.mode is set to strict. By default, it is
set to nonstrict.

DISTRIBUTE BY controls how map output is divided among reducers. All data that flows

through a MapReduce job is organized into key-value pairs. Hive must use this feature
internally when it converts your queries to MapReduce jobs.
Usually, you won’t need to worry about this feature. The exceptions are queries that
use the Streaming feature (see Chapter 14) and some stateful UDAFs (User-Defined
Aggregate Functions; see “Aggregate Functions” on page 164). There is one other scenario where these clauses are useful.
By default, MapReduce computes a hash on the keys output by mappers and tries to
evenly distribute the key-value pairs among the available reducers using the hash values.
Unfortunately, this means that when we use SORT BY, the contents of one reducer’s
output will overlap significantly with the output of the other reducers, as far as sorted
order is concerned, even though the data is sorted within each reducer’s output.

Say we want the data for each stock symbol to be captured together. We can use
DISTRIBUTE BY to ensure that the records for each stock symbol go to the same reducer,
then use SORT BY to order the data the way we want. The following query demonstrates
this technique:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close
> FROM stocks s
> DISTRIBUTE BY s.symbol
> SORT BY s.symbol ASC, s.ymd ASC;
1984-09-07 AAPL 26.5
1984-09-10 AAPL 26.37
1984-09-11 AAPL 26.87
1984-09-12 AAPL 26.12
1984-09-13 AAPL 27.5
1984-09-14 AAPL 27.87
1984-09-17 AAPL 28.62
1984-09-18 AAPL 27.62
1984-09-19 AAPL 27.0
1984-09-20 AAPL 27.12

Of course, the ASC keywords could have been omitted as they are the defaults. The
ASC keyword is placed here for reasons that will be described shortly.
DISTRIBUTE BY works similar to GROUP BY in the sense that it controls how reducers
receive rows for processing, while SORT BY controls the sorting of data inside the reducer.

Note that Hive requires that the DISTRIBUTE BY clause come before the SORT BY clause.

In the previous example, the s.symbol column was used in the DISTRIBUTE BY clause,
and the s.symbol and the s.ymd columns in the SORT BY clause. Suppose that the same
columns are used in both clauses and all columns are sorted by ascending order (the
default). In this case, the CLUSTER BY clause is a shor-hand way of expressing the same
For example, let’s modify the previous query to drop sorting by s.ymd and use CLUSTER
BY on s.symbol:
hive> SELECT s.ymd, s.symbol, s.price_close
> FROM stocks s
> CLUSTER BY s.symbol;
2010-02-08 AAPL 194.12
2010-02-05 AAPL 195.46
2010-02-04 AAPL 192.05
2010-02-03 AAPL 199.23
2010-02-02 AAPL 195.86
2010-02-01 AAPL 194.73
2010-01-29 AAPL 192.06
2010-01-28 AAPL 199.29

108 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

2010-01-27 AAPL 207.88

Because the sort requirements are removed for the s.ymd, the output reflects the original
order of the stock data, which is sorted descending.
Using DISTRIBUTE BY ... SORT BY or the shorthand CLUSTER BY clauses is a way to exploit
the parallelism of SORT BY, yet achieve a total ordering across the output files.

We briefly mentioned in “Primitive Data Types” on page 41 that Hive will perform
some implicit conversions, called casts, of numeric data types, as needed. For example,
when doing comparisons between two numbers of different types. This topic is discussed more fully in “Predicate Operators” on page 93 and “Gotchas with FloatingPoint Comparisons” on page 94.
Here we discuss the cast() function that allows you to explicitly convert a value of one
type to another.
Recall our employees table uses a FLOAT for the salary column. Now, imagine for a
moment that STRING was used for that column instead. How could we work with the
values as FLOATS?
The following example casts the values to FLOAT before performing a comparison:
SELECT name, salary FROM employees
WHERE cast(salary AS FLOAT) < 100000.0;

The syntax of the cast function is cast(value AS TYPE). What would happen in the
example if a salary value was not a valid string for a floating-point number? In this
case, Hive returns NULL.
Note that the preferred way to convert floating-point numbers to integers is to use the
round() or floor() functions listed in Table 6-2, rather than to use the cast operator.

Casting BINARY Values
The new BINARY type introduced in Hive v0.8.0 only supports casting BINARY to
STRING. However, if you know the value is a number, you can nest cast() invocations,
as in this example where column b is a BINARY column:
SELECT (2.0*cast(cast(b as string) as double)) from src;

You can also cast STRING to BINARY.

Casting | 109

Queries that Sample Data
For very large data sets, sometimes you want to work with a representative sample of
a query result, not the whole thing. Hive supports this goal with queries that sample
tables organized into buckets.
In the following example, assume the numbers table has one number column with
values 1−10.
We can sample using the rand() function, which returns a random number. In the first
two queries, two distinct numbers are returned for each query. In the third query, no
results are returned:
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 10 ON rand()) s;
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 10 ON rand()) s;
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 10 ON rand()) s;

If we bucket on a column instead of rand(), then identical results are returned on multiple runs:
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 10 ON number) s;
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 5 OUT OF 10 ON number) s;
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 3 OUT OF 10 ON number) s;

The denominator in the bucket clause represents the number of buckets into which
data will be hashed. The numerator is the bucket number selected:
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 1 OUT OF 2 ON number) s;
hive> SELECT * from numbers TABLESAMPLE(BUCKET 2 OUT OF 2 ON number) s;

110 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries

Block Sampling
Hive offers another syntax for sampling a percentage of blocks of an input path as an
alternative to sampling based on rows:
hive> SELECT * FROM numbersflat TABLESAMPLE(0.1 PERCENT) s;

This sampling is not known to work with all file formats. Also, the
smallest unit of sampling is a single HDFS block. Hence, for tables less
than the typical block size of 128 MB, all rows will be retuned.

Percentage-based sampling offers a variable to control the seed information for blockbased tuning. Different seeds produce different samples:

A number used for percentage sampling. By changing this
number, user will change the subsets of data sampled.

Input Pruning for Bucket Tables
From a first look at the TABLESAMPLE syntax, an astute user might come to the conclusion
that the following query would be equivalent to the TABLESAMPLE operation:
hive> SELECT * FROM numbersflat WHERE number % 2 = 0;

It is true that for most table types, sampling scans through the entire table and selects
every Nth row. However, if the columns specified in the TABLESAMPLE clause match the
columns in the CLUSTERED BY clause, TABLESAMPLE queries only scan the required hash
partitions of the table:
hive> CREATE TABLE numbers_bucketed (number int) CLUSTERED BY (number) INTO 3 BUCKETS;
hive> SET hive.enforce.bucketing=true;
hive> INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE numbers_bucketed SELECT number FROM numbers;
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/mydb.db/numbers_bucketed;

Queries that Sample Data | 111

hive> dfs -cat /user/hive/warehouse/mydb.db/numbers_bucketed/000001_0;

Because this table is clustered into three buckets, the following query can be used to
sample only one of the buckets efficiently:
hive> SELECT * FROM numbers_bucketed TABLESAMPLE (BUCKET 2 OUT OF 3 ON NUMBER) s;

UNION ALL combines two or more tables. Each subquery of the union query must pro-

duce the same number of columns, and for each column, its type must match all the
column types in the same position. For example, if the second column is a FLOAT, then
the second column of all the other query results must be a FLOAT.
Here is an example the merges log data:
SELECT log.ymd, log.level, log.message
SELECT l1.ymd, l1.level,
l1.message, 'Log1' AS source
FROM log1 l1
SELECT l2.ymd, l2.level,
l2.message, 'Log2' AS source
FROM log1 l2
) log
SORT BY log.ymd ASC;

UNION may be used when a clause selects from the same source table. Logically, the same
results could be achieved with a single SELECT and WHERE clause. This technique increases
readability by breaking up a long complex WHERE clause into two or more UNION queries.

However, unless the source table is indexed, the query will have to make multiple passes
over the same source data. For example:
FROM src SELECT src.key, src.value WHERE src.key < 100
FROM src SELECT src.* WHERE src.key > 110
) unioninput
INSERT OVERWRITE DIRECTORY '/tmp/union.out' SELECT unioninput.*

112 | Chapter 6: HiveQL: Queries


HiveQL: Views

A view allows a query to be saved and treated like a table. It is a logical construct, as it
does not store data like a table. In other words, materialized views are not currently
supported by Hive.
When a query references a view, the information in its definition is combined with the
rest of the query by Hive’s query planner. Logically, you can imagine that Hive executes
the view and then uses the results in the rest of the query.

Views to Reduce Query Complexity
When a query becomes long or complicated, a view may be used to hide the complexity
by dividing the query into smaller, more manageable pieces; similar to writing a function in a programming language or the concept of layered design in software. Encapsulating the complexity makes it easier for end users to construct complex queries from
reusable parts. For example, consider the following query with a nested subquery:
SELECT * FROM people JOIN cart
ON ( WHERE firstname='john'
) a SELECT a.lastname WHERE;

It is common for Hive queries to have many levels of nesting. In the following example,
the nested portion of the query is turned into a view:
CREATE VIEW shorter_join AS
SELECT * FROM people JOIN cart
ON ( WHERE firstname='john';

Now the view is used like any other table. In this query we added a WHERE clause to the
SELECT statement. This exactly emulates the original query:
SELECT lastname FROM shorter_join WHERE id=3;


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Views that Restrict Data Based on Conditions
A common use case for views is restricting the result rows based on the value of one or
more columns. Some databases allow a view to be used as a security mechanism. Rather
than give the user access to the raw table with sensitive data, the user is given access to
a view with a WHERE clause that restricts the data. Hive does not currently support this
feature, as the user must have access to the entire underlying raw table for the view to
work. However, the concept of a view created to limit data access can be used to protect
information from the casual query:
hive> CREATE TABLE userinfo (
firstname string, lastname string, ssn string, password string);
hive> CREATE VIEW safer_user_info AS
> SELECT firstname,lastname FROM userinfo;

Here is another example where a view is used to restrict data based on a WHERE clause.
In this case, we wish to provide a view on an employee table that only exposes employees
from a specific department:
hive> CREATE TABLE employee (firstname string, lastname string,
ssn string, password string, department string);
hive> CREATE VIEW techops_employee AS
> SELECT firstname,lastname,ssn FROM userinfo WERE department='techops';

Views and Map Type for Dynamic Tables
Recall from Chapter 3 that Hive supports arrays, maps, and structs datatypes. These
datatypes are not common in traditional databases as they break first normal form.
Hive’s ability to treat a line of text as a map, rather than a fixed set of columns, combined
with the view feature, allows you to define multiple logical tables over one physical table.
For example, consider the following sample data file that treats an entire row as a map
rather than a list of fixed columns. Rather than using Hive’s default values for separators, this file uses ^A (Control-A) as the collection item separator (i.e., between keyvalue pairs in this case, where the collection is a map) and ^B (Control-B) as the separator between keys and values in the map. The long lines wrap in the following listing,
so we added a blank line between them for better clarity:
Now we create our table:

114 | Chapter 7: HiveQL: Views

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE dynamictable(cols map)

Because there is only one field per row, the FIELDS TERMINATED BY value actually has
no effect.
Now we can create a view that extracts only rows with type equal to requests and get
the city, state, and part into a view called orders:
CREATE VIEW orders(state, city, part) AS
SELECT cols["state"], cols["city"], cols["part"]
FROM dynamictable
WHERE cols["type"] = "request";

A second view is created named shipments. This view returns the time and part column
from rows where the type is response:
CREATE VIEW shipments(time, part) AS
SELECT cols["time"], cols["parts"]
FROM dynamictable
WHERE cols["type"] = "response";

For another example of this feature, see

View Odds and Ends
We said that Hive evaluates the view and then uses the results to evaluate the query.
However, as part of Hive’s query optimization, the clauses of both the query and view
may be combined together into a single actual query.
Nevertheless, the conceptual view still applies when the view and a query that uses it
both contain an ORDER BY clause or a LIMIT clause. The view’s clauses are evaluated
before the using query’s clauses.
For example, if the view has a LIMIT 100 clause and the query has a LIMIT 200 clause,
you’ll get at most 100 results.
While defining a view doesn’t “materialize” any data, the view is frozen to any subsequent changes to any tables and columns that the view uses. Hence, a query using a
view can fail if the referenced tables or columns no longer exist.
There are a few other clauses you can use when creating views. Modifying our last
CREATE VIEW IF NOT EXISTS shipments(time, part)
COMMENT 'Time and parts for shipments.'
TBLPROPERTIES ('creator' = 'me')

View Odds and Ends | 115

As for tables, the IF NOT EXISTS and COMMENT … clauses are optional, and have the same
meaning they have for tables.
A view’s name must be unique compared to all other table and view names in the same
You can also add a COMMENT for any or all of the new column names. The comments are
not “inherited” from the definition of the original table.
Also, if the AS SELECT contains an expression without an alias—e.g., size(cols) (the
number of items in cols)—then Hive will use _CN as the name, where N is a number
starting with 0. The view definition will fail if the AS SELECT clause is invalid.
Before the AS SELECT clause, you can also define TBLPROPERTIES, just like for tables. In
the example, we defined a property for the “creator” of the view.
The CREATE TABLE … LIKE … construct discussed in “Creating Tables” on page 53 can
also be used to copy a view, that is with a view as part of the LIKE expression:
CREATE TABLE shipments2
LIKE shipments;

You can also use the optional EXTERNAL keyword and LOCATION … clause, as before.
The behavior of this statement is different as of Hive v0.8.0 and previous
versions of Hive. For v0.8.0, the command creates a new table, not a
new view. It uses defaults for the SerDe and file formats. For earlier
versions, a new view is created.

A view is dropped in the same way as a table:

As usual, IF EXISTS is optional.
A view will be shown using SHOW TABLES (there is no SHOW VIEWS), however DROP TABLE
cannot be used to delete a view.
As for tables, DESCRIBE shipments and DESCRIBE EXTENDED shipments displays the usual
data for the shipment view. With the latter, there will be a tableType value in the
Detailed Table Information indicating the “table” is a VIRTUAL_VIEW.
You cannot use a view as a target of an INSERT or LOAD command.
Finally, views are read-only. You can only alter the metadata TBLPROPERTIES for a view:
ALTER VIEW shipments SET TBLPROPERTIES ('created_at' = 'some_timestamp');

116 | Chapter 7: HiveQL: Views


HiveQL: Indexes

Hive has limited indexing capabilities. There are no keys in the usual relational database
sense, but you can build an index on columns to speed some operations. The index
data for a table is stored in another table.
Also, the feature is relatively new, so it doesn’t have a lot of options yet. However, the
indexing process is designed to be customizable with plug-in Java code, so teams can
extend the feature to meet their needs.
Indexing is also a good alternative to partitioning when the logical partitions would
actually be too numerous and small to be useful. Indexing can aid in pruning some
blocks from a table as input for a MapReduce job. Not all queries can benefit from an
index—the EXPLAIN syntax and Hive can be used to determine if a given query is aided
by an index.
Indexes in Hive, like those in relational databases, need to be evaluated carefully.
Maintaining an index requires extra disk space and building an index has a processing
cost. The user must weigh these costs against the benefits they offer when querying a

Creating an Index
Let’s create an index for our managed, partitioned employees table we described in
“Partitioned, Managed Tables” on page 58. Here is the table definition we used previously, for reference:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP,

Let’s index on the country partition only:

CREATE INDEX employees_index
ON TABLE employees (country)
AS 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.index.compact.CompactIndexHandler'
IDXPROPERTIES ('creator = 'me', 'created_at' = 'some_time')
IN TABLE employees_index_table
PARTITIONED BY (country, name)
COMMENT 'Employees indexed by country and name.';

In this case, we did not partition the index table to the same level of granularity as the
original table. We could choose to do so. If we omitted the PARTITIONED BY clause
completely, the index would span all partitions of the original table.
The AS ... clause specifies the index handler, a Java class that implements indexing.
Hive ships with a few representative implementations; the CompactIndexHandler shown
was in the first release of this feature. Third-party implementations can optimize certain
scenarios, support specific file formats, and more. We’ll provide more information on
implementing your own index handler in “Implementing a Custom Index Handler” on page 119.
We’ll discuss the meaning of WITH DEFERRED REBUILD in the next section.
It’s not a requirement for the index handler to save its data in a new table, but if it does,
the IN TABLE ... clause is used. It supports many of the options available when creating
other tables. Specifically, the example doesn’t use the optional ROW FORMAT, STORED AS,
STORED BY, LOCATION, and TBLPROPERTIES clauses that we discussed in Chapter 4. All
would appear before the final COMMENT clause shown.
Currently, indexing external tables and views is supported except for data residing
in S3.

Bitmap Indexes
Hive v0.8.0 adds a built-in bitmap index handler. Bitmap indexes are commonly used
for columns with few distinct values. Here is our previous example rewritten to use the
bitmap index handler:
CREATE INDEX employees_index
ON TABLE employees (country)
IDXPROPERTIES ('creator = 'me', 'created_at' = 'some_time')
IN TABLE employees_index_table
PARTITIONED BY (country, name)
COMMENT 'Employees indexed by country and name.';

Rebuilding the Index
If you specified WITH DEFERRED REBUILD, the new index starts empty. At any time, the
index can be built the first time or rebuilt using the ALTER INDEX statement:
118 | Chapter 8: HiveQL: Indexes

ALTER INDEX employees_index
ON TABLE employees
PARTITION (country = 'US')

If the PARTITION clause is omitted, the index is rebuilt for all partitions.
There is no built-in mechanism to trigger an automatic rebuild of the index if the underlying table or a particular partition changes. However, if you have a workflow that
updates table partitions with data, one where you might already use the ALTER TABLE ...
TOUCH PARTITION(...) feature described in “Miscellaneous Alter Table Statements” on page 69, that same workflow could issue the ALTER INDEX ... REBUILD
command for a corresponding index.
The rebuild is atomic in the sense that if the rebuild fails, the index is left in the previous
state before the rebuild was started.

Showing an Index
The following command will show all the indexes defined for any column in the indexed

FORMATTED is optional. It causes column titles to be added to the output. You can also
replace INDEX with INDEXES, as the output may list multiple indexes.

Dropping an Index
Dropping an index also drops the index table, if any:
DROP INDEX IF EXISTS employees_index ON TABLE employees;

Hive won’t let you attempt to drop the index table directly with DROP TABLE. As always,
IF EXISTS is optional and serves to suppress errors if the index doesn’t exist.
If the table that was indexed is dropped, the index itself and its table is dropped. Similarly, if a partition of the original table is dropped, the corresponding partition index
is also dropped.

Implementing a Custom Index Handler
The full details for implementing a custom index handler are given on the Hive Wiki
where the initial design of indexing is documented. Of course, you can use the
source code for org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.index.compact.CompactIndexHandler as an

Implementing a Custom Index Handler | 119

When the index is created, the Java code you implement for the index handler has to
do some initial validation and define the schema for the index table, if used. It also has
to implement the rebuilding process where it reads the table to be indexed and writes
to the index storage (e.g., the index table). The handler must clean up any nontable
storage it uses for the index when the index is dropped, relying on Hive to drop the
index table, as needed. Finally, the handler must participate in optimizing queries.

120 | Chapter 8: HiveQL: Indexes


Schema Design

Hive looks and acts like a relational database. Users have a familiar nomenclature such
as tables and columns, as well as a query language that is remarkably similar to SQL
dialects they have used before. However, Hive is implemented and used in ways that
are very different from conventional relational databases. Often, users try to carry over
paradigms from the relational world that are actually Hive anti-patterns. This section
highlights some Hive patterns you should use and some anti-patterns you should avoid.

Table-by-day is a pattern where a table named supply is appended with a timestamp
such as supply_2011_01_01, supply_2011_01_02, etc. Table-by-day is an anti-pattern in
the database world, but due to common implementation challenges of ever-growing
data sets, it is still widely used:
hive> CREATE TABLE supply_2011_01_02 (id int, part string, quantity int);
hive> CREATE TABLE supply_2011_01_03 (id int, part string, quantity int);
hive> CREATE TABLE supply_2011_01_04 (id int, part string, quantity int);
hive> .... load data ...

SELECT part,quantity supply_2011_01_02
SELECT part,quantity from supply_2011_01_03
WHERE quantity < 4;

With Hive, a partitioned table should be used instead. Hive uses expressions in the
WHERE clause to select input only from the partitions needed for the query. This query
will run efficiently, and it is clean and easy on the eyes:
hive> CREATE TABLE supply (id int, part string, quantity int)
> PARTITIONED BY (int day);
hive> ALTER TABLE supply add PARTITION (day=20110102);


hive> ALTER TABLE supply add PARTITION (day=20110103);
hive> ALTER TABLE supply add PARTITION (day=20110102);
hive> .... load data ...
hive> SELECT part,quantity FROM supply
> WHERE day>=20110102 AND day<20110103 AND quantity < 4;

Over Partitioning
The partitioning feature is very useful in Hive. This is because Hive typically performs
full scans over all input to satisfy a query (we’ll leave Hive’s indexing out for this
discussion). However, a design that creates too many partitions may optimize some
queries, but be detrimental for other important queries:
hive> CREATE TABLE weblogs (url string, time long )
> PARTITIONED BY (day int, state string, city string);
hive> SELECT * FROM weblogs WHERE day=20110102;

HDFS was designed for many millions of large files, not billions of small files. The first
drawback of having too many partitions is the large number of Hadoop files and directories that are created unnecessarily. Each partition corresponds to a directory that
usually contains multiple files. If a given table contains thousands of partitions, it may
have tens of thousands of files, possibly created every day. If the retention of this table
is multiplied over years, it will eventually exhaust the capacity of the NameNode to
manage the filesystem metadata. The NameNode must keep all metadata for the filesystem in memory. While each file requires a small number of bytes for its metadata
(approximately 150 bytes/file), the net effect is to impose an upper limit on the total
number of files that can be managed in an HDFS installation. Other filesystems, like
MapR and Amazon S3 don’t have this limitation.
MapReduce processing converts a job into multiple tasks. In the default case, each task
is a new JVM instance, requiring the overhead of start up and tear down. For small
files, a separate task will be used for each file. In pathological scenarios, the overhead
of JVM start up and tear down can exceed the actual processing time!
Hence, an ideal partition scheme should not result in too many partitions and their
directories, and the files in each directory should be large, some multiple of the filesystem block size.
A good strategy for time-range partitioning, for example, is to determine the approximate size of your data accumulation over different granularities of time, and start with
the granularity that results in “modest” growth in the number of partitions over time,
while each partition contains files at least on the order of the filesystem block size or
multiples thereof. This balancing keeps the partitions large, which optimizes
throughput for the general case query. Consider when the next level of granularity is
122 | Chapter 9: Schema Design

appropriate, especially if query WHERE clauses typically select ranges of smaller
hive> CREATE TABLE weblogs (url string, time long, state string, city string )
> PARTITIONED BY (day int);
hive> SELECT * FROM weblogs WHERE day=20110102;

Another solution is to use two levels of partitions along different dimensions. For example, the first partition might be by day and the second-level partition might be by
geographic region, like the state:
hive> CREATE TABLE weblogs (url string, time long, city string )
> PARTITIONED BY (day int, state string);
hive> SELECT * FROM weblogs WHERE day=20110102;

However, since some states will probably result in lots more data than others, you could
see imbalanced map tasks, as processing the larger states takes a lot longer than processing the smaller states.
If you can’t find good, comparatively sized partition choices, consider using bucketing as described in “Bucketing Table Data Storage” on page 125.

Unique Keys and Normalization
Relational databases typically use unique keys, indexes, and normalization to store data
sets that fit into memory or mostly into memory. Hive, however, does not have the
concept of primary keys or automatic, sequence-based key generation. Joins should be
avoided in favor of denormalized data, when feasible. The complex types, Array, Map,
and Struct, help by allowing the storage of one-to-many data inside a single row. This
is not to say normalization should never be utilized, but star-schema type designs are
The primary reason to avoid normalization is to minimize disk seeks, such as those
typically required to navigate foreign key relations. Denormalizing data permits it to
be scanned from or written to large, contiguous sections of disk drives, which optimizes
I/O performance. However, you pay the penalty of denormalization, data duplication
and the greater risk of inconsistent data.
For example, consider our running example, the employees table. Here it is again with
some changes for clarity:
CREATE TABLE employees (
subordinates ARRAY,
deductions MAP

The data model of this example breaks the traditional design rules in a few ways.

Unique Keys and Normalization | 123

First, we are informally using name as the primary key, although we all know that names
are often not unique! Ignoring that issue for now, a relational model would have a single
foreign key relation from an employee record to the manager record, using the name
key. We represented this relation the other way around: each employee has an ARRAY
of names of subordinates.
Second, the value for each deduction is unique to the employee, but the map keys are
duplicated data, even if you substitute “flags” (say, integers) for the actual key strings.
A normal relational model would have a separate, two-column table for the deduction
name (or flag) and value, with a one-to-many relationship between the employees and
this deductions table.
Finally, chances are that at least some employees live at the same address, but we are
duplicating the address for each employee, rather than using a one-to-one relationship
to an addresses table.
It’s up to us to manage referential integrity (or deal with the consequences), and to fix
the duplicates of a particular piece of data that has changed. Hive does not give us a
convenient way to UPDATE single records.
Still, when you have 10s of terabytes to many petabytes of data, optimizing speed makes
these limitations worth accepting.

Making Multiple Passes over the Same Data
Hive has a special syntax for producing multiple aggregations from a single pass
through a source of data, rather than rescanning it for each aggregation. This change
can save considerable processing time for large input data sets. We discussed the details
previously in Chapter 5.
For example, each of the following two queries creates a table from the same source
table, history:


* FROM history WHERE action='purchased';
* FROM history WHERE action='returned';

This syntax is correct, but inefficient. The following rewrite achieves the same thing,
but using a single pass through the source history table:
hive> FROM history
SELECT * WHERE action='purchased'
> INSERT OVERWRITE credits SELECT * WHERE action='returned';

The Case for Partitioning Every Table
Many ETL processes involve multiple processing steps. Each step may produce one or
more temporary tables that are only needed until the end of the next job. At first it may
124 | Chapter 9: Schema Design

appear that partitioning these temporary tables is unnecessary. However, imagine a
scenario where a mistake in step’s query or raw data forces a rerun of the ETL process
for several days of input. You will likely need to run the catch-up process a day at a
time in order to make sure that one job does not overwrite the temporary table before
other tasks have completed.
For example, this following design creates an intermediate table by the name
of distinct_ip_in_logs to be used by a subsequent processing step:
$ hive -hiveconf dt=2011-01-01
hive> INSERT OVERWRITE table distinct_ip_in_logs
> SELECT distinct(ip) as ip from weblogs
> WHERE hit_date='${hiveconf:dt}';
hive> CREATE TABLE state_city_for_day (state string,city string);
hive> INSERT OVERWRITE state_city_for_day
> SELECT distinct(state,city) FROM distinct_ip_in_logs
> JOIN geodata ON (distinct_ip_in_logs.ip=geodata.ip);

This approach works, however computing a single day causes the record of the previous
day to be removed via the INSERT OVERWRITE clause. If two instances of this process are
run at once for different days they could stomp on each others’ results.
A more robust approach is to carry the partition information all the way through the
process. This makes synchronization a nonissue. Also, as a side effect, this approach
allows you to compare the intermediate data day over day:
$ hive -hiveconf dt=2011-01-01
hive> INSERT OVERWRITE table distinct_ip_in_logs
> PARTITION (hit_date=${dt})
> SELECT distinct(ip) as ip from weblogs
> WHERE hit_date='${hiveconf:dt}';
hive> CREATE TABLE state_city_for_day (state string,city string)
> PARTITIONED BY (hit_date string);

INSERT OVERWRITE table state_city_for_day PARTITION(${hiveconf:df})
SELECT distinct(state,city) FROM distinct_ip_in_logs
JOIN geodata ON (distinct_ip_in_logs.ip=geodata.ip)
WHERE (hit_date='${hiveconf:dt}');

A drawback of this approach is that you will need to manage the intermediate table
and delete older partitions, but these tasks are easy to automate.

Bucketing Table Data Storage
Partitions offer a convenient way to segregate data and to optimize queries. However,
not all data sets lead to sensible partitioning, especially given the concerns raised earlier
about appropriate sizing.
Bucketing is another technique for decomposing data sets into more manageable parts.
Bucketing Table Data Storage | 125

For example, suppose a table using the date dt as the top-level partition and the
user_id as the second-level partition leads to too many small partitions. Recall that if
you use dynamic partitioning to create these partitions, by default Hive limits the maximum number of dynamic partitions that may be created to prevent the extreme case
where so many partitions are created they overwhelm the filesystem’s ability to manage
them and other problems. So, the following commands might fail:
hive> CREATE TABLE weblog (url STRING, source_ip STRING)
hive> FROM raw_weblog
> INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE page_view PARTITION(dt='2012-06-08', user_id)
> SELECT server_name, url, source_ip, dt, user_id;

Instead, if we bucket the weblog table and use user_id as the bucketing column, the
value of this column will be hashed by a user-defined number into buckets. Records
with the same user_id will always be stored in the same bucket. Assuming the number
of users is much greater than the number of buckets, each bucket will have many users:
hive> CREATE TABLE weblog (user_id INT, url STRING, source_ip STRING)

However, it is up to you to insert data correctly into the table! The specification in
CREATE TABLE only defines metadata, but has no effect on commands that actually pop-

ulate the table.
This is how to populate the table correctly, when using an INSERT … TABLE statement.
First, we set a property that forces Hive to choose the correct number of reducers corresponding to the target table’s bucketing setup. Then we run a query to populate the
partitions. For example:
hive> SET hive.enforce.bucketing = true;

FROM raw_logs
PARTITION (dt='2009-02-25')
SELECT user_id, url, source_ip WHERE dt='2009-02-25';

If we didn’t use the hive.enforce.bucketing property, we would have to set the number
of reducers to match the number of buckets, using set mapred.reduce.tasks=96. Then
the INSERT query would require a CLUSTER BY clause after the SELECT clause.
As for all table metadata, specifying bucketing doesn’t ensure that the
table is properly populated. Follow the previous example to ensure that
you correctly populate bucketed tables.

Bucketing has several advantages. The number of buckets is fixed so it does not fluctuate with data. Buckets are ideal for sampling. If two tables are bucketed by user_id,

126 | Chapter 9: Schema Design

Hive can create a logically correct sampling. Bucketing also aids in doing efficient mapside joins, as we discussed in “Map-side Joins” on page 105.

Adding Columns to a Table
Hive allows the definition of a schema over raw data files, unlike many databases that
force the conversion and importation of data following a specific format. A benefit of
this separation of concerns is the ability to adapt a table definition easily when new
columns are added to the data files.
Hive offers the SerDe abstraction, which enables the extraction of data from input. The
SerDe also enables the output of data, though the output feature is not used as frequently because Hive is used primarily as a query mechanism. A SerDe usually parses
from left to right, splitting rows by specified delimiters into columns. The SerDes tend
to be very forgiving. For example, if a row has fewer columns than expected, the missing
columns will be returned as null. If the row has more columns than expected, they will
be ignored. Adding new columns to the schema involves a single ALTER TABLE ADD COL
UMN command. This is very useful as log formats tend to only add more information to
a message:
hive> CREATE TABLE weblogs (version LONG, url STRING)
> PARTITIONED BY (hit_date int)
hive> ! cat log1.txt
1 /mystuff
1 /toys
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'log1.txt' int weblogs partition(20110101);
hive> SELECT * FROM weblogs;
1 /mystuff 20110101
1 /toys

Over time a new column may be added to the underlying data. In the following example
the column user_id is added to the data. Note that some older raw data files may not
have this column:
hive> ! cat log2.txt
2 /cars bob
2 /stuff terry
hive> ALTER TABLE weblogs ADD COLUMNS (user_id string);
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH 'log2.txt' int weblogs partition(20110102);
hive> SELECT
1 /mystuff
1 /toys
2 /cars
2 /stuff

* from weblogs
20110101 NULL
20110101 NULL
20110102 bob
20110102 terry

Adding Columns to a Table | 127

Note that with this approach, columns cannot be added in the beginning or the middle.

Using Columnar Tables
Hive typically uses row-oriented storage, however Hive also has a columnar SerDe that
stores information in a hybrid row-column orientated form. While this format can be
used for any type of data there are some data sets that it is optimal for.

Repeated Data
Given enough rows, fields like state and age will have the same data repeated many
times. This type of data benefits from column-based storage.















Many Columns
The table below has a large number of columns.





many_more …

























Queries typically only use a single column or a small set of columns. Column-based
storage will make analyzing the table data faster:
hive> SELECT distinct(state) from weblogs;

You can reference the section “RCFile” on page 202 to see how to use this format.

(Almost) Always Use Compression!
In almost all cases, compression makes data smaller on disk, which usually makes
queries faster by reducing I/O overhead. Hive works seamlessly with many compression
types. The only compelling reason to not use compression is when the data produced
128 | Chapter 9: Schema Design

is intended for use by an external system, and an uncompressed format, such as text,
is the most compatible.
But compression and decompression consumes CPU resources. MapReduce jobs tend
to be I/O bound, so the extra CPU overhead is usually not a problem. However, for
workflows that are CPU intensive, such as some machine-learning algorithms, compression may actually reduce performance by stealing valuable CPU resources from
more essential operations.
See Chapter 11 for more on how to use compression.

(Almost) Always Use Compression! | 129



HiveQL is a declarative language where users issue declarative queries and Hive figures
out how to translate them into MapReduce jobs. Most of the time, you don’t need to
understand how Hive works, freeing you to focus on the problem at hand. While the
sophisticated process of query parsing, planning, optimization, and execution is the
result of many years of hard engineering work by the Hive team, most of the time you
can remain oblivious to it.
However, as you become more experienced with Hive, learning about the theory behind
Hive, and the low-level implementation details, will let you use Hive more effectively,
especially where performance optimizations are concerned.
This chapter covers several different topics related to tuning Hive performance. Some
tuning involves adjusting numeric configuration parameters (“turning the knobs”),
while other tuning steps involve enabling or disabling specific features.

The first step to learning how Hive works (after reading this book…) is to use the
EXPLAIN feature to learn how Hive translates queries into MapReduce jobs.
Consider the following example:
hive> DESCRIBE onecol;
number int
hive> SELECT * FROM onecol;
hive> SELECT SUM(number) FROM onecol;

Now, put the EXPLAIN keyword in front of the last query to see the query plan and other
information. The query will not be executed.


Download from Wow! eBook 

hive> EXPLAIN SELECT SUM(number) FROM onecol;

The output requires some explaining and practice to understand.
First, the abstract syntax tree is printed. This shows how Hive parsed the query into
tokens and literals, as part of the first step in turning the query into the ultimate result:
(TOK_FUNCTION sum (TOK_TABLE_OR_COL number))))))

(The indentation of the actual output was changed to fit the page.)
For those not familiar with parsers and tokenizers, this can look overwhelming. However, even if you are a novice in this area, you can study the output to get a sense for
what Hive is doing with the SQL statement. (As a first step, ignore the TOK_ prefixes.)
Even though our query will write its output to the console, Hive will actually write the
output to a temporary file first, as shown by this part of the output:

Next, we can see references to our column name number, our table name onecol, and
the sum function.
A Hive job consists of one or more stages, with dependencies between different stages.
As you might expect, more complex queries will usually involve more stages and more
stages usually requires more processing time to complete.
A stage could be a MapReduce job, a sampling stage, a merge stage, a limit stage, or a
stage for some other task Hive needs to do. By default, Hive executes these stages one
at a time, although later we’ll discuss parallel execution in “Parallel Execution” on page 136.
Some stages will be short, like those that move files around. Other stages may also
finish quickly if they have little data to process, even though they require a map or
reduce task:
Stage-1 is a root stage
Stage-0 is a root stage

The STAGE PLAN section is verbose and complex. Stage-1 is the bulk of the processing
for this job and happens via a MapReduce job. A TableScan takes the input of the table
and produces a single output column number. The Group By Operator applies the
sum(number) and produces an output column _col0 (a synthesized name for an anonymous result). All this is happening on the map side of the job, under the Map Operator

132 | Chapter 10: Tuning

Stage: Stage-1
Map Reduce
Alias -> Map Operator Tree:
alias: onecol
Select Operator
expr: number
type: int
outputColumnNames: number
Group By Operator
expr: sum(number)
bucketGroup: false
mode: hash
outputColumnNames: _col0
Reduce Output Operator
sort order:
tag: -1
value expressions:
expr: _col0
type: bigint

On the reduce side, under the Reduce Operator Tree, we see the same Group by Opera
tor but this time it is applying sum on _col0. Finally, in the reducer we see the File
Output Operator, which shows that the output will be text, based on the string output
format: HiveIgnoreKeyTextOutputFormat:
Reduce Operator Tree:
Group By Operator
expr: sum(VALUE._col0)
bucketGroup: false
mode: mergepartial
outputColumnNames: _col0
Select Operator
expr: _col0
type: bigint
outputColumnNames: _col0
File Output Operator
compressed: false
GlobalTableId: 0
input format: org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat
output format:

Because this job has no LIMIT clause, Stage-0 is a no-op stage:
Stage: Stage-0
Fetch Operator
limit: -1

Using EXPLAIN | 133

Understanding the intricate details of how Hive parses and plans every query is not
useful all of the time. However, it is a nice to have for analyzing complex or poorly
performing queries, especially as we try various tuning steps. We can observe what
effect these changes have at the “logical” level, in tandem with performance measurements.

Using EXPLAIN EXTENDED produces even more output. In an effort to “go green,” we
won’t show the entire output, but we will show you the Reduce Operator Tree to
demonstrate the different output:
Reduce Operator Tree:
Group By Operator
expr: sum(VALUE._col0)
bucketGroup: false
mode: mergepartial
outputColumnNames: _col0
Select Operator
expr: _col0
type: bigint
outputColumnNames: _col0
File Output Operator
compressed: false
GlobalTableId: 0
directory: file:/tmp/edward/hive_2012-[long number]/-ext-10001
NumFilesPerFileSink: 1
Stats Publishing Key Prefix:
file:/tmp/edward/hive_2012-[long number]/-ext-10001/
input format: org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat
output format:
columns _col0
columns.types bigint
escape.delim \
serialization.format 1
TotalFiles: 1
GatherStats: false
MultiFileSpray: false

We encourage you to compare the two outputs for the Reduce Operator Tree.

Limit Tuning
The LIMIT clause is commonly used, often by people working with the CLI. However,
in many cases a LIMIT clause still executes the entire query, then only returns a handful

134 | Chapter 10: Tuning

of results. Because this behavior is generally wasteful, it should be avoided when
possible. Hive has a configuration property to enable sampling of source data for use
with LIMIT:

Whether to enable to optimization to
try a smaller subset of data for simple LIMIT first.

Once the hive.limit.optimize.enable is set to true, two variables control its operation,
hive.limit.row.max.size and hive.limit.optimize.limit.file:

When trying a smaller subset of data for simple LIMIT,
how much size we need to guarantee each row to have at least.

When trying a smaller subset of data for simple LIMIT,
maximum number of files we can sample.

A drawback of this feature is the risk that useful input data will never get processed.
For example, any query that requires a reduce step, such as most JOIN and GROUP BY
operations, most calls to aggregate functions, etc., will have very different results. Perhaps this difference is okay in many cases, but it’s important to understand.

Optimized Joins
We discussed optimizing join performance in “Join Optimizations” on page 100 and
“Map-side Joins” on page 105. We won’t reproduce the details here, but just remind
yourself that it’s important to know which table is the largest and put it last in the
JOIN clause, or use the /* streamtable(table_name) */ directive.
If all but one table is small enough, typically to fit in memory, then Hive can perform
a map-side join, eliminating the need for reduce tasks and even some map tasks. Sometimes even tables that do not fit in memory are good candidates because removing the
reduce phase outweighs the cost of bringing semi-large tables into each map tasks.

Local Mode
Many Hadoop jobs need the full scalability benefits of Hadoop to process large data
sets. However, there are times when the input to Hive is very small. In these cases, the
Local Mode | 135

overhead of launching tasks for queries consumes a significant percentage of the overall
job execution time. In many of these cases, Hive can leverage the lighter weight of the
local mode to perform all the tasks for the job on a single machine and sometimes in
the same process. The reduction in execution times can be dramatic for small data sets.
You can explicitly enable local mode temporarily, as in this example:
hive> set oldjobtracker=${hiveconf:mapred.job.tracker};
hive> set mapred.job.tracker=local;
hive> set mapred.tmp.dir=/home/edward/tmp;
hive> SELECT * from people WHERE firstname=bob;
hive> set mapred.job.tracker=${oldjobtracker};

You can also tell Hive to automatically apply this optimization by setting to true, perhaps in your $HOME/.hiverc.
To set this property permanently for all users, change the value in your $HIVE_HOME/

Let hive determine whether to run in local mode automatically

Parallel Execution
Hive converts a query into one or more stages. Stages could be a MapReduce stage, a
sampling stage, a merge stage, a limit stage, or other possible tasks Hive needs to do.
By default, Hive executes these stages one at a time. However, a particular job may
consist of some stages that are not dependent on each other and could be executed in
parallel, possibly allowing the overall job to complete more quickly. However, if more
stages are run simultaneously, the job may complete much faster.
Setting hive.exec.parallel to true enables parallel execution. Be careful in a shared
cluster, however. If a job is running more stages in parallel, it will increase its cluster

Whether to execute jobs in parallel

136 | Chapter 10: Tuning

Strict Mode
Strict mode is a setting in Hive that prevents users from issuing queries that could have
unintended and undesirable effects.
Setting the property hive.mapred.mode to strict disables three types of queries.
First, queries on partitioned tables are not permitted unless they include a partition
filter in the WHERE clause, limiting their scope. In other words, you’re prevented from
queries that will scan all partitions. The rationale for this limitation is that partitioned
tables often hold very large data sets that may be growing rapidly. An unrestricted
partition could consume unacceptably large resources over such a large table:
hive> SELECT DISTINCT(planner_id) FROM fracture_ins WHERE planner_id=5;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: No Partition Predicate Found for
Alias "fracture_ins" Table "fracture_ins"

The following enhancement adds a partition filter—the table partitions—to the
WHERE clause:
hive> SELECT DISTINCT(planner_id) FROM fracture_ins
> WHERE planner_id=5 AND hit_date=20120101;
... normal results ...

The second type of restricted query are those with ORDER BY clauses, but no LIMIT clause.
Because ORDER BY sends all results to a single reducer to perform the ordering, forcing
the user to specify a LIMIT clause prevents the reducer from executing for an extended
period of time:
hive> SELECT * FROM fracture_ins WHERE hit_date>2012 ORDER BY planner_id;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: line 1:56 In strict mode,
limit must be specified if ORDER BY is present planner_id

To issue this query, add a LIMIT clause:
hive> SELECT * FROM fracture_ins WHERE hit_date>2012 ORDER BY planner_id
> LIMIT 100000;
... normal results ...

The third and final type of query prevented is a Cartesian product. Users coming from
the relational database world may expect that queries that perform a JOIN not with an
ON clause but with a WHERE clause will have the query optimized by the query planner,
effectively converting the WHERE clause into an ON clause. Unfortunately, Hive does not
perform this optimization, so a runaway query will occur if the tables are large:
hive> SELECT * FROM fracture_act JOIN fracture_ads
> WHERE fracture_act.planner_id = fracture_ads.planner_id;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: In strict mode, cartesian product
is not allowed. If you really want to perform the operation,
+set hive.mapred.mode=nonstrict+

Here is a properly constructed query with JOIN and ON clauses:

Strict Mode | 137

hive> SELECT * FROM fracture_act JOIN fracture_ads
> ON (fracture_act.planner_id = fracture_ads.planner_id);
... normal results ...

Tuning the Number of Mappers and Reducers
Hive is able to parallelize queries by breaking the query into one or more MapReduce
jobs. Each of which might have multiple mapper and reducer tasks, at least some of
which can run in parallel. Determining the optimal number of mappers and reducers
depends on many variables, such as the size of the input and the operation being performed on the data.
A balance is required. Having too many mapper or reducer tasks causes excessive overhead in starting, scheduling, and running the job, while too few tasks means the
inherent parallelism of the cluster is underutilized.
When running a Hive query that has a reduce phase, the CLI prints information about
how the number of reducers can be tuned. Let’s see an example that uses a GROUP BY
query, because they always require a reduce phase. In contrast, many other queries are
converted into map-only jobs:
hive> SELECT pixel_id, count FROM fracture_ins WHERE hit_date=20120119
> GROUP BY pixel_id;
Total MapReduce jobs = 1
Launching Job 1 out of 1
Number of reduce tasks not specified. Estimated from input data size: 3
In order to change the average load for a reducer (in bytes):
set hive.exec.reducers.bytes.per.reducer=
In order to limit the maximum number of reducers:
set hive.exec.reducers.max=
In order to set a constant number of reducers:
set mapred.reduce.tasks=

Hive is determining the number of reducers from the input size. This can be confirmed
using the dfs -count command, which works something like the Linux du -s command;
it computes a total size for all the data under a given directory:
[edward@etl02 ~]$
1 8 2614608737
1 7 2742992546
1 17 2656878252
1 2

hadoop dfs -count /user/media6/fracture/ins/* | tail -4

(We’ve reformatted the output and elided some details for space.)
The default value of hive.exec.reducers.bytes.per.reducer is 1 GB. Changing this
value to 750 MB causes Hive to estimate four reducers for this job:
hive> set hive.exec.reducers.bytes.per.reducer=750000000;
hive> SELECT pixel_id,count(1) FROM fracture_ins WHERE hit_date=20120119
> GROUP BY pixel_id;

138 | Chapter 10: Tuning

Total MapReduce jobs = 1
Launching Job 1 out of 1
Number of reduce tasks not specified. Estimated from input data size: 4

This default typically yields good results. However, there are cases where a query’s map
phase will create significantly more data than the input size. In the case of excessive
map phase data, the input size of the default might be selecting too few reducers. Likewise the map function might filter a large portion of the data from the data set and then
fewer reducers may be justified.
A quick way to experiment is by setting the number of reducers to a fixed size, rather
than allowing Hive to calculate the value. If you remember, the Hive default estimate
is three reducers. Set mapred.reduce.tasks to different numbers and determine if more
or fewer reducers results in faster run times. Remember that benchmarking like this is
complicated by external factors such as other users running jobs simultaneously. Hadoop has a few seconds overhead to start up and schedule map and reduce tasks. When
executing performance tests, it’s important to keep these factors in mind, especially if
the jobs are small.
The hive.exec.reducers.max property is useful for controlling resource utilization on
shared clusters when dealing with large jobs. A Hadoop cluster has a fixed number of
map and reduce “slots” to allocate to tasks. One large job could reserve all of the slots
and block other jobs from starting. Setting hive.exec.reducers.max can stop a query
from taking too many reducer resources. It is a good idea to set this value in your
$HIVE_HOME/conf/hive-site.xml. A suggested formula is to set the value to the result
of this calculation:
(Total Cluster Reduce Slots * 1.5) / (avg number of queries running)

The 1.5 multiplier is a fudge factor to prevent underutilization of the cluster.

JVM Reuse
JVM reuse is a Hadoop tuning parameter that is very relevant to Hive performance,
especially scenarios where it’s hard to avoid small files and scenarios with lots of tasks,
most which have short execution times.
The default configuration of Hadoop will typically launch map or reduce tasks in a
forked JVM. The JVM start-up may create significant overhead, especially when
launching jobs with hundreds or thousands of tasks. Reuse allows a JVM instance to
be reused up to N times for the same job. This value is set in Hadoop’s mapredsite.xml (in $HADOOP_HOME/conf):

How many tasks to run per jvm. If set to -1, there is no limit.

JVM Reuse | 139


A drawback of this feature is that JVM reuse will keep reserved task slots open until
the job completes, in case they are needed for reuse. If an “unbalanced” job has some
reduce tasks that run considerably longer than the others, the reserved slots will sit idle,
unavailable for other jobs, until the last task completes.

Indexes may be used to accelerate the calculation speed of a GROUP BY query.
Hive contains an implementation of bitmap indexes since v0.8.0. The main use case
for bitmap indexes is when there are comparatively few values for a given column. See
“Bitmap Indexes” on page 118 for more information.

Dynamic Partition Tuning
As explained in “Dynamic Partition Inserts” on page 74, dynamic partition INSERT
statements enable a succinct SELECT statement to create many new partitions for insertion into a partitioned table.
This is a very powerful feature, however if the number of partitions is high, a large
number of output handles must be created on the system. This is a somewhat uncommon use case for Hadoop, which typically creates a few files at once and streams large
amounts of data to them.
Out of the box, Hive is configured to prevent dynamic partition inserts from creating
more than 1,000 or so partitions. While it can be bad for a table to have too many
partitions, it is generally better to tune this setting to the larger value and allow these
queries to work.
First, it is always good to set the dynamic partition mode to strict in your hivesite.xml, as discussed in “Strict Mode” on page 137. When strict mode is on, at
least one partition has to be static, as demonstrated in “Dynamic Partition Inserts” on page 74:

In strict mode, the user must specify at least one
static partition in case the user accidentally overwrites all

Then, increase the other relevant properties to allow queries that will create a large
number of dynamic partitions, for example:


140 | Chapter 10: Tuning

Maximum number of dynamic partitions allowed to be
created in total.

Maximum number of dynamic partitions allowed to be
created in each mapper/reducer node.

Another setting controls how many files a DataNode will allow to be open at once. It
must be set in the DataNode’s $HADOOP_HOME/conf/hdfs-site.xml.
In Hadoop v0.20.2, the default value is 256, which is too low. The value affects the
number of maximum threads and resources, so setting it to a very high number is not
recommended. Note also that in Hadoop v0.20.2, changing this variable requires restarting the DataNode to take effect:


Speculative Execution
Speculative execution is a feature of Hadoop that launches a certain number of duplicate tasks. While this consumes more resources computing duplicate copies of data
that may be discarded, the goal of this feature is to improve overall job progress by
getting individual task results faster, and detecting then black-listing slow-running
Hadoop speculative execution is controlled in the $HADOOP_HOME/conf/mapredsite.xml file by the following two variables:
If true, then multiple instances of some map tasks
may be executed in parallel.

If true, then multiple instances of some reduce tasks
may be executed in parallel.

However, Hive provides its own variable to control reduce-side speculative execution:

Speculative Execution | 141

Whether speculative execution for
reducers should be turned on. 

It is hard to give a concrete recommendation about tuning these speculative execution
variables. If you are very sensitive to deviations in runtime, you may wish to turn these
features on. However, if you have long-running map or reduce tasks due to large
amounts of input, the waste could be significant.

Single MapReduce MultiGROUP BY
Another special optimization attempts to combine multiple GROUP BY operations in a
query into a single MapReduce job. For this optimization to work, a common set of
GROUP BY keys is required:

Whether to optimize multi group by query to generate single M/R
job plan. If the multi group by query has common group by keys, it will be
optimized to generate single M/R job.

Virtual Columns
Hive provides two virtual columns: one for the input filename for split and the other
for the block offset in the file. These are helpful when diagnosing queries where Hive
is producing unexpected or null results. By projecting these “columns,” you can see
which file and row is causing problems:
hive> set hive.exec.rowoffset=true;
> FROM hive_text WHERE line LIKE '%hive%' LIMIT 2;
data.har/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs/README.txt 2243
data.har/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs/README.txt 3646
- Hive 0.8.0 ignores the hive-default.xml file, though we continue

(We wrapped the long output and put a blank line between the two output rows.)
A third virtual column provides the row offset of the file. It must be enabled explicitly:


142 | Chapter 10: Tuning

Whether to provide the row offset virtual column

Now it can be used in queries:
> FROM hive_text WHERE line LIKE '%hive%' limit 2;



Virtual Columns | 143


Other File Formats and Compression

One of Hive’s unique features is that Hive does not force data to be converted to a
specific format. Hive leverages Hadoop’s InputFormat APIs to read data from a variety
of sources, such as text files, sequence files, or even custom formats. Likewise, the
OutputFormat API is used to write data to various formats.
While Hadoop offers linear scalability in file storage for uncompressed data, storing
data in compressed form has many benefits. Compression typically saves significant
disk storage; for example, text-based files may compress 40% or more. Compression
also can increase throughput and performance. This may seem counterintuitive because compressing and decompressing data incurs extra CPU overhead, however, the
I/O savings resulting from moving fewer bytes into memory can result in a net performance gain.
Hadoop jobs tend to be I/O bound, rather than CPU bound. If so, compression will
improve performance. However, if your jobs are CPU bound, then compression will
probably lower your performance. The only way to really know is to experiment with
different options and measure the results.

Determining Installed Codecs
Based on your Hadoop version, different codecs will be available to you. The set feature
in Hive can be used to display the value of hiveconf or Hadoop configuration values.
The codecs available are in a comma-separated list named io.compression.codec:
# hive -e "set io.compression.codecs",,,


Choosing a Compression Codec
Using compression has the advantage of minimizing the disk space required for files
and the overhead of disk and network I/O. However, compressing and decompressing
files increases the CPU overhead. Therefore, compression is best used for I/O-bound
jobs, where there is extra CPU capacity, or when disk space is at a premium.
All recent versions of Hadoop have built-in support for the GZip and BZip2 compression schemes, including native Linux libraries that accelerate compression and decompression for these formats. Bundled support for Snappy compression was recently
added, but if your version of Hadoop doesn’t support it, you can add the appropriate
libraries yourself.1 Finally, LZO compression is often used.2
So, why do we need different compression schemes? Each scheme makes a trade-off
between speed and minimizing the size of the compressed output. BZip2 creates the
smallest compressed output, but with the highest CPU overhead. GZip is next in terms
of compressed size versus speed. Hence, if disk space utilization and I/O overhead are
concerns, both are attractive choices.
LZO and Snappy create larger files but are much faster, especially for decompression.
They are good choices if disk space and I/O overhead are less important than rapid
decompression of frequently read data.
Another important consideration is whether or not the compression format is splittable. MapReduce wants to split very large input files into splits (often one split per filesystem block, i.e., a multiple of 64 MB), where each split is sent to a separate map
process. This can only work if Hadoop knows the record boundaries in the file. In text
files, each line is a record, but these boundaries are obscured by GZip and Snappy.
However, BZip2 and LZO provide block-level compression, where each block has
complete records, so Hadoop can split these files on block boundaries.
The desire for splittable files doesn’t rule out GZip and Snappy. When you create your
data files, you could partition them so that they are approximately the desired size.
Typically the number of output files is equal to the number of reducers. If you are using
N reducers you typically get N output files. Be careful, if you have a large nonsplittable
file, a single task will have to read the entire file beginning to end.
There’s much more we could say about compression, but instead we’ll refer you to
Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White (O’Reilly) for more details, and we’ll focus
now on how to tell Hive what format you’re using.
From Hive’s point of view, there are two aspects to the file format. One aspect is how
the file is delimited into rows (records). Text files use \n (linefeed) as the default row
delimiter. When you aren’t using the default text file format, you tell Hive the name of
1. See
2. See

146 | Chapter 11: Other File Formats and Compression

an InputFormat and an OutputFormat to use. Actually, you will specify the names of Java
classes that implement these formats. The InputFormat knows how to read splits and
partition them into records, and the OutputFormat knows how to write these splits back
to files or console output.
The second aspect is how records are partitioned into fields (or columns). Hive uses
^A by default to separate fields in text files. Hive uses the name SerDe, which is short
for serializer/deserializer for the “module” that partitions incoming records (the deserializer) and also knows how to write records in this format (the serializer). This time
you will specify a single Java class that performs both jobs.
All this information is specified as part of the table definition when you create the table.
After creation, you query the table as you normally would, agnostic to the underlying
format. Hence, if you’re a user of Hive, but not a Java developer, don’t worry about
the Java aspects. The developers on your team will help you specify this information
when needed, after which you’ll work as you normally do.

Enabling Intermediate Compression
Intermediate compression shrinks the data shuffled between the map and reduce tasks
for a job. For intermediate compression, choosing a codec that has lower CPU cost is
typically more important than choosing a codec that results in the most compression.
The property hive.exec.compress.intermediate defaults to false and should be set to
true by default:

 This controls whether intermediate files produced by Hive between
multiple map-reduce jobs are compressed. The compression codec and other options
are determined from hadoop config variables mapred.output.compress* 

The property that controls intermediate compression for other Hadoop
jobs is

Hadoop compression has a DefaultCodec. Changing the codec involves setting the property. This is a Hadoop variable and can be
set in the $HADOOP_HOME/conf/mapred-site.xml or the $HADOOP_HOME/conf/
hive-site.xml. SnappyCodec is a good choice for intermediate compression because it
combines good compression performance with low CPU cost:
 This controls whether intermediate files produced by Hive

Enabling Intermediate Compression | 147

between multiple map-reduce jobs are compressed. The compression codec
and other options are determined from hadoop config variables

Final Output Compression
When Hive writes output to a table, that content can also be compressed. The property
hive.exec.compress.output controls this feature. You may wish to leave this value set
to false in the global configuration file, so that the default output is uncompressed
clear text. Users can turn on final compression by setting the property to true on a
query-by-query basis or in their scripts:

 This controls whether the final outputs of a query
(to a local/hdfs file or a Hive table) is compressed. The compression
codec and other options are determined from hadoop config variables

The property that controls final compression for other Hadoop jobs is

If hive.exec.compress.output is set true, a codec can be chosen. GZip compression is
a good choice for output compression because it typically reduces the size of files significantly, but remember that GZipped files aren’t splittable by subsequent MapReduce

If the job outputs are compressed, how should they be compressed?

Sequence Files
Compressing files results in space savings but one of the downsides of storing raw
compressed files in Hadoop is that often these files are not splittable. Splittable files
can be broken up and processed in parts by multiple mappers in parallel. Most compressed files are not splittable because you can only start reading from the beginning.
The sequence file format supported by Hadoop breaks a file into blocks and then optionally compresses the blocks in a splittable way.

148 | Chapter 11: Other File Formats and Compression

To use sequence files from Hive, add the STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE clause to a CREATE
TABLE statement:

Sequence files have three different compression options: NONE, RECORD, and BLOCK.
RECORD is the default. However, BLOCK compression is usually more efficient and it still
provides the desired splittability. Like many other compression properties, this one is
not Hive-specific. It can be defined in Hadoop’s mapred-site.xml file, in Hive’s hivesite.xml, or as needed in scripts or before individual queries:

If the job outputs are to compressed as SequenceFiles,
how should they be compressed? Should be one of NONE, RECORD or BLOCK.

Compression in Action
We have introduced a number of compression-related properties in Hive, and different
permutations of these options result in different output. Let’s use these properties in
some examples and show what they produce. Remember that variables set by the CLI
persist across the rest of the queries in the session, so between examples you should
revert the settings or simply restart the Hive session:
hive> SELECT * FROM a;
hive> DESCRIBE a;

First, let’s enable intermediate compression. This won’t affect the final output, however
the job counters will show less physical data transferred for the job, since the shuffle
sort data was compressed:
hive> set hive.exec.compress.intermediate=true;
hive> CREATE TABLE intermediate_comp_on
Moving data to: file:/user/hive/warehouse/intermediate_comp_on
Table default.intermediate_comp_on stats: [num_partitions: 0, num_files: 1,
num_rows: 2, total_size: 8, raw_data_size: 6]

As expected, intermediate compression did not affect the final output, which remains
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/intermediate_comp_on;
Found 1 items

Compression in Action | 149

hive> dfs -cat /user/hive/warehouse/intermediate_comp_on/000000_0;

We can also chose an intermediate compression codec other then the default codec. In
this case we chose GZIP, although Snappy is normally a better option. The first line is
wrapped for space:
hive> set;
hive> set hive.exec.compress.intermediate=true;
hive> CREATE TABLE intermediate_comp_on_gz
Moving data to: file:/user/hive/warehouse/intermediate_comp_on_gz
Table default.intermediate_comp_on_gz stats:
[num_partitions: 0, num_files: 1, num_rows: 2, total_size: 8, raw_data_size: 6]
hive> dfs -cat /user/hive/warehouse/intermediate_comp_on_gz/000000_0;

Next, we can enable output compression:
hive> set hive.exec.compress.output=true;
hive> CREATE TABLE final_comp_on
Moving data to: file:/tmp/hive-edward/hive_2012-01-15_11-11-01_884_.../-ext-10001
Moving data to: file:/user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on
Table default.final_comp_on stats:
[num_partitions: 0, num_files: 1, num_rows: 2, total_size: 16, raw_data_size: 6]
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on;
Found 1 items

The output table statistics show that the total_size is 16, but the raw_data_size is 6.
The extra space is overhead for the deflate algorithm. We can also see the output file
is named .deflate.
Trying to cat the file is not suggested, as you get binary output. However, Hive can
query this data normally:
hive> dfs -cat /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on/000000_0.deflate;
hive> SELECT * FROM final_comp_on;

150 | Chapter 11: Other File Formats and Compression

This ability to seamlessly work with compressed files is not Hive-specific; Hadoop’s
TextInputFormat is at work here. While the name is confusing in this case, TextInput
Format understands file extensions such as .deflate or .gz and decompresses these files
on the fly. Hive is unaware if the underlying files are uncompressed or compressed
using any of the supported compression schemes.
Let’s change the codec used by output compression to see the results (another line wrap
for space):
hive> set hive.exec.compress.output=true;
hive> set mapred.output.compression.codec;
hive> CREATE TABLE final_comp_on_gz
Moving data to: file:/user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz
Table default.final_comp_on_gz stats:
[num_partitions: 0, num_files: 1, num_rows: 2, total_size: 28, raw_data_size: 6]
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz;
Found 1 items

As you can see, the output folder now contains zero or more .gz files. Hive has a quick
hack to execute local commands like zcat from inside the Hive shell. The ! tells Hive
to fork and run the external command and block until the system returns a result.
zcat is a command-line utility that decompresses and displays output:
hive> ! /bin/zcat /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz/000000_0.gz;
hive> SELECT * FROM final_comp_on_gz;
Time taken: 0.159 seconds

Using output compression like this results in binary compressed files that are small
and, as a result, operations on them are very fast. However, recall that the number of
output files is a side effect of how many mappers or reducers processed the data. In the
worst case scenario, you can end up with one large binary file in a directory that is not
splittable. This means that subsequent steps that have to read this data cannot work
in parallel. The answer to this problem is to use sequence files:
hive> set mapred.output.compression.type=BLOCK;
hive> set hive.exec.compress.output=true;
hive> set;

CREATE TABLE final_comp_on_gz_seq

Compression in Action | 151

Moving data to: file:/user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz_seq
Table default.final_comp_on_gz_seq stats:
[num_partitions: 0, num_files: 1, num_rows: 2, total_size: 199, raw_data_size: 6]
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz_seq;
Found 1 items

Sequence files are binary. But it is a nice exercise to see the header. To confirm the
results are what was intended (output wrapped):
hive> dfs -cat /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz_seq/000000_0;

Because of the meta-information embedded in the sequence file and in the Hive metastore, Hive can query the table without any specific settings. Hadoop also offers the
dfs -text command to strip the header and compression away from sequence files and
return the raw result:
hive> dfs -text /user/hive/warehouse/final_comp_on_gz_seq/000000_0;
hive> select * from final_comp_on_gz_seq;

Finally, let’s use intermediate and output compression at the same time and set different
compression codecs for each while saving the final output to sequence files! These
settings are commonly done for production environments where data sets are large and
such settings improve performance:
hive> set;
hive> set hive.exec.compress.intermediate=true;
hive> set mapred.output.compression.type=BLOCK;
hive> set hive.exec.compress.output=true;
hive> set mapred.output.compression.codec;
hive> CREATE TABLE final_comp_on_gz_int_compress_snappy_seq

Archive Partition
Hadoop has a format for storage known as HAR, which stands for Hadoop ARchive. A
HAR file is like a TAR file that lives in the HDFS filesystem as a single file. However,
internally it can contain multiple files and directories. In some use cases, older directories and files are less commonly accessed than newer files. If a particular partition
contains thousands of files it will require significant overhead to manage it in the HDFS

152 | Chapter 11: Other File Formats and Compression

Download from Wow! eBook 

NameNode. By archiving the partition it is stored as a single, large file, but it can still
be accessed by hive. The trade-off is that HAR files will be less efficient to query. Also,
HAR files are not compressed, so they don’t save any space.
In the following example, we’ll use Hive’s own documentation as data.
First, create a partitioned table and load it with the text data from the Hive package:
hive> CREATE TABLE hive_text (line STRING) PARTITIONED BY (folder STRING);
hive> ! ls $HIVE_HOME;
hive> ALTER TABLE hive_text ADD PARTITION (folder='docs');
> INTO TABLE hive_text PARTITION (folder='docs');
Loading data to table default.hive_text partition (folder=docs)
> INTO TABLE hive_text PARTITION (folder='docs');
Loading data to table default.hive_text partition (folder=docs)
hive> SELECT * FROM hive_text WHERE line LIKE '%hive%' LIMIT 2;
- Hive 0.8.0 ignores the hive-default.xml file, though we continue


Some versions of Hadoop, such as Hadoop v0.20.2, will require the JAR containing
the Hadoop archive tools to be placed on the Hive auxlib:
$ mkdir $HIVE_HOME/auxlib
$ cp $HADOOP_HOME/hadoop-0.20.2-tools.jar $HIVE_HOME/auxlib/

Take a look at the underlying structure of the table, before we archive it. Note the
location of the table’s data partition, since it’s a managed, partitioned table:
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs;
Found 2 items

The ALTER TABLE ... ARCHIVE PARTITION statement converts the table into an archived
hive> SET hive.archive.enabled=true;
hive> ALTER TABLE hive_text ARCHIVE PARTITION (folder='docs');
intermediate.archived is
intermediate.original is
Creating data.har for file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs
in file:/tmp/hive-edward/hive_..._3862901820512961909/-ext-10000/partlevel
Please wait... (this may take a while)
Moving file:/tmp/hive-edward/hive_..._3862901820512961909/-ext-10000/partlevel

Archive Partition | 153

to file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs_INTERMEDIATE_ARCHIVED
Moving file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs
to file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs_INTERMEDIATE_ORIGINAL
Moving file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs_INTERMEDIATE_ARCHIVED
to file:/user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs

(We reformatted the output slightly so it would fit, and used ... to replace two timestamp strings in the original output.)
The underlying table has gone from two files to one Hadoop archive (HAR file):
hive> dfs -ls /user/hive/warehouse/hive_text/folder=docs;
Found 1 items

The ALTER TABLE ... UNARCHIVE PARTITION command extracts the files from the HAR
and puts them back into HDFS:
ALTER TABLE hive_text UNARCHIVE PARTITION (folder='docs');

Compression: Wrapping Up
Hive’s ability to read and write different types of compressed files is a big performance
win as it saves disk space and processing overhead. This flexibility also aids in integration with other tools, as Hive can query many native file types without the need to write
custom “adapters” in Java.

154 | Chapter 11: Other File Formats and Compression



Hive won’t provide everything you could possibly need. Sometimes a third-party library
will fill a gap. At other times, you or someone else who is a Java developer will need to
write user-defined functions (UDFs; see Chapter 13), SerDes (see “Record Formats:
SerDes” on page 205), input and/or output formats (see Chapter 15), or other
This chapter explores working with the Hive source code itself, including the new
Plugin Developer Kit introduced in Hive v0.8.0.

Changing Log4J Properties
Hive can be configured with two separate Log4J configuration files found in
$HIVE_HOME/conf. The file controls the logging of the CLI or
other locally launched components. The file controls the logging inside the MapReduce tasks. These files do not need to be present inside the Hive
installation because the default properties come built inside the Hive JARs. In fact, the
actual files in the conf directory have the .template extension, so they are ignored by
default. To use either of them, copy it with a name that removes the .template extension
and edit it to taste:
$ cp conf/ conf/
$ ... edit file ...

It is also possible to change the logging configuration of Hive temporarily without
copying and editing the Log4J files. The hiveconf switch can be specified on start-up
with definitions of any properties in the file. For example, here we set
the default logger to the DEBUG level and send output to the console appender:
$ bin/hive -hiveconf hive.root.logger=DEBUG,console
12/03/27 08:46:01 WARN conf.HiveConf: hive-site.xml not found on CLASSPATH
12/03/27 08:46:01 DEBUG conf.Configuration: config()


Connecting a Java Debugger to Hive
When enabling more verbose output does not help find the solution to the problem
you are troubleshooting, attaching a Java debugger will give you the ability to step
through the Hive code and hopefully find the problem.
Remote debugging is a feature of Java that is manually enabled by setting specific command-line properties for the JVM. The Hive shell script provides a switch and help
screen that makes it easy to set these properties (some output truncated for space):
$ bin/hive --help --debug
Allows to debug Hive by connecting to it via JDI API
Usage: hive --debug[:comma-separated parameters list]
Should child JVMs also be started in debug mode. Default: y
port= Port on which main JVM listens for debug connection. Defaul...
Should main JVM wait with execution for the debugger to con...
childSuspend= Should child JVMs wait with execution for the debugger to c...
Swaps suspend options between main and child JVMs

Building Hive from Source
Running Apache releases is usually a good idea, however you may wish to use features
that are not part of a release, or have an internal branch with nonpublic customizations.
Hence, you’ll need to build Hive from source. The minimum requirements for building
Hive are a recent Java JDK, Subversion, and ANT. Hive also contains components such
as Thrift-generated classes that are not built by default. Rebuilding Hive requires a
Thrift compiler, too.
The following commands check out a Hive release and builds it, produces output in
the hive-trunk/build/dist directory:
$ svn co hive-trunk
$ cd hive-trunk
$ ant package
$ ls build/dist/
bin examples LICENSE
conf lib



Running Hive Test Cases
Hive has a unique built-in infrastructure for testing. Hive does have traditional JUnit
tests, however the majority of the testing happens by running queries saved in .q files,
then comparing the results with a previous run saved in Hive source.1 There are multiple
1. That is, they are more like feature or acceptance tests.

156 | Chapter 12: Developing

directories inside the Hive source folder. “Positive” tests are those that should pass,
while “negative” tests should fail.
An example of a positive test is a well-formed query. An example of a negative test is a
query that is malformed or tries doing something that is not allowed by HiveQL:
$ ls -lah ql/src/test/queries/
total 76K
drwxrwxr-x. 7 edward edward 4.0K
drwxrwxr-x. 8 edward edward 4.0K
drwxrwxr-x. 3 edward edward 20K
drwxrwxr-x. 3 edward edward 36K
drwxrwxr-x. 3 edward edward 4.0K
drwxrwxr-x. 3 edward edward 4.0K


28 2011 .
28 2011 ..
21 20:08 clientnegative
8 09:17 clientpositive
28 2011 negative
12 09:25 positive

Take a look at ql/src/test/queries/clientpositive/cast1.q. The first thing you should know
is that a src table is the first table automatically created in the test process. It is a table
with two columns, key and value, where key is an INT and value is a STRING. Because
Hive does not currently have the ability to do a SELECT without a FROM clause, selecting
a single row from the src table is the trick used to test out functions that don’t really
need to retrieve table data; inputs can be “hard-coded” instead.
As you can see in the following example queries, the src table is never referenced in the
SELECT clauses:
hive> CREATE TABLE dest1(c1 INT, c2 DOUBLE, c3 DOUBLE,

SELECT 3 + 2, 3.0 + 2, 3 + 2.0, 3.0 + 2.0,


SELECT 3 + 2, 3.0 + 2, 3 + 2.0, 3.0 + 2.0,

hive> SELECT dest1.* FROM dest1;

The results of the script are found here: ql/src/test/results/clientpositive/cast1.q.out. The
result file is large and printing the complete results inline will kill too many trees. However, portions of the file are worth noting.
This command invokes a positive and a negative test case for the Hive client:
ant test -Dtestcase=TestCliDriver -Dqfile=mapreduce1.q
ant test -Dtestcase=TestNegativeCliDriver -Dqfile=script_broken_pipe1.q

The two particular tests only parse queries. They do not actually run the client. They
are now deprecated in favor of clientpositive and clientnegative.

Building Hive from Source | 157

You can also run multiple tests in one ant invocation to save time (the last -Dqfile=…
string was wrapped for space; it’s all one string):
ant test -Dtestcase=TestCliDriver -Dqfile=avro_change_schema.q,avro_joins.q,

Execution Hooks
PreHooks and PostHooks are utilities that allow user code to hook into parts of Hive
and execute custom code. Hive’s testing framework uses hooks to echo commands that
produce no output, so that the results show up inside tests:

Setting Up Hive and Eclipse
Eclipse is an open source IDE (Integrated Development Environment). The following
steps allow you to use Eclipse to work with the Hive source code:

ant clean package eclipse-files
cd metastore
ant model-jar
cd ../ql
ant gen-test

Once built, you can import the project into Eclipse and use it as you normally would.
Create a workspace in Eclipse, as normal. Then use the File → Import command and
then select General → Existing Projects into Workspace. Select the directory where Hive
is installed.
When the list of available projects is shown in the wizard, you’ll see one named hivetrunk, which you should select and click Finish.
Figure 12-1 shows how to start the Hive Command CLI Driver from within Eclipse.

Hive in a Maven Project
You can set up Hive as a dependency in Maven builds. The Maven repository http:// contains the most recent releases. This page also lists the dependencies hive-service requires.
Here is the top-level dependency definition for Hive v0.9.0, not including the tree of
transitive dependencies, which is quite deep:

158 | Chapter 12: Developing

Figure 12-1. Starting the Hive Command CLI Driver from within Eclipse


The pom.xml file for hive_test, which we discuss next, provides a complete example
of the transitive dependencies for Hive v0.9.0. You can find that file at https://github

Unit Testing in Hive with hive_test
The optimal way to write applications to work with Hive is to access Hive with Thrift
through the HiveService. However, the Thrift service was traditionally difficult to bring
up in an embedded environment due to Hive’s many JAR dependencies and the metastore component.

Unit Testing in Hive with hive_test | 159

Hive_test fetches all the Hive dependencies from Maven, sets up the metastore and

Thrift service locally, and provides test classes to make unit testing easier. Also, because
it is very lightweight and unit tests run quickly, this is in contrast to the elaborate test
targets inside Hive, which have to rebuild the entire project to execute any unit test.
Hive_test is ideal for testing code such as UDFs, input formats, SerDes, or any com-

ponent that only adds a pluggable feature for the language. It is not useful for internal
Hive development because all the Hive components are pulled from Maven and are
external to the project.
In your Maven project, create a pom.xml and include hive_test as a dependency, as
shown here:


Then create a version of hive-site.xml:
$ cp $HIVE_HOME/conf/* src/test/resources/
$ vi src/test/resources/hive-site.xml

Unlike a normal hive-site.xml, this version should not save any data to a
permanent place. This is because unit tests are not supposed to create or preserve any
permanent state. javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL is set to use a feature in Derby that
only stores the database in main memory. The warehouse directory hive
.metastore.warehouse.dir is set to a location inside /tmp that will be deleted on each
run of the unit test:

JDBC connect string for a JDBC metastore

location of default database for the warehouse

Hive_test provides several classes that extend JUnit test cases. HiveTestService set up

the environment, cleared out the warehouse directory, and launched a metastore and
HiveService in-process. This is typically the component to extend for testing. However,
other components, such as HiveTestEmbedded are also available:
package com.jointhegrid.hive_test;

160 | Chapter 12: Developing

import org.apache.hadoop.fs.FSDataOutputStream;
import org.apache.hadoop.fs.Path;
/* Extending HiveTestService creates and initializes
the metastore and thrift service in an embedded mode */
public class ServiceHiveTest extends HiveTestService {
public ServiceHiveTest() throws IOException {
public void testExecute() throws Exception {
/* Use the Hadoop filesystem API to create a
data file */
Path p = new Path(this.ROOT_DIR, "afile");
FSDataOutputStream o = this.getFileSystem().create(p);
BufferedWriter bw = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(o));
/* ServiceHive is a component that connections
to an embedded or network HiveService based
on the constructor used */
ServiceHive sh = new ServiceHive();
/* We can now interact through the HiveService
and assert on results */
sh.client.execute("create table atest (num int)");
sh.client.execute("load data local inpath '"
+ p.toString() + "' into table atest");
sh.client.execute("select count(1) as cnt from atest");
String row = sh.client.fetchOne();
assertEquals("2", row);
sh.client.execute("drop table atest");


The New Plugin Developer Kit
Hive v0.8.0 introduced a Plugin Developer Kit (PDK). Its intent is to allow developers
to build and test plug-ins without the Hive source. Only Hive binary code is required.
The PDK is relatively new and has some subtle bugs of its own that can make it difficult
to use. If you want to try using the PDK anyway, consult the wiki page, https://cwiki, but note that this page has a few errors, at
least at the time of this writing.
The New Plugin Developer Kit | 161



User-Defined Functions (UDFs) are a powerful feature that allow users to extend
HiveQL. As we’ll see, you implement them in Java and once you add them to your
session (interactive or driven by a script), they work just like built-in functions, even
the online help. Hive has several types of user-defined functions, each of which performs a particular “class” of transformations on input data.
In an ETL workload, a process might have several processing steps. The Hive language
has multiple ways to pipeline the output from one step to the next and produce multiple
outputs during a single query. Users also have the ability to create their own functions
for custom processing. Without this feature a process might have to include a custom
MapReduce step or move the data into another system to apply the changes. Interconnecting systems add complexity and increase the chance of misconfigurations or other
errors. Moving data between systems is time consuming when dealing with gigabyteor terabyte-sized data sets. In contrast, UDFs run in the same processes as the tasks for
your Hive queries, so they work efficiently and eliminate the complexity of integration
with other systems. This chapter covers best practices associated with creating and
using UDFs.

Discovering and Describing Functions
Before writing custom UDFs, let’s familiarize ourselves with the ones that are already
part of Hive. Note that it’s common in the Hive community to use “UDF” to refer to
any function, user-defined or built-in.
The SHOW FUNCTIONS command lists the functions currently loaded in the Hive session,
both built-in and any user-defined functions that have been loaded using the techniques
we will discuss shortly:



Functions usually have their own documentation. Use DESCRIBE FUNCTION to display a
short description:
concat(str1, str2, ... strN) - returns the concatenation of str1, str2, ... strN

Functions may also contain extended documentation that can be accessed by adding
the EXTENDED keyword:
concat(str1, str2, ... strN) - returns the concatenation of str1, str2, ... strN
Returns NULL if any argument is NULL.
> SELECT concat('abc', 'def') FROM src LIMIT 1;

Calling Functions
To use a function, simply call it by name in a query, passing in any required arguments.
Some functions take a specific number of arguments and argument types, while other
functions accept a variable number of arguments with variable types. Just like keywords, the case of function names is ignored:
SELECT concat(column1,column2) AS x FROM table;

Standard Functions
The term user-defined function (UDF) is also used in a narrower sense to refer to any
function that takes a row argument or one or more columns from a row and returns a
single value. Most functions fall into this category.
Examples include many of the mathematical functions, like round() and floor(), for
converting DOUBLES to BIGINTS, and abs(), for taking the absolute value of a number.
Other examples include string manipulation functions, like ucase(), which converts
the string to upper case; reverse(), which reverses a string; and concat(), which joins
multiple input strings into one output string.
Note that these UDFs can return a complex object, such as an array, map, or struct.

Aggregate Functions
Another type of function is an aggregate function. All aggregate functions, user-defined
and built-in, are referred to generically as user-defined aggregate functions (UDAFs).
An aggregate function takes one or more columns from zero to many rows and returns
a single result. Examples include the math functions: sum(), which returns a sum of all
164 | Chapter 13: Functions

inputs; avg(), which computes the average of the values; min() and max(), which return
the lowest and highest values, respectively:
hive> SELECT avg(price_close)
> FROM stocks
> WHERE exchange = 'NASDAQ' AND symbol = 'AAPL';

Aggregate methods are often combined with GROUP BY clauses. We saw this example in
“GROUP BY Clauses” on page 97:
hive> SELECT year(ymd), avg(price_close) FROM stocks
> WHERE exchange = 'NASDAQ' AND symbol = 'AAPL'
> GROUP BY year(ymd);

Table 6-3 in Chapter 6 lists the built-in aggregate functions in HiveQL.

Table Generating Functions
A third type of function supported by Hive is a table generating function. As for the
other function kinds, all table generating functions, user-defined and built-in, are often
referred to generically as user-defined table generating functions (UDTFs).
Table generating functions take zero or more inputs and produce multiple columns or
rows of output. The array function takes a list of arguments and returns the list as a
single array type. Suppose we start with this query using an array:
hive> SELECT array(1,2,3) FROM dual;

The explode() function is a UDTF that takes an array of input and iterates through the
list, returning each element from the list in a separate row.
hive> SELECT explode(array(1,2,3)) AS element FROM src;

However, Hive only allows table generating functions to be used in limited ways. For
example, we can’t project out any other columns from the table, a significant limitation.
Here is a query we would like to write with the employees table we have used before.
We want to list each manager-subordinate pair.
Example 13-1. Invalid use of explode
hive> SELECT name, explode(subordinates) FROM employees;
FAILED: Error in semantic analysis: UDTF's are not supported outside
the SELECT clause, nor nested in expressions

However, Hive offers a LATERAL VIEW feature to allow this kind of query:

Table Generating Functions | 165

hive> SELECT name, sub
> FROM employees
> LATERAL VIEW explode(subordinates) subView AS sub;
John Doe
Mary Smith
John Doe
Todd Jones
Mary Smith
Bill King

Note that there are no output rows for employees who aren’t managers (i.e., who have
no subordinates), namely Bill King and Todd Jones. Hence, explode outputs zero to
many new records.
The LATERAL VIEW wraps the output of the explode call. A view alias and column alias
are required, subView and sub, respectively, in this case.
The list of built-in, table generating functions can be found in Table 6-4 in Chapter 6.

A UDF for Finding a Zodiac Sign from a Day
Let’s tackle writing our own UDF. Imagine we have a table with each user’s birth date
stored as a column of a table. With that information, we would like to determine the
user’s Zodiac sign. This process can be implemented with a standard function (UDF
in the most restrictive sense). Specifically, we assume we have a discrete input either as
a date formatted as a string or as a month and a day. The function must return a discrete
single column of output.
Here is a sample data set, which we’ll put in a file called littlebigdata.txt in our home
edward capriolo,,2-12-1981,,M,10
sara connor,,4-5-1974,,F,2

Load this data set into a table called littlebigdata:
hive > CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS littlebigdata(
name STRING,
> email STRING,
bday STRING,
> ip
gender STRING,
> anum INT)
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/littlebigdata.txt'
> INTO TABLE littlebigdata;

The input for the function will be a date and the output will be a string representing
the user’s Zodiac sign.
Here is a Java implementation of the UDF we need:
package org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.udf.example;
import java.util.Date;

166 | Chapter 13: Functions

import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.exec.UDF;
@Description(name = "zodiac",
value = "_FUNC_(date) - from the input date string "+
"or separate month and day arguments, returns the sign of the Zodiac.",
extended = "Example:\n"
+ " > SELECT _FUNC_(date_string) FROM src;\n"
+ " > SELECT _FUNC_(month, day) FROM src;")
public class UDFZodiacSign extends UDF{
private SimpleDateFormat df;
public UDFZodiacSign(){
df = new SimpleDateFormat("MM-dd-yyyy");
public String evaluate( Date bday ){
return this.evaluate( bday.getMonth(), bday.getDay() );
public String evaluate(String bday){
Date date = null;
try {
date = df.parse(bday);
} catch (Exception ex) {
return null;
return this.evaluate( date.getMonth()+1, date.getDay() );


public String evaluate( Integer month, Integer day ){
if (month==1) {
if (day < 20 ){
return "Capricorn";
} else {
return "Aquarius";
if (month==2){
if (day < 19 ){
return "Aquarius";
} else {
return "Pisces";
/* ...other months here */
return null;

To write a UDF, start by extending the UDF class and implements and the evaluate()
function. During query processing, an instance of the class is instantiated for each usage
of the function in a query. The evaluate() is called for each input row. The result of
A UDF for Finding a Zodiac Sign from a Day | 167

evaluate() is returned to Hive. It is legal to overload the evaluate method. Hive will

pick the method that matches in a similar way to Java method overloading.
The @Description(...) is an optional Java annotation. This is how function documentation is defined and you should use these annotations to document your own UDFs.
When a user invokes DESCRIBE FUNCTION ..., the _FUNC_ strings will be replaced with
the function name the user picks when defining a “temporary” function, as discussed
The arguments and return types of the UDF’s evaluate() function can
only be types that Hive can serialize. For example, if you are working
with whole numbers, a UDF can take as input a primitive int, an Inte
ger wrapper object, or an IntWritable, which is the Hadoop wrapper
for integers. You do not have to worry specifically about what the caller
is sending because Hive will convert the types for you if they do not
match. Remember that null is valid for any type in Hive, but in Java
primitives are not objects and cannot be null.

To use the UDF inside Hive, compile the Java code and package the UDF bytecode
class file into a JAR file. Then, in your Hive session, add the JAR to the classpath and
use a CREATE FUNCTION statement to define a function that uses the Java class:
hive> ADD JAR /full/path/to/zodiac.jar;
> AS 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.udf.example.UDFZodiacSign';

Note that quotes are not required around the JAR file path and currently it needs to be
a full path to the file on a local filesystem. Hive not only adds this JAR to the classpath,
it puts the JAR file in the distributed cache so it’s available around the cluster.
Now the Zodiac UDF can be used like any other function. Notice the word TEMPO
RARY found inside the CREATE FUNCTION statement. Functions declared will only be available in the current session. You will have to add the JAR and create the function in each
session. However, if you use the same JAR files and functions frequently, you can add
these statements to your $HOME/.hiverc file:
zodiac(date) - from the input date string or separate month and day
arguments, returns the sign of the Zodiac.
zodiac(date) - from the input date string or separate month and day
arguments, returns the sign of the Zodiac.
> SELECT zodiac(date_string) FROM src;
> SELECT zodiac(month, day) FROM src;
hive> SELECT name, bday, zodiac(bday) FROM littlebigdata;
edward capriolo 2-12-1981 Aquarius

168 | Chapter 13: Functions

sara connor

10-10-2004 Libra
4-5-1974 Aries

To recap, our UDF allows us to do custom transformations inside the Hive language.
Hive can now convert the user’s birthday to the corresponding Zodiac sign while it is
doing any other aggregations and transformations.
If we’re finished with the function, we can drop it:

As usual, the IF EXISTS is optional. It suppresses errors if the function doesn’t exist.

UDF Versus GenericUDF
In our Zodiac example we extended the UDF class. Hive offers a counterpart called
GenericUDF. GenericUDF is a more complex abstraction, but it offers support for better
null handling and makes it possible to handle some types of operations programmatically that a standard UDF cannot support. An example of a generic UDF is the Hive
CASE ... WHEN statement, which has complex logic depending on the arguments to the
statement. We will demonstrate how to use the GenericUDF class to write a user-defined
function, called nvl(), which returns a default value if null is passed in.
The nvl() function takes two arguments. If the first argument is non-null, it is returned.
If the first argument is null, the second argument is returned. The GenericUDF framework is a good fit for this problem. A standard UDF could be used as a solution but it
would be cumbersome because it requires overloading the evaluate method to handle
many different input types. GenericUDF will detect the type of input to the function
programmatically and provide an appropriate response.
We begin with the usual laundry list of import statements:
package org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.udf.generic;


Next, we use the @Description annotation to document the UDF:
@Description(name = "nvl",
value = "_FUNC_(value,default_value) - Returns default value if value"
+" is null else returns value",
extended = "Example:\n"
+ " > SELECT _FUNC_(null,'bla') FROM src LIMIT 1;\n")

UDF Versus GenericUDF | 169

Now the class extends GenericUDF, a requirement to exploit the generic handling we
The initialize() method is called and passed an ObjectInspector for each argument.
The goal of this method is to determine the return type from the arguments. The user
can also throw an Exception to signal that bad types are being sent to the method. The
returnOIResolver is a built-in class that determines the return type by finding the type
of non-null variables and using that type:
public class GenericUDFNvl extends GenericUDF {
private GenericUDFUtils.ReturnObjectInspectorResolver returnOIResolver;
private ObjectInspector[] argumentOIs;
public ObjectInspector initialize(ObjectInspector[] arguments)
throws UDFArgumentException {
argumentOIs = arguments;
if (arguments.length != 2) {
throw new UDFArgumentLengthException(
"The operator 'NVL' accepts 2 arguments.");
returnOIResolver = new GenericUDFUtils.ReturnObjectInspectorResolver(true);
if (!(returnOIResolver.update(arguments[0]) && returnOIResolver
.update(arguments[1]))) {
throw new UDFArgumentTypeException(2,
"The 1st and 2nd args of function NLV should have the same type, "
+ "but they are different: \"" + arguments[0].getTypeName()
+ "\" and \"" + arguments[1].getTypeName() + "\"");
return returnOIResolver.get();

The evaluate method has access to the values passed to the method stored in an array
of DeferredObject values. The returnOIResolver created in the initialize method is
used to get values from the DeferredObjects. In this case, the function returns the first
non-null value:
public Object evaluate(DeferredObject[] arguments) throws HiveException {
Object retVal = returnOIResolver.convertIfNecessary(arguments[0].get(),
if (retVal == null ){
retVal = returnOIResolver.convertIfNecessary(arguments[1].get(),
return retVal;

The final method to override is getDisplayString(), which is used inside the Hadoop
tasks to display debugging information when the function is being used:

170 | Chapter 13: Functions

public String getDisplayString(String[] children) {
StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
sb.append("if ");
sb.append(" is null ");
return sb.toString() ;

To test the generic nature of the UDF, it is called several times, each time passing values
of different types, as shown the following example:
hive> ADD JAR /path/to/jar.jar;
> AS 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.udf.generic.GenericUDFNvl';
hive> SELECT nvl( 1 , 2 ) AS COL1,
nvl( NULL, 5 ) AS COL2,
nvl( NULL, "STUFF" ) AS COL3
> FROM src LIMIT 1;

Permanent Functions
Until this point we have bundled our code into JAR files, then used ADD JAR and CREATE
TEMPORARY FUNCTION to make use of them.
Your function may also be added permanently to Hive, however this requires a small
modification to a Hive Java file and then rebuilding Hive.
Inside the Hive source code, a one-line change is required to the FunctionRegistry class
found at ql/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hive/ql/exec/ Then you
rebuild Hive following the instructions that come with the source distribution.
While it is recommended that you redeploy the entire new build, only the hive-exec*.jar, where \* is the version number, needs to be replaced.
Here is an example change to FunctionRegistry where the new nvl() function is added
to Hive’s list of built-in functions:
registerUDF("parse_url", UDFParseUrl.class, false);
registerGenericUDF("nvl", GenericUDFNvl.class);
registerGenericUDF("split", GenericUDFSplit.class);

Permanent Functions | 171

Download from Wow! eBook 

User-Defined Aggregate Functions
Users are able to define aggregate functions, too. However, the interface is more complex to implement. Aggregate functions are processed in several phases. Depending on
the transformation the UDAF performs, the types returned by each phase could be
different. For example, a sum() UDAF could accept primitive integer input, create integer PARTIAL data, and produce a final integer result. However, an aggregate like
median() could take primitive integer input, have an intermediate list of integers as
PARTIAL data, and then produce a final integer as the result.
For an example of a generic user-defined aggregate function, see the source code for
GenericUDAFAverage available at
Aggregations execute inside the context of a map or reduce task, which
is a Java process with memory limitations. Therefore, storing large
structures inside an aggregate may exceed available heap space. The
min() UDAF only requires a single element be stored in memory for
comparison. The collectset() UDAF uses a set internally to deduplicate data in order to limit memory usage. percentile_approx()
uses approximations to achieve a near correct result while limiting
memory usage. It is important to keep memory usage in mind when
writing a UDAF. You can increase your available memory to some extent
by adjusting, but that solution does not scale:

MySQL has a useful function known as GROUP_CONCAT, which combines all the
elements of a group into a single string using a user-specified delimiter. Below is an
example MySQL query that shows how to use its version of this function:
mysql > CREATE TABLE people (
name STRING,
friendname STRING );
mysql > SELECT * FROM people;
mysql > SELECT name, GROUP_CONCAT(friendname SEPARATOR ',')
FROM people

172 | Chapter 13: Functions


BY name;

We can do the same transformation in Hive without the need for additional grammar
in the language. First, we need an aggregate function that builds a list of all input to
the aggregate. Hive already has a UDAF called collect_set that adds all input into a
java.util.Set collection. Sets automatically de-duplicate entries on insertion, which
is undesirable for GROUP CONCAT. To build collect, we will take the code in col
lect_set and replace instances of Set with instances of ArrayList. This will stop the
de-duplication. The result of the aggregate will be a single array of all values.
It is important to remember that the computation of your aggregation must be arbitrarily divisible over the data. Think of it as writing a divide-and-conquer algorithm
where the partitioning of the data is completely out of your control and handled by
Hive. More formally, given any subset of the input rows, you should be able to compute
a partial result, and also be able to merge any pair of partial results into another partial
The following code is available on Github. All the input to the aggregation must be
primitive types. Rather than returning an ObjectInspector, like GenericUDFs, aggregates
return a subclass of GenericUDAFEvaluator:
@Description(name = "collect", value = "_FUNC_(x) - Returns a list of objects. "+
"CAUTION will easily OOM on large data sets" )
public class GenericUDAFCollect extends AbstractGenericUDAFResolver {
static final Log LOG = LogFactory.getLog(GenericUDAFCollect.class.getName());
public GenericUDAFCollect() {


public GenericUDAFEvaluator getEvaluator(TypeInfo[] parameters)
throws SemanticException {
if (parameters.length != 1) {
throw new UDFArgumentTypeException(parameters.length - 1,
"Exactly one argument is expected.");
if (parameters[0].getCategory() != ObjectInspector.Category.PRIMITIVE) {
throw new UDFArgumentTypeException(0,
"Only primitive type arguments are accepted but "
+ parameters[0].getTypeName() + " was passed as parameter 1.");
return new GenericUDAFMkListEvaluator();

Table 13-1 describes the methods that are part of the base class.

User-Defined Aggregate Functions | 173

Table 13-1. Methods in AbstractGenericUDAFResolver



Called by Hive to initialize an instance of the UDAF evaluator


Return an object that will be used to store temporary aggregation results.


Process a new row of data into the aggregation buffer.


Return the contents of the current aggregation in a persistable
way. Here, persistable means the return value can only be built
up in terms of Java primitives, arrays, primitive wrappers
(e.g., Double), Hadoop Writables, Lists, and Maps. Do NOT
use your own classes (even if they implement


Merge a partial aggregation returned by
terminatePartial into the current aggregation.


Return the final result of the aggregation to Hive.

In the init method, the object inspectors for the result type are set, after determining
what mode the evaluator is in.
The iterate() and terminatePartial() methods are used on the map side, while ter
minate() and merge() are used on the reduce side to produce the final result. In all cases
the merges are building larger lists:
public static class GenericUDAFMkListEvaluator extends GenericUDAFEvaluator {
private PrimitiveObjectInspector inputOI;
private StandardListObjectInspector loi;
private StandardListObjectInspector internalMergeOI;
public ObjectInspector init(Mode m, ObjectInspector[] parameters)
throws HiveException {
super.init(m, parameters);
if (m == Mode.PARTIAL1) {
inputOI = (PrimitiveObjectInspector) parameters[0];
return ObjectInspectorFactory
(PrimitiveObjectInspector) ObjectInspectorUtils
} else {
if (!(parameters[0] instanceof StandardListObjectInspector)) {
inputOI = (PrimitiveObjectInspector) ObjectInspectorUtils
return (StandardListObjectInspector) ObjectInspectorFactory
} else {
internalMergeOI = (StandardListObjectInspector) parameters[0];
inputOI = (PrimitiveObjectInspector)

174 | Chapter 13: Functions

loi = (StandardListObjectInspector) ObjectInspectorUtils
return loi;



The remaining methods and class definition define MkArrayAggregationBuffer as well
as top-level methods that modify the contents of the buffer:
You may have noticed that Hive tends to avoid allocating objects with
new whenever possible. Hadoop and Hive use this pattern to create fewer
temporary objects and thus less work for the JVM’s Garbage Collec
tion algorithms. Keep this in mind when writing UDFs, because references are typically reused. Assuming immutable objects will lead to
static class MkArrayAggregationBuffer implements AggregationBuffer {
List container;
public void reset(AggregationBuffer agg) throws HiveException {
((MkArrayAggregationBuffer) agg).container =
new ArrayList();
public AggregationBuffer getNewAggregationBuffer()
throws HiveException {
MkArrayAggregationBuffer ret = new MkArrayAggregationBuffer();
return ret;
// Mapside
public void iterate(AggregationBuffer agg, Object[] parameters)
throws HiveException {
assert (parameters.length == 1);
Object p = parameters[0];


if (p != null) {
MkArrayAggregationBuffer myagg = (MkArrayAggregationBuffer) agg;
putIntoList(p, myagg);
// Mapside
public Object terminatePartial(AggregationBuffer agg)

User-Defined Aggregate Functions | 175


throws HiveException {
MkArrayAggregationBuffer myagg = (MkArrayAggregationBuffer) agg;
ArrayList ret = new ArrayList(myagg.container.size());
return ret;
public void merge(AggregationBuffer agg, Object partial)
throws HiveException {
MkArrayAggregationBuffer myagg = (MkArrayAggregationBuffer) agg;
ArrayList partialResult =
(ArrayList) internalMergeOI.getList(partial);
for(Object i : partialResult) {
putIntoList(i, myagg);
public Object terminate(AggregationBuffer agg) throws HiveException {
MkArrayAggregationBuffer myagg = (MkArrayAggregationBuffer) agg;
ArrayList ret = new ArrayList(myagg.container.size());
return ret;


private void putIntoList(Object p, MkArrayAggregationBuffer myagg) {
Object pCopy =

Using collect will return a single row with a single array of all of the aggregated values:
hive> dfs -cat $HOME/afile.txt;
twelve 12
twelve 1
eleven 11
eleven 10
hive> CREATE TABLE collecttest (str STRING, countVal INT)
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/afile.txt' INTO TABLE collecttest;
hive> SELECT collect(str) FROM collecttest;

The concat_ws() takes a delimiter as its first argument. The remaining arguments can
be string types or arrays of strings. The returned result contains the argument joined
together by the delimiter. Hence, we have converted the array into a single commaseparated string:
hive> SELECT concat_ws( ',' , collect(str)) FROM collecttest;

176 | Chapter 13: Functions

GROUP_CONCAT can be done by combining GROUP BY, COLLECT and concat_ws() as shown

hive> SELECT str, concat_ws( ',' , collect(cast(countVal AS STRING)))
> FROM collecttest GROUP BY str;
eleven 11,10
twelve 12,1

User-Defined Table Generating Functions
While UDFs can be used be return arrays or structures, they cannot return multiple
columns or multiple rows. User-Defined Table Generating Functions, or UDTFs, address this need by providing a programmatic interface to return multiple columns and
even multiple rows.

UDTFs that Produce Multiple Rows
We have already used the explode method in several examples. Explode takes an array
as input and outputs one row for each element in the array. An alternative way to do
this would have the UDTF generate the rows based on some input. We will demonstrate
this with a UDTF that works like a for loop. The function receives user inputs of the
start and stop values and then outputs N rows:
hive> SELECT forx(1,5) AS i FROM collecttest;

Our class extends the GenericUDTF interface. We declare three integer variables for the
start, end, and increment. The forwardObj array will be used to return result rows:
package com.jointhegrid.udf.collect;


public class GenericUDTFFor extends GenericUDTF {
IntWritable start;
IntWritable end;
IntWritable inc;
Object[] forwardObj = null;

User-Defined Table Generating Functions | 177

Because the arguments to this function are constant, the value can be determined in
the initialize method. Nonconstant values are typically not available until the evaluate
method. The third argument for increment is optional, as it defaults to 1:
public StructObjectInspector initialize(ObjectInspector[] args)
throws UDFArgumentException {
start=((WritableConstantIntObjectInspector) args[0])
end=((WritableConstantIntObjectInspector) args[1])
if (args.length == 3) {
inc =((WritableConstantIntObjectInspector) args[2])
} else {
inc = new IntWritable(1);

This function returns only a single column and its type is always an integer. We need
to give it a name, but the user can always override this later:
this.forwardObj = new Object[1];
ArrayList fieldNames = new ArrayList();
ArrayList fieldOIs = new ArrayList();
return ObjectInspectorFactory.getStandardStructObjectInspector(
fieldNames, fieldOIs);

The process method is where the interesting work happens. Notice that the return type
is void. This is because UDTF can forward zero or more rows, unlike a UDF, which
has a single return. In this case the call to the forward method is nested inside a for
loop, which causes it to forward a row for each iteration:
public void process(Object[] args)
throws HiveException, UDFArgumentException {
for (int i = start.get(); i < end.get(); i = i + inc.get()) {
this.forwardObj[0] = new Integer(i);

178 | Chapter 13: Functions


public void close() throws HiveException {

UDTFs that Produce a Single Row with Multiple Columns
An example of a UDTF that returns multiple columns but only one row is the
parse_url_tuple function, which is a built-in Hive function. It takes as input a parameter that is a URL and one or more constants that specify the parts of the URL the user
wants returned:
hive> SELECT parse_url_tuple(weblogs.url, 'HOST', 'PATH')
> AS (host, path) FROM weblogs;

The benefit of this type of UDFT is the URL only needs to be parsed once, then returns
multiple columns—a clear performance win. The alternative, using UDFs, involves
writing several UDFs to extract specific parts of the URL. Using UDFs requires writing
more code as well as more processing time because the URL is parsed multiple times.
For example, something like the following:
SELECT PARSE_HOST(a.url) as host, PARSE_PORT(url) FROM weblogs;

UDTFs that Simulate Complex Types
A UDTF can be used as a technique for adding more complex types to Hive. For example, a complex type can be serialized as an encoded string and a UDTF will deserialize the complex type when needed. Suppose we have a Java class named Book. Hive
cannot work with this datatype directly, however a Book could be encoded to and
decoded from a string format:
public class Book {
public Book () { }
public String isbn;
public String title;
public String [] authors;
/* note: this system will not work if your table is
using '|' or ',' as the field delimiter! */
public void fromString(String parts){
String [] part = part.split("\|");
isbn = Integer.parseInt( part[0] );
title = part[1] ;
authors = part[2].split(",");
public String toString(){
return isbn+"\t"+title+"\t"+StringUtils.join(authors, ",");

User-Defined Table Generating Functions | 179

Imagine we have a flat text file with books in this format. For now lets assume we could
not use a delimited SerDe to split on | and ,:
hive> SELECT * FROM books;
5555555|Programming Hive|Edward,Dean,Jason

In the pipe-delimited raw form it is possible to do some parsing of the data:
hive> SELECT cast(split(book_info,"\|")[0] AS INTEGER) AS isbn FROM books
> WHERE split(book_info,"\|")[1] = "Programming Hive";

This HiveQL works correctly, however it could be made easier for the end user. For
example, writing this type of query may require consulting documentation regarding
which fields and types are used, remembering casting conversion rules, and so forth.
By contrast, a UDTF makes this HiveQL simpler and more readable. In the following
example, the parse_book() UDTF is introduced:
hive> FROM (
> parse_book(book_info) AS (isbn, title, authors) FROM Book ) a
> SELECT a.isbn
> WHERE a.title="Programming Hive"
> AND array_contains (authors, 'Edward');

The function parse_book() allows Hive to return multiple columns of different types
representing the fields of a book:
package com.jointhegrid.udf.collect;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.exec.UDFArgumentException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.udf.generic.GenericUDTF;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.ObjectInspector;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.ObjectInspectorFactory;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.PrimitiveObjectInspector
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.StructObjectInspector;
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.primitive
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.primitive
import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.primitive
public class UDTFBook extends GenericUDTF{
private Text sent;
Object[] forwardObj = null;

180 | Chapter 13: Functions

The function will return three properties and ISBN as an integer, a title as a string, and
authors as an array of strings. Notice that we can return nested types with all UDFs,
for example we can return an array of array of strings:
public StructObjectInspector initialize(ObjectInspector[] args)
throws UDFArgumentException {
ArrayList fieldNames = new ArrayList();
ArrayList fieldOIs = new ArrayList();
fieldOIs.add( ObjectInspectorFactory.getStandardListObjectInspector(
forwardObj= new Object[3];
return ObjectInspectorFactory.getStandardStructObjectInspector(
fieldNames, fieldOIs);

The process method only returns a single row. However, each element in the object
array will be bound to a specific variable:
public void process(Object[] os) throws HiveException {
sent = new Text(((StringObjectInspector)args[0])
String parts = new String(this.sent.getBytes());
String [] part = parts.split("\\|");
forwardObj[0]=Integer.parseInt( part[0] );
forwardObj[1]=part[1] ;


public void close() throws HiveException {

User-Defined Table Generating Functions | 181

We have followed the call to the book UDTF with AS, which allows the result columns
to be named by the user. They can then be used in other parts of the query without
having to parse information from the book again:
"create temporary function book as 'com.jointhegrid.udf.collect.UDTFBook'");
client.execute("create table booktest (str string) ");
"load data local inpath '" + p.toString() + "' into table booktest");
client.execute("select book(str) AS (book, title, authors) from booktest");
[555 Programming Hive "Dean","Jason","Edward"]

Accessing the Distributed Cache from a UDF
UDFs may access files inside the distributed cache, the local filesystem, or even the
distributed filesystem. This access should be used cautiously as the overhead is
A common usage of Hive is the analyzing of web logs. A popular operation is determining the geolocation of web traffic based on the IP address. Maxmind makes a GeoIP
database available and a Java API to search this database. By wrapping a UDF around
this API, location information may be looked up about an IP address from within a
Hive query.
The GeoIP API uses a small data file. This is ideal for showing the functionality of
accessing a distributed cache file from a UDF. The complete code for this example is
found at
ADD FILE is used to cache the necessary data files with Hive. ADD JAR is used to add the

required Java JAR files to the cache and the classpath. Finally, the temporary function
must be defined as the final step before performing queries:

ADD JAR geo-ip-java.jar;
ADD JAR hive-udf-geo-ip-jtg.jar;
AS 'com.jointhegrid.hive.udf.GenericUDFGeoIP';

hive> SELECT ip, geoip(source_ip, 'COUNTRY_NAME', './GeoIP.dat') FROM weblogs;
United States

The two examples returned include an IP address in the United States and a private IP
address that has no fixed address.
The geoip() function takes three arguments: the IP address in either string or long
format, a string that must match one of the constants COUNTRY_NAME or DMA_CODE, and a
final argument that is the name of the data file that has already been placed in the
distributed cache.

182 | Chapter 13: Functions

The first call to the UDF (which triggers the first call to the evaluate Java function in
the implementation) will instantiate a LookupService object that uses the file located in
the distributed cache. The lookup service is saved in a reference so it only needs to be
initialized once in the lifetime of a map or reduce task that initializes it. Note that the
LookupService has its own internal caching, LookupService.GEOIP\_MEMORY_CACHE, so
that optimization should avoid frequent disk access when looking up IPs.
Here is the source code for evaluate():
public Object evaluate(DeferredObject[] arguments) throws HiveException {
if (argumentOIs[0] instanceof LongObjectInspector) {
this.ipLong = ((LongObjectInspector)argumentOIs[0]).get(arguments[0].get());
} else {
this.ipString = ((StringObjectInspector)argumentOIs[0])
} = ((StringObjectInspector)argumentOIs[1])
if ( != null) { =;
if (ls ==null){
if (argumentOIs.length == 3){
this.database = ((StringObjectInspector)argumentOIs[1])
File f = new File(database);
if (!f.exists())
throw new HiveException(database+" does not exist");
try {
ls = new LookupService ( f , LookupService.GEOIP_MEMORY_CACHE );
} catch (IOException ex){
throw new HiveException (ex);

An if statement in evaluate determines which data the method should return. In our
example, the country name is requested:
if (COUNTRY_PROPERTIES.contains( {
Country country = ipString != null ?
ls.getCountry(ipString) : ls.getCountry(ipLong);
if (country == null) {
return null;
} else if ( {
return country.getName();
} else if ( {
return country.getCode();
} else if (LOCATION_PROPERTIES.contains( {

Accessing the Distributed Cache from a UDF | 183



Annotations for Use with Functions
In this chapter we mentioned the Description annotation and how it is used to provide
documentation for Hive methods at runtime. Other annotations exist for UDFs that
can make functions easier to use and even increase the performance of some Hive
public @interface UDFType {
boolean deterministic() default true;
boolean stateful() default false;
boolean distinctLike() default false;

By default, deterministic is automatically turned on for most queries because they are
inherently deterministic by nature. An exception is the function rand().
If a UDF is not deterministic, it is not included in the partition pruner.
An example of a nondeterministic query using rand() is the following:
SELECT * FROM t WHERE rand() < 0.01;

If rand() were deterministic, the result would only be calculated a single time in the
computation state. Because a query with rand() is nondeterministic, the result of
rand() is recomputed for each row.

Almost all the UDFs are stateful by default; a UDF that is not stateful is rand() because
it returns a different value for each invocation. The Stateful annotation may be used
under the following conditions:
• A stateful UDF can only be used in the SELECT list, not in other clauses such as
• When a stateful UDF is present in a query, the implication is the SELECT will be
treated similarly to TRANSFORM (i.e., a DISTRIBUTE/CLUSTER/SORT clause), then run
inside the corresponding reducer to ensure the results are as expected.
• If stateful is set to true, the UDF should also be treated as nondeterministic (even
if the deterministic annotation explicitly returns true).
See for more details.

184 | Chapter 13: Functions

Used for cases where the function behaves like DISTINCT even when applied to a nondistinct column of values. Examples include min and max functions that return a distinct
value even though the underlying numeric data can have repeating values.

Macros provide the ability to define functions in HiveQL that call other functions and
operators. When appropriate for the particular situation, macros are a convenient
alternative to writing UDFs in Java or using Hive streaming, because they require no
external code or scripts.
To define a macro, use the CREATE TEMPORARY MACRO syntax. Here is an example that
creates a SIGMOID function calculator:

Macros | 185



Hive works by leveraging and extending the components of Hadoop, common
abstractions such as InputFormat, OutputFormat, Mapper, and Reducer, plus its own
abstractions, like SerializerDeserializer (SerDe), User-Defined Functions (UDFs),
and StorageHandlers.
These components are all Java components, but Hive hides the complexity of implementing and using these components by letting the user work with SQL abstractions,
rather than Java code.
Streaming offers an alternative way to transform data. During a streaming job, the Hadoop Streaming API opens an I/O pipe to an external process. Data is then passed to
the process, which operates on the data it reads from the standard input and writes the
results out through the standard output, and back to the Streaming API job. While Hive
does not leverage the Hadoop streaming API directly, it works in a very similar way.
This pipeline computing model is familiar to users of Unix operating systems and their
descendants, like Linux and Mac OS X.
Streaming is usually less efficient than coding the comparable UDFs or
InputFormat objects. Serializing and deserializing data to pass it in and
out of the pipe is relatively inefficient. It is also harder to debug the whole
program in a unified manner. However, it is useful for fast prototyping
and for leveraging existing code that is not written in Java. For Hive
users who don’t want to write Java code, it can be a very effective

Hive provides several clauses to use streaming: MAP(), REDUCE(), and TRANSFORM(). An
important point to note is that MAP() does not actually force streaming during the map
phase nor does reduce force streaming to happen in the reduce phase. For this reason,
the functionally equivalent yet more generic TRANSFORM() clause is suggested to avoid
misleading the reader of the query.


For our streaming examples we will use a small table named a, with columns named
col1 and col2, both of type INT, and two rows:
hive> CREATE TABLE a (col1 INT, col2 INT)
hive> SELECT * FROM a;
hive> DESCRIBE a;

Identity Transformation
The most basic streaming job is an identity operation. The /bin/cat command echoes
the data sent to it and meets the requirements. In this example, /bin/cat is assumed to
be installed on all TaskTracker nodes. Any Linux system should have it! Later, we will
show how Hive can “ship” applications with the job when they aren’t already installed
around the cluster:
> USING '/bin/cat' AS newA, newB
> FROM default.a;

Changing Types
The return columns from TRANSFORM are typed as strings, by default. There is an alternative syntax that casts the results to different types.
hive> SELECT TRANSFORM (col1, col2)
> USING '/bin/cat' AS (newA INT , newB DOUBLE) FROM a;

Projecting Transformation
The cut command can be used with streaming to extract or project specific fields. In
other words, this behaves like the SELECT statement:
> USING '/bin/cut -f1'
> AS newA, newB FROM a;

188 | Chapter 14: Streaming

Download from Wow! eBook 

Note that the query attempts to read more columns than are actually returned from the
external process, so newB is always NULL. By default, TRANSFORM assumes two columns
but there can be any number of them:
> USING '/bin/cut -f1'
> AS newA FROM a;

Manipulative Transformations
The /bin/sed program (or /usr/bin/sed on Mac OS X systems) is a stream editor. It
takes the input stream, edits it according to the user’s specification, and then writes the
results to the output stream. The example below replaces the string 4 with the string 10:
> USING '/bin/sed s/4/10/'
> AS newA, newB FROM a;
10 5

Using the Distributed Cache
All of the streaming examples thus far have used applications such as cat and sed that
are core parts of Unix operating systems and their derivatives. When a query requires
files that are not already installed on every TaskTracker, users can use the distributed
cache to transmit data or program files across the cluster that will be cleaned up when
the job is complete.
This is helpful, because installing (and sometimes removing) lots of little components
across large clusters can be a burden. Also, the cache keeps one job’s cached files separate from those files belonging to other jobs.
The following example is a bash shell script that converts degrees in Celsius to degrees
in Fahrenheit:
while read LINE
res=$(echo "scale=2;((9/5) * $LINE) + 32" | bc)
echo $res

To test this script, launch it locally. It will not prompt for input. Type 100 and then
strike Enter. The process prints 212.00 to the standard output. Then enter another
number and the program returns another result. You can continue entering numbers
or use Control-D to end the input.

Using the Distributed Cache | 189

$ sh

Hive’s ADD FILE feature adds files to the distributed cache. The added file is put in the
current working directory of each task. This allows the transform task to use the script
without needing to know where to find it:
hive> ADD FILE ${env:HOME}/prog_hive/;
Added resource: /home/edward/prog_hive/
hive> SELECT TRANSFORM(col1) USING '' AS convert FROM a;

Producing Multiple Rows from a Single Row
The examples shown thus far have taken one row of input and produced one row of
output. Streaming can be used to produce multiple rows of output for each input row.
This functionality produces output similar to the EXPLODE() UDF and the LATERAL
VIEW syntax1.
Given an input file $HOME/kv_data.txt that looks like:

We would like the data in a tabular form. This will allow the rows to be processed by
familiar HiveQL operators:


Create this Perl script and save it as $HOME/
while () {
my $line = $_;
my @kvs = split(/,/, $line);
foreach my $p (@kvs) {
my @kv = split(/=/, $p);
print $kv[0] . "\t" . $kv[1] . "\n";

1. The source code and concept for this example comes from Larry Ogrodnek, “Custom Map Scripts and
Hive”, Bizo development (blog), July 14, 2009.

190 | Chapter 14: Streaming

Create a kv_data table. The entire table is defined as a single string column. The row
format does not need to be configured because the streaming script will do all the
tokenization of the fields:
hive> CREATE TABLE kv_data ( line STRING );
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/kv_data.txt' INTO TABLE kv_data;

Use the transform script on the source table. The ragged, multiple-entry-per-row format
is converted into a two-column result set of key-value pairs:
> USING 'perl'
> AS (key, value) FROM kv_data;

Calculating Aggregates with Streaming
Streaming can also be used to do aggregating operations like Hive’s built-in SUM function. This is possible because streaming processes can return zero or more rows of
output for every given input.
To accomplish aggregation in an external application, declare an accumulator before
the loop that reads from the input stream and output the sum after the completion of
the input:
my $sum=0;
while () {
my $line = $_;
print $sum;

Create a table and populate it with integer data, one integer per line, for testing:
hive> CREATE TABLE sum (number INT);
hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH '${env:HOME}/data_to_sum.txt' INTO TABLE sum;

Calculating Aggregates with Streaming | 191

hive> SELECT * FROM sum;

Add the streaming program to the distributed cache and use it in a TRANSFORM query.
The process returns a single row, which is the sum of the input:
hive> ADD FILE ${env:HOME}/;
Added resource: /home/edward/
hive> SELECT TRANSFORM (number)
> USING 'perl' AS total FROM sum;

Unfortunately, it is not possible to do multiple TRANSFORMs in a single query like the
UDAF SUM() can do. For example:
hive> SELECT sum(number) AS one, sum(number) AS two FROM sum;

Also, without using CLUSTER BY or DISTRIBUTE BY for the intermediate data, this job may
run single, very long map and reduce tasks. While not all operations can be done in
parallel, many can. The next section discusses how to do streaming in parallel, when

Hive offers syntax to control how data is distributed and sorted. These features can be
used on most queries, but are particularly useful when doing streaming processes. For
example, data for the same key may need to be sent to the same processing node, or
data may need to be sorted by a specific column, or by a function. Hive provides several
ways to control this behavior.
The first way to control this behavior is the CLUSTER BY clause, which ensures like data
is routed to the same reduce task and sorted.
To demonstrate the use of CLUSTER BY, let’s see a nontrivial example: another way to
perform the Word Count algorithm that we introduced in Chapter 1. Now, we will use
the TRANSFORM feature and two Python scripts, one to tokenize lines of text into words,
and the second to accept a stream of word occurrences and an intermediate count of
the words (mostly the number “1”) and then sum up the counts for each word.
Here is the first Python script that tokenizes lines of text on whitespace (which doesn’t
properly handle punctuation, etc.):

192 | Chapter 14: Streaming

import sys
for line in sys.stdin:
words = line.strip().split()
for word in words:
print "%s\t1" % (word.lower())

Without explaining all the Python syntax, this script imports common functions from
a sys module, then it loops over each line on the “standard input,” stdin, splits each
line on whitespace into a collection of words, then iterates over the word and writes
each word, followed by a tab, \t, and the “count” of one.2
Before we show the second Python script, let’s discuss the data that’s passed to it. We’ll
use CLUSTER BY for the words output from the first Python script in our TRANSFORM Hive
query. This will have the effect of causing all occurrences of the word\t1 “pairs” for a
give, word to be grouped together, one pair per line:


Hence, the second Python script will be more complex, because it needs to cache the
word it’s currently processing and the count of occurrences seen so far. When the word
changes, the script must output the count for the previous word and reset its caches.
So, here it is:
import sys
(last_key, last_count) = (None, 0)
for line in sys.stdin:
(key, count) = line.strip().split("\t")
if last_key and last_key != key:
print "%s\t%d" % (last_key, last_count)
(last_key, last_count) = (key, int(count))
last_key = key
last_count += int(count)
if last_key:
print "%s\t%d" % (last_key, last_count)

We’ll assume that both Python scripts are in your home directory.
Finally, here is the Hive query that glues it all together. We’ll start by repeating a CREATE
TABLE statement for an input table of lines of text, one that we used in Chapter 1. Any
text file could serve as the data for this table. Next we’ll show the TABLE for the output
2. This is the most naive approach. We could cache the counts of words seen and then write the final count.
That would be faster, by minimizing I/O overhead, but it would also be more complex to implement.


of word count. It will have two columns, the word and count, and data will be tabdelimited. Finally, we show the TRANSFORM query that glues it all together:
hive> CREATE TABLE docs (line STRING);
hive> CREATE TABLE word_count (word STRING, count INT)

FROM docs
AS word, count
CLUSTER BY word) wc
SELECT TRANSFORM (wc.word, wc.count) USING '${env:HOME}/'
AS word, count;

The USING clauses specify an absolute path to the Python scripts.
A more flexible alternative to CLUSTER BY is to use DISTRIBUTE BY and SORT BY. This is
used in the general case when you wish to partition the data by one column and sort it
by another. In fact, CLUSTER BY word is equivalent to DISTRIBUTE BY word SORT BY word
The following version of the TRANSFORM query outputs the word count results in reverse
FROM docs
AS word, count
SELECT TRANSFORM (wc.word, wc.count) USING '/.../'
AS word, count;

Using either CLUSTER BY or DISTRIBUTE BY with SORT BY is important. Without these
directives, Hive may not be able to parallelize the job properly. All the data might be
sent to a single reducer, which would extend the job processing time.

GenericMR Tools for Streaming to Java
Typically, streaming is used to integrate non-Java code into Hive. Streaming works with
applications written in essentially any language, as we saw. It is possible to use Java for
streaming, and Hive includes a GenericMR API that attempts to give the feel of the
Hadoop MapReduce API to streaming:
FROM src
MAP value, key
USING 'java -cp hive-contrib-0.9.0.jar'
AS k, v

194 | Chapter 14: Streaming

CLUSTER BY k) map_output
USING 'java -cp hive-contrib-0.9.0.jar'
AS k, v;

To understand how the IdentityMapper is written, we can take a look at the interfaces
GenericMR provides. The Mapper interface is implemented to build custom Mapper
implementations. It provides a map method where the column data is sent as a string
array, String []:
public interface Mapper {
void map(String[] record, Output output) throws Exception;

The IdentityMapper makes no changes to the input data and passes it to the collector.
This is functionally equivalent to the identity streaming done with /bin/cat earlier in
the chapter:
public final class IdentityMapper {
public static void main(final String[] args) throws Exception {
new GenericMR().map(, System.out, new Mapper() {
public void map(final String[] record, final Output output) throws Exception {


private IdentityMapper() {

The Reducer interface provides the first column as a String, and the remaining columns
are available through the record Iterator. Each iteration returns a pair of Strings,
where the 0th element is the key repeated and the next element is the value. The output
object is the same one used to emit results:
import java.util.Iterator;
public interface Reducer {
void reduce(String key, Iterator records, Output output)
throws Exception;

GenericMR Tools for Streaming to Java | 195

WordCountReduce has an accumulator that is added by each element taken from the
records Iterator. When all the records have been counted, a single two-element array

of the key and the count is emitted:


public final class WordCountReduce {
private WordCountReduce() {


public static void main(final String[] args) throws Exception {
new GenericMR().reduce(, System.out, new Reducer() {
public void reduce(String key, Iterator records, Output output)
throws Exception {
int count = 0;
while (records.hasNext()) {
// note we use col[1] -- the key is provided again as col[0]
count += Integer.parseInt([1]);
output.collect(new String[] {key, String.valueOf(count)});

Calculating Cogroups
It’s common in MapReduce applications to join together records from multiple data
sets and then stream them through a final TRANSFORM step. Using UNION ALL and CLUSTER
BY, we can perform this generalization of a GROUP BY operation
Pig provides a native COGROUP BY operation.

Suppose we have several sources of logfiles, with similar schema, that we wish to bring
together and analyze with a reduce_script:

196 | Chapter 14: Streaming

FROM order_log ol
-- User Id, order Id, and timestamp:
SELECT ol.userid AS uid, ol.orderid AS id, av.ts AS ts
FROM clicks_log cl
SELECT cl.userid AS uid, AS id, ac.ts AS ts
) union_msgs
SELECT union_msgs.uid,, union_msgs.ts
CLUSTER BY union_msgs.uid, union_msgs.ts) map
SELECT TRANSFORM(map.uid,, map.ts) USING 'reduce_script'
AS (uid, id, ...);

Calculating Cogroups | 197


Customizing Hive File and
Record Formats

Hive functionality can be customized in several ways. First, there are the variables and
properties that we discussed in “Variables and Properties” on page 31. Second, you
may extend Hive using custom UDFs, or user-defined functions, which was discussed
in Chapter 13. Finally, you can customize the file and record formats, which we discuss

File Versus Record Formats
Hive draws a clear distinction between the file format, how records are encoded in a
file, the record format, and how the stream of bytes for a given record are encoded in
the record.
In this book we have been using text files, with the default STORED AS TEXTFILE in CREATE
TABLE statements (see “Text File Encoding of Data Values” on page 45), where each
line in the file is a record. Most of the time those records have used the default separators, with occasional examples of data that use commas or tabs as field separators.
However, a text file could contain JSON or XML “documents.”
For Hive, the file format choice is orthogonal to the record format. We’ll first discuss
options for file formats, then we’ll discuss different record formats and how to use them
in Hive.

Demystifying CREATE TABLE Statements
Throughout the book we have shown examples of creating tables. You may have noticed that CREATE TABLE has a variety of syntax. Examples of this syntax are STORED AS
will cover much of this syntax and give examples, but as a preface note that some syntax


is sugar for other syntax, that is, syntax used to make concepts easier (sweeter) to
understand. For example, specifying STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE is an alternative to specifying an INPUTFORMAT of org.apache.hadoop.mapred.SequenceFileInputFormat and an
Let’s create some tables and use DESCRIBE TABLE EXTENDED to peel away the sugar and
expose the internals. First, we will create and then describe a simple table (we have
formatted the output here, as Hive otherwise would not have indented the output):
hive> create table text (x int) ;
hive> describe extended text;
Detailed Table Information
Table(tableName:text, dbName:default, owner:edward, createTime:1337814583,
lastAccessTime:0, retention:0,
cols:[FieldSchema(name:x, type:int, comment:null)],
bucketCols:[], sortCols:[], parameters:{}), partitionKeys:[],
viewOriginalText:null, viewExpandedText:null, tableType:MANAGED_TABLE

Now let’s create a table using STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE for comparison:
Detailed Table Information
Table(tableName:seq, dbName:default, owner:edward, createTime:1337814571,
lastAccessTime:0, retention:0,
cols:[FieldSchema(name:x, type:int, comment:null)],
compressed:false, numBuckets:-1,

200 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats

bucketCols:[], sortCols:[], parameters:{}), partitionKeys:[],
viewOriginalText:null, viewExpandedText:null, tableType:MANAGED_TABLE
Time taken: 0.107 seconds

Unless you have been blinded by Hive’s awesomeness, you would have picked up on
the difference between these two tables. That STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE has changed the
InputFormat and the OutputFormat:

Hive uses the InputFormat when reading data from the table, and it uses the OutputFor
mat when writing data to the table.
InputFormat reads key-value pairs from files; Hive currently ignores the

key and works only with the data found in the value by default. The
reason for this is that the key, which comes from TextInputFormat, is a
long integer that represents the byte offset in the block (which is not
user data).

The rest of the chapter describes other aspects of the table metadata.

File Formats
We discussed in “Text File Encoding of Data Values” on page 45 that the simplest data
format to use is the text format, with whatever delimiters you prefer. It is also the default
format, equivalent to creating a table with the clause STORED AS TEXTFILE.
The text file format is convenient for sharing data with other tools, such as Pig, Unix
text tools like grep, sed, and awk, etc. It’s also convenient for viewing or editing files
manually. However, the text format is not space efficient compared to binary formats.
We can use compression, as we discussed in Chapter 11, but we can also gain more
efficient usage of disk space and better disk I/O performance by using binary file

The first alternative is the SequenceFile format, which we can specify using the STORED
AS SEQUENCEFILE clause during table creation.
Sequence files are flat files consisting of binary key-value pairs. When Hive converts
queries to MapReduce jobs, it decides on the appropriate key-value pairs to use for a
given record.
File Formats | 201

The sequence file is a standard format supported by Hadoop itself, so it is an acceptable
choice when sharing files between Hive and other Hadoop-related tools. It’s less suitable for use with tools outside the Hadoop ecosystem. As we discussed in Chapter 11, sequence files can be compressed at the block and record level, which is very
useful for optimizing disk space utilization and I/O, while still supporting the ability
to split files on block boundaries for parallel processing.
Another efficient binary format that is supported natively by Hive is RCFile.

Most Hadoop and Hive storage is row oriented, which is efficient in most cases. The
efficiency can be attributed to several factors: most tables have a smaller number
(1−20) of columns. Compression on blocks of a file is efficient for dealing with repeating
data, and many processing and debugging tools (more, head, awk) work well with roworiented data.
Not all tools and data stores take a row-oriented approach; column-oriented organization is a good storage option for certain types of data and applications. For example,
if a given table has hundreds of columns but most queries use only a few of the columns,
it is wasteful to scan entire rows then discard most of the data. However, if the data is
stored by column instead of by row, then only the data for the desired columns has to
be read, improving performance.
It also turns out that compression on columns is typically very efficient, especially
when the column has low cardinality (only a few distinct entries). Also, some columnoriented stores do not physically need to store null columns.
Hive’s RCFile is designed for these scenarios.
While books like Programming Hive are invaluable sources of information, sometimes
the best place to find information is inside the source code itself. A good description
of how Hive’s column storage known as RCFile works is found in the source code:
cd hive-trunk
find . -name "RCFile*"
vi ./ql/src/java/org/apache/hadoop/hive/ql/io/

* RCFile stores columns of a table in a record columnar way. It first * partitions rows horizontally into row splits. and then it vertically * partitions each row split in a columnar way. RCFile first stores the meta * data of a row split, as the key part of a record, and all the data of a row * split as the value part. *

A powerful aspect of Hive is that converting data between different formats is simple. Storage information is stored in the tables metadata. When a query SELECTs from one table and INSERTs into another, Hive uses the metadata about the tables and handles the conversion automatically. This makes for easy evaluation of the different options without writing one-off programs to convert data between the different formats. 202 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats Creating a table using the ColumnarSerDe, RCFileInputFormat, and RCFileOutputFormat: hive> select * from a; OK 4 5 3 2 Time taken: 0.336 seconds hive> create table columnTable (key int , value int) > ROW FORMAT SERDE > 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.columnar.ColumnarSerDe' > STORED AS > INPUTFORMAT '' > OUTPUTFORMAT ''; hive> FROM a INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE columnTable SELECT a.col1, a.col2; RCFile’s cannot be opened with the tools that open typical sequence files. However, Hive provides an rcfilecat tool to display the contents of RCFiles: $ bin/hadoop dfs -text /user/hive/warehouse/columntable/000000_0 text: WritableName can't load class:$KeyBuffer $ bin/hive --service rcfilecat /user/hive/warehouse/columntable/000000_0 4 5 3 2 Example of a Custom Input Format: DualInputFormat Many databases allow users to SELECT without FROM. This can be used to perform simple calculations, such as SELECT 1+2. If Hive did not allow this type of query, then a user would instead select from an existing table and limit the results to a single row. Or the user may create a table with a single row. Some databases provide a table named dual, which is a single row table to be used in this manner. By default, a standard Hive table uses the TextInputFormat. The TextInputFormat calculates zero or more splits for the input. Splits are opened by the framework and a RecordReader is used to read the data. Each row of text becomes an input record. To create an input format that works with a dual table, we need to create an input format that returns one split with one row, regardless of the input path specified.1 In the example below, DualInputFormat returns a single split: public class DualInputFormat implements InputFormat{ public InputSplit[] getSplits(JobConf jc, int i) throws IOException { InputSplit [] splits = new DualInputSplit[1]; splits[0]= new DualInputSplit(); return splits; } public RecordReader getRecordReader(InputSplit split, JobConf jc, Reporter rprtr) throws IOException { 1. The source code for the DualInputFormat is available at: DualInputFormat. File Formats | 203 Download from Wow! eBook } } return new DualRecordReader(jc, split); In the example below the split is a single row. There is nothing to serialize or deserialize: public class DualInputSplit implements InputSplit { public long getLength() throws IOException { return 1; } public String[] getLocations() throws IOException { return new String [] { "localhost" }; } public void write(DataOutput d) throws IOException { } public void readFields(DataInput di) throws IOException { } } The DualRecordReader has a Boolean variable hasNext. After the first invocation of next(), its value is set to false. Thus, this record reader returns a single row and then is finished with virtual input: public class DualRecordReader implements RecordReader{ boolean hasNext=true; public DualRecordReader(JobConf jc, InputSplit s) { } public DualRecordReader(){ } public long getPos() throws IOException { return 0; } public void close() throws IOException { } public float getProgress() throws IOException { if (hasNext) return 0.0f; else return 1.0f; } public Text createKey() { return new Text(""); } public Text createValue() { return new Text(""); } public boolean next(Text k, Text v) throws IOException { if (hasNext){ hasNext=false; return true; } else { return hasNext; } } } 204 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats We can create a table using our DualInputFormat and the default HiveIgnoreKeyTextOut putFormat. Selecting from the table confirms that it returns a single empty row. Input Formats should be placed inside the Hadoop lib directory or preferably inside the Hive auxlib directory. client.execute("add jar dual.jar"); client.execute("create table dual (fake string) "+ "STORED AS INPUTFORMAT 'com.m6d.dualinputformat.DualInputFormat'"+ "OUTPUTFORMAT ''"); client.execute("select count(1) as cnt from dual"); String row = client.fetchOne(); assertEquals("1", row); client.execute("select * from dual"); row = client.fetchOne(); assertEquals( "", row); Record Formats: SerDes SerDe is short for serializer/deserializer. A SerDe encapsulates the logic for converting the unstructured bytes in a record, which is stored as part of a file, into a record that Hive can use. SerDes are implemented using Java. Hive comes with several built-in SerDes and many other third-party SerDes are available. Internally, the Hive engine uses the defined InputFormat to read a record of data. That record is then passed to the SerDe.deserialize() method. A lazy SerDe does not fully materialize an object until individual attributes are necessary. The following example uses a RegexSerDe to parse a standard formatted Apache web log. The RegexSerDe is included as a standard feature as a part of the Hive distribution: CREATE TABLE serde_regex( host STRING, identity STRING, user STRING, time STRING, request STRING, status STRING, size STRING, referer STRING, agent STRING) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( "input.regex" = "([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) (-|\\[[^\\]]*\\]) ([^ \"]*|\"[^\"]*\") (-|[0-9]*) (-|[0-9]*)(?: ([^ \"]*|\"[^\"]*\") ([^ \"]*|\"[^\"]*\"))?", "output.format.string" = "%1$s %2$s %3$s %4$s %5$s %6$s %7$s %8$s %9$s" ) STORED AS TEXTFILE; Now we can load data and write queries: Record Formats: SerDes | 205 hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH "../data/files/apache.access.log" INTO TABLE serde_regex; hive> LOAD DATA LOCAL INPATH "../data/files/apache.access.2.log" INTO TABLE serde_regex; hive> SELECT * FROM serde_regex ORDER BY time; (The long regular expression was wrapped to fit.) CSV and TSV SerDes What about CSV (comma-separated values) and TSV (tab-separated values) files? Of course, for simple data such as numerical data, you can just use the default test file format and specify the field delimiter, as we saw previously. However, this simplistic approach doesn’t handle strings with embedded commas or tabs, nor does it handle other common conventions, like whether or not to quote all or no strings, or the optional presence of a “column header” row as the first line in each file. First, it’s generally safer to remove the column header row, if present. Then one of several third-party SerDes are available for properly parsing CSV or TSV files. For CSV files, consider CSVSerde: ADD JAR /path/to/csv-serde.jar; CREATE TABLE stocks(ymd STRING, ...) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'com.bizo.hive.serde.csv.CSVSerde' STORED AS TEXTFILE ...; While TSV support should be similar, there are no comparable third-party TSV SerDes available at the time of this writing. ObjectInspector Underneath the covers, Hive uses what is known as an ObjectInspector to transform raw records into objects that Hive can access. Think Big Hive Reflection ObjectInspector Think Big Analytics has created an ObjectInspector based on Java reflection called BeansStructObjectInspector. Using the JavaBeans model for introspection, any “property” on objects that are exposed through get methods or as public member variables may be referenced in queries. An example of how to use the BeansStructObjectInspector is as follows: public class SampleDeserializer implements Deserializer { @Override public ObjectInspector getObjectInspector() throws SerDeException { return BeansStructObjectInspector.getBeansObjectInspector(YourObject.class); 206 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats } } XML UDF XML is inherently unstructured, which makes Hive a powerful database platform for XML. One of the reasons Hadoop is ideal as an XML database platform is the complexity and resource consumption to parse and process potentially large XML documents. Because Hadoop parallelizes processing of XML documents, Hive becomes a perfect tool for accelerating XML-related data solutions. Additionally, HiveQL natively enables access to XML’s nested elements and values, then goes further by allowing joins on any of the nested fields, values, and attributes. XPath (XML Path Language) is a global standard created by the W3C for addressing parts of an XML document. Using XPath as an expressive XML query language, Hive becomes extremely useful for extracting data from XML documents and into the Hive subsystem. XPath models an XML document as a tree of nodes. Basic facilities are provided for access to primitive types, such as string, numeric, and Boolean types. While commercial solutions such as Oracle XML DB and MarkLogic provide native XML database solutions, open source Hive leverages the advantages provided by the parallel petabyte processing of the Hadoop infrastructure to enable widely effective XML database vivification. XPath-Related Functions Hive contains a number of XPath-related UDFs since the 0.6.0 release (Table 15-1). Table 15-1. XPath UDFs Name Description xpath Returns a Hive array of strings xpath_string Returns a string xpath_boolean Returns a Boolean xpath_short Returns a short integer xpath_int Returns an integer xpath_long Returns a long integer xpath_float Returns a floating-point number xpath_double, xpath_number Returns a double-precision floating-point number Here are some examples where these functions are run on string literals: XPath-Related Functions | 207 hive> SELECT xpath(\'b1b2\',\'//@id\') > FROM src LIMIT 1; [foo","bar] hive> SELECT xpath (\'b1b2b3c1 c2\', \'a/*[@class="bb"]/text()\') > FROM src LIMIT 1; [b1","c1] (The long XML string was wrapped for space.) hive> SELECT xpath_double (\'24\', \'a/b + a/c\') > FROM src LIMIT 1; 6.0 JSON SerDe What if you want to query JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) data with Hive? If each JSON “document” is on a separate line, you can use TEXTFILE as the input and output format, then use a JSON SerDe to parse each JSON document as a record. There is a third-party JSON SerDe that started as a Google “Summer of Code” project and was subsequently cloned and forked by other contributors. Think Big Analytics created its own fork and added an enhancement we’ll go over in the discussion that follows. In the following example, this SerDe is used to extract a few fields from JSON data for a fictitious messaging system. Not all the available fields are exposed. Those that are exposed become available as columns in the table: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE messages ( msg_id BIGINT, tstamp STRING, text STRING, user_id BIGINT, user_name STRING ) ROW FORMAT SERDE "org.apache.hadoop.hive.contrib.serde2.JsonSerde" WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( "msg_id"="$.id", "tstamp"="$.created_at", "text"="$.text", "user_id"="$", "user_name"="$" ) LOCATION '/data/messages'; The WITH SERDEPROPERTIES is a Hive feature that allows the user to define properties that will be passed to the SerDe. The SerDe interprets those properties as it sees fit. Hive doesn’t know or care what they mean. In this case, the properties are used to map fields in the JSON documents to columns in the table. A string like $ means to take each record, represented by $, find 208 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats the user key, which is assumed to be a JSON map in this case, and finally extract the value for the id key inside the user. This value for the id is used as the value for the user_id column. Once defined, the user runs queries as always, blissfully unaware that the queries are actually getting data from JSON! Avro Hive SerDe Avro is a serialization systemit’s main feature is an evolvable schema-driven binary data format. Initially, Avro’s goals appeared to be in conflict with Hive since both wish to provide schema or metadata information. However Hive and the Hive metastore have pluggable design and can defer to the Avro support to infer the schema. The Hive Avro SerDe system was created by LinkedIn and has the following features: • Infers the schema of the Hive table from the Avro schema • Reads all Avro files within a table against a specified schema, taking advantage of Avro’s backwards compatibility • Supports arbitrarily nested schemas • Translates all Avro data types into equivalent Hive types. Most types map exactly, but some Avro types do not exist in Hive and are automatically converted by Hive with Avro • Understands compressed Avro files • Transparently converts the Avro idiom of handling nullable types as Union[T, null] into just T and returns null when appropriate • Writes any Hive table to Avro files Defining Avro Schema Using Table Properties Create an Avro table by specifying the AvroSerDe, AvroContainerInputFormat, and Avro ContainerOutputFormat. Avro has its own schema definition language. This schema definition language can be stored in the table properties as a string literal using the property avro.schema.literal. The schema specifies three columns: number as int, firstname as string, and lastname as string. CREATE TABLE doctors ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.avro.AvroSerDe' STORED AS INPUTFORMAT '' OUTPUTFORMAT '' TBLPROPERTIES ('avro.schema.literal'='{ "namespace": "testing.hive.avro.serde", "name": "doctors", "type": "record", Avro Hive SerDe | 209 "fields": [ { "name":"number", "type":"int", "doc":"Order of playing the role" }, { "name":"first_name", "type":"string", "doc":"first name of actor playing role" }, { "name":"last_name", "type":"string", "doc":"last name of actor playing role" } ] }'); When the DESCRIBE command is run, Hive shows the name and types of the columns. In the output below you will notice that the third column of output states from deser ializer. This shows that the SerDe itself returned the information from the column rather than static values stored in the metastore: hive> DESCRIBE number first_name last_name doctors; int from deserializer string from deserializer string from deserializer Defining a Schema from a URI It is also possible to provide the schema as a URI. This can be a path to a file in HDFS or a URL to an HTTP server. To do this, specify avro.schema.url in table properties and do not specify avro.schema.literal. The schema can be a file in HDFS: TBLPROPERTIES ('avro.schema.url'='hdfs://hadoop:9020/path/to.schema') The schema can also be stored on an HTTP server: TBLPROPERTIES ('avro.schema.url'='') Evolving Schema Over time fields may be added or deprecated from data sets. Avro is designed with this in mind. An evolving schema is one that changes over time. Avro allows fields to be null. It also allows for default values to be returned if the column is not defined in the data file. For example, if the Avro schema is changed and a field added, the default field supplies a value if the column is not found: 210 | Chapter 15: Customizing Hive File and Record Formats { } "name":"extra_field", "type":"string", "doc:":"an extra field not in the original file", "default":"fishfingers and custard" Binary Output There are several kinds of binary output. We have already seen compression of files, sequence files (compressed or not), and related file types. Sometimes, it’s also useful to read and write streams of bytes. For example, you may have tools that expect a stream of bytes, without field separators of any kind, and you either use Hive to generate suitable files for those tools or you want to query such files with Hive. You may also want the benefits of storing numbers in compact binary forms instead of strings like “5034223,” which consume more space. A common example is to query the output of the tcpdump command to analyze network behavior. The following table expects its own files to be in text format, but it writes query results as binary streams: CREATE TABLE binary_table (num1 INT, num2 INT) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.lazy.LazySimpleSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (''='true') STORED AS INPUTFORMAT 'org.apache.hadoop.mapred.TextInputFormat' OUTPUTFORMAT ''; Here’s a SELECT TRANSFORM query that reads binary data from a src table, streams it through the shell cat command and overwrites the contents of a destination1 table: INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE destination1 SELECT TRANSFORM(*) USING 'cat' AS mydata STRING ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.lazy.LazySimpleSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES (''='true') RECORDREADER 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.exec.BinaryRecordReader' FROM src; Binary Output | 211 CHAPTER 16 Hive Thrift Service Hive has an optional component known as HiveServer or HiveThrift that allows access to Hive over a single port. Thrift is a software framework for scalable cross-language services development. See for more details. Thrift allows clients using languages including Java, C++, Ruby, and many others, to programmatically access Hive remotely. The CLI is the most common way to access Hive. However, the design of the CLI can make it difficult to use programmatically. The CLI is a fat client; it requires a local copy of all the Hive components and configuration as well as a copy of a Hadoop client and its configuration. Additionally, it works as an HDFS client, a MapReduce client, and a JDBC client (to access the metastore). Even with the proper client installation, having all of the correct network access can be difficult, especially across subnets or datacenters. Starting the Thrift Server To Get started with the HiveServer, start it in the background using the service knob for hive: $ cd $HIVE_HOME $ bin/hive --service hiveserver & Starting Hive Thrift Server A quick way to ensure the HiveServer is running is to use the netstat command to determine if port 10,000 is open and listening for connections: $ netstat -nl | grep 10000 tcp 0 0 :::10000 :::* LISTEN (Some whitespace removed.) As mentioned, the HiveService uses Thrift. Thrift provides an interface language. With the interface, the Thrift compiler generates code that creates network RPC clients for many languages. Because Hive is written in Java, and Java bytecode is cross-platform, the clients for the Thrift server are included in the Hive 213 release. One way to use these clients is by starting a Java project with an IDE and including these libraries or fetching them through Maven. Setting Up Groovy to Connect to HiveService For this example we will use Groovy. Groovy is an agile and dynamic language for the Java Virtual Machine. Groovy is ideal for prototyping because it integrates with Java and provides a read-eval-print-loop (REPL) for writing code on the fly: $ curl -o $ unzip Next, add all Hive JARs to Groovy’s classpath by editing the groovy-starter.conf. This will allow Groovy to communicate with Hive without having to manually load JAR files each session: # load required libraries load !{groovy.home}/lib/*.jar # load user specific libraries load !{user.home}/.groovy/lib/*.jar # tools.jar for ant tasks load ${tools.jar} load /home/edward/hadoop/hadoop-0.20.2_local/*.jar load /home/edward/hadoop/hadoop-0.20.2_local/lib/*.jar load /home/edward/hive-0.9.0/lib/*.jar Groovy has an @grab annotation that can fetch JAR files from Maven web repositories, but currently some packaging issues with Hive prevent this from working correctly. Groovy provides a shell found inside the distribution at bin/groovysh. Groovysh provides a REPL for interactive programming. Groovy code is similar to Java code, although it does have other forms including closures. For the most part, you can write Groovy as you would write Java. Connecting to HiveServer From the REPL, import Hive- and Thrift-related classes. These classes are used to connect to Hive and create an instance of HiveClient. HiveClient has the methods users will typically use to interact with Hive: $ $HOME/groovy/groovy-1.8.0/bin/groovysh Groovy Shell (1.8.0, JVM: 1.6.0_23) Type 'help' or '\h' for help. groovy:000> import org.apache.hadoop.hive.service.*; 214 | Chapter 16: Hive Thrift Service groovy:000> groovy:000> groovy:000> groovy:000> groovy:000> groovy:000> groovy:000> import org.apache.thrift.protocol.*; import org.apache.thrift.transport.*; transport = new TSocket("localhost" , 10000); protocol = new TBinaryProtocol(transport); client = new HiveClient(protocol);; client.execute("show tables"); Getting Cluster Status The getClusterStatus method retrieves information from the Hadoop JobTracker. This can be used to collect performance metrics and can also be used to wait for a lull to launch a job: groovy:000> client.getClusterStatus() ===> HiveClusterStatus(taskTrackers:50, mapTasks:52, reduceTasks:40, maxMapTasks:480, maxReduceTasks:240, state:RUNNING) Result Set Schema After executing a query, you can get the schema of the result set using the get Schema() method. If you call this method before a query, it may return a null schema: groovy:000> client.getSchema() ===> Schema(fieldSchemas:null, properties:null) groovy:000> client.execute("show tables"); ===> null groovy:000> client.getSchema() ===> Schema(fieldSchemas:[FieldSchema(name:tab_name, type:string, comment:from deserializer)], properties:null) Fetching Results After a query is run, you can fetch results with the fetchOne() method. Retrieving large result sets with the Thrift interface is not suggested. However, it does offer several methods to retrieve data using a one-way cursor. The fetchOne() method retrieves an entire row: groovy:000> client.fetchOne() ===> cookjar_small Instead of retrieving rows one at a time, the entire result set can be retrieved as a string array using the fetchAll() method: groovy:000> client.fetchAll() ===> [macetest, missing_final, one, time_to_serve, two] Also available is fetchN, which fetches N rows at a time. Fetching Results | 215 Retrieving Query Plan After a query is started, the getQueryPlan() method is used to retrieve status information about the query. The information includes information on counters and the state of the job: groovy:000> client.execute("SELECT * FROM time_to_serve"); ===> null groovy:000> client.getQueryPlan() ===> QueryPlan(queries:[Query(queryId:hadoop_20120218180808_...-aedf367ea2f3, queryType:null, queryAttributes:{queryString=SELECT * FROM time_to_serve}, queryCounters:null, stageGraph:Graph(nodeType:STAGE, roots:null, adjacencyList:null), stageList:null, done:true, started:true)], done:false, started:false) (A long number was elided.) Metastore Methods The Hive service also connects to the Hive metastore via Thrift. Generally, users should not call metastore methods that modify directly and should only interact with Hive via the HiveQL language. Users should utilize the read-only methods that provide meta-information about tables. For example, the get_partition_names (String,String,short) method can be used to determine which partitions are available to a query: groovy:000> client.get_partition_names("default", "fracture_act", (short)0) [ hit_date=20120218/mid=001839,hit_date=20120218/mid=001842, hit_date=20120218/mid=001846 ] It is important to remember that while the metastore API is relatively stable in terms of changes, the methods inside, including their signatures and purpose, can change between releases. Hive tries to maintain compatibility in the HiveQL language, which masks changes at these levels. Example Table Checker The ability to access the metastore programmatically provides the capacity to monitor and enforce conditions across your deployment. For example, a check can be written to ensure that all tables use compression, or that tables with names that start with zz should not exist longer than 10 days. These small “Hive-lets” can be written quickly and executed remotely, if necessary. Finding tables not marked as external By default, managed tables store their data inside the warehouse directory, which is / user/hive/warehouse by default. Usually, external tables do not use this directory, but there is nothing that prevents you from putting them there. Enforcing a rule that 216 | Chapter 16: Hive Thrift Service managed tables should only be inside the warehouse directory will keep the environment sane. In the following application, the outer loop iterates through the list returned from get_all_databases(). The inner loop iterates through the list returned from get_all_tables(database). The Table object returned from get_table(data base,table) has all the information about the table in the metastore. We determine the location of the table and check that the type matches the string MANAGED_TABLE. External tables have a type EXTERNAL. A list of “bad” table names is returned: public List check(){ List bad = new ArrayList(); for (String database: client.get_all_databases() ){ for (String table: client.get_all_tables(database) ){ try { Table t = client.get_table(database,table); URI u = new URI(t.getSd().getLocation()); if (t.getTableType().equals("MANAGED_TABLE") && ! u.getPath().contains("/user/hive/warehouse") ){ System.out.println(t.getTableName() + " is a non external table mounted inside /user/hive/warehouse" ); bad.add(t.getTableName()); } } catch (Exception ex){ System.err.println("Had exception but will continue " +ex); } } } return bad; } Administrating HiveServer The Hive CLI creates local artifacts like the .hivehistory file along with entries in /tmp and hadoop.tmp.dir. Because the HiveService becomes the place where Hadoop jobs launch from, there are some considerations when deploying it. Productionizing HiveService HiveService is a good alternative to having the entire Hive client install local to the machine that launches the job. Using it in production does bring up some added issues that need to be addressed. The work that used to be done on the client machine, in planning and managing the tasks, now happens on the server. If you are launching many clients simultaneously, this could cause too much load for a single HiveService. A simple solution is to use a TCP load balancer or proxy to alternate connections between a pool of backend servers. Administrating HiveServer | 217 There are several ways to do TCP load balancing and you should consult your network administrator for the best solution. We suggest a simple solution that uses the hap roxy tool to balance connections between backend ThriftServers. First, inventory your physical ThriftServers and document the virtual server that will be your proxy (Tables 16-1 and 16-2). Table 16-1. Physical server inventory Short name Hostname and port HiveService1 hiveservice1.example.pvt:10000 HiveService2 hiveservice2.example.pvt:10000 Table 16-2. Proxy Configuration Hostname IP hiveprimary.example.pvt Install ha-proxy (HAP). Depending on your operating system and distribution these steps may be different. Example assumes a RHEL/CENTOS distribution: $sudo yum install haproxy Use the inventory prepared above to build the configuration file: $ more /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg listen hiveprimary balance leastconn mode tcp server hivethrift1 hiveservice1.example.pvt:10000 check server hivethrift2 hiveservice1.example.pvt:10000 check Start HAP via the system init script. After you have confirmed it is working, add it to the default system start-up with chkconfig: $ sudo /etc/init.d/haproxy start $ sudo chkconfig haproxy on Cleanup Hive offers the configuration variable hive.start.cleanup.scratchdir, which is set to false. Setting it to true will cause the service to clean up its scratch directory on restart: hive.start.cleanup.scratchdir true To clean up the Hive scratchdir while starting the Hive server 218 | Chapter 16: Hive Thrift Service Hive ThriftMetastore Typically, a Hive session connects directly to a JDBC database, which it uses as a metastore. Hive provides an optional component known as the ThriftMetastore. In this setup, the Hive client connects to the ThriftMetastore, which in turn communicates to the JDBC Metastore. Most deployments will not require this component. It is useful for deployments that have non-Java clients that need access to information in the metastore. Using the metastore will require two separate configurations. ThriftMetastore Configuration The ThriftMetastore should be set up to communicate with the actual metastore using JDBC. Then start up the metastore in the following manner: $ cd ~ $ bin/hive --service metastore & [1] 17096 Starting Hive Metastore Server Confirm the metastore is running using the netstat command: $ netstat -an | grep 9083 tcp 0 0 :::9083 :::* LISTEN Client Configuration Clients like the CLI should communicate with the metastore directory: hive.metastore.local false controls whether to connect to remove metastore server or open a new metastore server in Hive Client JVM hive.metastore.uris thrift://metastore_server:9083 controls whether to connect to remove metastore server or open a new metastore server in Hive Client JVM This change should be seamless from the user experience. Although, there are some nuances with Hadoop Security and the metastore having to do work as the user. Hive ThriftMetastore | 219 CHAPTER 17 Storage Handlers and NoSQL Storage Handlers are a combination of InputFormat, OutputFormat, SerDe, and specific code that Hive uses to treat an external entity as a standard Hive table. This allows the user to issue queries seamlessly whether the table represents a text file stored in Hadoop or a column family stored in a NoSQL database such as Apache HBase, Apache Cassandra, and Amazon DynamoDB. Storage handlers are not only limited to NoSQL databases, a storage handler could be designed for many different kinds of data stores. A specific storage handler may only implement some of the capabilities. For example, a given storage handler may allow read-only access or impose some other restriction. Storage handlers offer a streamlined system for ETL. For example, a Hive query could be run that selects a data table that is backed by sequence files, however it could output Storage Handler Background Hadoop has an abstraction known as InputFormat that allows data from different sources and formats to be used as input for a job. The TextInputFormat is a concrete implementation of InputFormat. It works by providing Hadoop with information on how to split a given path into multiple tasks, and it provides a RecordReader that provides methods for reading data from each split. Hadoop also has an abstraction known as OutputFormat, which takes the output from a job and outputs it to an entity. The TextOutputFormat is a concrete implementation of OutputFormat. It works by persisting output to a file which could be stored on HDFS or locally. Input and output that represent physical files are common in Hadoop, however Input Format and OutputFormat abstractions can be used to load and persist data from other 221 Download from Wow! eBook sources including relational databases, NoSQL stores like Cassandra or HBase, or anything that InputFormat or OutputFormat can be designed around! In the HiveQL chapter, we demonstrated the Word Count example written in Java Code, and then demonstrated an equivalent solution written in Hive. Hive’s abstractions such as tables, types, row format, and other metadata are used by Hive to understand the source data. Once Hive understands the source data, the query engine can process the data using familiar HiveQL operators. Many NoSQL databases have implemented Hive connectors using custom adapters. HiveStorageHandler HiveStorageHandler is the primary interface Hive uses to connect with NoSQL stores such as HBase, Cassandra, and others. An examination of the interface shows that a custom InputFormat, OutputFormat, and SerDe must be defined. The storage handler enables both reading from and writing to the underlying storage subsystem. This translates into writing SELECT queries against the data system, as well as writing into the data system for actions such as reports. When executing Hive queries over NoSQL databases, the performance is less than normal Hive and MapReduce jobs on HDFS due to the overhead of the NoSQL system. Some of the reasons include the socket connection to the server and the merging of multiple underlying files, whereas typical access from HDFS is completely sequential I/O. Sequential I/O is very fast on modern hard drives. A common technique for combining NoSQL databases with Hadoop in an overall system architecture is to use the NoSQL database cluster for real-time work, and utilize the Hadoop cluster for batch-oriented work. If the NoSQL system is the master data store, and that data needs to be queried on using batch jobs with Hadoop, bulk exporting is an efficient way to convert the NoSQL data into HDFS files. Once the HDFS files are created via an export, batch Hadoop jobs may be executed with a maximum efficiency. HBase The following creates a Hive table and an HBase table using HiveQL: CREATE TABLE hbase_stocks(key INT, name STRING, price FLOAT) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.hbase.HBaseStorageHandler' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ("hbase.columns.mapping" = ":key,stock:val") TBLPROPERTIES ("" = "stocks"); To create a Hive table that points to an existing HBase table, the CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE HiveQL statement must be used: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE hbase_stocks(key INT, name STRING, price FLOAT) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.hbase.HBaseStorageHandler' 222 | Chapter 17: Storage Handlers and NoSQL WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ("hbase.columns.mapping" = "cf1:val") TBLPROPERTIES("" = "stocks"); Instead of scanning the entire HBase table for a given Hive query, filter pushdowns will constrain the row data returned to Hive. Examples of the types of predicates that are converted into pushdowns are: • key < 20 • key = 20 • key < 20 and key > 10 Any other more complex types of predicates will be ignored and not utilize the pushdown feature. The following is an example of creating a simple table and a query that will use the filter pushdown feature. Note the pushdown is always on the HBase key, and not the column values of a column family: CREATE TABLE hbase_pushdown(key int, value string) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.hbase.HBaseStorageHandler' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ("hbase.columns.mapping" = ":key,cf:string"); SELECT * FROM hbase_pushdown WHERE key = 90; The following query will not result in a pushdown because it contains an OR on the predicate: SELECT * FROM hbase_pushdown WHERE key <= '80' OR key >= '100'; Hive with HBase supports joins on HBase tables to HBase tables, and HBase tables to non-HBase tables. By default, pushdowns are turned on, however they may be turned off with the following: set; It is important to note when inserting data into HBase from Hive that HBase requires unique keys, whereas Hive has no such constraint. A few notes on column mapping Hive for HBase: • There is no way to access the HBase row timestamp, and only the latest version of a row is returned • The HBase key must be defined explicitly HBase | 223 Cassandra Cassandra has implemented the HiveStorageHandler interface in a similar way to that of HBase. The implementation was originally performed by Datastax on the Brisk project. The model is fairly straightforward, a Cassandra column family maps to a Hive table. In turn, Cassandra column names map directly to Hive column names. Static Column Mapping Static column mapping is useful when the user has specific columns inside Cassandra which they wish to map to Hive columns. The following is an example of creating an external Hive table that maps to an existing Cassandra keyspace and column family: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE Weblog(useragent string, ipaddress string, timestamp string) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.cassandra.CassandraStorageHandler' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( "cassandra.columns.mapping" = ":key,user_agent,ip_address,time_stamp") TBLPROPERTIES ( "cassandra.range.size" = "200", "cassandra.slice.predicate.size" = "150" ); Transposed Column Mapping for Dynamic Columns Some use cases of Cassandra use dynamic columns. This use case is where a given column family does not have fixed, named columns, but rather the columns of a row key represent some piece of data. This is often used in time series data where the column name represents a time and the column value represents the value at that time. This is also useful if the column names are not known or you wish to retrieve all of them: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE Weblog(useragent string, ipaddress string, timestamp string) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.cassandra.CassandraStorageHandler' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( "cassandra.columns.mapping" = ":key,:column,:value"); Cassandra SerDe Properties The following properties in Table 17-1 can be declared in a WITH SERDEPROPERTIES clause: Table 17-1. Cassandra SerDe storage handler properties Name Description cassandra.columns.mapping Mapping of Hive to Cassandra columns Column family name in Cassandra IP of a Cassandra node to connect to cassandra.port Cassandra RPC port: default 9160 224 | Chapter 17: Storage Handlers and NoSQL Name Description cassandra.partitioner Partitioner: default RandomPartitioner The following properties in Table 17-2 can be declared in a TBLPROPERTIES clause: Table 17-2. Cassandra table properties Name Description Cassandra keyspace name cassandra.ks.repfactor Cassandra replication factor: default 1 cassandra.ks.strategy Replication strategy: default SimpleStrategy cassandra.input.split.size MapReduce split size: default 64 * 1024 cassandra.range.size MapReduce range batch size: default 1000 cassandra.slice.predicate.size MapReduce slice predicate size: default 1000 DynamoDB Amazon’s Dynamo was one of the first NoSQL databases. Its design influenced many other databases, including Cassandra and HBase. Despite its influence, Dynamo was restricted to internal use by Amazon until recently. Amazon released another database influenced by the original Dynamo called DynamoDB. DynamoDB is in the family of key-value databases. In DynamoDB, tables are a collection of items and they are required to have a primary key. An item consists of a key and an arbitrary number of attributes. The set of attributes can vary from item to item. You can query a table with Hive and you can move data to and from S3. Here is another example of a Hive table for stocks that is backed by a DynamoDB table: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE dynamo_stocks( key INT, symbol STRING, ymd STRING, price FLOAT) STORED BY 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.dynamodb.DynamoDBStorageHandler' TBLPROPERTIES ( "" = "Stocks", "dynamodb.column.mapping" = "key:Key,symbol:Symbol, ymd:YMD,price_close:Close"); See for more information about DynamoDB. DynamoDB | 225 CHAPTER 18 Security To understand Hive security, we have to backtrack and understand Hadoop security and the history of Hadoop. Hadoop started out as a subproject of Apache Nutch. At that time and through its early formative years, features were prioritized over security. Security is more complex in a distributed system because multiple components across different machines need to communicate with each other. Unsecured Hadoop like the versions before the v0.20.205 release derived the username by forking a call to the whoami program. Users are free to change this parameter by setting the hadoop.job.ugi property for FSShell (filesystem) commands. Map and reduce tasks all run under the same system user (usually hadoop or mapred) on TaskTracker nodes. Also, Hadoop components are typically listening on ports with high numbers. They are also typically launched by nonprivileged users (i.e., users other than root). The recent efforts to secure Hadoop involved several changes, primarily the incorporation of Kerberos authorization support, but also other changes to close vulnerabilities. Kerberos allows mutual authentication between client and server. A client’s request for a ticket is passed along with a request. Tasks on the TaskTracker are run as the user who launched the job. Users are no longer able to impersonate other users by setting the hadoop.job.ugi property. For this to work, all Hadoop components must use Kerberos security from end to end. Hive was created before any of this Kerberos support was added to Hadoop, and Hive is not yet fully compliant with the Hadoop security changes. For example, the connection to the Hive metastore may use a direct connection to a JDBC database or it may go through Thrift, which will have to take actions on behalf of the user. Components like the Thrift-based HiveService also have to impersonate other users. The file ownership model of Hadoop, where one owner and group own a file, is different than the model many databases have implemented where access is granted and revoked on a table in a row- or column-based manner. 227 This chapter attempts to highlight components of Hive that operate differently between secure and nonsecure Hadoop. For more information on Hadoop security, consult Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White (O’Reilly). Security support in Hadoop is still relatively new and evolving. Some parts of Hive are not yet compliant with Hadoop security support. The discussion in this section summarizes the current state of Hive security, but it is not meant to be definitive. For more information on Hive security, consult the Security wiki page https://cwiki Also, more than in any other chapter in this book, we’ll occasionally refer you to Hive JIRA entries for more information. Integration with Hadoop Security Hive v0.7.0 added integration with Hadoop security,1 meaning, for example, that when Hive sends MapReduce jobs to the JobTracker in a secure cluster, it will use the proper authentication procedures. User privileges can be granted and revoked, as we’ll discuss below. There are still several known security gaps involving Thrift and other components, as listed on the security wiki page. Authentication with Hive When files and directories are owned by different users, the permissions set on the files become important. The HDFS permissions system is very similar to the Unix model, where there are three entities: user, group, and others. Also, there are three permissions: read, write, and execute. Hive has a configuration variable hive.files.umask.value that defines a umask value used to set the default permissions of newly created files, by masking bits: hive.files.umask.value 0002 The dfs.umask value for the hive created folders Also, when the property is true, Hive prevents a user from dropping a table when the user does not have permission to delete the underlying files that back the table. The default value for this property is false, but it should be set to true: 1. See 228 | Chapter 18: Security true Should the metastore do authorization checks against the underlying storage for operations like drop-partition (disallow the drop-partition if the user in question doesn't have permissions to delete the corresponding directory on the storage). When running in secure mode, the Hive metastore will make a best-effort attempt to set hive.metastore.execute.setugi to true: hive.metastore.execute.setugi false In unsecure mode, setting this property to true will cause the metastore to execute DFS operations using the client's reported user and group permissions. Note that this property must be set on both the client and server sides. Further note that its best effort. If client sets it to true and server sets it to false, client setting will be ignored. More details can be found at, “Authentication Infrastructure for Hive.” Authorization in Hive Hive v0.7.0 also added support for specifying authorization settings through HiveQL.2 By default, the authorization component is set to false. This needs to be set to true to enable authentication: true Enable or disable the hive client authorization ALL The privileges automatically granted to the owner whenever a table gets created.An example like "select,drop" will grant select and drop privilege to the owner of the table By default, is set to null, disabling user access to her own tables. So, we also gave table creators subsequent access to their tables! 2. See, “Authorization infrastructure for Hive,” and a draft description of this feature at Authorization in Hive | 229 Currently it is possible for users to use the set command to disable authentication by setting this property to false. Users, Groups, and Roles Privileges are granted or revoked to a user, a group, or a role. We will walk through granting privileges to each of these entities: hive> set; hive> CREATE TABLE authorization_test (key int, value string); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Create' found for outputs { database:default}. Use show grant to get more details. Already we can see that our user does not have the privilege to create tables in the default database. Privileges can be assigned to several entities. The first entity is a user: the user in Hive is your system user. We can determine the user and then grant that user permission to create tables in the default database: hive> set; hive> GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE default TO USER edward; hive> CREATE TABLE authorization_test (key INT, value STRING); We can confirm our privileges using SHOW GRANT: hive> SHOW GRANT USER edward ON DATABASE default; database principalName principalType privilege grantTime grantor edward default edward USER Create Mon Mar 19 09:18:10 EDT 2012 Granting permissions on a per-user basis becomes an administrative burden quickly with many users and many tables. A better option is to grant permissions based on groups. A group in Hive is equivalent to the user’s primary POSIX group: hive> CREATE TABLE authorization_test_group(a int,b int); hive> SELECT * FROM authorization_test_group; Authorization failed:No privilege 'Select' found for inputs { database:default, table:authorization_test_group, columnName:a}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT SELECT on table authorization_test_group to group edward; hive> SELECT * FROM authorization_test_group; OK Time taken: 0.119 seconds 230 | Chapter 18: Security When user and group permissions are not flexible enough, roles can be used. Users are placed into roles and then roles can be granted privileges. Roles are very flexible, because unlike groups that are controlled externally by the system, roles are controlled from inside Hive: hive> CREATE TABLE authentication_test_role (a int , b int); hive> SELECT * FROM authentication_test_role; Authorization failed:No privilege 'Select' found for inputs { database:default, table:authentication_test_role, columnName:a}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> CREATE ROLE users_who_can_select_authentication_test_role; hive> GRANT ROLE users_who_can_select_authentication_test_role TO USER edward; hive> GRANT SELECT ON TABLE authentication_test_role > TO ROLE users_who_can_select_authentication_test_role; hive> SELECT * FROM authentication_test_role; OK Time taken: 0.103 seconds Privileges to Grant and Revoke Table 18-1 lists the available privileges that can be configured. Table 18-1. Privileges Name Description ALL All the privileges applied at once. ALTER The ability to alter tables. CREATE The ability to create tables. DROP The ability to remove tables or partitions inside of tables. INDEX The ability to create an index on a table (NOTE: not currently implemented). LOCK The ability to lock and unlock tables when concurrency is enabled. SELECT The ability to query a table or partition. SHOW_DATABASE The ability to view the available databases. UPDATE The ability to load or insert table into table or partition. Here is an example session that illustrates the use of CREATE privileges: hive> SET; hive> CREATE DATABASE edsstuff; Authorization in Hive | 231 hive> USE edsstuff; hive> CREATE TABLE a (id INT); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Create' found for outputs { database:edsstuff}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT CREATE ON DATABASE edsstuff TO USER edward; hive> CREATE TABLE a (id INT); hive> CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE ab (id INT); Similarly, we can grant ALTER privileges: hive> ALTER TABLE a REPLACE COLUMNS (a int , b int); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Alter' found for inputs { database:edsstuff, table:a}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT ALTER ON TABLE a TO USER edward; hive> ALTER TABLE a REPLACE COLUMNS (a int , b int); Note that altering a table to add a partition does not require ALTER privileges: hive> ALTER TABLE a_part_table ADD PARTITION (b=5); UPDATE privileges are required to load data into a table: hive> LOAD DATA INPATH '${env:HIVE_HOME}/NOTICE' > INTO TABLE a_part_table PARTITION (b=5); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Update' found for outputs { database:edsstuff, table:a_part_table}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT UPDATE ON TABLE a_part_table TO USER edward; hive> LOAD DATA INPATH '${env:HIVE_HOME}/NOTICE' > INTO TABLE a_part_table PARTITION (b=5); Loading data to table edsstuff.a_part_table partition (b=5) Dropping a table or partition requires DROP privileges: hive> ALTER TABLE a_part_table DROP PARTITION (b=5); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Drop' found for inputs { database:edsstuff, table:a_part_table}. Use show grant to get more details. Querying from a table or partition requires SELECT privileges: hive> SELECT id FROM a_part_table; Authorization failed:No privilege 'Select' found for inputs { database:edsstuff, table:a_part_table, columnName:id}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT SELECT ON TABLE a_part_table TO USER edward; hive> SELECT id FROM a_part_table; 232 | Chapter 18: Security The syntax GRANT SELECT(COLUMN) is currently accepted but does nothing. You can also grant all privileges: hive> GRANT ALL ON TABLE a_part_table TO USER edward; Partition-Level Privileges It is very common for Hive tables to be partitioned. By default, privileges are granted on the table level. However, privileges can be granted on a per-partition basis. To do this, set the table property PARTITION_LEVEL_PRIVILEGE to TRUE: hive> CREATE TABLE authorize_part (key INT, value STRING) > PARTITIONED BY (ds STRING); hive> ALTER TABLE authorization_part > SET TBLPROPERTIES ("PARTITION_LEVEL_PRIVILEGE"="TRUE"); Authorization failed:No privilege 'Alter' found for inputs {database:default, table:authorization_part}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> GRANT ALTER ON table authorization_part to user edward; hive> ALTER TABLE authorization_part > SET TBLPROPERTIES ("PARTITION_LEVEL_PRIVILEGE"="TRUE"); hive> GRANT SELECT ON TABLE authorization_part TO USER edward; hive> ALTER TABLE authorization_part ADD PARTITION (ds='3'); hive> ALTER TABLE authorization_part ADD PARTITION (ds='4'); hive> SELECT * FROM authorization_part WHERE ds='3'; hive> REVOKE SELECT ON TABLE authorization_part partition (ds='3') FROM USER edward; hive> SELECT * FROM authorization_part WHERE ds='3'; Authorization failed:No privilege 'Select' found for inputs { database:default, table:authorization_part, partitionName:ds=3, columnName:key}. Use show grant to get more details. hive> SELECT * FROM authorization_part WHERE ds='4'; OK Time taken: 0.146 seconds Automatic Grants Regular users will want to create tables and not bother with granting privileges to themselves to perform subsequent queries, etc. Earlier, we showed that you might want to grant ALL privileges, by default, but you can narrow the allowed privileges instead. Authorization in Hive | 233 The property determines the automatically granted privileges for a table given to the user who created it. In the following example, rather than granting ALL privileges, the users are automatically granted SELECT and DROP privileges for their own tables: select,drop Similarly, specific users can be granted automatic privileges on tables as they are created. The variable controls this behavior. The following example shows how a Hive administrator admin1 and user edward are granted privileges to read every table, while user1 can only create tables: admin1,edward:select;user1:create Similar properties exist to automatically grant privileges to groups and roles. The names of the properties are for groups and for roles. The values of the properties follow the same format just shown. 234 | Chapter 18: Security CHAPTER 19 Locking While HiveQL is an SQL dialect, Hive lacks the traditional support for locking on a column, row, or query, as typically used with update or insert queries. Files in Hadoop are traditionally write-once (although Hadoop does support limited append semantics). Because of the write-once nature and the streaming style of MapReduce, access to fine-grained locking is unnecessary. However, since Hadoop and Hive are multi-user systems, locking and coordination are valuable in some situations. For example, if one user wishes to lock a table, because an INSERT OVERWRITE query is changing its content, and a second user attempts to issue a query against the table at the same time, the query could fail or yield invalid results. Hive can be thought of as a fat client, in the sense that each Hive CLI, Thrift server, or web interface instance is completely independent of the other instances. Because of this independence, locking must be coordinated by a separate system. Locking Support in Hive with Zookeeper Hive includes a locking feature that uses Apache Zookeeper for locking. Zookeeper implements highly reliable distributed coordination. Other than some additional setup and configuration steps, Zookeeper is invisible to Hive users. To set up Zookeeper, designate one or more servers to run its server processes. Three Zookeeper nodes is a typical minimum size, to provide a quorum and to provide sufficient redundancy. For our next example, we will use three nodes:,, and Download and extract a Zookeeper release. In the following commands, we will install Zookeeper in the /opt directory, requiring sudo access (a later version of Zookeeper, if any, will probably work fine, too): $ cd /opt $ sudo curl -o 235 $ sudo tar -xf zookeeper-3.3.3.tar.gz $ sudo ln -s zookeeper-3.3.3 zookeeper Make a directory for Zookeeper to store its data: $ sudo mkdir /var/zookeeper Create the Zookeeper configuration file /opt/zookeeper/conf/zoo.cfg with the following contents, edited as appropriate for your installation: tickTime=2000 dataDir=/var/zookeeper clientPort=2181 initLimit=5 syncLimit=2 On each server, create a myid file and ensure the contents of the file matches the ID from the configuration. For example, for the file on the node, you could use the following command to create the file: $ sudo echo 1 > /var/zookeeper/myid Finally, start Zookeeper: $ sudo /opt/zookeeper/bin/ start We are starting the process as root, which is generally not recommended for most processes. You could use any standard techniques to run this file as a different user. Once the Zookeeper nodes are in communication with each other, it will be possible to create data on one Zookeeper node and read it from the other. For example, run this session on one node: $ /opt/zookeeper/bin/ -server [zk: 3] ls / [zookeeper] [zk: 4] create /zk_test my_data Created /zk_test Then, run this session on a different node or a different terminal window on the first node: $ /opt/zookeeper/bin/ -server [zk: 0] ls / [zookeeper, zk_test] [zk: 1] Whew! Okay, the hard part is over. Now we need to configure Hive so it can use these Zookeeper nodes to enable the concurrency support. 236 | Chapter 19: Locking In the $HIVE_HOME/hive-site.xml file, set the following properties: hive.zookeeper.quorum,, The list of zookeeper servers to talk to. This is only needed for read/write locks. true Whether Hive supports concurrency or not. A Zookeeper instance must be up and running for the default Hive lock manager to support read-write locks. With these settings configured, Hive automatically starts acquiring locks for certain queries. You can see all current locks with the SHOW LOCKS command: hive> SHOW LOCKS; default@people_20111230 SHARED default@places SHARED default@places@hit_date=20111230 ... SHARED The following more focused queries are also supported, where the ellipsis would be replaced with an appropriate partition specification, assuming that places is partitioned: hive> SHOW LOCKS places EXTENDED; default@places SHARED ... hive> SHOW LOCKS places PARTITION (...); default@places SHARED ... hive> SHOW LOCKS places PARTITION (...) EXTENDED; default@places SHARED ... There are two types of locks provided by Hive, and they are enabled automatically when the concurrency feature is enabled. A shared lock is acquired when a table is read. Multiple, concurrent shared locks are allowed. An exclusive lock is required for all other operations that modify the table in some way. They not only freeze out other table-mutating operations, they also prevent queries by other processes. When the table is partitioned, acquiring an exclusive lock on a partition causes a shared lock to be acquired on the table itself to prevent incompatible concurrent changes from occurring, such as attempting to drop the table while a partition is being modified. Of course, an exclusive lock on the table globally affects all partitions. Locking Support in Hive with Zookeeper | 237 Explicit, Exclusive Locks You can also manage locks explicitly. For example, suppose one Hive session creates an exclusive lock on table people: hive> LOCK TABLE people EXCLUSIVE; Here is another Hive session attempt to query the locked table: hive> SELECT COUNT(*) FROM people; conflicting lock present for default@people mode SHARED FAILED: Error in acquiring locks: locks on the underlying objects cannot be acquired. retry after some time The table can be unlocked using the UNLOCK TABLE statement, after which queries from other sessions will work again: hive> UNLOCK TABLE people; 238 | Chapter 19: Locking CHAPTER 20 Hive Integration with Oozie Apache Oozie is a workload scheduler for Hadoop: You may have noticed Hive has its own internal workflow system. Hive converts a query into one or more stages, such as a map reduce stage or a move task stage. If a stage fails, Hive cleans up the process and reports the errors. If a stage succeeds, Hive executes subsequent stages until the entire job is done. Also, multiple Hive statements can be placed inside an HQL file and Hive will execute each query in sequence until the file is completely processed. Hive’s system of workflow management is excellent for single jobs or jobs that run one after the next. Some workflows need more than this. For example, a user may want to have a process in which step one is a custom MapReduce job, step two uses the output of step one and processes it using Hive, and finally step three uses distcp to copy the output from step 2 to a remote cluster. These kinds of workflows are candidates for management as Oozie Workflows. Oozie Workflow jobs are Directed Acyclical Graphs (DAGs) of actions. Oozie Coordinator jobs are recurrent Oozie Workflow jobs triggered by time (frequency) and data availability. An important feature of Oozie is that the state of the workflow is detached from the client who launches the job. This detached (fire and forget) job launching is useful; normally a Hive job is attached to the console that submitted it. If that console dies, the job is half complete. Oozie Actions Oozie has several prebuilt actions. Some are listed below with their description: MapReduce The user supplies the MapperClass, the ReducerClass, and sets conf variables Shell A shell command with arguments is run as an action 239 Java action A Java class with a main method is launched with optional arguments Pig A Pig script is run Hive A Hive HQL query is run DistCp Run a distcp command to copy data to or from another HDFS cluster Hive Thrift Service Action The built-in Hive action works well but it has some drawbacks. It uses Hive as a fat client. Most of the Hive distributions, including JARs and configuration files, need to be copied into the workflow directory. When Oozie launches an action, it will launch from a random TaskTracker node. There may be a problem reaching the metastore if you have your metastore setup to only allow access from specific hosts. Since Hive can leave artifacts like the hive-history file or some /tmp entries if a job fails, make sure to clean up across your pool of TaskTrackers. The fat-client challenges of Hive have been solved (mostly) by using Hive Thrift Service (see Chapter 16). The HiveServiceBAction (Hive Service “plan B” Action) leverages the Hive Thrift Service to launch jobs. This has the benefits of funneling all the Hive operations to a predefined set of nodes running Hive service: $ $ $ $ $ $ cd ~ git clone git:// cd hive_test mvn wagon:download-single mvn exec:exec mvn install $ cd ~ $ git clone git:// $ mvn install A Two-Query Workflow A workflow is created by setting up a specific directory hierarchy with required JAR files, a file and a workflow.xml file. This hierarchy has to be stored in HDFS, but it is best to assemble the folder locally and then copy it to HDFS: $ $ $ $ $ mkdir myapp mkdir myapp/lib cp $HIVE_HOME/lib/*.jar myapp/lib/ cp m6d_oozie-1.0.0.jar myapp/lib/ cp hive_test-4.0.0.jar myapp/lib/ 240 | Chapter 20: Hive Integration with Oozie The sets the name of the filesystem and the JobTracker. Also, additional properties can be set here to be used as Hadoop Job Configuration properties: The file: nameNode=hdfs://rs01.hadoop.pvt:34310 jobTracker=rjt.hadoop.pvt:34311 queueName=default oozie.libpath=/user/root/oozie/test/lib${nameNode}/user/root/oozie/test/main The workflow.xml is the file where actions are defined: ${jobTracker} ${nameNode} ${queueName} com.m6d.oozie.HiveServiceBAction rhiveservice.hadoop.pvt 10000 CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zz_zz_abc (a int, b int) ${jobTracker} ${nameNode} ${queueName} com.m6d.oozie.HiveServiceBAction rhiveservice.hadoop.pvt 10000 INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE zz_zz_abc SELECT dma_code,site_id FROM BCO WHERE dt=20120426 AND offer=4159 LIMIT 10 A Two-Query Workflow | 241 Download from Wow! eBook Java failed, error message [${wf:errorMessage(wf:lastErrorNode())}] Oozie Web Console The Oozie web console is helpful for troubleshooting jobs. Oozie launches each action inside a map task and captures all the input and output. Oozie does a good job presenting this information as well as providing links to job status pages found on the Hadoop JobTracker web console. Here is a screenshot of the Oozie web console. Variables in Workflows A workflow based on completely static queries is useful but not overly practical. Most of the use cases for Oozie run a series of processes against files for today or this week. 242 | Chapter 20: Hive Integration with Oozie In the previous workflow, you may have noticed the KILL tag and the interpolated variable inside of it: Java failed, error message [${wf:errorMessage(wf:lastErrorNode())}] Oozie provides an ETL to access variables. Key-value pairs defined in can be referenced this way. Capturing Output Oozie also has a tag that can be placed inside an action. Output captured can be emailed with an error or sent to another process. Oozie sets a Java property in each action that can be used as a filename to write output to. The code below shows how this property is accessed: private static final String OOZIE_ACTION_OUTPUT_PROPERTIES = ""; public static void main(String args[]) throws Exception { String oozieProp = System.getProperty(OOZIE_ACTION_OUTPUT_PROPERTIES); } Your application can output data to that location. Capturing Output to Variables We have discussed both capturing output and Oozie variables; using them together provides what you need for daily workflows. Looking at our previous example, we see that we are selecting data from a hardcoded day FROM BCO WHERE dt=20120426. We would like to run this workflow every day so we need to substitute the hardcoded dt=20120426 with a date: ${jobTracker} ${nameNode} ${queueName} test.RunShellProp /bin/date +x=%Y%m%d Capturing Output to Variables | 243 This will produce output like: $ date +x=%Y%m%d x=20120522 You can then access this output later in the process: You said ${wf:actionData('create_table')['x']} There are many more things you can do with Oozie, including integrating Hive jobs with jobs implemented with other tools, such as Pig, Java MapReduce, etc. See the Oozie website for more details. 244 | Chapter 20: Hive Integration with Oozie CHAPTER 21 Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) —Mark Grover One of the services that Amazon provides as a part of Amazon Web Services (AWS) is Elastic MapReduce (EMR). With EMR comes the ability to spin up a cluster of nodes on demand. These clusters come with Hadoop and Hive installed and configured. (You can also configure the clusters with Pig and other tools.) You can then run your Hive queries and terminate the cluster when you are done, only paying for the time you used the cluster. This section describes how to use Elastic MapReduce, some best practices, and wraps up with pros and cons of using EMR versus other options. You may wish to refer to the online AWS documentation available at .com/elasticmapreduce/ while reading this chapter. This chapter won’t cover all the details of using Amazon EMR with Hive. It is designed to provide an overview and discuss some practical details. Why Elastic MapReduce? Small teams and start-ups often don’t have the resources to set up their own cluster. An in-house cluster is a fixed cost of initial investment. It requires effort to set up and servers and switches as well as maintaining a Hadoop and Hive installation. On the other hand, Elastic MapReduce comes with a variable cost, plus the installation and maintenance is Amazon’s responsibility. This is a huge benefit for teams that can’t or don’t want to invest in their own clusters, and even for larger teams that need a test bed to try out new tools and ideas without affecting their production clusters. Instances An Amazon cluster is comprised of one or more instances. Instances come in various sizes, with different RAM, compute power, disk drive, platform, and I/O performance. It can be hard to determine what size would work the best for your use case. With EMR, 245 it’s easy to start with small instance sizes, monitor performance with tools like Ganglia, and then experiment with different instance sizes to find the best balance of cost versus performance. Before You Start Before using Amazon EMR, you need to set up an Amazon Web Services (AWS) account. The Amazon EMR Getting Started Guide provides instructions on how to sign up for an AWS account. You will also need to create an Amazon S3 bucket for storing your input data and retrieving the output results of your Hive processing. When you set up your AWS account, make sure that all your Amazon EC2 instances, key pairs, security groups, and EMR jobflows are located in the same region to avoid cross-region transfer costs. Try to locate your Amazon S3 buckets and EMR jobflows in the same availability zone for better performance. Although Amazon EMR supports several versions of Hadoop and Hive, only some combinations of versions of Hadoop and Hive are supported. See the Amazon EMR documentation to find out the supported version combinations of Hadoop and Hive. Managing Your EMR Hive Cluster Amazon provides multiple ways to bring up, terminate, and modify a Hive cluster. Currently, there are three ways you can manage your EMR Hive cluster: EMR AWS Management Console (web-based frontend) This is the easiest way to bring up a cluster and requires no setup. However, as you start to scale, it is best to move to one of the other methods. EMR Command-Line Interface This allows users to manage a cluster using a simple Ruby-based CLI, named elastic-mapreduce. The Amazon EMR online documentation describes how to install and use this CLI. EMR API This allows users to manage an EMR cluster by using a language-specific SDK to call EMR APIs. Details on downloading and using the SDK are available in the Amazon EMR documentation. SDKs are available for Android, iOS, Java, PHP, Python, Ruby, Windows, and .NET. A drawback of an SDK is that sometimes particular SDK wrapper implementations lag behind the latest version of the AWS API. It is common to use more than one way to manage Hive clusters. 246 | Chapter 21: Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) Here is an example that uses the Ruby elastic-mapreduce CLI to start up a single-node Amazon EMR cluster with Hive configured. It also sets up the cluster for interactive use, rather than for running a job and exiting. This cluster would be ideal for learning Hive: elastic-mapreduce --create --alive --name "Test Hive" --hive-interactive If you also want Pig available, add the --pig-interface option. Next you would log in to this cluster as described in the Amazon EMR documentation. Thrift Server on EMR Hive Typically, the Hive Thrift server (see Chapter 16) listens for connections on port 10000. However, in the Amazon Hive installation, this port number depends on the version of Hive being used. This change was implemented in order to allow users to install and support concurrent versions of Hive. Consequently, Hive v0.5.X operates on port 10000, Hive v0.7.X on 10001, and Hive v0.7.1 on 10002. These port numbers are expected to change as newer versions of Hive get ported to Amazon EMR. Instance Groups on EMR Each Amazon cluster has one or more nodes. Each of these nodes can fit into one of the following three instance groups: Master Instance Group This instance group contains exactly one node, which is called the master node. The master node performs the same duties as the conventional Hadoop master node. It runs the namenode and jobtracker daemons, but it also has Hive installed on it. In addition, it has a MySQL server installed, which is configured to serve as the metastore for the EMR Hive installation. (The embedded Derby metastore that is used as the default metastore in Apache Hive installations is not used.) There is also an instance controller that runs on the master node. It is responsible for launching and managing other instances from the other two instance groups. Note that this instance controller also uses the MySQL server on the master node. If the MySQL server becomes unavailable, the instance controller will be unable to launch and manage instances. Core Instance Group The nodes in the core instance group have the same function as Hadoop slave nodes that run both the datanode and tasktracker daemons. These nodes are used for MapReduce jobs and for the ephemeral storage on these nodes that is used for HDFS. Once a cluster has been started, the number of nodes in this instance group can only be increased but not decreased. It is important to note that ephemeral storage will be lost if the cluster is terminated. Instance Groups on EMR | 247 Task Instance Group This is an optional instance group. The nodes in this group also function as Hadoop slave nodes. However, they only run the tasktracker processes. Hence, these nodes are used for MapReduce tasks, but not for storing HDFS blocks. Once the cluster has been started, the number of nodes in the task instance group can be increased or decreased. The task instance group is convenient when you want to increase cluster capacity during hours of peak demand and bring it back to normal afterwards. It is also useful when using spot instances (discussed below) for lower costs without risking the loss of data when a node gets removed from the cluster. If you are running a cluster with just a single node, the node would be a master node and a core node at the same time. Configuring Your EMR Cluster You will often want to deploy your own configuration files when launching an EMR cluster. The most common files to customize are hive-site.xml, .hiverc, Amazon provides a way to override these configuration files. Deploying hive-site.xml For overriding hive-site.xml, upload your custom hive-site.xml to S3. Let’s assume it has been uploaded to s3n:// It is recommended to use the newer s3n “scheme” for accessing S3, which has better performance than the original s3 scheme. If you are starting you cluster via the elastic-mapreduce Ruby client, use a command like the following to spin up your cluster with your custom hive-site.xml: elastic-mapreduce --create --alive --name "Test Hive" --hive-interactive \ --hive-site=s3n:// If you are using the SDK to spin up a cluster, use the appropriate method to override the hive-site.xml file. After the bootstrap actions, you would need two config steps, one for installing Hive and another for deploying hive-site.xml. The first step of installing Hive is to call --install-hive along with --hive-versions flag followed by a commaseparated list of Hive versions you would like to install on your EMR cluster. The second step of installing Hive site configuration calls --install-hive-site with an additional parameter like --hive-site=s3n:// hive_site.xml pointing to the location of the hive-site.xml file to use. 248 | Chapter 21: Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) Deploying a .hiverc Script For .hiverc, you must first upload to S3 the file you want to install. Then you can either use a config step or a bootstrap action to deploy the file to your cluster. Note that .hiverc can be placed in the user’s home directory or in the bin directory of the Hive installation. Deploying .hiverc using a config step At the time of this writing, the functionality to override the .hiverc file is not available in the Amazon-provided Ruby script, named hive-script, which is available at s3n:// us-east-1.elasticmapreduce/libs/hive/hive-script. Consequently, .hiverc cannot be installed as easily as hive-site.xml. However, it is fairly straightforward to extend the Amazon-provided hive-script to enable installation of .hiverc, if you are comfortable modifying Ruby code. After implementing this change to hive-script, upload it to S3 and use that version instead of the original Amazon version. Have your modified script install .hiverc to the user’s home directory or to the bin directory of the Hive installation. Deploying a .hiverc using a bootstrap action Alternatively, you can create a custom bootstrap script that transfers .hiverc from S3 to the user’s home directory or Hive’s bin directory of the master node. In this script, you should first configure s3cmd on the cluster with your S3 access key so you can use it to download the .hiverc file from S3. Then, simply use a command such as the following to download the file from S3 and deploy it in the home directory: s3cmd get s3n:// ~/.hiverc Then use a bootstrap action to call this script during the cluster creation process, just like you would any other bootstrap action. Setting Up a Memory-Intensive Configuration If you are running a memory-intensive job, Amazon provides some predefined bootstrap actions that can be used to fine tune the Hadoop configuration parameters. For example, to use the memory-intensive bootstrap action when spinning up your cluster, use the following flag in your elastic-mapreduce --create command (wrapped for space): --bootstrap-action s3n://elasticmapreduce/bootstrap-actions/configurations/latest/memory-intensive Configuring Your EMR Cluster | 249 Persistence and the Metastore on EMR An EMR cluster comes with a MySQL server installed on the master node of the cluster. By default, EMR Hive uses this MySQL server as its metastore. However, all data stored on the cluster nodes are deleted once you terminate your cluster. This includes the data stored on the master node metastore, as well! This is usually unacceptable because you would like to retain your table schemas, etc., in a persistent metastore. You can use one of the following methods to work around this limitation: Use a persistent metastore external to your EMR cluster The details on how to configure your Hive installation to use an external metastore are in “Metastore Using JDBC” on page 28. You can use the Amazon RDS (Relational Data Service), which is based on MySQL, or another, in-house database server as a metastore. This is the best choice if you want to use the same metastore for multiple EMR clusters or the same EMR cluster running more than one version of Hive. Leverage a start-up script If you don’t intend to use an external database server for your metastore, you can still use the master node metastore in conjunction with your start-up script. You can place your create table statements in startup.q, as follows: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS emr_table(id INT, value STRING) PARTITIONED BY (dt STRING) LOCATION 's3n://'; It is important to include the IF NOT EXISTS clause in your create statement to ensure that the script doesn’t try to re-create the table on the master node metastore if it was previously created by a prior invocation of startup.q. At this point, we have our table definitions in the master node metastore but we haven’t yet imported the partitioning metadata. To do so, include a line like the following in your startup.q file after the create table statement: ALTER TABLE emr_table RECOVER PARTITIONS; This will populate all the partitioning related metadata in the metastore. Instead of your custom start-up script, you could use .hiverc, which will be sourced automatically when Hive CLI starts up. (We’ll discuss this feature again in “EMR Versus EC2 and Apache Hive” on page 254). The benefit of using .hiverc is that it provides automatic invocation. The disadvantage is that it gets executed on every invocation of the Hive CLI, which leads to unnecessary overhead on subsequent invocations. 250 | Chapter 21: Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) The advantage of using your custom start-up script is that you can more strictly control when it gets executed in the lifecycle of your workflow. However, you will have to manage this invocation yourself. In any case, a side benefit of using a file to store Hive queries for initialization is that you can track the changes to your DDL via version control. As your meta information gets larger with more tables and more partitions, the start-up time using this system will take longer and longer. This solution is not suggested if you have more than a few tables or partitions. MySQL dump on S3 Another, albeit cumbersome, alternative is to back up your metastore before you terminate the cluster and restore it at the beginning of the next workflow. S3 is a good place to persist the backup while the cluster is not in use. Note that this metastore is not shared amongst different versions of Hive running on your EMR cluster. Suppose you spin up a cluster with both Hive v0.5 and v0.7.1 installed. When you create a table using Hive v0.5, you won’t be able to access this table using Hive v0.7.1. If you would like to share the metadata between different Hive versions, you will have to use an external persistent metastore. HDFS and S3 on EMR Cluster HDFS and S3 have their own distinct roles in an EMR cluster. All the data stored on the cluster nodes is deleted once the cluster is terminated. Since HDFS is formed by ephemeral storage of the nodes in the core instance group, the data stored on HDFS is lost after cluster termination. S3, on the other hand, provides a persistent storage for data associated with the EMR cluster. Therefore, the input data to the cluster should be stored on S3 and the final results obtained from Hive processing should be persisted to S3, as well. However, S3 is an expensive storage alternative to HDFS. Therefore, intermediate results of processing should be stored in HDFS, with only the final results saved to S3 that need to persist. Please note that as a side effect of using S3 as a source for input data, you lose the Hadoop data locality optimization, which may be significant. If this optimization is crucial for your analysis, you should consider importing “hot” data from S3 onto HDFS before processing it. This initial overhead will allow you to make use of Hadoop’s data locality optimization in your subsequent processing. HDFS and S3 on EMR Cluster | 251 Putting Resources, Configs, and Bootstrap Scripts on S3 You should upload all your bootstrap scripts, configuration scripts (e.g., hivesite.xml and .hiverc), resources (e.g., files that need to go in the distributed cache, UDF or streaming JARs), etc., onto S3. Since EMR Hive and Hadoop installations natively understand S3 paths, it is straightforward to work with these files in subsequent Hadoop jobs. For example, you can add the following lines in .hiverc without any errors: ADD FILE s3n://; ADD JAR s3n://; CREATE TEMPORARY FUNCTION my_count AS 'com.oreilly.hive.example.MyCount'; Logs on S3 Amazon EMR saves the log files to the S3 location pointed to by the log-uri field. These include logs from bootstrap actions of the cluster and the logs from running daemon processes on the various cluster nodes. The log-uri field can be set in the credentials.json file found in the installation directory of the elastic-mapreduce Ruby client. It can also be specified or overridden explicitly when spinning up the cluster using elastic-mapreduce by using the --log-uri flag. However, if this field is not set, those logs will not be available on S3. If your workflow is configured to terminate if your job encounters an error, any logs on the cluster will be lost after the cluster termination. If your log-uri field is set, these logs will be available at the specified location on S3 even after the cluster has been terminated. They can be an essential aid in debugging the issues that caused the failure. However, if you store logs on S3, remember to purge unwanted logs on a frequent basis to save yourself from unnecessary storage costs! Spot Instances Spot instances allows users to bid on unused Amazon capacity to get instances at cheaper rates compared to on-demand prices. Amazon’s online documentation describes them in more detail. Depending on your use case, you might want instances in all three instance groups to be spot instances. In this case, your entire cluster could terminate at any stage during the workflow, resulting in a loss of intermediate data. If it’s “cheap” to repeat the calculation, this might not be a serious issue. An alternative is to persist intermediate data periodically to S3, as long as your jobs can start again from those snapshots. Another option is to only include the nodes in the task instance group as spot nodes. If these spot nodes get taken out of the cluster because of unavailability or because the spot prices increased, the workflow will continue with the master and core nodes, but 252 | Chapter 21: Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) with no data loss. When spot nodes get added to the cluster again, MapReduce tasks can be delegated to them, speeding up the workflow. Using the elastic-mapreduce Ruby client, spot instances can be ordered by using the --bid-price option along with a bid price. The following example shows a command to create a cluster with one master node, two core nodes and two spot nodes (in the task instance group) with a bid price of 10 cents: elastic-mapreduce --create --alive --hive-interactive \ --name "Test Spot Instances" \ --instance-group master --instance-type m1.large \ --instance-count 1 --instance-group core \ --instance-type m1.small --instance-count 2 --instance-group task \ --instance-type m1.small --instance-count 2 --bid-price 0.10 If you are spinning up a similar cluster using the Java SDK, use the following Instance GroupConfig variables for master, core, and task instance groups: InstanceGroupConfig masterConfig = new InstanceGroupConfig() .withInstanceCount(1) .withInstanceRole("MASTER") .withInstanceType("m1.large"); InstanceGroupConfig coreConfig = new InstanceGroupConfig() .withInstanceCount(2) .withInstanceRole("CORE") .withInstanceType("m1.small"); InstanceGroupConfig taskConfig = new InstanceGroupConfig() .withInstanceCount(2) .withInstanceRole("TASK") .withInstanceType("m1.small") .withMarket("SPOT") .withBidPrice("0.05"); If a map or reduce task fails, Hadoop will have to start them from the beginning. If the same task fails four times (configurable by setting the MapReduce properties for map tasks and mapred.reduce.max.attempts for reduce tasks), the entire job will fail. If you rely on too many spot instances, your job times may be unpredictable or fail entirely by TaskTrackers getting removed from the cluster. Security Groups The Hadoop JobTracker and NameNode User Interfaces are accessible on port 9100 and 9101 respectively in the EMRmaster node. You can use ssh tunneling or a dynamic SOCKS proxy to view them. In order to be able to view these from a browser on your client machine (outside of the Amazon network), you need to modify the Elastic MapReduce master security group via your AWS Web Console. Add a new custom TCP rule to allow inbound connections from your client machine’s IP address on ports 9100 and 9101. Security Groups | 253 EMR Versus EC2 and Apache Hive An elastic alternative to EMR is to bring up several Amazon EC2 nodes and install Hadoop and Hive on a custom Amazon Machine Image (AMI). This approach gives you more control over the version and configuration of Hive and Hadoop. For example, you can experiment with new releases of tools before they are made available through EMR. The drawback of this approach is that customizations available through EMR may not be available in the Apache Hive release. As an example, the S3 filesystem is not fully supported on Apache Hive [see JIRA HIVE-2318]. There is also an optimization for reducing start-up time for Amazon S3 queries, which is only available in EMR Hive. This optimization is enabled by adding the following snippet in your hive-site.xml: hive.optimize.s3.query true Improves Hive query performance for Amazon S3 queries by reducing their start up time Alternatively, you can run the following command on your Hive CLI: set hive.optimize.s3.query=true; Another example is a command that allows the user to recover partitions if they exist in the correct directory structure on HDFS or S3. This is convenient when an external process is populating the contents of the Hive table in appropriate partitions. In order to track these partitions in the metastore, one could run the following command, where emr_table is the name of the table: ALTER TABLE emr_table RECOVER PARTITIONS; Here is the statement that creates the table, for your reference: CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE emr_table(id INT, value STRING) PARTITIONED BY (dt STRING) LOCATION 's3n://'; Wrapping Up Amazon EMR provides an elastic, scalable, easy-to-set-up way to bring up a cluster with Hadoop and Hive ready to run queries as soon as it boots. It works well with data stored on S3. While much of the configuration is done for you, it is flexible enough to allow users to have their own custom configurations. 254 | Chapter 21: Hive and Amazon Web Services (AWS) CHAPTER 22 HCatalog —Alan Gates Introduction Using Hive for data processing on Hadoop has several nice features beyond the ability to use an SQL-like language. It’s ability to store metadata means that users do not need to remember the schema of the data. It also means they do not need to know where the data is stored, or what format it is stored in. This decouples data producers, data consumers, and data administrators. Data producers can add a new column to the data without breaking their consumers’ data-reading applications. Administrators can relocate data to change the format it is stored in without requiring changes on the part of the producers or consumers. The majority of heavy Hadoop users do not use a single tool for data production and consumption. Often, users will begin with a single tool: Hive, Pig, MapReduce, or another tool. As their use of Hadoop deepens they will discover that the tool they chose is not optimal for the new tasks they are taking on. Users who start with analytics queries with Hive discover they would like to use Pig for ETL processing or constructing their data models. Users who start with Pig discover they would like to use Hive for analytics type queries. While tools such as Pig and MapReduce do not require metadata, they can benefit from it when it is present. Sharing a metadata store also enables users across tools to share data more easily. A workflow where data is loaded and normalized using MapReduce or Pig and then analyzed via Hive is very common. When all these tools share one metastore, users of each tool have immediate access to data created with another tool. No loading or transfer steps are required. HCatalog exists to fulfill these requirements. It makes the Hive metastore available to users of other tools on Hadoop. It provides connectors for MapReduce and Pig so that users of those tools can read data from and write data to Hive’s warehouse. It has a 255 command-line tool for users who do not use Hive to operate on the metastore with Hive DDL statements. It also provides a notification service so that workflow tools, such as Oozie, can be notified when new data becomes available in the warehouse. HCatalog is a separate Apache project from Hive, and is part of the Apache Incubator. The Incubator is where most Apache projects start. It helps those involved with the project build a community around the project and learn the way Apache software is developed. As of this writing, the most recent version is HCatalog 0.4.0-incubating. This version works with Hive 0.9, Hadoop 1.0, and Pig 0.9.2. MapReduce Reading Data MapReduce uses a Java class InputFormat to read input data. Most frequently, these classes read data directly from HDFS. InputFormat implementations also exist to read data from HBase, Cassandra, and other data sources. The task of the InputFormat is twofold. First, it determines how data is split into sections so that it can be processed in parallel by MapReduce’s map tasks. Second, it provides a RecordReader, a class that MapReduce uses to read records from its input source and convert them to keys and values for the map task to operate on. HCatalog provides HCatInputFormat to enable MapReduce users to read data stored in Hive’s data warehouse. It allows users to read only the partitions of tables and columns that they need. And it provides the records in a convenient list format so that users do not need to parse them. HCatInputFormat implements the Hadoop 0.20 API, org.apache.hadoop .mapreduce, not the Hadoop 0.18 org.apache.hadoop.mapred API. This is because it requires some features added in the MapReduce (0.20) API. This means that a MapReduce user will need to use this interface to interact with HCatalog. However, Hive requires that the underlying InputFormat used to read data from disk be a mapred implementation. So if you have data formats you are currently using with a MapReduce InputFormat, you can use it with HCatalog. InputFormat is a class in the mapreduce API and an interface in the mapred API, hence it was referred to as a class above. When initializing HCatInputFormat, the first thing to do is specify the table to be read. This is done by creating an InputJobInfo class and specifying the database, table, and partition filter to use. 256 | Chapter 22: HCatalog /** * Initializes a new InputJobInfo * for reading data from a table. * @param databaseName the db name * @param tableName the table name * @param filter the partition filter */ public static InputJobInfo create(String databaseName, String tableName, String filter) { ... } databaseName name indicates the Hive database (or schema) the table is in. If this is null then the default database will be used. The tableName is the table that will be read. This must be non-null and refer to a valid table in Hive. filter indicates which partitions the user wishes to read. If it is left null then the entire table will be read. Care should be used here, as reading all the partitions of a large table can result in scanning a large volume of data. Filters are specified as an SQL-like where clause. They should reference only partition columns of the data. For example, if the table to be read is partitioned on a column called datestamp, the filter might look like datestamp = "2012-05-26". Filters can contain =, >, >=, <, <=, and, and or as operators. There is a bug in the ORM mapping layer used by Hive v0.9.0 and earlier that causes filter clauses with >, >=, <, or <= to fail. To resolve this bug, you can apply the patch HIVE-2084.D2397.1.patch from and rebuild your version of Hive. This does carry some risks, depending on how you deploy Hive. See the discussion on the JIRA entry. This InputJobInfo instance is then passed to HCatInputFormat via the method setIn put along with the instance of Job being used to configure the MapReduce job: Job job = new Job(conf, "Example"); InputJobInfo inputInfo = InputJobInfo.create(dbName, inputTableName, filter)); HCatInputFormat.setInput(job, inputInfo); The map task will need to specify HCatRecord as a value type. The key type is not important, as HCatalog does not provide keys to the map task. For example, a map task that reads data via HCatalog might look like: public static class Map extends Mapper { @Override protected void map( MapReduce | 257 } } WritableComparable key, HCatRecord value, org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper.Context context) { ... HCatRecord is the class that HCatalog provides for interacting with records. It presents a simple get and set interface. Records can be requested by position or by name. When requesting columns by name, the schema must be provided, as each individual HCatRe cord does not keep a reference to the schema. The schema can be obtained by calling HCatInputFormat.getOutputSchema(). Since Java does not support overloading of functions by return type, different instances of get and set are provided for each data type. These methods use the object versions of types rather than scalar versions (that is java.lang.Integer rather than int). This allows them to express null as a value. There are also implementations of get and set that work with Java Objects: // get the first column, as an Object and cast it to a Long Long cnt = record.get(0); // get the column named "cnt" as a Long Long cnt = record.get("cnt", schema); // set the column named "user" to the string "fred" record.setString("user", schema, "fred"); Often a program will not want to read all of the columns in an input. In this case it makes sense to trim out the extra columns as quickly as possible. This is particularly true in columnar formats like RCFile, where trimming columns early means reading less data from disk. This can be achieved by passing a schema that describes the desired columns. This must be done during job configuration time. The following example will configure the user’s job to read only two columns named user and url: HCatSchema baseSchema = HCatBaseInputFormat.getOutputSchema(context); List fields = new List(2); fields.add(baseSchema.get("user")); fields.add(baseSchema.get("url")); HCatBaseInputFormat.setOutputSchema(job, new HCatSchema(fields)); Writing Data Similar to reading data, when writing data, the database and table to be written to need to be specified. If the data is being written to a partitioned table and only one partition is being written, then the partition to be written needs to be specified as well: /** * Initializes a new OutputJobInfo instance for writing data from a table. * @param databaseName the db name * @param tableName the table name * @param partitionValues The partition values to publish to, can be null or empty Map */ 258 | Chapter 22: HCatalog Download from Wow! eBook public static OutputJobInfo create(String databaseName, String tableName, Map partitionValues) { ... } The databaseName name indicates the Hive database (or schema) the table is in. If this is null then the default database will be used. The tableName is the table that will be written to. This must be non-null and refer to a valid table in Hive. partitionValues indicates which partition the user wishes to create. If only one partition is to be written, the map must uniquely identify a partition. For example, if the table is partitioned by two columns, entries for both columns must be in the map. When working with tables that are not partitioned, this field can be left null. When the partition is explicitly specified in this manner, the partition column need not be present in the data. If it is, it will be removed by HCatalog before writing the data to the Hive warehouse, as Hive does not store partition columns with the data. It is possible to write to more than one partition at a time. This is referred to as dynamic partitioning, because the records are partitioned dynamically at runtime. For dynamic partitioning to be used, the values of the partition column(s) must be present in the data. For example, if a table is partitioned by a column “datestamp,” that column must appear in the data collected in the reducer. This is because HCatalog will read the partition column(s) to determine which partition to write the data to. As part of writing the data, the partition column(s) will be removed. Once an OutputJobInfo has been created, it is then passed to HCatOutputFormat via the static method setOutput: OutputJobInfo outputInfo = OutputJobInfo.create(dbName, outputTableName, null)); HCatOutputFormat.setOutput(job, outputInfo); When writing with HCatOutputFormat, the output key type is not important. The value must be HCatRecord. Records can be written from the reducer, or in map only jobs from the map task. Putting all this together in an example, the following code will read a partition with a datestamp of 20120531 from the table rawevents, count the number of events for each user, and write the result to a table cntd: public class MRExample extends Configured implements Tool { public static class Map extends Mapper { protected void map(WritableComparable key, HCatRecord value, Mapper.Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException { // Get our schema from the Job object. HCatSchema schema = HCatBaseInputFormat.getOutputSchema(context); MapReduce | 259 // Read the user field String user = value.get("user", schema); context.write(new Text(user), new LongWritable(1)); } } public static class Reduce extends Reducer { protected void reduce(Text key, Iterable values, Reducer.Context context) throws IOException ,InterruptedException { List columns = new ArrayList(2); columns.add(new HCatFieldSchema("user", HCatFieldSchema.Type.STRING, "")); columns.add(new HCatFieldSchema("cnt", HCatFieldSchema.Type.BIGINT, "")); HCatSchema schema = new HCatSchema(columns); } } long sum = 0; Iterator iter = values.iterator(); while (iter.hasNext()) sum +=; HCatRecord output = new DefaultHCatRecord(2); record.set("user", schema, key.toString()); record.setLong("cnt", schema, sum); context.write(null, record); public int run(String[] args) throws Exception { Job job = new Job(conf, "Example"); // Read the "rawevents" table, partition "20120531", in the default // database HCatInputFormat.setInput(job, InputJobInfo.create(null, "rawevents", "datestamp='20120531'")); job.setInputFormatClass(HCatInputFormat.class); job.setJarByClass(MRExample.class); job.setMapperClass(Map.class); job.setReducerClass(Reduce.class); job.setMapOutputKeyClass(Text.class); job.setMapOutputValueClass(LongWritable.class); job.setOutputKeyClass(WritableComparable.class); job.setOutputValueClass(DefaultHCatRecord.class); // Write into "cntd" table, partition "20120531", in the default database HCatOutputFormat.setOutput(job OutputJobInfo.create(null, "cntd", "ds=20120531")); job.setOutputFormatClass(HCatOutputFormat.class); return (job.waitForCompletion(true) ? 0 : 1); } public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { int exitCode = MRExample(), args); System.exit(exitCode); } } 260 | Chapter 22: HCatalog Command Line Since HCatalog utilizes Hive’s metastore, Hive users do not need an additional tool to interact with it. They can use the Hive command-line tool as before. However, for HCatalog users that are not also Hive users, a command-line tool hcat is provided. This tool is very similar to Hive’s command line. The biggest difference is that it only accepts commands that do not result in a MapReduce job being spawned. This means that the vast majority of DDL (Data Definition Language, or operations that define the data, such as creating tables) are supported: $ /usr/bin/hcat -e "create table rawevents (user string, url string);" The command line supports the following options: Option Explanation Example -e Execute DDL provided on the command line hcat -e “show tables;” -f Execute DDL provided in a script file hcat -f setup.sql -g See the security section below -p See the security section below -D Port for the Cassandra server hcat -Dlog.level=INFO -h Port for the Cassandra server hcat -h The SQL operations that HCatalog’s command line does not support are: • • • • • • • • • • SELECT CREATE TABLE AS SELECT INSERT LOAD ALTER INDEX REBUILD ALTER TABLE CONCATENATE ALTER TABLE ARCHIVE ANALYZE TABLE EXPORT TABLE IMPORT TABLE Security Model HCatalog does not make use of Hive’s authorization model. However, user authentication in HCatalog is identical to Hive. Hive attempts to replicate traditional database authorization models. However, this has some limitations in the Hadoop ecosystem. Security Model | 261 Since it is possible to go directly to the filesystem and access the underlying data, authorization in Hive is limited. This can be resolved by having all files and directories that contain Hive’s data be owned by the user running Hive jobs. This way other users can be prevented from reading or writing data, except through Hive. However, this has the side effect that all UDFs in Hive will then run as a super user, since they will be running in the Hive process. Consequently, they will have read and write access to all files in the warehouse. The only way around this in the short term is to declare UDFs to be a privileged operation and only allow those with proper access to create UDFs, though there is no mechanism to enforce this currently. This may be acceptable in the Hive context, but in Pig and MapReduce where user-generated code is the rule rather than the exception, this is clearly not acceptable. To resolve these issues, HCatalog instead delegates authorization to the storage layer. In the case of data stored in HDFS, this means that HCatalog looks at the directories and files containing data to see if a user has access to the data. If so, he will be given identical access to the metadata. For example, if a user has permission to write to a directory that contains a table’s partitions, she will also have permission to write to that table. This has the advantage that it is truly secure. It is not possible to subvert the system by changing abstraction levels. The disadvantage is that the security model supported by HDFS is much poorer than is traditional for databases. In particular, features such as column-level permissions are not possible. Also, users can only be given permission to a table by being added to a filesystem group that owns that file. Architecture As explained above, HCatalog presents itself to MapReduce and Pig using their standard input and output mechanisms. HCatLoader and HCatStorer are fairly simple since they sit atop HCatInputFormat and HCatOutputFormat, respectively. These two MapReduce classes do a fair amount of work to integrate MapReduce with Hive’s metastore. Figure 22-1 shows the HCatalog architecture. HCatInputFormat communicates with Hive’s metastore to obtain information about the table and partition(s) to be read. This includes finding the table schema as well as schema for each partition. For each partition it must also determine the actual Input Format and SerDe to use to read the partition. When HCatInputFormat.getSplits is called, it instantiates an instance of the InputFormat for each partition and calls getSplits on that InputFormat. These are then collected together and the splits from all the partitions returned as the list of InputSplits. 262 | Chapter 22: HCatalog Figure 22-1. HCatalog architecture diagram Similarly, the RecordReaders from each underlying InputFormat are used to decode the partitions. The HCatRecordReader then converts the values from the underlying Record Reader to HCatRecords via the SerDe associated with the partition. This includes padding each partition with any missing columns. That is, when the table schema contains columns that the partition schema does not, columns with null values must be added to the HCatRecord. Also, if the user has indicated that only certain columns are needed, then the extra columns are trimmed out at this point. HCatOutputFormat also communicates with the Hive metastore to determine the proper file format and schema for writing. Since HCatalog only supports writing data in the format currently specified for the table, there is no need to open different OutputFor mats per partition. The underlying OutputFormat is wrapped by HCatOutputFormat. A RecordWriter is then created per partition that wraps the underlying RecordWriter, while the indicated SerDe is used to write data into these new records. When all of the partitions have been written, HCatalog uses an OutputCommitter to commit the data to the metastore. Architecture | 263 CHAPTER 23 Case Studies Hive is in use at a multitude of companies and organizations around the world. This case studies chapter details interesting and unique use cases, the problems that were present, and how those issues were solved using Hive as a unique data warehousing tool for petabytes of data. (Media6Degrees) Data Science at M6D Using Hive and R by Ori Stitelman In this case study we examine one of many approaches our data science team, here at m6d, takes toward synthesizing the immense amount of data that we are able to extract using Hive. m6d is a display advertising prospecting company. Our role is to create machine learning algorithms that are specifically tailored toward finding the best new prospects for an advertising campaign. These algorithms are layered on top of a delivery engine that is tied directly into a myriad of real time bidding exchanges that provide a means to purchase locations on websites to display banner advertisements on behalf of our clients. The m6d display advertising engine is involved in billions of auctions a day and tens of millions of advertisements daily. Naturally, such a system produces an immense amount of data. A large portion of the records that are generated by our company’s display advertising delivery system are housed in m6d’s Hadoop cluster and, as a result, Hive is the primary tool our data science team uses to interact with the these logs. Hive gives our data science team a way to extract and manipulate large amounts of data. In fact, it allows us to extract samples and summarize data that prior to using Hive could not be analyzed as efficiently, or at all, because of the immense size. Despite the fact that Hive allows us access to huge amounts of data at rates many times faster than before, it does not change the fact that most of the tools that we were previously familiar with as data scientists are not always able to analyze data samples of the size 265 we can now produce. In summary, Hive provides us a great tool to extract huge amounts of data; however, the toolbox of data science, or statistical learning, methods that we as data scientists are used to using cannot easily accommodate the new larger data sets without substantial changes. Many different software packages have been developed or are under development for both supervised and unsupervised learning on large data sets. Some of these software packages are stand alone software implementations, such as Vowpal Wabbit and BBR, while others are implementations within a larger infrastructure such as Mahout for Hadoop or the multitude of “large data” packages for R. A portion of these algorithms take advantage of parallel programing approaches while others rely on different methods to achieve scalability. The primary tool for statistical learning for several of the data scientists in our team is R. It provides a large array of packages that are able to perform many statistical learning methods. More importantly, we have a lot of experience with it, know how its packages perform, understand their features, and are very familiar with its documentation. However, one major drawback of R is that by default it loads the entire data set into memory. This is a major limitation considering that the majority of the data sets that we extract from Hive and are able to analyze today are much larger than what can fit in memory. Moreover, once the data in R is larger than what is able to fit in memory, the system will start swapping, which leads to the system thrashing and massive decreases in processing speed.1 In no way are we advocating ignoring the new tools that are available. Obviously, it is important to take advantage of the best of these scalable technologies, but only so much time can be spent investigating and testing new technology. So now we are left with a choice of either using the new tools that are available for large data sets or downsampling our data to fit into the tools that we are more familiar with. If we decide to use the new tools, we can gain signal by letting our data learn off of more data, and as a result the variance in our estimates will decrease. This is particularly appealing in situations where the outcome is very rare. However, learning these new tools takes time and there is an opportunity cost of using that time to learn new tools rather than answering other questions that have particular value to the company. Alternatively, we can downsample the data to obtain something that can fit in the old tools we have at our disposal, but must deal with a loss of signal and increased variance in our estimates. However, this allows us to deal with tools with which we are familiar and the features that they provide. Thus, we are able to retain the functionality of our current toolbox at the price of losing some signal. However, these are not the only two possible approaches. In this case study, we highlight a way that we can both retain the functionality of the current toolbox as well as gain signal, or decrease variance, by using a larger sample, or all, of the data available to us. 1. -adapa/ 266 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Figure 23-1 shows the probability of converting versus the score from an algorithm designed to rank prospects for an advertising campaign. Higher scores should indicate a higher probability of conversion. This plot clearly shows that the top individuals are converting at a lower rate than some of the lower scoring browsers. That is, browsers with scores greater than 1 convert at a lower rate than individuals with scores between 0.5 and 1.0. Considering that some campaigns only target a very small percentage of the overall population, it is important the best prospects are among the top scorers. Figure 23-1. Probability of conversion versus score The line that expresses the relationship between the score and the conversion probability seen in Figure 23-1 is generated using a generalized additive model (GAM) in the statistical programming package R.2 The details about GAMs will not be presented here. For the purpose of this case study it can be thought of as a black box that produces for each score a prediction of the conversion rate. The browsers can then be re-ranked 2. For more details on the use of generalized additive models (GAM), see Hastie et al. 2001. The R package used to implement the GAM for the purpose of the analysis presented here is the mgcv package available at (Media6Degrees) | 267 based on the predicted conversion rate; thus, the predicted conversion rate becomes the new score. The new ranking can be generated in the following way. First, extract the scores for each individual browser and then follow them for some designated period of time, say five days, and record if they took the desired action, and thus converted. Consider a Hive table called scoretable that has the following information and is partitioned on date and subpartitioned by offer. Name Type Description score double The score is the score generated by the initial algorithm that does not necessarily rank order appropriately. convert int The variable convert is a binary variable that is equal to one if the individual browser takes the desired action in the following five days and equal to zero if not. date int The day that the browser was given the particular score. offer int An ID of an offer. The following query can then be used to extract a set of data from scoretable for use in R to estimate the GAM line that predicts conversion for different levels of score like in the preceding table: SELECT score,convert FROM scoretable WHERE date >= (…) AND date <= (…) AND offer = (…); 1.2347 0 3.2322 1 0.0013 0 0.3441 0 This data is then loaded into R and the following code is used to create the predicted conversion probability versus score, as in the preceding table: library(mgcv) g1=gam(convert~s(score),family=binomial,data=[data frame name]) The issue with this approach is that it only can be used for a limited number of days of data because the data set gets too large and R begins thrashing for any more than three days of data. Moreover, it takes approximately 10 minutes of time for each campaign to do this for about three days of data. So, running this analysis for about 300 campaigns for a single scoring method took about 50 hours for three days of data. By simply extracting the data from Hive in a slightly different way and making use of the feature of the gam function in mgcv that allows for frequency weights, the same 268 | Chapter 23: Case Studies analysis may be done using more data, and thus gaining more signal, at a much faster rate. This is done by selecting the data from Hive by rounding the score to the nearest hundredth and getting frequency weights for each rounded score, convert combination by using a GROUP BY query. This is a very common approach for dealing with large data sets and in the case of these scores there should be no loss of signal due to rounding because there is no reason to believe that individuals with scores that differ by less than 0.001 are any different from each other. The following query would select such a data set: SELECT round(score,2) as score,convert,count(1) AS freq FROM scoretable WHERE date >= [] and date <= [] and offer = [chosen.offer] GROUP BY round(score,2),convert; 1.23 0 500 3.23 1 22 0.00 0 127 0.34 0 36 The resulting data set is significantly smaller than the original approach presented that does not use frequency weights. In fact, the initial data set for each offer consisted of millions of records, and this new data set consists of approximately 6,500 rows per offer. The new data is then loaded into R and the following code may be used to generate the new GAM results: library(mgcv) g2=gam(convert~s(score),family=binomial,weights=freq, data=[frequency weight data frame name]) (We wrapped the line.) The previously presented approach took 10 minutes per offer to create the GAM for only three days of data, compared to the frequency-weighted approach which was able to create the GAM based on seven days of data in approximately 10 seconds. Thus, by using frequency weights, the analysis for the 300 campaigns was able to be done in 50 minutes compared to 50 hours using the originally presented approach. This increase in speed was also realized while using more than twice the amount of data resulting in more precise estimates of the predicted conversion probabilities. In summary, the frequency weights allowed for a more precise estimate of the GAM in significantly less time. In the presented case study, we showed how by rounding the continuous variables and grouping like variables with frequency weights, we were both able to get more precise estimates by using more data and fewer computational resources, resulting in quicker estimates. The example shown was for a model with a single feature, score. In general, this is an approach that will work well for a low number of features or a larger number of sparse features. The above approach may be extended to higher dimensional problems as well using some other small tricks. One way this can be done for a larger number of variables is by bucketing the variables, or features, into binary variables and then using GROUP BY queries and frequency weights for those features. However, as the (Media6Degrees) | 269 number of features increases, and those features are not sparse, there is little value gained by such an approach and other alternative methods must be explored, or software designed for larger data sets must be embraced. M6D UDF Pseudorank by David Ha and Rumit Patel Sorting data and identifying the top N elements is straightforward. You order the whole data set by some criteria and limit the result set to N. But there are times when you need to group like elements together and find the top N elements within that group only. For example, identifying the top 10 requested songs for each recording artist or the top 100 best-selling items per product category and country. Several database platforms define a rank() function that can support these scenarios, but until Hive provides an implementation, we can create a user-defined function to produce the results we want. We will call this function p_rank() for psuedorank, leaving the name rank() for the Hive implementation. Say we have the following product sales data and we want to see the top three items per category and country: Category Country Product Sales movies us chewblanca 100 movies us war stars iv 150 movies us war stars iii 200 movies us star wreck 300 movies gb titanus 100 movies gb spiderella 150 movies gb war stars iii 200 movies gb war stars iv 300 office us red pens 30 office us blue pens 50 office us black pens 60 office us pencils 70 office gb rulers 30 office gb blue pens 40 office gb black pens 50 office gb binder clips 60 In most SQL systems: 270 | Chapter 23: Case Studies SELECT category,country,product,sales,rank FROM ( SELECT category,country,product, sales, rank() over (PARTITION BY category, country ORDER BY sales DESC) rank FROM p_rank_demo) t WHERE rank <= 3 To achieve the same result using HiveQL, the first step is partitioning the data into groups, which we can achieve using the DISTRIBUTE BY clause. We must ensure that all rows with the same category and country are sent to the same reducer: DISTRIBUTE BY category, country The next step is ordering the data in each group by descending sales using the SORT BY clause. While ORDER BY effects a total ordering across all data, SORT BY affects the ordering of data on a specific reducer. You must repeat the partition columns named in the DISTRIBUTE BY clause: SORT BY category, country, sales DESC Putting everything together, we have: ADD JAR p-rank-demo.jar; CREATE TEMPORARY FUNCTION p_rank AS 'demo.PsuedoRank'; SELECT category,country,product,sales,rank FROM ( SELECT category,country,product,sales, p_rank(category, country) rank FROM ( SELECT category,country,product, sales FROM p_rank_demo DISTRIBUTE BY category,country SORT BY category,country,sales desc) t1) t2 WHERE rank <= 3 The subquery t1 organizes the data so that all data belonging to the same category and country are sorted by descending sales count. The next query t2 then uses p_rank() to assign a rank to each row within the group. The outermost query filters the rank to be in the top three: (Media6Degrees) | 271 Category Country Product Sales Rank movies gb war stars iv 300 1 movies gb war stars iii 200 2 movies gb spiderella 150 3 movies us star wreck 300 1 movies us war stars iii 200 2 movies us war stars iv 150 3 office gb binder clips 60 1 office gb black pens 50 2 office gb blue pens 40 3 office us pencils 70 1 office us black pens 60 2 office us blue pens 50 3 p_rank() is implemented as a generic UDF whose parameters are all the identifying attributes of the group, which, in this case, are category and country. The function remembers the previous arguments, and so long as the successive arguments match, it increments and returns the rank. Whenever the arguments do not match, the function resets the rank back to 1 and starts over. This is just one simple example of how p_rank() can be used. You can also find the 10th to 15th bestsellers by category and country. Or, if you precalculate the counts of products in each category and country, you can use p_rank() to calculate percentiles using a join. For example, if there were 1,000 products in the “movies” and “us” group, the 50th, 70th, and 95th quantiles would have rank 500, 700, and 950, respectively. Please know that p_rank() is not a direct substitute for rank() because there will be differences in some circumstances. rank() returns the same value when there are ties, but p_rank() will keep incrementing, so plan accordingly and test with your data. Lastly, here is the implementation. It is public domain so feel free to use, improve, and modify it to suit your needs: package demo; import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.exec.UDFArgumentException; import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.HiveException; import org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.udf.generic.GenericUDF; import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.ObjectInspector; import org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.objectinspector.primitive. PrimitiveObjectInspectorFactory; public class PsuedoRank extends GenericUDF { /** * The rank within the group. Resets whenever the group changes. */ 272 | Chapter 23: Case Studies private long rank; /** * Key of the group that we are ranking. Use the string form * of the objects since deferred object and equals do not work * as expected even for equivalent values. */ private String[] groupKey; @Override public ObjectInspector initialize(ObjectInspector[] oi) throws UDFArgumentException { return PrimitiveObjectInspectorFactory.javaLongObjectInspector; } @Override public Object evaluate(DeferredObject[] currentKey) throws HiveException { if (!sameAsPreviousKey(currentKey)) { rank = 1; } return new Long(rank++); } /** * Returns true if the current key and the previous keys are the same. * If the keys are not the same, then sets {@link #groupKey} to the * current key. */ private boolean sameAsPreviousKey(DeferredObject[] currentKey) throws HiveException { if (null == currentKey && null == groupKey) { return true; } String[] previousKey = groupKey; copy(currentKey); if (null == groupKey && null != previousKey) { return false; } if (null != groupKey && null == previousKey) { return false; } if (groupKey.length != previousKey.length) { return false; } for (int index = 0; index < previousKey.length; index++) { if (!groupKey[index].equals(previousKey[index])) { return false; } } return true; } /** * Copies the given key to {@link #groupKey} for future * comparisons. (Media6Degrees) | 273 Download from Wow! eBook */ private void copy(DeferredObject[] currentKey) throws HiveException { if (null == currentKey) { groupKey = null; } else { groupKey = new String[currentKey.length]; for (int index = 0; index < currentKey.length; index++) { groupKey[index] = String.valueOf(currentKey[index].get()); } } } @Override public String getDisplayString(String[] children) { StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder(); sb.append("PsuedoRank ("); for (int i = 0; i < children.length; i++) { if (i > 0) { sb.append(", "); } sb.append(children[i]); } sb.append(")"); return sb.toString(); } } M6D Managing Hive Data Across Multiple MapReduce Clusters Although Hadoop clusters are designed to scale from 10 to 10,000 nodes, sometimes deployment-specific requirements involve running more than one filesystem or JobTracker. At M6D, we have such requirements, for example we have hourly and daily process reports using Hadoop and Hive that are business critical and must complete in a timely manner. However our systems also support data science and sales engineers that periodically run ad hoc reporting. While using the fair share scheduler and capacity scheduler meets many of our requirements, we need more isolation than schedulers can provide. Also, because HDFS has no snapshot or incremental backup type features, we require a solution that will prevent an accidental delete or drop table operations from destroying data. Our solution is to run two distinct Hadoop deployments. Data can have a replication factor of two or three on the primary deployment and additionally be replicated to a second deployment. This decision allows us to have guaranteed resources dedicated to our time-sensitive production process as well as our ad hoc users. Additionally, we protected against any accidental drop tables or data deletes. This design does incur some overhead in having to administer two deployments and setup and administer the replication processes, but this overhead is justified in our case. 274 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Our two deployments are known as production and research. They each have their own dedicated Data Nodes and Task Trackers. Each NameNode and JobTracker is a failover setup using DRBD and Linux-HA. Both deployments are on the same switching network (Tables 23-1 and 23-2). Table 23-1. Production NameNode hdfs.hadoop.pvt:54310 JobTracker jt.hadoop.pvt:54311 Table 23-2. Research NameNode rs01.hadoop.pvt:34310 JobTracker rjt.hadoop.pvt:34311 Cross deployment queries with Hive A given table zz_mid_set exists on Production and we wish to be able to query it from Research without having to transfer the data between clusters using distcp. Generally, we try to avoid this because it breaks our isolation design but it is nice to know that this can be done. Use the describe extended command to determine the columns of a table as well as its location: hive> set; hive> set mapred.job.tracker; mapred.job.tracker=jt.hadoop.pvt:54311 hive> describe extended zz_mid_set; OK adv_spend_id int transaction_id bigint time string client_id bigint visit_info string event_type tinyint level int location:hdfs://hdfs.hadoop.pvt:54310/user/hive/warehouse/zz_mid_set Time taken: 0.063 seconds hive> select count(1) from zz_mid_set; 1795928 On the second cluster, craft a second CREATE TABLE statement with the same columns. Create the second table as EXTERNAL, in this way if the table is dropped on the second cluster the files are not deleted on the first cluster. Notice that for the location we specified a full URI. In fact, when you specify a location as a relative URI, Hive stores it as a full URI: (Media6Degrees) | 275 hive> set; hive> set mapred.job.tracker; mapred.job.tracker=rjt.hadoop.pvt:34311 hive> CREATE TABLE EXTERNAL table_in_another_cluster ( adv_spend_id int, transaction_id bigint, time string, client_id bigint, visit_info string, event_type tinyint, level int) LOCATION 'hdfs://hdfs.hadoop.pvt:54310/user/hive/warehouse/zz_mid_set'; hive> select count(*) FROM table_in_another_cluster; 1795928 It is important to note that this cross-deployment access works because both clusters have network access to each other. The TaskTrackers of the deployment we submit the job to will have to be able to access the NameNode and DataNodes of the other deployment. Hadoop was designed to move processing closer to data. This is done by scheduling tasks to run on nodes where the data is located. In this scenario TaskTrackers connect to another cluster’s DataNodes. Which means a general performance decrease and network usage increase. Replicating Hive data between deployments Replicating Hadoop and Hive data is easier than replicating a traditional database. Unlike a database running multiple transactions that change the underlying data frequently, Hadoop and Hive data is typically “write once.” Adding new partitions does not change the existing ones, and typically new partitions are added on time-based intervals. Early iterations of replication systems were standalone systems that used distcp and generated Hive statements to add partitions on an interval. When we wanted to replicate a new table, we could copy an existing program and make changes for different tables and partitions. Over time we worked out a system that could do this in a more automated manner without having to design a new process for each table to replicate. The process that creates the partition also creates an empty HDFS file named: /replication/default.fracture_act/hit_date=20110304,mid=3000 The replication daemon constantly scans the replication hierarchy. If it finds a file, it looks up the table and partition in Hive’s metadata. It then uses the results to replicate the partition. On a successful replication the file is then deleted. Below is the main loop of the program. First, we do some checking to make sure the table is defined in the source and destination metastores: public void run(){ while (goOn){ Path base = new Path(pathToConsume); FileStatus [] children = srcFs.listStatus(base); for (FileStatus child: children){ try { openHiveService(); String db = child.getPath().getName().split("\\.")[0]; 276 | Chapter 23: Case Studies String hiveTable = child.getPath().getName().split("\\.")[1]; Table table = srcHive.client.get_table(db, hiveTable); if (table == null){ throw new RuntimeException(db+" "+hiveTable+ " not found in source metastore"); } Table tableR = destHive.client.get_table(db,hiveTable); if (tableR == null){ throw new RuntimeException(db+" "+hiveTable+ " not found in dest metastore"); } Using the database and table name we can look up the location information inside the metastore. We then do a sanity check to ensure the information does not already exist: URI localTable = new URI(tableR.getSd().getLocation()); FileStatus [] partitions = srcFs.listStatus(child.getPath()); for (FileStatus partition : partitions){ try { String replaced = partition.getPath().getName() .replace(",", "/").replace("'",""); Partition p = srcHive.client.get_partition_by_name( db, hiveTable, replaced); URI partUri = new URI(p.getSd().getLocation()); String path = partUri.getPath(); DistCp distCp = new DistCp(destConf.conf); String thdfile = "/tmp/replicator_distcp"; Path tmpPath = new Path(thdfile); destFs.delete(tmpPath,true); if (destFs.exists( new Path(localTable.getScheme()+ "://"+localTable.getHost()+":"+localTable.getPort()+path) ) ){ throw new RuntimeException("Target path already exists " +localTable.getScheme()+"://"+localTable.getHost()+ ":"+localTable.getPort()+path ); } Hadoop DistCP is not necessarily made to be run programmatically. However, we can pass a string array identical to command-line arguments to its main function. After, we check to confirm the returned result was a 0: String [] dargs = new String [4]; dargs[0]="-log"; dargs[1]=localTable.getScheme()+"://"+localTable.getHost()+":"+ localTable.getPort()+thdfile; dargs[2]=p.getSd().getLocation(); dargs[3]=localTable.getScheme()+"://"+localTable.getHost()+":"+ localTable.getPort()+path; int result,dargs); if (result != 0){ throw new RuntimeException("DistCP failed "+ dargs[2] +" "+dargs[3]); } Finally, we re-create the ALTER TABLE statement that adds the partition: String HQL = "ALTER TABLE "+hiveTable+ " ADD PARTITION ("+partition.getPath().getName() (Media6Degrees) | 277 +") LOCATION '"+path+"'"; destHive.client.execute("SET"); destHive.client.execute("USE "+db); destHive.client.execute(HQL); String [] results=destHive.client.fetchAll(); srcFs.delete(partition.getPath(),true); } catch (Exception ex){ ex.printStackTrace(); } } // for each partition } catch (Exception ex) { //error(ex); ex.printStackTrace(); } } // for each table closeHiveService(); Thread.sleep(60L*1000L); } // end run loop } // end run Outbrain by David Funk Outbrain is the leading content-discovery platform. In-Site Referrer Identification Sometimes, when you’re trying to aggregate your traffic, it can be tricky to tell where it’s actually coming from, especially for traffic coming from elsewhere in your site. If you have a site with a lot of URLs with different structures, you can’t simply check that the referrer URLs match the landing page. Cleaning up the URLs What we want is to correctly group each referrer as either In-site, Direct, or Other. If it’s Other, we’ll just keep the actual URL. That way you can tell your internal traffic apart from Google searches to your site, and so on and so forth. If the referrer is blank or null, we’ll label it as Direct. From here on out, we’ll assume that all our URLs are already parsed down to the host or domain, whatever level of granularity you’re aiming for. Personally, I like using the domain because it’s a little simpler. That said, Hive only has a host function, but not domain. If you just have the raw URLs, there are a couple of options. The host, as given below, gives the full host, like or, whereas the domain would truncate it down to the lowest logical level, like or Host = PARSE_URL(my_url, ‘HOST’’) 278 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Or you could just use a UDF for it. Whatever, I don’t care. The important thing is that we’re going to be using these to look for matches, so just make your choice based on your own criteria. Determining referrer type So, back to the example. We have, let’s say, three sites:,, and Now, we can convert each pageview’s URL to the appropriate class. Let’s imagine a table called referrer_identification: ri_page_url STRING ri_referrer_url STRING Now, we can easily add in the referrer type with a query: SELECT ri_page_url, ri_referrer_url, CASE WHEN ri_referrer_url is NULL or ri_referrer_url = ‘’ THEN ‘DIRECT’ WHEN ri_referrer_url is in (‘’,’’,’’) THEN ‘INSITE’ ELSE ri_referrer_url END as ri_referrer_url_classed FROM referrer_identification; Multiple URLs This is all pretty simple. But what if we’re an ad network? What if we have hundreds of sites? What if each of the sites could have any number of URL structures? If that’s the case, we probably also have a table that has each URL, as well as what site it belongs to. Let’s call it site_url, with a schema like: su_site_id INT su_url STRING Let’s also add one more field to our earlier table, referrer_identification: ri_site_id INT Now we’re in business. What we want to do is go through each referrer URL and see if it matches with anything of the same site ID. If anything matches, it’s an In-site referrer. Otherwise, it’s something else. So, let’s query for that: SELECT c.c_page_url as ri_page_url, c.c_site_id as ri_site_id, CASE WHEN c.c_referrer_url is NULL or c.c_referrer_url = ‘’ THEN ‘DIRECT’ WHEN c.c_insite_referrer_flags > 0 THEN ‘INSITE’ ELSE c.c_referrer_url END as ri_referrer_url_classed FROM (SELECT a.a_page_url as c_page_url, a.a_referrer_url as c_referrer_url, Outbrain | 279 a.a_site_id as c_site_id, SUM(IF(b.b_url <> ‘’, 1, 0)) as c_insite_referrer_flags FROM (SELECT ri_page_url as a_page_url, ri_referrer_url as a_referrer_url, ri_site_id as a_site_id FROM referrer_identification ) a LEFT OUTER JOIN (SELECT su_site_id as b_site_id, su_url as b_url FROM site_url ) b ON a.a_site_id = b.b_site_id and a.a_referrer_url = b.b_url ) c A few small notes about this. We use the outer join in this case, because we expect there to be some external referrers that won’t match, and this will let them through. Then, we just catch any cases that did match, and if there were any, we know they came from somewhere in the site. Counting Uniques Let’s say you want to calculate the number of unique visitors you have to your site/ network/whatever. We’ll use a ridiculously simple schema for our hypothetical table, daily_users: du_user_id STRING du_date STRING However, if you have too many users and not enough machines in your cluster, it might begin to have trouble counting users over a month: SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT du_user_id) FROM daily_users WHERE du_date >= ‘2012-03-01’ and du_date <= ‘2012-03-31’ In all likelihood, your cluster is probably able to make it through the map phase without too much problems, but starts having issues around the reduce phase. The problem is that it’s able to access all the records but it can’t count them all at once. Of course, you can’t count them day by day, either, because there might be some redundancies. 280 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Why this is a problem Counting uniques is O(n), where n is the number of records, but it has a high constant factor. We could maybe come up with some clever way to cut that down a little bit, but it’s much easier to cut down your n. While it’s never good to have a high O(n), most of the real problems happen further along. If you have something that takes n1.1 time to run, who cares if you only have n=2 versus n=1. It’s slower, sure, but nowhere near the difference between n=1 and n=100. So, if each day has m entries, and an average of x redundancies, our first query would have n= 31*m. We can reduce this to n=31*(m–x) by building a temp table to save deduped versions for each day. Load a temp table First, create the temp table: CREATE TABLE daily_users_deduped (dud_user_id STRING) PARTITIONED BY (dud_date STRING) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY ‘\t’; Then we write a template version of a query to run over each day, and update it to our temp table. I like to refer to these as “metajobs,” so let’s call this mj_01.sql: INSERT OVERWRITE TABLE daily_users_deduped PARTITION (dud_date = ‘:date:’) SELECT DISTINCT du_user_id FROM daily_users WHERE du_date = ‘:date:’ Next, we write a script that marks this file up, runs it, and repeats it for every date in a range. For this, we have three functions, modify_temp_file, which replaces a variable name with fire_query, which basically runs hive –f on a file, and then a function to delete the file: start_date = ‘2012-03-01’ end_date = ‘2012-03-31’ for date in date_range(start_date, end_date): femp_file = modify_temp_file(‘mj_01.sql’,{‘:date:’:my_date}) fire_query(temp_file) delete(temp_file) Querying the temp table Run the script, and you’ve got a table with a n=31*(m-x). Now, you can query the deduped table without as big a reduce step to get through. Outbrain | 281 SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT (dud_uuid) FROM daily_users_deduped If that’s not enough, you can then dedupe sets of dates, maybe two at a time, whatever the interval that works for you. If you still have trouble, you could hash your user IDs into different classes, maybe based on the first character, to shrink n even further. The basic idea remains, if you limit the size of your n, a high O(n) isn’t as big of a deal. Sessionization For analyzing web traffic, we often want to be able to measure engagement based on various criteria. One way is to break up user behavior into sessions, chunks of activity that represent a single “use.” A user might come to your site several times a day, a few days a month, but each visit is certainly not the same. So, what is a session? One definition is a string of activity, not separated by more than 30 minutes. That is, if you go to your first page, wait five minutes, go to the second page, it’s the same session. Wait 30 minutes exactly until the third page, still the same session. Wait 31 minutes until that fourth page, and the session will be broken; rather than the fourth pageview, it would be the first page of the second session. Once we’ve got these broken out, we can look at properties of the session to see what happened. The ubiquitous case is to compare referrers to your page by session length. So, we might want to find out if Google or Facebook give better engagement on your site, which we might measure by session length. At first glance, this seems perfect for an iterative process. For each pageview, keep counting backwards until you find the page that was first. But Hive isn’t iterative. You can, however, figure it out. I like to break this into four phases. 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify which pageviews are the session starters, or “origin” pages. For every pageview, bucket it in with the correct origin page. Aggregate all the pageviews for each origin page. Label each origin page, then calculate engagement for each session. This leaves a table where each row represents a full session, which you can then query for whatever you want to find out. Setting it up Let’s define our table, session_test: st_user_id STRING st_pageview_id STRING st_page_url STRING 282 | Chapter 23: Case Studies st_referrer_url STRING st_timestamp DOUBLE Most of this is pretty straightforward, though I will mention that st_pageview_id is basically a unique ID to represent each transaction, in this case a pageview. Otherwise, it could be confusing if you happened to have multiple views of the same page. For the purposes of this example, the timestamp will be in terms of seconds. Finding origin pageviews All right, let’s start with step one (shocking!). How do we find which pageviews are the session starters? Well, if we assume any break of more than 30 minutes implies a new session, than any session starter can’t have any activity that precedes it by 30 minutes or less. This is a great case for conditional sums. What we want to do is count up how many times, for each pageview. Then, anything with a count of zero must be an origin case. In order to do this, we need to compare every pageview that could precede it. This is a pretty expensive move, as it requires performing a cross-product. To prevent this from blowing up to unmanageable size, we should group everything on criteria that limits it as much as possible. In this case, it’s just the user ID, but if you have a large network of independent sites, you might also want to group based on each source, as well: CREATE TABLE sessionization_step_one_origins AS SELECT c.c_user_id as ssoo_user_id, c.c_pageview_id as ssoo_pageview_id, c.c_timestamp as ssoo_timestamp FROM (SELECT a.a_user_id as c_user_id, a.a_pageview_id as c_pageview_id, a.a_timestamp as c.c_timestamp, SUM(IF(a.a_timestamp + 1800 >= b.b_timestamp AND a.a_timestamp < b.b_timestamp,1,0)) AS c_nonorigin_flags FROM (SELECT st_user_id as a_user_id, st_pageview_id as a_pageview_id, st_timestamp as a_timestamp FROM session_test ) a JOIN (SELECT st_user_id as b_user_id, st_timestamp as b_timestamp FROM session_test ) b ON Outbrain | 283 a.a_user_id = b.b_user_id GROUP BY a.a_user_id, a.a_pageview_id, a.a_timestamp ) c WHERE c.c_nonorigin_flags That’s a bit much, isn’t it? The important part is to count the flags that are not of a session origin, which is where we define c_nonorigin_flags. Basically, counting up how many reasons why it isn’t the session starter. Aka, this line: SUM(IF(a.a_timestamp + 1800 >= b.b_timestamp AND a.a_timestamp < b.b_timestamp,1,0)) as c_nonorigin_flags Let’s break this up, part by part. First, everything is in terms of subquery a. We only use b to qualify those candidates. So, the first part, the a.a_timestamp + 1800 >= b.b_timestamp, is just asking if the candidate timestamp is no more than 30 minutes prior to the qualifying timestamp. The second part, a.a_timestamp < b.b_timestamp adds a check to make sure that it is earlier, otherwise every timestamp that occurred later than it’s qualifier would trigger a false positive. Plus, since this is a cross-product, it prevents a false positive by using the candidate as its own qualifier. Now, we’re left with a table, sessionization_step_one_origins, with a schema of: ssoo_user_id STRING ssoo_pageview_id STRING ssoo_timestamp DOUBLE Bucketing PVs to origins Which is probably a good reason to start on step two, finding which pageview belongs to which origin. It’s pretty simple to do this, every pageview’s origin must be the one immediately prior to it. For this, we take another big join to check for the minimum difference between a pageview’s timestamp and all the potential origin pageviews: CREATE TABLE sessionization_step_two_origin_identification AS SELECT c.c_user_id as sstoi_user_id, c.c_pageview_id as sstoi_pageview_id, d.d_pageview_id as sstoi_origin_pageview_id FROM (SELECT a.a_user_id as c_user_id, a.a_pageview_id as c_pageview_id, MAX(IF(a.a_timestamp >= b.b_timestamp, b.b_timestamp, NULL)) as c_origin_timestamp FROM (SELECT st_user_id as a_user_id, st_pageview_id as a_pageview_id, st_timestamp as a_timestamp FROM 284 | Chapter 23: Case Studies session_test ) a JOIN (SELECT ssoo_user_id as b_user_id, ssoo_timestamp as b_timestamp FROM sessionization_step_one_origins ) b ON a.a_user_id = b.b_user_id GROUP BY a.a_user_id, a.a_pageview_id ) c JOIN (SELECT ssoo_usr_id as d_user_id, ssoo_pageview_id as d_pageview_id, ssoo_timestamp as d_timestamp FROM sessionization_step_one_origins ) d ON c.c_user_id = d.d_user_id and c.c_origin_timestamp = d.d_timestamp There’s a lot to mention here. First, let’s look at this line: MAX(IF(a.a_timestamp >= b.b_timestamp, b.b_timestamp, NULL)) as c_origin_timestamp Again, we use the idea of qualifiers and candidates, in this case b are the candidates for every qualifier a. An origin candidate can’t come later than the pageview, so for every case like that, we want to find the absolute latest origin that meets that criteria. The null is irrelevant, because we are guaranteed to have a minimum, because there is always at least one possible origin (even if it’s itself). This doesn’t give us the origin, but it gives us the timestamp, which we can use as a fingerprint for what the origin should be. From here, it’s just a matter of matching up this timestamp with all the other potential origins, and we know which origin each pageview belongs to. We’re left with the table sessionization_step_two_origin_identification, with the following schema: sstoi_user_id STRING sstoi_pageview_id STRING sstoi_origin_pageview_id STRING It’s worth mentioning that this isn’t the only way to identify the origin pageviews. You could do it based on the referrer, labeling any external referrer, homepage URL, or blank referrer (indicating direct traffic) as a session origin. You could base it on an action, only measuring activity after a click. There are plenty of options, but the important thing is simply to identify what the session origins are. Outbrain | 285 Aggregating on origins At this point, it’s all pretty easy. Step three, where we aggregate on origins, is really, really simple. For each origin, count up how many pageviews match to it: CREATE TABLE sessionization_step_three_origin_aggregation AS SELECT a.a_user_id as sstoa_user_id, a.a_origin_pageview_id as sstoa_origin_pageview_id, COUNT(1) as sstoa_pageview_count FROM (SELECT ssoo_user_id as a_user_id ssoo_pageview_id as a_origin_pageview_id FROM sessionization_step_one_origins ) a JOIN (SELECT sstoi_user_id as b_user_id, sstoi_origin_pageview_id as b_origin_pageview_id FROM sessionization_step_two_origin_identification ) b ON a.a_user_id = b.b_user_id and a.a_origin_pageview_id = b.b_origin_pageview_id GROUP BY a.a_user_id, a.a_origin_pageview_id Aggregating on origin type Now, this last step we could have avoided by keeping all the qualitative info about a pageview, particularly the origins, in one of the earlier steps. However, if you have a lot of details you want to pay attention to, it can sometimes be easier to add it in at the end. Which is step four: CREATE TABLE sessionization_step_four_qualitative_labeling SELECT a.a_user_id as ssfql_user_id, a.a_origin_pageview_id as ssfql_origin_pageview_id, b.b_timestamp as ssfql_timestamp, b.b_page_url as ssfql_page_url, b.b_referrer_url as ssfql_referrer_url, a.a_pageview_count as ssqfl_pageview_count (SELECT sstoa_user_id as a_user_id, sstoa_origin_pageview_id as a_origin_pageview_id, sstoa_pageview_count as a_pageview_count FROM sessionization_step_three_origin_aggregation ) a 286 | Chapter 23: Case Studies JOIN (SELECT st_user_id as b_user_id, st_pageview_id as b_pageview_id, st_page_url as b_page_url, st_referrer_url as b_referrer_url, st_timestamp as b_timestamp FROM session_test ) b ON a.a_user_id = b.b_user_id and a.a_origin_pageview_id = b.b_pageview_id Measure engagement Now, with our final table, we can do whatever we want. Let’s say we want to check the number of sessions, average pageviews per session, weighted average pageviews per session, and the max or min. We could pick whatever criteria we want, or none at all, but in this case, let’s do it by referrer URL so we can find out the answer to which traffic source gives the best engagement. And, just for kicks, let’s also check who gives us the most unique users: SELECT PARSE_URL(ssfql_referrer_url, ‘HOST’) as referrer_host, COUNT(1) as session_count, AVG(ssfql_pageview_count) as avg_pvs_per_session, SUM(ssfq_pageview_count)/COUNT(1) as weighted_avg_pvs_per_session, MAX(ssfql_pageview_count) as max_pvs_per_session, MIN(ssfql_pageview_count) as min_pvs_per_session, COUNT(DISTINCT ssfql_usr_id) as unique_users FROM sessionization_step_three_origin_aggregation GROUP BY PARSE_URL(ssfql_referrer_url, ‘HOST’) as referrer_host And there we have it. We could check which page URL gives the best engagement, figure out who the power users are, whatever. Once we’ve got it all in a temp table, especially with a more complete set of qualitative attributes, we can answer all sorts of questions about user engagement. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory The Regional Climate Model Evaluation System by Chris A. Mattmann, Paul Zimdars, Cameron Goodale, Andrew F. Hart, Jinwon Kim, Duane Waliser, Peter Lean Since 2009, our team at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has actively led the development of a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). The system, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory | 287 Download from Wow! eBook originally funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has the following goals: • Facilitate the evaluation and analysis of regional climate model simulation outputs via the availability of the reference data sets of quality-controlled observations and assimilations especially from spaceborne sensors, an efficient database structure, a collection of computational tools for calculating the metrics for model evaluation metrics and diagnostics, and relocatable and friendly user interfaces. • Easily bring together a number of complex, and heterogeneous software tools and capability for data access, representation, regridding, reformatting, and visualization so that the end product such as a bias plot can be easily delivered to the end user. • Support regional assessments of climate variability, and impacts, needed to inform decision makers (e.g., local governments, agriculture, state government, hydrologists) so that they can make critical decisions with large financial and societal impact. • Overcome data format and metadata heterogeneity (e.g., NetCDF3/4, CF metadata conventions, HDF4/5, HDF-EOS metadata conventions). • Deal with spatial and temporal differences, (e.g., line up the data alongside a 180/80 lat-lon grid—such as converting from, for example, a 360/360 lat-lon grid —and making sure data, that may be originally daily, is properly comparable with monthly data. • Elastically scaling up, performing a regional study that requires specific remote sensing data, and climate model output data, performing a series of analyses, and then destroying that particular instance of the system. In other words, supporting transient analyses, and rapid construction/deconstruction of RCMES instances. Figure 23-2 shows the architecture and data flow of the Regional Climate Model Evaluation System In support of these goals, we have constructed a multifaceted system shown in Figure 23-2. Reading the diagram from left to right, available reference data sets from observations and assimilations, especially from satellite-based remote sensing, enters the system according to the desired climate parameters useful for climate model evaluation. Those parameters are stored in various mission data sets, and those data sets are housed in several external repositories, eventually fed into the database component (RCMED: Regional Climate Model Evaluation Database) of RCMES. As an example, AIRS is NASA’s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and provides parameters including surface air temperature, temperature, and geopotential; MODIS is NASA’s Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer and provides parameters including cloud fraction; and TRMM is NASA’s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and provides parameters including monthly precipitation. This information is summarized 288 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Figure 23-2. JPL Architecture Diagram. in our RCMES system website parameter table, eters/, and shown in Figure 23-3. Data sets are loaded into the RCMED using the Apache OODT extractor framework and the desired parameters, their values, spatial and temporal constraints (and optionally height) are loaded and potentially transformed (e.g., normalized, put on same coordinate system, converted from unit values) into a MySQL database. The data loaded into that MySQL database, RCMED, is exposed to external clients via a Space/ Time query and subsetting web service; the description of which is a topic of a separate NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory | 289 Figure 23-3. JPL Physical Architecture Diagram study. For all intents and purposes, it provides the same capabilities that the OPeNDAP technology does. The right side of the diagram shows the Regional Climate Model Evaluation Toolkit (RCMET). It provides users with the ability to take in the reference data from RCMED and climate model output data produced elsewhere and to re-grid these datasets in order to match them spatially and temporally in preparation for the comparison of the reference and model data for the evaluation of model output against the user-selected reference data. At that point, the system allows for seasonal cycle compositing (e.g., all Januaries, or all summer months for N years), and for preparing the data for eventual metrics calculation, that is, comparison of the values of the model output against the remote sensing data observation parameters and their values. The system supports several metrics, such as bias computation, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and the generation of relevant visualizations, including traditional plots and Taylor diagrams for science use/decision making. Our Experience: Why Hive? So, where does Hive come in to play? After loading 6 billion rows of (latitude, longitude, time, data point value, height) tuples into MySQL, the system fell down and 290 | Chapter 23: Case Studies experienced data loss. This is probably due in part to our naïve strategy of storing all of the data points in a single table. Over time, we evolved this strategy to break tables down by dataset and by parameter, which helped but added needless overhead that we didn’t want to spend cycles engineering around. Instead, we decided to experiment with the Apache Hive technology. We installed Hive 0.5+20 using CDHv3 and Apache Hadoop (0.20.2+320). CDHv3 came with a number of other relevant tools including Sqoop, and Hue, which we leveraged in our architecture, shown in the bottom portion of Figure 23-3. We used Apache Sqoop to dump out the data into Hive, and then wrote an Apache OODT wrapper that queried Hive for the data by Space/Time and provided it back to the RCMET and other users (shown in the middle portion of Figure 23-2). The full architecture for the RCMES cluster is shown in Figure 23-3. We had five machines, including a master/slave configuration as shown in the diagram, connected by a private network running GigE. Some Challenges and How We Overcame Them During the migration of data from MySQL to Hive, we experienced slow response times while doing simple tasks such as a count DB query (e.g., hive> select count(data point_id) from dataPoint;). We initially loaded up around 2.5 billion data points in a single table and noticed that on our machine configuration, Hive took approximately 5–6 minutes to do a count of these 2.5 billion records (15–17 minutes for the full 6.8 billion records). The reduce portion was fast (we were experiencing a single reduce phase since we were using a count * benchmark) but the map stage took the remainder of the time (~95%). Our system at the time consisted of six (4 x quad-core) systems with approximately 24 GB of RAM each (all of the machines shown in Figure 23-3, plus another “borrowed machine” of similar class from another cluster). We attempted to add more nodes, increase map tasktrackers (many different #s), change DFS block size (32 M, 64 M, 128 MB, 256 M), leverage LZO compression, and alter many other configuration variables (io.sort.factor, io.sort.mb) without much success in lowering the time to complete the count. We did notice a high I/O wait on the nodes no matter how many task trackers we ran. The size of the database was approximately ~200GB and with MySQL it took a few seconds to do both the 2.5 billion and 6.7 billion count. Members of the Hive community jumped in and provided us with insight, ranging from mentioning that HDFS read speed is about 60 MB/sec comparing to about 1 GB/sec on local disk, depending of course on network speed, and namenode workload. The numbers suggested by the community member suggested that we needed roughly 16 mappers in the Hadoop job to match with the I/O performance of a local non-Hadoop task. In addition, Hive community members suggested that we increase the number of mappers (increase parallelism) by reducing the split size (input size) for each mapper, noting we should examine the following parameters: mapred.min.split.size, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory | 291 mapred.max.split.size, mapred.min.split.size.per.rack, and mapred.min.split.size .per.node, and suggesting that the parameters should be set to a value of 64 MB. Finally, the community suggested that we look at a benchmark that only counts rows by using count(1) instead of count (datapoint_id), as the latter is faster since no column reference means no decompression and deserialization, e.g., if you store your table in RCFile format. Based on the above feedback, we were able to tune our Hive cluster for RCMES to respond to a count query benchmark, and to a space/time query from RCMET for billions of rows in under 15 seconds, using the above-mentioned resources, making Hive a viable and great choice for our system architecture. Conclusion We have described our use of Apache Hive in the JPL Regional Climate Model Evaluation System. We leveraged Hive during a case study wherein we wanted to explore cloud-based technology alternatives to MySQL, and configuration requirements needed to make it scale to the level of tens of billions of rows, and to elastically destroy and re-create the data stored within. Hive did a great job of meeting our system needs and we are actively looking for more ways to closely integrate it into the RCMES system. Photobucket Photobucket is the largest dedicated photo-hosting service on the Internet. Started in 2003 by Alex Welch and Darren Crystal, Photobucket quickly became one of the most popular sites on the Internet and attracted over one hundred million users and billions of stored and shared media. User and system data is spread across hundreds of MySQL instances, thousands of web servers, and petabytes of filesystem. Big Data at Photobucket Prior to 2008, Photobucket didn’t have a dedicated analytics system in-house. Questions from the business users were run across hundreds of MySQL instances and the results aggregated manually in Excel. In 2008, Photobucket embarked on implementing its first data warehouse dedicated to answering the increasingly complex data questions being asked by a fast-growing company. The first iteration of the data warehouse was built using an open source system with a Java SQL optimizer and a set of underlying PostGreSQL databases. The previous system worked well into 2009, but the shortcomings in the architecture became quickly evident. Working data sets quickly became larger than the available memory; coupled 292 | Chapter 23: Case Studies with the difficulty in repartitioning the data across the PostGreSQL nodes forced us to scale up when we really wanted to scale out. In 2009, we started to investigate systems that would allow us to scale out, as the amount of data continued to grow and still meet our SLA with the business users. Hadoop quickly became the favorite for consuming and analyzing the terabytes of data generated daily by the system, but the difficulty of writing MapReduce programs for simple ad hoc questions became a negative factor for full implementation. Thankfully, Facebook open sourced Hive a few weeks later and the barriers to efficiently answering ad hoc business questions were quickly smashed. Hive demonstrates many advantages over the previous warehouse implementation. Here are a few examples of why we chose Hadoop and Hive: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ability to handle structured and unstructured data Real-time streaming of data into HDFS from Flume, Scribe, or MountableHDFS Extend functionality through UDFs A well-documented, SQL-like interface specifically built for OLAP versus OLTP What Hardware Do We Use for Hive? Dell R410, 4 × 2 TB drives with 24 GB RAM for the data nodes, and Dell R610, 2 × 146 GB (RAID 10) drives with 24 GB RAM for the management hardware. What’s in Hive? The primary goal of Hive at Photobucket is to provide answers about business functions, system performance, and user activity. To meet these needs, we store nightly dumps of MySQL data sets from across hundreds of servers, terabytes of logfiles from web servers and custom log formats ingested through Flume. This data helps support many groups throughout the company, such as executive management, advertising, customer support, product development, and operations just to name a few. For historical data, we keep the partition of all data created on the first day of the month for MySQL data and 30+ days of log files. Photobucket uses a custom ETL framework for migrating MySQL data into Hive. Log file data is streamed into HDFS using Flume and picked up by scheduled Hive processes. Who Does It Support? Executive management relies on Hadoop to provide reports surrounding the general health of the business. Hive allows us to parse structured database data and unstructured click stream data and distill the data into a format requested by the business stakeholder. Photobucket | 293 Advertising operations uses Hive to sift through historical data for forecast and define quotas for ad targeting. Product development is far and away the group generating the largest number of ad hoc queries. As with any user base, segments change and evolve over time. Hive is important because it allows us to run A/B tests across current and historical data to gauge relevancy of new products in a quickly changing user environment. Providing our users with a best-in-class system is the most important goal at Photobucket. From an operations perspective, Hive is used to generate rollup data partitioned across multiple dimensions. Knowing the most popular media, users, and referring domains is important for many levels across the company. Controlling expenses is important to any organization. A single user can quickly consume large amounts of system resources, significantly increasing monthly expenditures. Hive is used to identify and analyze rogue users; to determine which ones are within our Terms of Service and which are not. Operations also uses Hive to run A/B tests defining new hardware requirements and generating ROI calculations. Hive’s ability to abstract users from underlying MapReduce code means questions can be answered in hours or days instead of weeks. SimpleReach by Eric Lubow At SimpleReach, we use Cassandra to store our raw data from all of our social network polling. The format of the row key is an account ID (which is a MongoDB ObjectId) and a content item ID (witha MD5 hash of the URL of the content item being tracked) separated by an underscore which we split on to provide that data in the result set. The columns in the row are composite columns that look like the ones below: 4e87f81ca782f3404200000a_8c825814de0ac34bb9103e2193a5b824 => (column=meta:published-at, value=1330979750000, timestamp=1338919372934628) => (column=hour:1338876000000_digg-diggs, value=84, timestamp=1338879756209142) => (column=hour:1338865200000_googleplus-total, value=12, timestamp=1338869007737888) In order for us to be able to query on composite columns, we need to know the hex value of the column name. In our case, we want to know the hex value of the column name (meta:'published-at'). The hex equivalent is below: 00046D65746100000C7075626C69736865642D617400 = meta:published-at Once the column name is converted to hexadecimal format, Hive queries are run against it. The first part of the query is the LEFT SEMI JOIN, which is used to mimic a SQL subselect. All the references to SUBSTR and INSTR are to handle the case of composite columns. Since it is known in advance that characters 10–23 of the “hour:*” columns (i.e., SUBSTR(r.column_name,10,13)) is a timestamp and therefore we can crop it out and use it in the returned data or for matching. The INSTR is used to match column names 294 | Chapter 23: Case Studies and ensure the result set always has the same columns in the same place in the output. The SUBSTR is used for matching as part of the Ruby function. The SUBSTR returns a timestamp (long) in milliseconds since epoch and the start_date and end_date are also a timestamp in milliseconds since epoch. This means that the passed in values can be matched to a part of the column name. The goal of this query is to export our data from Cassandra into a CSV file to give aggregated data dumps to our publishers. It is done via a Resque (offline) job that is kicked off through our Rails stack. Having a full CSV file means that all columns in the header must be accounted for in the Hive query (meaning that zeros need to be put to fill places where there is no data). We do that by pivoting our wide rows into fixed column tables using the CASE statement. Here is the HiveQL for the CSV file: SELECT CAST(SUBSTR(r.column_name, 10, 13) AS BIGINT) AS epoch, SPLIT(r.row_key, '_')[0] AS account_id, SPLIT(r.row_key, '_')[1] AS id, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'pageviews-total') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS pageviews, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'digg-digg') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS digg, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'digg-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS digg_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'delicious-total') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS delicious, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'delicious-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS delicious_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'googleplus-total') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS google_plus, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'googleplus-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS google_plus_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'facebook-total') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS fb_total, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'facebook-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS fb_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'twitter-tweet') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS tweets, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'twitter-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS twitter_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'linkedin-share') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS linkedin, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'linkedin-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS linkedin_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'stumbleupon-total') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS stumble_total, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'stumbleupon-referrer') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS stumble_ref, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'social-actions') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS social_actions, SUM(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'referrer-social') > 0 THEN r.value ELSE '0' END AS INT)) AS social_ref, MAX(CAST(CASE WHEN INSTR(r.column_name, 'score-realtime') > 0 SimpleReach | 295 THEN r.value ELSE '0.0' END AS DOUBLE)) AS score_rt FROM content_social_delta r LEFT SEMI JOIN (SELECT row_key FROM content WHERE HEX(column_name) = '00046D65746100000C7075626C69736865642D617400' AND CAST(value AS BIGINT) >= #{start_date} AND CAST(value AS BIGINT) <= #{end_date} ) c ON c.row_key = SPLIT(r.row_key, '_')[1] WHERE INSTR(r.column_name, 'hour') > 0 AND CAST(SUBSTR(r.column_name, 10, 13) AS BIGINT) >= #{start_date} AND CAST(SUBSTR(r.column_name, 10, 13) AS BIGINT) <= #{end_date} GROUP BY CAST(SUBSTR(r.column_name, 10, 13) AS BIGINT), SPLIT(r.row_key, '_')[0], SPLIT(r.row_key, '_')[1] The output of the query is a comma-separated value (CSV) file, an example of which is below (wrapped for length with a blank line between each record for clarity): epoch,account_id,id,pageviews,digg,digg_ref,delicious,delicious_ref, google_plus,google_plus_ref,fb_total,fb_ref,tweets,twitter_ref, linkedin,linkedin_ref,stumble_total,stumble_ref,social_actions,social_ref,score_rt 1337212800000,4eb331eea782f32acc000002,eaff81bd10a527f589f45c186662230e, 39,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,20,0,0,0,0,0,22,0 1337212800000,4f63ae61a782f327ce000007,940fd3e9d794b80012d3c7913b837dff, 101,0,0,0,0,0,0,44,63,11,16,0,0,0,0,55,79,69.64308064 1337212800000,4f6baedda782f325f4000010,e70f7d432ad252be439bc9cf1925ad7c, 260,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,25,15,34,0,0,0,0,23,59,57.23718477 1337216400000,4eb331eea782f32acc000002,eaff81bd10a527f589f45c186662230e, 280,0,0,0,0,0,0,37,162,23,15,0,0,0,2,56,179,72.45877173 1337216400000,4ebd76f7a782f30c9b000014,fb8935034e7d365e88dd5be1ed44b6dd, 11,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,4,0,0,0,0,0,5,29.74849901 Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches A Karmasphere Perspective By Nanda Vijaydev Introduction For over 18 months, Karmasphere has been engaged with a fast-growing number of companies who adopted Hadoop and immediately gravitated towards Hive as the optimal way for teams of analysts and business users to use existing SQL skills with the Hadoop environment. The first part of this chapter provides use case techniques that we’ve seen used repeatedly in customer environments to advance Hive-based analytics. 296 | Chapter 23: Case Studies The use case examples we cover are: • Optimal data formatting for Hive • Partitions and performance • Text analytics with Hive functions including Regex, Explode and Ngram As companies we’ve worked with plan for and move into production use of Hive, they look for incremental capabilities that make Hive-based access to Hadoop even easier to use, more productive, more powerful, and available to more people in their organization. When they wire Hadoop and Hive into their existing data architectures, they also want to enable results from Hive queries to be systematized, shared and integrated with other data stores, spreadsheets, BI tools, and reporting systems. In particular, companies have asked for: • • • • • • • • • Easier ways to ingest data, detect raw formats, and create metadata Work collaboratively in an integrated, multi-user environment Explore and analyze data iteratively Preserved and reusable paths to insight Finer-grain control over data, table, and column security, and compartmentalized access to different lines of business Business user access to analytics without requiring SQL skills Scheduling of queries for automated result generation and export to non-Hadoop data stores Integration with Microsoft Excel, Tableau, Spotfire, and other spreadsheet, reporting systems, dashboards, and BI tools Ability to manage Hive-based assets including queries, results, visualizations, and standard Hive components such as UDFs and SerDes Use Case Examples from the Customer Trenches Customer trenches #1: Optimal data formatting for Hive One recurring question from many Hive users revolves around the format of their data and how to make that available in Hive. Many data formats are supported out-of-the-box in Hive but some custom proprietary formats are not. And some formats that are supported raise questions for Hive users about how to extract individual components from within a row of data. Sometimes, writing a standard Hive SerDe that supports a custom data format is the optimal approach. In other cases, using existing Hive delimiters and exploiting Hive UDFs is the most convenient solution. One representative case we worked on was with a company using Hadoop and Hive to provide personalization services from the analysis of multiple input data streams. They were receiving logfiles from one of their data providers Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches | 297 in a format that could not easily be split into columns. They were trying to figure out a way to parse the data and run queries without writing a custom SerDe. The data had top header level information and multiple detailed information. The detailed section was a JSON nested within the top level object, similar to the data set below: { "top" : [ {"table":"user", "data":{ "name":"John Doe","userid":"2036586","age":"74","code":"297994","status":1}}, {"table":"user", "data":{ "name":"Mary Ann","userid":"14294734","age":"64","code":"142798","status":1}}, {"table":"user", "data":{ "name":"Carl Smith","userid":"13998600","age":"36","code":"32866","status":1}}, {"table":"user", "data":{ "name":"Anil Kumar":"2614012","age":"69","code":"208672","status":1}}, {"table":"user", "data":{ "name":"Kim Lee","userid":"10471190","age":"53","code":"79365","status":1}} ]} After talking with the customer, we realized they were interested in splitting individual columns of the detailed information that was tagged with “data” identifier in the above sample. To help them proceed, we used existing Hive function get_json_object as shown below: First step is to create a table using the sample data: CREATE TABLE user (line string) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\n' STORED AS TEXTFILE LOCATION ‘hdfs://hostname/user/uname/tablefolder/’ Then using Hive functions such as get_json_object, we could get to the nested JSON element and parse it using UDFs: SELECT get_json_object(col0, '$.name') as name, get_json_object(col0, '$.userid') as uid, get_json_object(col0, '$.age') as age, get_json_object(col0, '$.code') as code, get_json_object(col0, '$.status') as status FROM (SELECT get_json_object(user.line, '$.data') as col0 FROM user WHERE get_json_object(user.line, '$.data') is not null) temp; Query details include: • Extract the nested JSON object identified by data in the inner query as col0. • Then the JSON object is split into appropriate columns using their names in the name value pair. 298 | Chapter 23: Case Studies The results of the query are given below, with header information saved, as a CSV file: "name","uid","age","code","status" "John Doe","2036586","74","297994","1" "Mary Ann","14294734","64","142798","1" "Carl Smith","13998600","36","32866","1" "Kim Lee","10471190","53","79365","1" Customer trenches #2: Partitions and performance Using partitions with data being streamed or regularly added to Hadoop is a use case we see repeatedly, and a powerful and valuable way of harnessing Hadoop and Hive to analyze various kinds of rapidly additive data sets. Web, application, product, and sensor logs are just some of the types of data that Hive users often want to perform ad hoc, repeated, and scheduled queries on. Hive partitions, when set up correctly, allow users to query data only in specific partitions and hence improves performance significantly. To set up partitions for a table, files should be located in directories as given in this example: hdfs://user/uname/folder/"yr"=2012/"mon"=01/"day"=01/file1, file2, file3 /"yr"=2012/"mon"=01/"day"=02/file4, file5 …...... /"yr"=2012/"mon"=05/"day"=30/file100, file101 With the above structure, tables can be set up with partition by year, month, and day. Queries can use yr, mon, and day as columns and restrict the data accessed to specific values during query time. If you notice the folder names, partitioned folders have identifiers such as yr= , mon=, and day=. Working with one high tech company, we discovered that their folders did not have this explicit partition naming and they couldn’t change their existing directory structure. But they still wanted to benefit from having partitions. Their sample directory structure is given below: hdfs://user/uname/folder/2012/01/01/file1, file2, file3 /2012/01/02/file4, file5 ……. /2012/05/30/file100, file101 In this case, we can still add partitions by explicitly adding the location of the absolute path to the table using ALTER TABLE statements. A simple external script can read the directory and add the literal yr=, mon=, day= to an ALTER TABLE statement and provide the value of the folder (yr=2012, mon=01,...) to ALTER TABLE statements. The output of the script is a set of Hive SQL statements generated using the existing directory structure and captured into a simple text file. ALTER TABLE tablename ADD PARTITION (yr=2012, mon=01, day=01) location '/user/uname/folder/2012/01/01/'; ALTER TABLE tablename ADD PARTITION (yr=2012, mon=01, day=02) location '/user/uname/folder/2012/01/02/'; Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches | 299 ... ALTER TABLE tablename ADD PARTITION (yr=2012, mon=05, day=30) location '/user/uname/folder/2012/05/30/'; When these statements are executed in Hive, the data in the specified directories automatically become available under defined logical partitions created using ALTER TABLE statements. You should make sure that your table is created with PARTITIONED BY columns for year, month, and day. Customer trenches #3: Text analytics with Regex, Lateral View Explode, Ngram, and other UDFs Many companies we work with have text analytics use cases which vary from simple to complex. Understanding and using Hive regex functions, n-gram functions and other string functions can address a number of those use cases. One large manufacturing customer we worked with had lot of machine-generated compressed text data being ingested into Hadoop. The format of this data was: 1. Multiple rows of data in each file and a number of such files in time-partitioned buckets. 2. Within each row there were a number of segments separated by /r/n (carriage return and line feed). 3. Each segment was in the form of a “name: value” pair. The use case requirement was to: 1. Read each row and separate individual segments as name-value pairs. 2. Zero in on specific segments and look for word counts and word patterns for analyzing keywords and specific messages. The sample below illustrates this customer’s data (text elided for space): name:Mercury\r\ndescription:Mercury is the god of commerce, ...\r\ntype:Rocky planet name:Venus\r\ndescription:Venus is the goddess of love...\r\ntype:Rocky planet name:Earch\r\ndescription:Earth is the only planet ...\r\ntype:Rocky planet name:Mars\r\ndescription: Mars is the god of War...\r\ntype:Rocky planet name:Jupiter\r\ndescription:Jupiter is the King of the Gods...\r\ntype:Gas planet name:Saturn\r\ndescription:Saturn is the god of agriculture...\r\ntype:Gas planet name:Uranus\r\ndescription:Uranus is the God of the Heavens...\r\ntype:Gas planet name:Neptune\r\ndescription:Neptune was the god of the Sea...\r\ntype:Gas planet The data contains: 1. Planet names and their description with type. 2. Each row of data is separated by a delimiter. 300 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Download from Wow! eBook 3. Within each row there are three subsections, including “name,” “description,” and “type” separated by /r/n. 4. Description is a large text. First step is to create the initial table with this sample data: CREATE TABLE planets (col0 string) ROW FORMAT DELIMITED FIELDS TERMINATED BY '\n' STORED AS TEXTFILE LOCATION 'hdfs://hostname/user/uname/planets/' In the following, we run a series of queries, starting with a simple query and adding functions as we iterate. Note that the requirement can be met with queries written in several different ways. The purpose of the queries shown below is to demonstrate some of the key capabilities in Hive around text parsing. First, we use a split function to separate each section of data into an array of individual elements: SELECT split(col0, '(\\\\r\\\\n)') AS splits FROM planets; Next, we explode the splits (array) into individual lines using the LATERAL VIEW EXPLODE function. Results of this query will have name-value pairs separated into individual rows. We select only those rows that start with description. The function LTRIM is also used to remove left spaces. SELECT ltrim(splits) AS pairs FROM planets LATERAL VIEW EXPLODE(split(col0, '(\\\\r\\\\n)')) col0 AS splits WHERE ltrim(splits) LIKE 'desc%' Now we separate the description line into name-value pair and select only the value data. This can be done in different ways. We use split by : and choose the value parameter: SELECT (split(pairs, ':'))[1] AS txtval FROM ( SELECT ltrim(splits) AS pairs FROM planets LATERAL VIEW EXPLODE(split(col0, '(\\\\r\\\\n)')) col0 AS splits WHERE ltrim(splits) LIKE 'desc%')tmp1; Notice the use of temporary identifiers tmp1 for the inner query. This is required when you use the output of a subquery as the input to outer query. At the end of step three, we have the value of the description segment within each row. In the next step, we use ngrams to show the top 10 bigrams (2-gram) words from the description of planets. You could also use functions such as context_ngram, find_in_set, regex_replace, and others to perform various text-based analyses: SELECT ngrams(sentences(lower(txtval)), 2, 10) AS bigrams FROM ( SELECT (split(pairs, ':'))[1] AS txtval FROM ( SELECT ltrim(splits) AS pairs FROM planets LATERAL VIEW EXPLODE(split(col0, '(\\\\r\\\\n)')) col0 AS splits WHERE ltrim(splits) LIKE 'desc%') tmp1) tmp2; Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches | 301 Notice that we have used functions such as lower to convert to lowercase and sentences to tokenize each word in the text. For additional information about the text analytics capabilities of Hive, see the functions listed in Chapter 3. Apache Hive in production: Incremental needs and capabilities. Hive adoption continues to grow, as outlined by the use cases defined above. Companies across different industry segments and various sizes have benefited immensely by leveraging Hive in their Hadoop environments. A strong and active community of contributors and significant investments in Hive R&D efforts by leading Hadoop vendors ensures that Hive, already the SQL-based standard for Hadoop, will become the SQL-based standard within organizations that are leveraging Hadoop for Big Data analysis. As companies invest significant resources and time in understanding and building Hive resources, in many cases we find they look for additional capabilities that enable them to build on their initial use of Hive and extend its reach faster and more broadly within their organizations. From working with these customers looking to take Hive to the next level, a common set of requirements have emerged. These requirements include: Collaborative multiuser environments Hadoop enables new classes of analysis that were prohibitive computationally and economically with traditional RDBMS technologies. Hadoop empowers organizations to break down the data and people silos, performing analysis on every byte of data they can get their hands on, doing this all in a way that enables them to share their queries, results, and insights with other individuals, teams, and systems in the organization. This model implies that users with deep understanding of these different data sets need to collaborate in discovery, in the sharing of insights, and the availability of all Hivebased analytic assets across the organization. Productivity enhancements The current implementation of Hive offers a serial batch environment on Hadoop to run queries. This implies that once a user submits a query for job execution to the Hadoop cluster, they have to wait for the query to complete execution before they can execute another query against the cluster. This can limit user productivity. One major reason for companies adopting Hive is that it enables their SQL-skilled data professionals to move faster and more easily to working with Hadoop. These users are usually familiar with graphical SQL editors in tools and BI products. They are looking for similar productivity enhancements like syntax highlighting and code completion. Managing Hive assets A recent McKinsey report predicted significant shortage of skilled workers to enable organizations to profit from their data. Technologies like Hive promise to help bridge 302 | Chapter 23: Case Studies that skills shortage by allowing people with an SQL skillset to perform analysis on Hadoop. However, organizations are realizing that just having Hive available to their users is not enough. They need to be able to manage Hive assets like queries (history and versions), UDFs, SerDes for later share and reuse. Organizations would like to build this living knowledge repository of Hive assets that is easily searchable by users. Extending Hive for advanced analytics Many companies are looking to re-create analysis they perform in the traditional RDBMS world in Hadoop. While not all capabilities in the SQL environment easily translate into Hive functions, due to inherent limitations of how data is stored, there are some advanced analytics functions like RANKING, etc., that are Hadoop-able. In addition, organizations have spent tremendous resources and time in building analytical models using traditional tools like SAS and SPSS and would like the ability to score these models on Hadoop via Hive queries. Extending Hive beyond the SQL skill set As Hadoop is gaining momentum in organizations and becoming a key fabric of data processing and analytics within IT infrastructure, it is gaining popularity amongst users with different skill sets and capabilities. While Hive is easily adopted by users with SQL skill sets, other less SQL savvy users are also looking for drag-and-drop capabilities like those available in traditional BI tools to perform analysis on Hadoop using Hive. The ability to support interactive forms on top of Hive, where a user is prompted to provide column values via simple web-based forms is an often-asked for capability. Data exploration capabilities Traditional database technologies provide data exploration capabilities; for example, a user can view min, max values for an integer column. In addition, users can also view visualizations of these columns to understand the data distribution before they perform analysis on the data. As Hadoop stores hundreds of terabytes of data, and often petabytes, similar capabilities are being requested by customers for specific use cases. Schedule and operationalize Hive queries As companies find insights using Hive on Hadoop, they are also looking to operationalize these insights and schedule them to run on a regular interval. While open source alternatives are currently available, these sometimes fall short when companies also want to manage the output of Hive queries; for example, moving result sets into a traditional RDBMS system or BI stack. To manage certain use cases, companies often have to manually string together various different open source tools or rely on poor performing JDBC connectors. About Karmasphere. Karmasphere is a software company, based in Silicon Valley California, focused exclusively on bringing native Hadoop Big Data Analytics capabilities to teams of analysts and business users. Their flagship product, Karmasphere 2.0, is based on Apache Hive, extending it in a multi-user graphical workspace to enable: Experiences and Needs from the Customer Trenches | 303 • • • • • • • • Reuse of standard Hive-based tables, SerDes and UDFs Social, project-based big data analytics for teams of analysts and business users Easy data ingestion to the cluster Heuristic-based recognition and table creation of many popular data formats Visual and iterative data exploration and analysis Graphical exploration of all Hive-based analytic assets Sharing and scheduling of queries, results and visualizations Easy integration with traditional spreadsheets, reporting, dashboard, and BI tools Figure 23-4 shows a screenshot of Karmasphere 2.0’s Hive-based Big Data Analytics Environment. Figure 23-4. Screenshot of Karmasphere 2.0 Hive features survey We’d like to get feedback on the importance of these needs and share them back with the growing Hive community. If you are interested in seeing what others think and would like to participate, please visit: 304 | Chapter 23: Case Studies Glossary Amazon Elastic MapReduce Amazon’s EMR is a hosted Hadoop service on top of Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud). Avro Avro is a new serialization format developed to address some of the common problems associated with evolving other serialization formats. Some of the benefits are: rich data structures, fast binary format, support for remote procedure calls, and built-in schema evolution. Bash The “Bourne-Again Shell” that is the default interactive command shell for Linux and Mac OS X systems. S3 Bucket The term for the top-level container you own and manage when using S3. A user may have many buckets, analogous to the root of a physical hard drive. Command-Line Interface The command-line interface (CLI) can run “scripts” of Hive statements or all the user to enter statements interactively. Data Warehouse A repository of structured data suitable for analysis for reports, trends, etc. Warehouses are batch mode or offline, as opposed to providing real-time responsiveness for online activity, like ecommerce. Derby A lightweight SQL database that can be embedded in Java applications. It runs in the same process and saves its data to local files. It is used as the default SQL data store for Hive’s metastore. See derby/ for more information. Dynamic Partitions A HiveQL extension to SQL that allows you to insert query results into table partitions where you leave one or more partition column values unspecified and they are determined dynamically from the query results themselves. This technique is convenient for partitioning a query result into a potentially large number of partitions in a new table, without having to write a separate query for each partition column value. Ephemeral Storage In the nodes for a virtual Amazon EC2 cluster, the on-node disk storage is called ephemeral because it will vanish when the cluster is shut down, in contrast to a physical cluster that is shut down. Hence, when using an EC2 cluster, such as an Amazon Elastic MapReduce cluster, it is important to back up important data to S3. ExternalTable A table using a storage location and contents that are outside of Hive’s control. It is convenient for sharing data with other tools, but it is up to other processes to manage the life cycle of the data. That is, when an external table is created, Hive does not create the 305 Hadoop Distributed File System external directory (or directories for partitioned tables), nor are the directory and data files deleted when an external table is dropped. Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) A distributed, resilient file system for data storage that is optimized for scanning large contiguous blocks of data on hard disks. Distribution across a cluster provides horizontal scaling of data storage. Blocks of HDFS files are replicated across the cluster (by default, three times) to prevent data loss when hard drives or whole servers fail. implemented by the Java object named org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input. TextInputFormat. See also Output Format. JDBC The Java Database Connection API provides access to SQL systems, including Hive, from Java code. Job In the Hadoop context, a job is a self-contained workflow submitted to MapReduce. It encompasses all the work required to perform a complete calculation, from reading input to generating output. The MapReduce JobTracker will decompose the job into one or more tasks for distribution and execution around the cluster. HBase The NoSQL database that uses HDFS for durable storage of table data. HBase is a column-oriented, key-value store designed to provide traditional responsiveness for queries and row-level updates and insertions. Column oriented means that the data storage is organized on disk by groups of columns, called column families, rather than by row. This feature promotes fast queries for subsets of columns. Key-value means that rows are stored and fetched by a unique key and the value is the entire row. HBase does not provide an SQL dialect, but Hive can be used to query HBase tables. JobTracker The top-level controller of all jobs using Hadoop’s MapReduce. The JobTracker accepts job submissions, determines what tasks to run and where to run them, monitors their execution, restarts failed tasks as needed, and provides a web console for monitoring job and task execution, viewing logs, etc. Job Flow A term used in Amazon Elastic MapReduce (EMR) for the sequence of jobs executed on a temporary EMR cluster to accomplish a particular goal. Hive A data warehouse tool that provides table abstractions on top of data resident in HDFS, HBase tables, and other stores. The Hive Query Language is a dialect of the Structured Query Language. JSON JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a lightweight data serialization format used commonly in web-based applications. Hive Query Language Hive’s own dialect of the Structured Query Language (SQL). Abbreviated HiveQL or HQL. Input Format The input format determines how input streams, usually from files, are split into records. A SerDe handles parsing the record into columns. A custom input format can be specified when creating a table using the INPUTFORMAT clause. The input format for the default STORED AS TEXTFILE specification is 306 | Glossary Map The mapping phase of a MapReduce process where an input set of key-value pairs are converted into a new set of key-value pairs. For each input key-value pair, there can be zero-to-many output key-value pairs. The input and output keys and the input and output values can be completely different. MapR A commercial distribution of Hadoop that replaces HDFS with the MapR File System Relational Model (MapR-FS), a high-performance, tributed file system. dis- MapReduce A computation paradigm invented at Google and based loosely on the common data operations of mapping a collection of data elements from one form to another (the map phase) and reducing a collection to a single value or a smaller collection (the reduce phase). MapReduce is designed to scale computation horizontally by decomposing map and reduce steps into tasks and distributing those tasks across a cluster. The MapReduce runtime provided by Hadoop handles decomposition of a job into tasks, distribution around the cluster, movement of a particular task to the machine that holds the data for the task, movement of data to tasks (as needed), and automated reexecution of failed tasks and other error recovery and logging services. Metastore The service that maintains “metadata” information, such as table schemas. Hive requires this service to be running. By default, it uses a built-in Derby SQL server, which provides limited, single-process SQL support. Production systems must use a fullservice relational database, such as MySQL. NoSQL An umbrella term for data stores that don’t support the relational model for data management, dialects of the structured query language, and features like transactional updates. These data stores trade off these features in order to provide more cost-effective scalability, higher availability, etc. ODBC The Open Database Connection API provides access to SQL systems, including Hive, from other applications. Java applications typically use the JDBC API, instead. Output Format The output format determines how records are written to output streams, usually to files. A SerDe handles serialization of each record into an appropriate byte stream. A custom output format can be specified when creating a table using the OUTPUTFORMAT clause. The output format for the default STORED AS TEXTFILE specification is implemented by the Java object named org TextOutputFormat. See also Input Format. Partition A subset of a table’s data set where one column has the same value for all records in the subset. In Hive, as in most databases that support partitioning, each partition is stored in a physically separate location—in Hive’s case, in a subdirectory of the root directory for the table. Partitions have several advantages. The column value corresponding to a partition doesn’t have to be repeated in every record in the partition, saving space, and queries with WHERE clauses that restrict the result set to specific values for the partition columns can perform more quickly, because they avoid scanning the directories of nonmatching partition values. See also dynamic partitions. Reduce The reduction phase of a MapReduce process where the key-value pairs from the map phase are processed. A crucial feature of MapReduce is that all the key-value pairs from all the map tasks that have the same key will be sent together to the same reduce task, so that the collection of values can be “reduced” as appropriate. For example, a collection of integers might be added or averaged together, a collection of strings might have all duplicates removed, etc. Relational Model The most common model for database management systems, it is based on a logical model of data organization and manipulation. A declarative specification of the data structure and how it should be manipulated is supplied by the user, most typically using the Structured Query Language. The implementation translates these declarations into Glossary | 307 S3 procedures for storing, retrieving, and manipulating the data. S3 The distributed file system for Amazon Web Services. It can be used with or instead of HDFS when running MapReduce jobs. SerDe The Serializer/Deserializer or SerDe for short is used to parse the bytes of a record into columns or fields, the deserialization process. It is also used to create those record bytes (i.e., serialization). In contrast, the Input Format is used to split an input stream into records and the Output Format is used to write records to an output stream. A SerDe can be specified when a Hive table is created. The default SerDe supports the field and collection separators discussed in “Text File Encoding of Data Values” on page 45, as well as various optimizations such as a lazy parsing. Structured Query Language A language that implements the relational model for querying and manipulating data. Abbreviated SQL. While there is an ANSI standard for SQL that has undergone periodic revisions, all SQL dialects in widespread use add their own custom extensions and variations. Task In the MapReduce context, a task is the smallest unit of work performed on a single cluster node, as part of an overall job. By default each task involves a separate JVM process. Each map and reduce invocation will have its own task. Thrift An RPC system invented by Facebook and integrated into Hive. Remote processes can send Hive statements to Hive through Thrift. User-Defined Aggregate Functions User-defined functions that take multiple rows (or columns from multiple rows) and return a single “aggregation” of the data, such as a count of the rows, a sum or average 308 | Glossary of number values, etc. The term is abbreviated UDAF. See also user-defined functions and user-defined table generating functions. User-Defined Functions Functions implemented by users of Hive to extend their behavior. Sometimes the term is used generically to include built-in functions and sometimes the term is used for the specific case of functions that work on a single row (or columns in a row) and return a single value, (i.e., which don’t change the number of records). Abbreviated UDF. See also user-defined aggregate functions and user-defined table generating functions. User-Defined Table Generating Functions User-defined functions that take a column from a single record and expand it into multiple rows. Examples include the explode function that converts an array into rows of single fields and, for Hive v0.8.0 and later, converts a map into rows of key and value fields. Abbreviated UDTF. See also userdefined functions and user-defined aggregate functions. APPENDIX References Amazon Web Services, Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon Elastic MapReduce (Amazon EMR), Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3), Cassandra Database, Apache HBase, Apache Hive, Apache Hive Wiki: Apache Oozie, Apache Pig, Apache Zookeeper, Cascading, Data processing on Hadoop without the hassle, Easy, efficient MapReduce pipelines in Java and Scala, crunch. Datalog, C.J. Date, The Relational Database Dictionary, O’Reilly Media, 2006, ISBN 978-0-596-52798-3. Jeffrey Dean and Sanjay Ghemawat, MapReduce: simplified data processing on large clusters, Proceeding OSDI ’04 Proceedings of the 6th conference on Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation - Volume 6, 2004. Apache Derby, 309 Jeffrey E.F. Friedl, Mastering Regular Expressions, 3rd Edition, O’Reilly Media, 2006, ISBN 978-0-596-52812-6. Alan Gates, Programming Pig, O’Reilly Media, 2011, ISBN 978-1-449-30264-1. Lars George, HBase: The Definitive Guide, O’Reilly Media, 2011, ISBN 978-1-449-39610-7. Sanjay Ghemawat, Howard Gobioff, and Shun-Tak Leung, The Google file system, SOSP ’03 Proceedings of the nineteenth ACM symposium on Operating systems principles, 2003. Jan Goyvaerts and Steven Levithan, Regular Expressions Cookbook, 2nd Edition, O’Reilly Media, 2009, ISBN 978-1-449-31943-4. Eben Hewitt, Cassandra: The Definitive Guide, O’Reilly Media, 2010, ISBN 978-1-449-39041-9. Ashish Thusoo, et al, Hive - a petabyte scale data warehouse using Hadoop, 2010 IEEE 26th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). JDK 1.6 java.util.regex.Pattern Javadoc, util/regex/Pattern.html. The Java Tutorials, Lesson: Regular Expressions, essential/regex/. JSON, Apache Kafka: A high-throughput, distributed messaging system, http://incubator.apache .org/kafka/index.html. Kerberos: The Network Authentication Protocol, MapR, the Next Generation Distribution for Apache Hadoop, MarkLogic, Wolfram Mathematica, Matlab: The Language of Technical Computing, matlab/index.html. GNU Octave, Oracle XML DB, .html. The R Project for Statistical Computing, A Scala API for Cascading, SciPy: Scientific Tools for Python, Shark (Hive on Spark), 310 | Appendix: References Spark: Lightning-Fast Cluster Computing, Storm: Distributed and fault-tolerant realtime computation: stream processing, continuous computation, distributed RPC, and more, Tony Stubblebine, Regular Expression Pocket Reference, O’Reilly Media, 2003, ISBN 978-0-596-00415-6. Dean Wampler, Functional Programming for Java Developers, O’Reilly Media, 2011, ISBN 978-1-449-31103-2. Dean Wampler and Alex Payne, Programming Scala, O’Reilly Media, 2009, ISBN 978-0-596-15595-7. Tom White, Hadoop: The Definitive Guide, 3nd Edition, O’Reilly Media, 2012, ISBN 978-1-449-31152-0. XPath Specification, References | 311 Download from Wow! eBook Index Symbols " (single quotes) regular expressions using, 55 *.domain.pvt, 27 .hiverc script, deploying, 249 ; (semicolon) at end of lines in Hive queries, 36 separating multiple queries, 34 A ^A (“Control” A) delimiters, 45, 47 AbstractGenericUDAFResolver, methods in, 174 ADD PARTITION clauses, ALTER TABLE ..., 63 aggregate functions, 85–87, 164–176 aggregate functions, UDF, 172–177 aggregates, calculating with streaming, 191– 192 algorithms (case study), creating machine learning, 265–270 ALTER DATABASE command, 52 ALTER INDEX clauses, 118–119 ALTER TABLE ... ADD PARTITION clause, 63 ALTER TABLE ... ARCHIVE PARTITION clause, 70 ALTER TABLE ... TOUCH clause, in triggering execution hooks, 69 ALTER TABLE statements adding, modifying, and dropping partitions, 66 altering storage properties, 68 changing schemas with, 53, 66 columns adding, 68 changing, 67 deleting or replacing, 68 renaming tables, 66 table properties, altering, 68 Amazon Web Services (AWS) DynamoDB, 225 Elastic MapReduce (EMR), 251 about, 245–246, 305 clusters, 246–248 logs on S3, 252 persistence and metastore on, 250–251 security groups for, 253 Thrift Server on, 247 vs. EC2 and Hive, 254 S3 system for about, 308 accessing, 248 deploying .hiverc script to, 249 EMR logs on, 252 moving data to, 62 MySQL dump on, 251 putting resources on, 252 role on EMR cluster, 251 support for, 62 spot instances, 252–253 annotations, for use with functions, 184 ANSI SQL standard, 2, 49 Apache Cassandra, 2, 224–225 DynamoDB, 2 Hadoop (see Hadoop) HBase, 2, 8–9, 222–224 Hive (see Hive) We’d like to hear your suggestions for improving our indexes. Send email to 313 Incubator, 256 Oozie, 239–244 Zookeeper, 235–237 architecture, HCatalog, 262–263 arithmetic operators, 82 ARRAY data types, 43, 114 return types for functions, 90 return types on aggregate functions, 86 ARRAY[ ... ], 80–81 atomic rebuilds, 119 authorization, in Hive, 229–234 autocomplete, in Hive CLI, 37 --auxpath option, for Hive services, 30 Avro ContainerOutputFormat, 209 AVRO Hive SerDe, 209 Avro Hive SerDe, 305 Avro schema, 209 B ^B delimiters, 45, 47 backup, metastore information, 28 bash shell, 305 bash shell commands, running without Hive CLI, 37–38 Big Data systems, 44 Big Table, Google’s, 8 BIGINT data types about, 41 as return type for aggregate functions, 85 as return type for mathematical functions, 83 /bin/sed program, as stream editor, 189 BINARY (v0.8.0+) data types about, 42 casting, 109 Binary Output, 211 bitmap indexes, 118 BLOCK compression, in sequence files, 149 block sampling, of data, 111 BOOLEAN data types about, 41 as return type for functions, 88, 90 bucket, S3, 305 bucketing table data storage, 125–127 tables, input pruning for, 111–112 building Hive from source, 156 built-in functions vs. UDFs, 163 314 | Index (see also functions) C ^C delimiters, 45, 47 Cartesian product JOINs, 105 Cascading, alternative higher-level library for, 9 Cascalog, alternative higher-level library for, 9 CASE ... WHEN ... THEN clauses, 91–92, 91– 92 Cassandra, 2, 224–225, 294–296 cast() function, 109 -cat command, 21 character arrays (strings), in Hive, 42 cleanup scratch directory (HiveServer), 218 CLI (Command-Line Interface), Hive about, 22, 305 autocomplete, 37 comments, in Hive scripts, 38 executing Hive queries from files, 35–36 for Hive services, 30 hadoop dfs commands within, 38 hive command in, 29 Hive web interface (HWI), 7 .hiverc file, 36 options, 31 pasting comments into, 38 prompt, 23 running bash shell commands without, 37– 38 running queries and exiting Hive, 34–35 scrolling through command history, 37 variables and properties, 31–34 Cloudera, Inc., virtual machines for VMWare, 16 CLUSTER BY clause about, 108–109 in altering storage properties, 69 in streaming processes, 192–194 clusters EMR, 246–248, 251 managing Hive data across multiple MapReduce (case study), 274– 278 codecs choosing, 146–147 DefaultCodec, 147 determining installed SUB2 TEXT, 145 enabling intermediate compression, 147– 148 GZip compression, 148 SnappyCodec, 147 cogroups, calculating, 196 column headers, in Hive queries, 38–39 columnar tables, 128 columns adding comments to, 53 adding to table, 127 aliases in queries for, 91 bug in using count(DISTINCT col) in with partitioned, 86 changing, 67 computing with values from, 81–82 dynamic, transposed mapping for, 224 partition keys and, 59 specifying in queries with regular expressions, 81 static mapping in Cassandra, 224 tuning using virtual, 142–143 Comma-Separated Values (CSVs) as delimiters, 45, 48 SerDes, 206 command history, scrolling through Hive CLI, 37 command line tool, HCatalog, 261 Command-Line Interface (CLI) (see CLI (Command-Line Interface), Hive) comments, adding to columns, 53 comments, in Hive scripts, 38 compression of data about, 128–129, 145 codecs choosing, 146–147 determining installed, 145 enabling intermediate, 147–148 final output, 148 in action, 149–152 sequence file format, 148–149 --config directory option, for Hive services, 30 Core Instance Group, EMR, 247 count(DISTINCT col), bug in using in with partitioned, 86 counting uniques (case study), 280–282 CREATE INDEX command, 118 CREATE TABLE statements about, 53–56 demystifying, 199–201 CREATE VIEW command, 113, 115 Crunch, alternative higher-level library for, 9 CSVs (Comma-Separated Values) as delimiters, 45, 48 SerDes, 206 customer experiences and needs, from Karmasphere perspective (case study), 296–304 cut command, 188–189 Cutting, Doug, 3 D data bucketing data storage on tables, 125–127 compression about, 128–129, 145 choosing codec, 146–147 determining installed codecs, 145 enabling intermediate, 147–148 final output, 148 in action, 149–152 sequence file format, 148–149 denormalizing, 123 exporting, 76–77 inserting data into tables, 73–74 loading, 71–73, 75 making multiple passes over, 124 moving to S3 system, 62 partitioning, 59 queries (see queries, Hive) queries that sample, 110–112 ranking by grouping like elements (case study), 270–274 serializing and deserializing, 187 unique keys and normalizing, 123–124 using streaming for distributing and sorting of, 192–194 views restricting data based on conditions, 114 data flow language, 8 data processing, using Hive on Hadoop for, 255 Data Science at M6D using Hive and R (case study), 265–270 data types changing using TRANSFORM(), 188 collection, 43–44 Hive handling wrong, 48 primitive, 41–43 Index | 315 data warehouse, 305 data warehouse applications, Hive databases in, 2 databases, in HiveQL about, 49–52 altering, 52 altering storage properties, 68 columns adding, 68, 127 adding comments to, 53 bug in using count(DISTINCT col) in with partitioned, 86 changing, 68 computing with values from, 81–82 deleting or replacing, 68 partition keys and, 59 specifying in queries with regular expressions, 81 compression of data about, 128–129, 145 choosing codec, 146–147 determining installed codecs, 145 enabling intermediate, 147–148 final output, 148 in action, 149–152 sequence file format, 148–149 creating directories for, 50, 54 indexing, 117–120 schema design, 121–129 setting property to print current, 52 table properties, altering, 68 table storage formats, customizing, 63–65 tables adding, modifying, and dropping partitions, 66 bucketing data storage on, 125–127 changing schemas, 53, 66 columnar, 128 copying schema, 54 creating, 53–56 creating and loading data, 75 creating in HBASE, 222–224 indexing, 117–120 input pruning for bucket, 111–112 JOINs, 98–105, 134 listing, 54–55 location of stored, 50 managed (see managed tables) 316 | Index normalization and unique keys, 123– 124 partition tuning, 140–141 partitioning, 58–63, 74–75, 122–125 renaming, 66 schema design, 121–129 UNION ALL, 112 views and map type for dynamic, 114– 115 default database, directory of, 50 default record delimiters, 45 DefaultCodec, 147 --define key=value option, --hivevar key=value option and, 31 delimiters (separators) default field, 42 default record, 45 using, 42 using default, 47 denormalizing data, 123 Derby database, 305 Derby SQL server, Hive using, 22 Derby store, single node in pseudodistributed mode using, 28 DESCRIBE command, 209 DESCRIBE DATABASE command, 50 DESCRIBE DATABASE EXTENDED command, 51 DESCRIBE EXTENDED command, 55, 60 log_messages, 63 table command, 65 DESCRIBE FUNCTION command, 164 DESCRIBE TABLE EXTENDED clause, 200 deserializing and serializing data, 187 Detailed Table Information, 55 deterministic annotations, 184 developing in Hive, 155–161 dfs -ls command, 20 directories authentication of, 228–229 creating for databases, 50, 54 DISTINCT expressions, in aggregate functions, 86–87 DistinctLike annotations, 185 DISTRIBUTE BY clauses GROUP BY clause and, 108 in streaming processes, 192, 194 with SORT BY clauses, 107–108 distributed cache accessing from UDF, 182–184 using, 189–190 distributed data processing tools, not using MapReduce, 10 distributed filesystems, 4 distributed mode for Hadoop, 19 Hadoop in, 26–27 DNS names, 27, 51 Domain Specific Languages (DSLs), 9 *.domain.pvt, 27 DOUBLE data types, 43 about, 42 as return type for aggregate functions, 85– 86 as return type for mathematical functions, 83–85 DROP INDEX command, 119 DROP TABLE command, 66 DROP VIEW command, 116 dropping tables, 66 DSLs (Domain Specific Languages), 9 DualInputFormat, as custom input format, 203–205 dynamic partitions about, 305 properties of, 75 tuning, 140–141 dynamic tables, views and map type for, 114– 115 DynamoDB, 2, 225 E EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud), 2 Eclipse, open source IDE setting up, 158 starting Hive Command CLI Driver from within, 159 Elastic MapReduce (EMR), 254 about, 245–246 clusters, 246–248, 251 logs on S3, 252 persistence and metastore on, 250–251 security groups for, 253 Thrift Server on, 247 vs. EC2 and Hive, 254 elastic-mapreduce Ruby client, for spot instances, 253 Emacs text editor, 45 EMR (Elastic MapReduce), Amazon about, 305 EMR API, 246 EMR AWS Management Console (Web-based front-end), 246 EMR Command-Line Interface, 246 EMR Master node, Jobtracker and NameNode User Interfaces accessible on, 253 env namespace option, for Hive CLI, 32, 34 Ephemeral Storage, 305 ETL (Extract, Transform, and Load) processes partitioning tables and, 124–125 Pig as part of, 8, 255 User-Defined Functions in, 163 event stream processing, 10 exclusive and explicit locks, 238 execution hooks, 69 EXPLAIN clauses, tuning using, 131–134 EXPLAIN EXTENDED clauses, tuning using, 134 exporting data, 76–77 external tables about, 56–57 partitioned, 61–63 ExternalTable, 305 F fetchOne() method, 215 field delimiters, 45 file formats about, 201 custom input, 203–205 HAR (Hadoop ARchive), 152–154 RCFILE format, 202 sequence, 148–149 SEQUENCEFILE, 201–202 text file encoding of data values, 45–48 vs. record formats, 199 files, authentication of, 228–229 filesystem, metadata in NameNode for, 122 final output compression, 148 FLOAT data types, 43 about, 41 as return type for mathematical functions, 84 gotchas with floating point comparisons, 94–96 Index | 317 Friedl, Jeffrey E.F., Mastering Regular Expressions, 3rd Edition, 97 FROM clause, 79 full-outer JOINs, 104 functions aggregate, 85–87, 164–176, 171, 172–177 annotations, for use with, 184 casting, 109 deterministic, 184 mathematical, 83–85 other built-in, 88–90 stateful, 184 table generating, 87–88, 165–166 User-Defined Functions (UDFs), 163 (see also User-Defined Functions (UDFs)) XPath (XML Path Language), 207–208 G Gates, Alan, Programming Pig, 8 Generalized Additive Models (GAM), 267 GenericMR Tools, for streaming to Java, 194– 196 GenericUDAs, 172–177 GenericUDFs vs. UDFs, 169–171 George, Lars, HBase: The Definitive Guide, 9 getClusterStatus method, 215 getQueryPlan() method, 216 getSchema() method, 215 Google Big Table, 8 Google File System, 3 Google Summer of Code project, JSON SerDe and, 208 Goyvaerts, Jan, Regular Expression Pocket Reference, 97 graphical interfaces, for interacting with Hive, 6 Groovy, setting up to connect to HiveService, 214 GROUP BY clause about, 97 DISTRIBUTE BY clauses and, 108 HAVING clause and, 97 groups, granting and revoking privileges for individual, 230–233 GZip compression, 148 318 | Index H Hadoop about, 1 alternative higher-level libraries for, 9–10 alternatives to Hive for, 8–9 compression of data about, 145 DefaultCodec, 147 SnappyCodec, 147 configuring, 24–29 HAR file format, 152–154 Hive in, 6–8 InputFormat API, 145 installing, 18–19 installing Java for, 16–18 JVM reuse as running parameter, 139–140 launching components of MapReduce for, 20–21 operating systems for, 15 runtime modes for, 19 speculative execution in, 141–142 testing installation of, 20 using Hive for data processing, 255 hadoop dfs commands, defining alias for, 20 Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) about, 1, 4, 306 HBase and, 9 master node of, 51 NameNode and, 7 role on EMR cluster, 251 Sort and Shuffle phase in, 5 Hadoop Java API, implementing algorithms using, 6 Hadoop JobTracker getting cluster status from, 215 Hadoop security, 227 Hadoop Streaming API, 187 Hadoop: The Definitive Guide (White), 12, 24 HADOOP_HOME, Hive using, 21 HAR (Hadoop ARchive), 152–154 HAVING clause, 97 HBase, 2, 8–9, 222–224, 306 HBase: The Definitive Guide (George), 9 hcat (command line tool), options supported by, 261 HCatalog about, 255–256 architecture, 262–263 command line tool, 261 reading data in MapReduce and, 256–258 writing data in MapReduce and, 258–260 HCatInputFormat HCatLoader atop, 262–263 reading data in MapReduce and, 256–258 HCatOutputFormat HCatStorer atop, 262–263 writing data in MapReduce and, 258–260 HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) about, 1, 4, 306 HBase and, 9 master node of, 51 NameNode and, 7 role on EMR cluster, 251 Sort and Shuffle phase in, 5 “Hello World” program, Word Count algorithm as, 4–5 Hive about, 306 alternatives to, 1, 8–9 core of binary distribution, 22–23 in Hadoop, 6–8 installing, 21–22 JDK for, 16–17 keys in, 44, 117–120 keywords, 24 limitations of, 2 list of built-in properties, 34 list of US states and territories used to query in, 59 machine learning algorithms (case study), using R in creating, 265–270 metastore requirement and Hadoop, 28–29 modules, 7 queries (see queries, Hive) security, 227–234 starting, 23–24 strict mode, 137 using HADOOP_HOME, 21 Hive and EC2 vs. EMR, 254 Hive CLI (Command-Line Interface) about, 22, 305 autocomplete, 37 comments, in Hive scripts, 38 executing Hive queries from files, 35–36 for Hive services, 30 hadoop dfs commands within, 38 hive command in, 29 Hive web interface (HWI), 7 .hiverc file, 36 options, 31 pasting comments into, 38 prompt, 23 running bash shell commands without, 37– 38 running queries and exiting Hive, 34–35 scrolling through command history, 37 variables and properties, 31–34 hive command, 29 Hive Command CLI Driver, starting from within Eclipse, 159 Hive Thrift Service Action, 240 Hive Web Interface (HWI) about, 23 as CLI, 7 Hive Wiki link, 3 Hive, in data warehouse applications, 2 hive-site.xml, deploying, 248 hiveconf namespace option, for Hive CLI, 32, 33–35 HiveQL (Hive Query Language) about, 1, 306 altering storage properties, 68 columns adding, 68, 127 adding comments to, 53 bug in using count(DISTINCT col) in with partitioned, 86 changing, 67 computing with values from, 81–82 deleting or replacing, 68 partition keys and, 59 specifying in queries with regular expressions, 81 databases, 54 about, 49–52 altering, 52 creating directories for, 50 Java vs., 10 queries (see queries, Hive) SQL and, 2 table properties, altering, 68 table storage formats, customizing, 63–65 tables adding, modifying, and dropping partitions, 66 bucketing data storage on, 125–127 changing schemas, 53, 66 Index | 319 columnar, 128 copying schema, 54 creating, 53–56 creating and loading data, 75 creating in HBASE, 222–224 indexing, 117–120 input pruning for bucket, 111–112 JOINs, 98–105, 134 listing, 54–55 location of stored, 50 managed (see managed tables) normalization and unique keys, 123– 124 partition tuning, 140–141 partitioning, 58–63, 74–75, 122–125 renaming, 65 schema design, 121–129 UNION ALL, 112 views and map type for dynamic, 114– 115 views, 113–116 .hiverc file, 36 HiveServer (HiveThrift) about, 213 administering, 217–218 connecting to, 214–215 connecting to metastore, 216–217 fetching results, 215 getting cluster status, 215 getting schema of results, 215 on EMR Hive, 247 retrieving query plan, 216 setting up Groovy to connect to HiveService, 214 setting up ThriftMetastore, 219 starting, 213 hiveserver option, for Hive services, 30 HiveService, productionizing, 217–218 HiveService, setting up Groovy to connect to, 214 HiveStorageHandler, 222 --hivevar key=value option, --define key=value option and, 31 hivevar namespace option, for Hive CLI, 32 hive_test, testing with, 159–161 Hortonworks, Inc., virtual machines for VMWare, 16 Hue, graphical interface for interacting with Hive, 6 320 | Index HWI (Hive Web Interface) about, 23 as CLI, 7 hwi option, for Hive services, 30 I IDE (Integrated Development Environment), setting up Eclipse open source, 158 identity transformation, using streaming, 188 IF EXISTS clause in ALTER TABLE statements, 67 in dropping tables, 66 IF NOT EXISTS clause in ALTER TABLE statements, 66 to CREATE TABLE statement, 53 implementation infrastructure, 4 IN ... EXISTS clauses, 104 IN database_name clause, and regular expression, 55 Incubator, Apache, 256 indexes, Hive HQL, 117–120 tuning, 140 inner JOINs, 98–100 input formats, 64, 203–205, 306 structure in MapReduce, 4–5 InputFormat objects,coding, vs., streaming, 187 InputFormat API, Hadoop, 145 INPUTFORMAT clauses, 200 InputFormat clauses, 256 InputFormats, reading key-value pairs, 201 INSERT statement, in loading data into tables using, 73 instance groups, on EMR, 247–248 INT data types, 41 as return type for functions, 88, 89, 90 as return type for mathematical functions, 84 internal tables, 56 INTO ... BUCKETS clause, in altering storage properties, 69 INTO keyword, with INSERT statement, 73 J JAR option, for Hive services, 30 Java data types implemented in, 42 Download from Wow! eBook dotted name syntax in, 64 GenericMR Tools for streaming to, 194– 196 installing for Hadoop, 16–18 Java debugger, connecting to Hive, 156 Java MapReduce API, 10 Java MapReduce programs, 7 Java Virtual Machine (JVM) libraries, 9–10 Java vs. Hive, 10–13 JDBC (Java Database Connection API) about, 306 compliant databases for using metastore, 28 JDK (Java Development Kit), for Hive, 16–17 job, 306 Job Flow, 306 JobTracker about, 306 Hive communicating with, 7 in distributed mode, 26 security groups for, 253 JOINs optimizing, 134 types of, 98–105, 134 JRE (Java Runtime Environment), for Hadoop, 16–17 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) about, 306 maps and structs in, 46 output from SELECT clause, 80 SerDe, 208–209 JUnit tests, 156, 160 JVM (Java Virtual Machine) libraries, 9–10 K Kafka system, 10 Karmasphere perspective (case study), on customer experiences and needs, 296–304 Karmasphere, graphical interface for interacting with Hive, 6 key-value pairs as structure for input and output in MapReduce, 4–5 InputFormats reading, 201 keys, in Hive, 44, 117–120 keystrokes for Hive CLI navigation, 37 tab key, for autocomplete, 37 L last_modified_by table property, 56 last_modified_time table property, 56 left semi-JOINs, 104–105 left-outer JOINs, 101 LIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 LIMIT clause, 91, 134 LINES TERMINATED BY clause, 47 Linux installing Hadoop on, 18–19 installing Java on, 17 load balancing, TCP, 218 LOAD DATA LOCAL statement, 72 local mode confguration of Hadoop, 24–26 for Hadoop, 19 tuning using, 135 LOCATION clause, 54 locking, 235–238 Log4J Properties, changing, 155 M Mac OSX, installing Java on, 17–18 machine learning algorithms (case study), creating, 265–270 macros, in UDFs, 185 MAIN HEADING, 210 managed tables about, 56 dropping, 66 partitioned, 58–60 managed tables, loading data into, 71–73 Managing Hive data across multiple map reduce clusters (case study), m6d, 274–278 MAP data types as return type for functions, 90 in Hive, 43, 46, 114 MAP(), streaming using, 187 Map, in MapReduce process, 306 map-side JOINs, 105–106 Mapper process, Word Count algorithm as “Hello World” program for, 4 mappers and reducers, tuning by reducing mappers and reducers, 138–139 MapR, 306 MapR, Inc., virtual machines for VMWare, 16 MapReduce Index | 321 about, 3–6, 307 clusters, managing Hive data across multiple (case study), 274–278 distributed data processing tools not using, 10 Hadoop and, 1 “Hello World” program for, 4–5 in running queries, 92 jobs for pairs of JOINs, 100 launching components in Hadoop for, 20– 21 metadata and, 255 multigroup into single job, 142 reading data in, 256–258 structure for input and output in, 4–5 writing data in, 258–260 Master Instance Group, EMR, 247 master node, of HDFS, 51 master security group, EMR modifying, 253 Mastering Regular Expressions, 3rd Edition (Friedl), 97 Mathematica system, 10 mathematical functions, 83–85 Matlab system, 10 Maven project, Hive in, 158–159, 160 metadata changing in database, 52 NameNode keeping filesystem, 122 Pig and MapReduce using, 255 metastore about, 22, 307 backup information from, 28 connecting to metastore via HiveThrift, 216–217 database configuration, 28–29 on EMR, 250–251 option for Hive services, 30 setting up ThriftMetastore, 219 using JDBC, 28–29 MetaStore API, 216–217 methods, in AbstractGenericUDAFResolver, 174 MySQL dump on S3, 251 server with EMR, 250 MySQL dialect vs. HiveQL, 49 MySQL, configuration for Hadoop environment, 28 322 | Index N \n delimiters, 45 N rows return type, for table generating functions, 87–88 NameNode as HDFS master, 26 HDFS and, 7 metadata for filesystem in, 122 NameNode User Interfaces, security groups for, 253 namespace options, for variables and properties of Hive CLI, 32 NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (case study), 287–292 nested SELECT statements, 91, 101–103 NONE compression, in sequence files, 149 normalizing data, unique keys and, 123–124 NoSQL, 307 about, 2 connecting using HiveStorageHandler to, 222 O ObjectInspector, 206 Octave system, 10 ODBC (Open Database Connection), 307 OLAP (Online Analytic Processing), Hive databases and, 2 OLTP (Online Transaction Processing), Hive databases and, 2 Oozie, Apache, 239–244 operating systems for Hadoop, 15 operators arithmetic, 82 predicate, 93–94 ORDER BY clauses, 107 Outbrain (case studies), 278–287 outer JOINs, 101–103 full, 104 gotcha in, 101–103 right, 103 output capturing with Oozie, 243 compression , final, 148 format, 307 formats, 64 from SELECT clause, 80 structure in MapReduce, 4–5 output and input structure, in MapReduce, 4– 5 OUTPUTFORMAT clauses, 65, 200 OVERWRITE keyword in loading data into managed tables, 72 with INSERT statement, 73 P parallel execution, for tuning queries, 135 PARTITION clause, 60 in ALTER TABLE ... TOUCH clause, 69 in altering storage properties, 69 in loading data into managed tables, 71 partition keys columns and, 59 showing, 60 partition-level privileges, 233 partitioned external tables, 61–63 managed tables, 58–60 partitions about, 307 archiving, 152–154 bug in using count(DISTINCT col) in columns with, 86 dynamic and static, 74–75 dynamic partition tuning, 140–141 dynamic partition properties, 75 schema design and, 122–123 PDK (Plugin Developer Kit), 161 permanent functions, UDFs as, 171 persistence, on EMR, 250–251 Photobucket (case study), 292–294 Pig, 8, 255 Plugin Developer Kit (PDK), 161 pom.xml file, for hive_test, 159, 160 PostHooks utility, 158 predicate operators about, 93–94 LIKE, 94, 96–97 RLIKE, 94, 96–97 PreHooks utility, 158 primary keys, normalization and, 123–124 primitive data types, 41–43, 109 privileges granting and revoking, 231–234 list of, 231 Programming Pig (Gates), 8 project specific fields, extracting, 188–189 property and variables, Hive CLI, 31–34 property names, trick for finding, 35 pseudodistributed mode Hadoop in, 27–28 metastore in single node in, 28 pseudodistributed mode for Hadoop, running in, 19 Python scripts, using CLUSTER BY clause, 192–194 Q .q files, testing from, 156–158 Qubole, graphical interface for interacting with Hive, 6 queries, Hive HQL aggregate functions, 85–87 Cartesian product, 105 CASE ... WHEN ... THEN clauses, 91–92 casting, 109 CLUSTER BY clause, 108–109 column aliases, 91 column headers in, 38–39 DISTRIBUTE BY clauses, 107–108 executing from files, 35–36 GROUP BY clauses, 97 HAVING clause, 97 JOINs types of, 98–105 joins optimizing, 134 LIMIT clause, 91 making small data sets run faster, 19 MapReduce in running, 92 mathematical functions, 83–85 nested SELECT statements, 91, 101–103 ORDER BY clauses, 107 sampling data using, 110–112 SELECT ... FROM clauses, 73–74 about, 79–81 computing with values from columns, 81–82 specify columns in with, 81 semicolon (;) at end of lines in, 36 separating multiple queries, 36 SORT BY clauses, 107–108 SUB1 TEXT, 82 table generating functions, 87–88 testing from .q files, 156–158 Index | 323 tuning by optimizing JOINs, 134 by reducing mappers and reducers, 138– 139 EXPLAIN clauses for, 131–134 EXPLAIN EXTENDED clauses for, 134 LIMIT clause in, 134 using parallel execution, 135 using strict mode, 137 UNION ALL, 112 using src (“source”) in, 35–36 views reducing complexity of, 113 WHERE clause, 92 about, 92–93 gotchas with floating point comparisons, 94–96 join statements and, 103 LIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 predicate operators, 93–94 RLIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 R R language, 10 R language(case study), machine learning algorithms, 265–270 ranking data by grouping like elements (case study), 270–274 RCFILE format, 64, 202–203 rcfilecat option, for Hive services, 30 RECORD compression, in sequence files, 149 record formats, 205–210, 205 (see also SerDe (Serializer Deserializer)) vs. file formats, 199 record parsing, 64 record-level updates, 2 Reduce Operator Tree, 133, 134 REDUCE(), streaming using, 187 Reduce, in MapReduce process, 307 reducers and mappers, tuning by reducing, 138–139 in MapReduce process, 4 Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) (case study), 287–292 regular expression features, support for, 55 Regular Expression Pocket Reference (Goyvaerts and Stubblebine), 97 regular expressions specifying columns in queries with, 81 using single quotes ("), 55 324 | Index relational databases, collection data types and, 43 relational model, 307 renaming tables, 66 replicating, metastore information, 28 right-outer JOINs, 103 RLIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 roles, granting and revoking privileges for individual, 230–233 ROW FORMAT DELIMITED clauses, 47 ROW FORMAT SERDE clauses, 65 runtime modes, for Hadoop, 19 S S3 bucket, 305 S3 system for AWS about, 308 accessing, 248 deploying .hiverc script to, 249 EMR logs on, 252 moving data to, 62 MySQL dump on, 251 putting resources on, 252 role on EMR cluster, 251 support for, 62 s3n “scheme,” for accessing S3, 248 Safari Books Online, xiv–xv sampling data, using queries, 110–112 schema Avro, 209 changing with ALTER TABLE statements, 53, 66 copying, 54 defining from URI, 210 design, 121–129 using getSchema() method, 215 schema on write vs. schema on read, 48 SciPy, NumPy system, 10 security groups, EMR, 253 Hive, 227–234 model for HCatalog, 261–262 SELECT ... FROM clauses about, 79–81 computing with values from columns, 81– 82 specify columns in with, 81 SELECT ... WHERE clauses, 73–74 SELECT clause, 79 SELECT statements, nested, 91, 101–103 semicolon (;) at end of lines in Hive queries, 36 separating queries, 34 sequence file format, 148–149 SEQUENCEFILE format, 64, 149, 201–202 SerDe (Serializer Deserializer) about, 205, 308 AVRO Hive, 209 Avro Hive, 305 Cassandra SerDe Storage Handler properties, 224 columnar, 128 CSVs (Comma-Separated Values), 206 extraction of data from input with, 127 JSON, 208–209 record parsing by, 64–65, 127 TSV (Tab-Separated Values), 206 using SERDEPROPERTIES, 69 serializing and deserializing data, 187 Service List, for hive command, 30 sessionization (case study), 282–287 SET command Hive CLI variables using, 32–33 to disable authentication, 230 shell execution, running bash shell commands without Hive CLI, 37–38 shell “pipes,” bash shell commands, 37–38 SHOW FORMATTED INDEX command, 119 SHOW FUNCTIONS command, 163 SHOW PARTITIONS command, 60, 62–63 SHOW TABLES command, 52, 54 SHOW TBLPROPERTIES table_name command, 54 Shuffle and Sort phase, in HDFS, 5 SimpleReach (case study), using Cassandra to store social network polling at, 294– 296 single MapReduce job, multigroup by, 142 Single Point of Failure (SPOF), metastore information as, 28 SMALLINT data types, 41 SnappyCodec, 147 social network polling (case study), using Cassandra to store, 294–296 Sort and Shuffle phase, in HDFS, 5 SORT BY clauses DISTRIBUTE BY clauses with, 107–108 in streaming processes, 192, 194 ORDER BY clauses and, 107 SORTED BY clauses, in altering storage properties, 69 Spark system, 10 splittable files, 148–149 SPOF (Single Point of Failure), metastore information as, 28 spot instances, 252–253 SQL (Structured Query Language) about, 308 HiveQL and, 1 src (“source”), using in queries, 35–36 STAGE PLANS command, Hive job consisting of, 132–133 standard functions, 164 stateful annotations, 184 static column mapping, in Cassandra, 224 Storage Handlers, 221–225 storage properties, altering, 68 STORED AS INPUTFORMAT ... OUTPUTFORMAT clause, 65 STORED AS SEQUENCEFILE clause, 149, 200 STORED AS TEXTFILE clause, 47, 63–64 Storm system, 10 streaming about, 187–188 calculating aggregates with streaming, 191–192 cogroups, 196 changing data types, 188 distributing and sorting of data, 192–194 editor for manipulating transformations, 189 extracting project specific fields, 188–189 identity transformation using, 188 producing multiple rows from single row, 189–190 to Java using GenericMR Tools, 194–196 using distributed cache, 189–190 strict mode, 137 STRING data types about, 42 as return type for functions, 88–90 as return type for mathematical functions, 83 STRUCT data types in Hive, 43, 46, 114 Index | 325 in JSON, 46 Structured Query Language (SQL), 308 HiveQL and, 1 Stubblebine, Tony, Regular Expression Pocket Reference, 97 sudo (“super user do something”), running in Linux, 17 system namespace option, for Hive CLI, 32 T tab key, for autocomplete, 37 Tab-Separated Values (TSV) SerDes, 206 Tab-separated Values (TSVs), as delimiters, 45, 48 Table Generating Functions (UDTFs), UserDefined, 87–88, 165–166, 177–182, 308 table storage formats customizing, 63–65 STORED AS TEXTFILE clause, 47, 64 tables altering changing schemas, 53, 66 properties of, 68 renaming, 66 bucketing data storage on, 125–127 columnar, 128 columns in adding, 68, 127 adding comments to, 53 bug in using count(DISTINCT col) in with partitioned, 86 changing, 67 computing with values from, 81–82 deleting or replacing, 68 partition keys and, 59 specifying in queries with regular expressions, 81 copying schema, 54 creating, 53–56 creating and loading data, 75 creating in HBASE, 222–224 dropping, 66 external about, 56–57 partitioned, 61–63 indexing, 117–120 input pruning for bucket, 111–112 JOINs 326 | Index optimizing, 134 types of, 98–105 listing, 54–55 location of stored, 50, 54 managed about, 56 loading data into, 71–73 partitioned, 58–60 normalization and unique keys, 123–124 partitioned, 58–63, 74–75, 122–125 partitions in adding, modifying, and dropping, 66 tuning dynamic, 140–141 schema design, 121–129 Table-by-day pattern, 121–122 tables views and map type for dynamic, 114– 115 UNION ALL, 112 views and map type for dynamic, 114–115 Task Instance Group, EMR, 248 Task, in MapReduce context, 308 TaskTrackers, 141, 240, 253 TBLPROPERTIES, adding additional documentation in key-value format, 53 TCP load balancing, 218 test cases, running Hive, 156–158 testing, with hive_test, 159–161 text editor, Emacs, 45 text files, encoding of data values, 45–48 TEXTFILE clause implication of, 64 STORED AS, 47 Think Big Analytics JSON SerDe and, 208 ObjectInspector, 206 Think Big Analytics, Inc., virtual machines for VMWare, 16 Thrift Server (HiveServer) about, 213 administering, 217–218 connecting to, 214–215 connecting to metastore, 216–217 fetching results, 215 getting cluster status, 215 getting schema of results, 215 on EMR Hive, 247 retrieving query plan, 216 Download from Wow! eBook setting up Groovy to connect to HiveService, 214 setting up ThriftMetastore, 219 starting, 213 Thrift Service Action, Hive, 240 Thrift service component, 22, 308 ThriftMetastore, Hive, setting up, 219 time-range partitioning, 122 TIMESTAMP (v0.8.0+) data types, 42 TINYINT data types, 41 TRANSFORM() changing data types, 188 doing multiple transformations, 192 in producing multiple rows from single row, 191 streaming using, 187 using with CLUSTER BY clause, 192–194 TSV (Tab-Separated Values) SerDes, 206 tuning dynamic partition, 140–141 indexes, 140 multigroup MapReduce into single job, 142 optimizing JOINs, 134 queries by reducing mappers and reducers, 138– 139 EXPLAIN clauses for, 131–134 EXPLAIN EXTENDED clauses for, 134 LIMIT clause in, 134 using parallel execution, 135 using strict mode, 137 using JVM reuse, 139–140 using local mode, 135 using speculative execution, 141–142 using virtual columns, 142–143 tuple return type, for table generating functions, 87 U UDAFs (User-Defined Aggregate Functions), 172–177, 185, 308 UDF Pseudo Rank (case study), M6d, 270– 274 UDFs (User-Defined Functions) (see UserDefined Functions (UDFs)) UDTFs (User-Defined Table Generating Functions), 87–88, 165–166, 177– 182, 308 UNION ALL, 112 unique keys, normalization and, 123–124 URI, defining schema from, 210 URLs (case study, identifying, 278–280 USE command, 52 User-Defined Aggregate Functions (UDAFs), 164–176, 171, 172–177, 172–177, 185, 308 User-Defined Functions (UDFs) about, 163, 308 accessing distributed cache from, 182–184 aggregate functions, user-defined, 164–176, 171, 172–177 annotations for use with, 184 as standard functions, 164 calling, 164 describing, 164 discovering, 163 table generating functions, 87–88, 165–166, 177–182 vs. built-in functions, 163 writing example of, 166–169 XML UDF, 207 User-Defined Functions (UDFs), vs. GenericUDFs, 169–171 User-Defined Table Generating Functions (UDTFs), 87–88, 165–166, 177–182, 308 users, granting and revoking privileges for individual, 230–233 /usr/bin/sed program, as stream editor, 189 V value of type, as return type for functions, 89 variables and properties, Hive CLI, 31–34 capturing with Oozie output to, 243–244 in Oozie workflows, 242–243 views, 113–116 virtual columns, tuning using, 142–143 Virtual Machine (VM), installing preconfigured, 15–16 VirtualBox, 15 VMWare, 15 W web console, Oozie, 242 web traffic (case study), analyzing, 282–287 Index | 327 WHERE clause about, 92–93 gotchas with floating point comparisons, 94–96 join statements and, 103 LIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 predicate operators, 93–94 RLIKE predicate operator, 94, 96–97 White, Tom, Hadoop: The Definitive Guide, 12 White, Tom, “Hadoop: The Definitive Guide”, 24 Windows installing Java on, 16–17 running Hadoop within, 15 WITH DEFERRED REBUILD clauses, 118 WITH SERDEPROPERTIES, 208 Word Count algorithm as “Hello World” program for MapReduce, 4–5 using Hadoop command to launch, 20–21 using HiveQL, 10 using Java MapReduce API, 10–12 workflow, creating two-query, 242 X XML UDF, 207 XPath (XML Path Language) about, 207 functions, 207–208 Z Zookeeper, 235–237 328 | Index About the Authors Edward Capriolo is currently System Administrator at Media6degrees, where he helps design and maintain distributed data storage systems for the Internet advertising industry. Edward is a member of the Apache Software Foundation and a committer for the Hadoop-Hive project. He has experience as a developer, as well as a Linux and network administrator, and enjoys the rich world of open source software. Dean Wampler is a Principal Consultant at Think Big Analytics, where he specializes in “Big Data” problems and tools like Hadoop and Machine Learning. Besides Big Data, he specializes in Scala, the JVM ecosystem, JavaScript, Ruby, functional and objectoriented programming, and Agile methods. Dean is a frequent speaker at industry and academic conferences on these topics. He has a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Washington. Jason Rutherglen is a software architect at Think Big Analytics and specializes in Big Data, Hadoop, search, and security. Colophon The animal on the cover of Programming Hive is a European hornet (Vespa cabro) and its hive. The European hornet is the only hornet in North America, introduced to the continent when European settlers migrated to the Americas. This hornet can be found throughout Europe and much of Asia, adapting its hive-building techniques to different climates when necessary. The hornet is a social insect, related to bees and ants. The hornet’s hive consists of one queen, a few male hornets (drones), and a large quantity of sterile female workers. The chief purpose of drones is to reproduce with the hornet queen, and they die soon after. It is the female workers who are responsible for building the hive, carrying food, and tending to the hornet queen’s eggs. The hornet’s nest itself is the consistency of paper, since it is constructed out of wood pulp in several layers of hexagonal cells. The end result is a pear-shaped nest attached to its shelter by a short stem. In colder areas, hornets will abandon the nest in the winter and take refuge in hollow logs or trees, or even human houses, where the queen and her eggs will stay until the warmer weather returns. The eggs form the start of a new colony, and the hive can be constructed once again. The cover image is from Johnson’s Natural History. The cover font is Adobe ITC Garamond. The text font is Linotype Birka; the heading font is Adobe Myriad Condensed; and the code font is LucasFont’s TheSansMonoCondensed.
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Creator                         : Edward Capriolo, Dean Wampler, and Jason Rutherglen
Title                           : Programming Hive
Creator Tool                    : XSL Formatter V4.3 R1 (4,3,2008,0424) for Linux
Metadata Date                   : 2012:10:03 22:07:46+07:00
Producer                        : Antenna House PDF Output Library 2.6.0 (Linux)
Trapped                         : False
Document ID                     : uuid:00b1460b-4163-6c40-ac50-e928005c6398
Instance ID                     : uuid:60c25278-0658-40d1-976c-ff124f520503
Page Layout                     : SinglePage
Page Mode                       : UseOutlines
Page Count                      : 350
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