Interviewer Manual PH 2016
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Federal Republic of Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics Abuja, Nigeria GENERAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY - PANEL POST HARVEST (3rd WAVE, February, 2016) INTERVIEWER INSTRUCTION MANUAL FEBRUARY, 2016 Table of Contents CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................ 5 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 COVERAGE ............................................................................................................................................................. 5 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................................... 5 CHAPTER 2: SAMPLE DESIGN AND ORGANIZATION OF FIELD ACTIVITIES ......................................................... 7 SAMPLE DESIGN...................................................................................................................................................... 7 Conflict Oversampling .................................................................................................................................... 8 THE MAIN SURVEY .................................................................................................................................................. 8 Survey Instruments ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Training for Fieldwork .................................................................................................................................. 8 1st Level Training for Trainers (TOT) ............................................................................................................ 9 2nd level training will take place in six (6) training centres ........................................................................... 9 Fieldwork Arrangement for Data Collection ............................................................................................... 10 Monitoring of Fieldwork .............................................................................................................................. 12 Coordination ................................................................................................................................................ 12 Retrieval ....................................................................................................................................................... 12 Data Cleaning, Processing and Finalization ............................................................................................... 12 Report Writing ............................................................................................................................................. 13 Documentation/Dissemination/Archiving .................................................................................................... 13 Work Plan .................................................................................................................................................... 13 THE INTERVIEWER’S TASK: SPECIFIC RESPONSIBILITIES .................................................................................................. 13 MATERIAL FOR THE INTERVIEWS ............................................................................................................................... 14 Maps ............................................................................................................................................................ 15 Flow of Material and Reports ...................................................................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 3: GENERAL SURVEY PROCEDURES ................................................................................................. 16 INTERVIEWS OF THE HOUSEHOLD ............................................................................................................................. 16 CONCURRENT DATA ENTRY OF QUESTIONNAIRES ........................................................................................................ 16 EDITING OF QUESTIONNAIRES .................................................................................................................................. 16 HOW TO USE THE FLAPS ......................................................................................................................................... 16 HOW TO READ THE QUESTIONS ............................................................................................................................... 17 UPPER AND LOWER CASE TEXTS (CAPITAL LETTERS AND SMALL LETTERS) ......................................................................... 17 DATA COLLECTION STRATEGY .................................................................................................................................. 18 HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................................................................................. 22 AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE.................................................................................................................. 24 HOW TO USE THE FLAPS ......................................................................................................................................... 28 UPPER AND LOWER CASE TEXTS (CAPITAL LETTERS AND SMALL LETTERS) ..................................................................... 29 PRE-FILLING QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................................................................................. 33 CHAPTER 4: HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................................................................... 38 COVER ................................................................................................................................................................ 38 SECTION 1: ROSTER .......................................................................................................................................... 39 SECTION 2: EDUCATION FOR MEMBERS IN THE HOUSEHOLD .......................................................................... 45 SECTION 3A: LABOUR ....................................................................................................................................... 48 SECTION 4: HEALTH .......................................................................................................................................... 53 SECTION 4B: CHILD DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................. 62 SECTION 6: REMITTANCES ................................................................................................................................ 65 SECTION 6A: BEHAVIOUR ................................................................................................................................. 66 SECTION 6B: ATTITUDE ..................................................................................................................................... 67 SECTION 9: NON-FARM ENTERPRISES .............................................................................................................. 67 SECTION 10A: MEALS OUTSIDE THE HOUSEHOLD ............................................................................................ 71 SECTION 10B: FOOD CONSUMPTION AND EXPENDITURES .............................................................................. 72 SECTION 10C: AGGREGATE FOOD CONSUMPTION ........................................................................................... 74 SECTION 12: FOOD SECURITY ........................................................................................................................... 76 SECTION 13: OTHER INCOME ........................................................................................................................... 77 SECTION 15A: ECONOMIC SHOCKS ................................................................................................................... 80 SECTION 15B: DEATHS ...................................................................................................................................... 81 SECTION 15C: CONFLICT ................................................................................................................................... 82 CONTACT INFORMATION ................................................................................................................................. 83 CHAPTER 5: THE AGRICULTURAL QUESTIONNAIRE........................................................................................ 86 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 86 COVER PAGE ..................................................................................................................................................... 87 SECTION A1: LAND ............................................................................................................................................ 87 SECTION A2: LABOUR ....................................................................................................................................... 91 SECTION 11C2: INPUT COSTS ............................................................................................................................ 94 SECTION 11D: FERTILIZER ACQUISITION ........................................................................................................... 98 SECTION A3I: CROP HARVEST ......................................................................................................................... 102 SECTION A3II: CROP DISPOSITION ................................................................................................................... 104 SECTION A4: AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL ............................................................................................................ 106 SECTION A5A: EXTENSION SERVICES (TOPICS) ................................................................................................ 107 SECTION A5B: EXTENSION SERVICES (SOURCES) ............................................................................................. 108 SECTION A9A: FISHING .................................................................................................................................... 110 SECTION A9B: FISHING CAPITAL & REVENUES ................................................................................................ 113 SECTION A10: NETWORK ROSTER................................................................................................................... 115 USE OF GPS DEVICE: NAVIGATION OF GPSMAP62 ....................................................................................... 117 3 THE NAVIGATION OF GPSMAP62 ................................................................................................................... 117 TRACKING OF HOUSEHOLDS ........................................................................................................................ 119 ADMINISTERING THE TRACKING QUESTIONNAIRE ....................................................................................................... 119 THE TRACKING FORM........................................................................................................................................... 120 Section 1: Household Identification ........................................................................................................... 120 Section 3: Informant Information .............................................................................................................. 121 APPENDIX 1: OCCUPATION CODES ............................................................................................................... 122 APPENDIX 2: INDUSTRY CODES .................................................................................................................... 128 APPENDIX 3: SAMPLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CONFLICT MODULE OF THE PANEL SURVEY ............... 132 APPENDIX 4: CONFLICT OVERSAMPLE STATES AND EAS .............................................................................. 134 APPENDIX 5: TRACKING FORM T1 ................................................................................................................. 137 APPENDIX 6: FIELD WORK FORM ................................................................................................................. 142 4 Chapter 1: Introduction Over the last few decades, Nigeria has experienced substantial gaps in producing adequate and timely data to inform policy making. In particular, the country is lagging behind in the production of sufficient and accurate agricultural production statistics. Except for the Harmonized National Living Standard Survey (HNLSS), which covers multiple topics in a single survey, all other household and farm surveys conducted by the NBS, which also cover a wide range of sectors do so in separate surveys; none of which is conducted as a panel. As part of the efforts to continue to improve data collection and usability, the NBS plans to streamline two of its current surveys into one panel survey that covers multiple sectors with a focus to improve data from the agriculture sector. In 2010, the NBS implemented the postplanting round of the first wave of the Nigerian General Household Panel Survey (NGHPS). The postharvest round of the first wave of the survey was conducted between February and April 2011. The post-planting round of the second wave was conducted between September and November 2012; and the post-harvest round between February and April 2013. The post-planting round of the third wave was conducted between September and November 2015; and the post-harvest round is planned for February to April 2016. By design, this survey is integrated fully into the current General Household Survey (GHS). Focused on the goal of improving agricultural statistics, the World Bank, through funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), will support seven countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in strengthening the production of household-level data on agriculture. The over-arching objective of the LSMS-ISA program is to improve our understanding of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa – specifically, its role in poverty reduction and how innovation and efficiency can be fostered in the sector. This goal will be achieved by developing and implementing an innovative model for collecting agricultural data in the region. Objectives To allow welfare levels to be produced at the state level using small area estimation techniques resulting in state-level poverty figures To create opportunities to conduct more comprehensive analysis of poverty indicators and socio-economic characteristics by integrating the longitudinal panel survey with GHS To support the development and implementation of a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) application for the paperless collection of GHS To develop an innovating model for collecting agricultural data To build capacity and develop sustainable systems for producing accurate and timely information on agricultural households in Nigeria. To actively disseminate agriculture statistics Coverage The survey will cover all the 36 states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Both urban and rural enumeration areas (EAs) will be canvassed Scope The survey will cover a wide range of socio-economic topics which are highlighted in three different questionnaires to be used for data collection. These are Household Questionnaire, Agricultural Questionnaire and Community/Prices Questionnaire. 1. The post-harvest household questionnaire will be used to collect information on: 5 Household Identification Household Member Roster, Demographic and Migration Education Status Labour (Adults and Children 5yrs+) Health and Child Development Remittances Behavior and Attitudes Non-Farm Enterprises and Income Generating Activities Consumption of Food (Recall) Non-Food Consumption Expenditure Food Security Other Household Income Safety Nets, Economic Shocks and Deaths Conflict 2. The post-harvest agriculture questionnaire will be used to collect information on: Productivity of main crops, with emphasis on improved measures of: Land Holdings Family and Hired Labour Input Costs Fertilizer Acquisition Quantification of Crop Production and Disposition Agricultural Capital Agricultural Extension Services Other Agricultural Income Including Income from Agricultural By-Products Fishing Capital and Revenue 3. The community questionnaire will be used to collect information on: Assess to Community Characteristics Including Infrastructure Access to Public Services, Social Networks, Governance, Investment Projects and Necessary Community Empowerment etc. Communal Resource Management Changes in the Community and Key Events Leading to Changes Community Needs, Actions and Achievements over the Past Years Prices of Food Items at the Community Level Conflict at the Community Level 6 Chapter 2: Sample Design and Organization of Field Activities Sample Design The 2006 Housing and Population Census conducted by National Population Commission (NpopC) was used in preparation of the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) – 2007 – 2012 Master Sample Frame (MSF). The NISH sample frame was used to select the sample of EAs from which the Panel households were selected in 2010. Specifically, the Panel sample design derives from the sample frames which were selected as explained below. 1. Selection of the NISH Master Sample Frame: - 30 master sample EAs in each LGA for that state are selected and pooled together - Hence, the total number of EAs in each state is equal to 30 times the number of the LGAs in the state except in FCT, Abuja where 40 EAs per LGA was selected. - A systematic sample of 200EAs were selected with equal probability in each state - The NISH EAs in each state were then divided into 20 replicates of 10 EAs each 2. Selection of the GHS Sample: - The sample EAs for the GHS are based on a subsample of the NISH master sample, selected as a combination of replicates from the NISH frame. - A total of six (6) NISH replicates with 60 EAs for each state are identified in the frame with NISH RIC 10 to 15 - At the second sampling stage, 10 households were systematically selected in each sample EA for the GHS panel - The GHS is designed to have a 50% rotation of the replicates of sample EAs each year, providing a 50% overlap in the sample from one year to the next. This sample rotation scheme serves to improve the estimates of trend over time when comparing the GHS results from one year to the next. However, there is no overlap in the sample EAs for GHS rounds of two (2) years apart. GHS-Panel households were selected using the following methodology: o Selection of a subsample of EAs and households that are included in GHS 2010/2011 by: selecting GHS 500 EAs nationwide with the following allocation per zone ZONE Number of EAs North-Central 80 North-East 80 North-West 90 South-East 80 South-South 80 South-West 90 TOTAL 500 Distribution of EAs (at the state level) within each zone based on probability proportional to size Selection of 10 GHS households from each EA. 7 Conflict Oversampling Given the negative impact of the violent conflicts in some parts of Nigeria, it is important to measure the effect of these conflicts on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population, including education, health and poverty. Therefore the World Bank and NBS team working on the national Panel Survey are developing a new conflict module for the Panel Survey. In this post-harvest assignment, additional 360 households will be scientifically selected and interviewed in states identified as conflict states. See appendix 3 for a technical document on the sampling strategy for the conflict household selection. One limitation of the panel sample of households is that it suffers from attrition over time as some households move, split or cease to exist. There is, however, a household tracking system that has been put in place to follow the households that move or split in order to reduce the level of attrition and measure the characteristics of these households. The Main Survey 500 EAs will be canvassed throughout the Federation and FCT, Abuja Ten (10) HHs will be studied in each EA, making a total of 5000 HHs to be interviewed nationally Number of EAs and HHs to be covered varies from state to state Survey Instruments The survey instruments to be used are: Household Questionnaire Agricultural Questionnaire Community/Prices Questionnaire Interviewer and Supervisor Instruction Manuals EA Line Maps and Selected HH Lists Handheld GPS Navigator Measuring Boards Digital Scales Laptop and Printer Training for Fieldwork Two levels of training will be mounted 1. 1st level of training at the NBS Headquarters, Abuja (TOT) 2. 2nd level training at the three (3) zonal centers, and Nasarawa State: South-West and North-Central zones–Ibadan (Oyo State) South-East and South-South zones – Enugu (Enugu State) North-East Zone, and North-West zones – (Nasarawa State) 8 1st Level Training for Trainers (TOT) 1. Participants to be trained will include: 30 senior staff of NBS, FMA&RD, FMWR & NFRA from headquarters 9 coordinators comprising directorate staff members of the NBS Among the participants: o 19 senior staff of NBS, 3 for each zonal centre will serve as trainers for the main survey o 9 directorate members of NBS will serve as coordinators for six (6) centres o World Bank Officials 2. Training will last for five (5) days 2nd level training will take place in six (6) training centres 1. Participants to be trained will include: Zonal Controllers State Officers Supervisors Interviewers, and Data Entry Operators 2. Training will last for 7 days for theory, one (1) day for field practice, one (1) day for pre-filling and two (2) day for data cleaning. Data cleaning will be undertaken by interviewers, data entry staff, supervisors, and HQ IT trainers only. 9 Distribution of Training Participants by States (Training Center) S/N 1 Training Centres South West (Ibadan) 2 South-South (Calabar) 3 South East (Enugu) 4 North Central (Ibadan) 5 North East (Nasarawa) 6 North West (Nasarawa) States No of Participants Oyo, Osun, Ogun, Lagos, Ekiti, Ondo 71 Cross-River, Akwa- Ibom, Rivers, Bayelsa, Edo , Delta 53 Enugu, Anambra, Ebonyi, Abia & Imo 54 Plateau, Kwara, Niger, Kogi, Benue, Nasarawa, FCT Abuja 63 Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, Gombe, Taraba, Adamawa 63 Jigawa, Katsina, Kano, Kaduna, Kebbi, Sokoto, Zamfara 67 Fieldwork Arrangement for Data Collection A team comprising supervisor, interviewer(s) and data entry operator will be used per state and FCT, Abuja, although number of team(s) will differ from state to state (see Table 2 below). The teams will move in roving manner and data collection using concurrent data entry is expected to last for 26 – 41 days, depending on the workload per team. Distribution of sample size, Allocation of EAs, HHs to be covered, Field Personnel, and Number of Days for fieldwork by Zone and State for the GHS Post Harvest Main Survey 2016: 10 New Distribution of Workload and New Number of Days for Fieldwork By State S/N State No of Teams No of HHs covered before No of HHs to be covered Now Extra HHs to be covered No of Days for fieldwork before Extra Days Additional days for transportation Total No. of Days Now for fieldwork 1 Abia 1 96 101 5 25 2 2 Adamawa* 1 114 135 21 25 5 3 Akwa-ibom 1 139 146 7 32 2 34 4 Anambra 2 196 204 8 25 2 27 5 Bauchi* 2 167 197 30 25 4 3 32 6 Bayelsa* 1 52 88 36 32 6 3 41 7 Benue* 2 152 181 29 25 4 3 32 8 Borno* 2 86 284 198 23 7 3 33 9 Cross River* 1 118 129 11 30 3 3 36 10 Delta* 2 123 157 34 22 5 3 30 11 Ebonyi 1 139 142 3 32 2 34 12 Edo 1 93 95 2 25 2 27 13 Ekiti 1 60 69 9 24 3 27 14 Enugu 1 125 128 3 32 3 35 15 FCT 1 35 37 2 27 1 28 16 Gombe 1 76 77 1 27 2 29 17 Imo 2 180 184 4 29 2 31 18 Jigawa 1 125 127 2 27 2 29 19 Kaduna* 1 102 144 42 27 4 20 Kano 2 192 194 2 23 2 25 21 Katsina 2 177 177 - 29 1 30 22 Kebbi 1 98 99 1 27 2 29 23 Kogi 1 119 124 5 27 2 29 24 Kwara* 1 113 130 17 27 3 25 Lagos 2 136 153 17 27 3 26 Nasarawa* 1 66 83 17 32 2 27 Niger 2 181 182 1 25 2 27 28 Ogun 1 85 101 16 27 3 30 29 Ondo 1 94 115 21 32 3 35 30 Osun 2 154 155 1 29 2 31 31 Oyo 2 165 185 20 25 6 31 32 Plateau* 1 110 141 31 27 4 3 34 33 Rivers* 2 185 238 53 22 6 3 31 34 Sokoto 1 81 81 - 32 1 33 35 Taraba 1 84 92 8 27 2 29 36 Yobe* 1 105 142 37 30 4 37 Zamfara 1 91 91 - 22 4 * Conflict States 11 27 3 3 3 33 34 33 30 3 3 37 37 26 Monitoring of Fieldwork Senior staff from NBS, FMA&RD and NFRA will be involved in the monitoring and supervision exercises. The monitoring officers will ensure proper compliance with the laid down procedures as contained in the manual. All states and FCT Abuja will be monitored There will be 3 levels of monitoring o The first and third levels will be carried out by the technical staff from NBS headquarters and staff from FMA&RD and NFRA headquarters. o The second level will be carried out at the state level by the State Officers and Zonal Controllers. o One Headquarter monitoring officer will be assigned to 2states The monitoring exercise will be arranged such that the first level will take off during the commencement of the fieldwork The third, not later than a week to the end of the data collection exercise In between the 1st and 3rd levels of monitoring, the state officers and zonal controllers will monitor throughout their respective states. o The state officer will monitor in his/her own state o The zonal controller will monitor in at least 2 states (the zonal headquarters state and one other state of the same zone) 1st and 3rd round of monitoring exercise will last for eight (6) days each while the 2nd round will last for ten (10) days for state officers and seven (7) days for zonal controllers Monitoring instruments will be developed and discussed during training of trainers Coordination Directorate members of staff of NBS will coordinate the survey. Activities to be coordinated will include: Zonal Training Field Work Data Processing/Analysis/Report Writing Coordination will last for six (6) days Retrieval All completed and edited questionnaires by each team will remain in the custody of the field supervisor even after the data has been captured by data entry operators. The supervisor will submit the completed and edited questionnaires to the NBS state officer. He /she will coordinate the forwarding of all completed questionnaires, softcopy records, laptops and printers to the NBS Headquarters in Abuja. Data Cleaning, Processing and Finalization Data cleaning and processing will be an ongoing operation while the data is being collected in the field and after. Field staff and data entry operators will be required to respond to data quality enquires from HQ. There will also be a joint review of the data by HQ and field staff to ensure that the data collected is of the highest quality. The work of field staff (including data entry operators) will be completed only when the data has been signed-off as being satisfactory by the HQ and the World Bank. Report Writing Senior and experienced report writers from NBS and the collaborating agencies will write the report. Report will be written in such a way to make it useful to: Users Policy Makers Planners Researchers Documentation/Dissemination/Archiving Data management toolkit will be used to: 1. Document 2. Disseminate Data The results will also be published and written on CD and hosted on NBS website and other collaborative agencies websites for further dissemination Work Plan S/n Activity Duration/ Period 1 Planning and Preparation Nov. 2015 – Jan. 2016 2 Training of Trainers 1st – 5thFeb. 2016 3 Zonal Training 8th – 19th Feb. 2016 4 1st Visit: Fieldwork – Post-Harvest 22nd Feb. – April 2016 5 1st Monitoring (HQs Technical Team) 22nd – 28th Feb. 2016 6 2nd Monitoring (State Officers/Zonal Controllers) 22nd Feb. – April 2016 7 3rd Monitoring (HQs Technical Team) 31st March – 5th April 2016 8 Tracking 15th April – 20th May 2016 9 Second data entry 10th April – 30th May 2016 10 Data Cleaning April – June 2016 11 Data Processing and Analysis June – August 2016 12 Wave 4 August 2017 The Interviewer’s Task: Specific Responsibilities To participate actively in and to complete training course. To study this manual and other instructions carefully in order to understand them fully. To comply with instructions and recommendations contained in the manual and any instruction given by persons responsible for the survey, including the supervisor and survey management team. 13 To carry out interviews through personal visits to households so as to interview each individual as specified in certain modules; and by that way, collecting the information directly. Do not forget that interviewer’s task cannot be delegated or transferred to anybody else. To complete interview with all household members. To visit household as many times as necessary, in order to find the direct respondent, to correct inaccurate information or to complete incomplete information. Remember: The interviewer is obliged to make him/herself fully available for work in the Panel Survey, thus he/she must be available for carrying out the survey tasks at any time the respondent specifies as the most convenient for him/her: weekend, holidays, evenings, etc. During the interview, to behave professionally and formally in accordance with the important work he/she performs. To visit households in decent and professional outfit, bearing in mind that this is an important aspect of ensuring cooperation from the household and good quality data. To come to work on time according to the supervisor’s instructions. To make him/herself available at the times he/she is needed during the survey implementation. To insert occupation and other codes after the interview, as instructed in this manual To complete given assignment on a daily basis and to hand over to the supervisor all filled questionnaires with information obtained properly recorded, every day. To perform all scheduled interviews at the time they are planned. Where it is not possible to interview any of the selected households, the interviewer should inform his/her supervisor, who will take the decision on necessary changes in accordance with appropriate procedures. Remember that the interviewer is not allowed to select the replacement household for interview. Activities that are NOT Allowed The work of the interviewer cannot be transferred to anybody else. In other words, no one else can do the interviewer’s work. No one involved in the survey (interviewer, supervisor, data entry operator) can be engaged in any other job during the survey. Work on the survey is a full-time job throughout the duration of the survey. The interviewer is not allowed to amend any information obtained from the respondent. The interviewer must not disclose, repeat or comment on any information obtained from the respondent, nor show complete questionnaire to any other person but his /her supervisor or other project staff. Remember that information given by the respondent is confidential. Do not bring anybody who is not a work team member to any interviews with respondents. Do not pressure respondents nor entice them to answer by making false promises or offers. All collected information must be handed over to the supervisor without any amendments such as changing, adding (except in the case of occupation and other codes) or erasing information. Material for the Interviews Documents and materials, which the interviewer needs for his/her work, is given to him/her by the supervisor at the beginning of the field work. It includes: ID card provided by the National Bureau of Statistics A map of the area where interviews will take place. List and addresses of households to be interviewed. 14 GHS Panel Survey questionnaires Interviewer Instruction Manual Auxiliary forms Stationary needed for work. Maps Before starting household interviews, the interviewer should, together with his/her supervisor, familiarize themselves with selected enumeration areas and exact location of the selected households. To that end, the interviewer should study the maps of all enumeration areas together with the list of households. The interviewer should understand the distribution of the sample (selected households), how they are located in relation to each other and the roads and paths that will have to be used. This will help plan his/her field work appropriately. Flow of Material and Reports The interviewer will hand over to his/her supervisor properly filled questionnaires and detailed report in the required format, on completed field work, which would include: 1. Summary results of conducted interviews: number of completed questionnaires, list of households which could not be located, or which have partly or completely refused (and at which stage) cooperation. 2. Any issue or problem faced in the field, e.g. in terms of maps, household identification, incomplete questionnaires, respondents’ behavior and opinion, scheduled subsequent visits, absent household members, etc. in order to resolve problems in the field. 3. Any other observation that the interviewer thinks the supervisor should be informed about for the sake of successful work. 15 Chapter 3: General Survey Procedures Interviews of the Household The interviewer must follow all the instructions as laid out in this manual Concurrent Data Entry of Questionnaires The data entry operation will be part of the general field work activities. The field team in each state will be made up a field supervisor, interviewers and a data entry operator. The data entry person will be provided with a laptop computer and printer, and will be available to enter the questionnaires each day as they are returned. Ideally, the data entry person will be located at a place where it will be convenient for the delivery of most of the questionnaires as the interviewers move across the state. This might include being based at the state NBS office at some stage of the field work operations. In the concurrent data entry method, whenever data is received from a household, complete or not, the questionnaire involved should be submitted to the data entry person for entry. The data entry program will be designed to provide an error report based on the entered questionnaire. This report will include discrepancies such as inconsistencies, incomplete households or sections and out-of-range values. The data entry system will also produce a report which will show where there is satisfactory completion of a questionnaire. Interviewers will receive a report along with the questionnaires that have been entered and returned each day and this will be used to guide the interviewer action for that day. The error reports will be given to the team supervisor who will review and approve the work that has to be done before passing it on to the interviewer. The supervisor will have the facility to override errors indicated on the report where these have been examined and certified as valid entries by the supervisor. Editing of Questionnaires This model of concurrent data entry does not include a person dedicated to the responsibilities of editing and coding of questionnaires. Several questions will need to be coded by the interviewer before handing the questionnaire to the supervisor. For example, in Section 3 of the Household Questionnaire, questions 13 and 25 require that occupation information be given in descriptive terms. These descriptions will need to be coded into the standard occupation classification codes before the questionnaire is delivered to the data entry operator for entry. This coding must be done by the interviewer. At the time of the interview, the interviewer will write-in the description of the respondent’s occupation and immediately after the interview, insert the appropriate code for that occupation from a listing that will be provided to each interviewer. The supervisor double-checks the code entry made by the interviewer and will generally include the occupation code as a check, when reviewing the error report with the questionnaire. How to Use the Flaps There is one flap in the Household Questionnaire. After the cover has been completed, the next step is to open Flap A. All the information on this flap should be completed for the household. The row where a person’s name is placed on the flap will be the row in which all the information about that person will be given in sections 1 to 6. The flap is kept open so that the row that corresponds to the person will always be visible. 16 Figure 1 1. I N D I V I D U A L I D 1 2 3 4 NAME LIST HOUSEHOLD HEAD ON LINE 1. MAKE A COMPLETE LIST OF ALL INDIVIDUALS WHO NORMALLY LIVE AND EAT THEIR MEALS TOGETHER IN THIS HOUSEHOLD, STARTING WITH THE HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD. (CONFIRM THAT HOUSEHOLD HEAD HERE IS SAME AS HOUSEHOLD HEAD EMMA EZE MARY EZE OCHE EZE AKI EZE 2. What is the sex of [NAME]? 3. What is [NAME]'s relationship to the head of household? MALE....1 FEMALE..2 HEAD............1 SPOUSE..........2 OWN CHILD.......3 STEP CHILD......4 ADOPTED CHILD...5 GRANDCHILD......6 BROTHER/SISTER..7 NIECE/NEPHEW....8 BROTHER/ SISTER-IN-LAW..9 PARENT.........10 PARENT-IN-LAW..11 DOMESTIC HELP (RESIDENT).....12 DOMESTIC HELP (NON RESIDENT).13 4. How old is [NAME] (IN COMPLETED YEARS)? 5. IS THIS PERSON A NEW MEMBER OF THE HOUSEHOLD IF RESPONDENT (ADDED ON DOESN'T KNOW, THIS VISIT)? USE YEAR OF BIRTH TO CALCULATE AGE OR USE MAJOR EVENTS LISTED IN ENUMERATOR MANUAL TO YES.1 PROMPT NO..2 (►Q7) RESPONDENT. I N D I V I D U A L 1 2 3 3 40 38 8 5 7. 8. What is [NAME]'s INTERVIEWE marital status? R: IS THIS PERSON A WRITE "99" FOR MONTHS AND MALE IN A DAYS IF RESPONDENT DOES POLYGAMOU Married NOT KNOW. IF THE AGE IS S MARRIAGE? (monogamous)..1 GIVEN THE YEAR IS NOT Married KNOWN, THE YEAR SHOULD BE (polygamous)..2 Informal ESTIMATED FROM THE AGE IN Union.........3 Divorced......4 Q4. ( Q13) I CHECK THAT AGE IN QUESTION D 4 AND YEAR OF BIRTH IN THIS QUESTION ARE CONSISTENT. YEARS 1 2 1 1 6. In what day, month and year was [NAME] born? DAY 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 MONTH 1 5 1 4 Seperated.....5 ( Q13) Widowed.......6 ( Q13) YES.1 NO..2 (►Q11) YEAR 1970 1972 1 How to Read the Questions Each question should be read clearly and exactly as presented in the questionnaire. You should make sure that the way the question is read preserves the sense of the English question, rather than a word by word translation. If you have questions about how to phrase a question, you should ask your supervisor and refer to your notes from the training, where the phrasing of questions in local language will be discussed in detail. After reading the question, time should be allowed for the respondent to answer. If it appears the respondent did not hear the question, it should be read again and time allowed for a response. In cases where there has to be translation, the question should be translated as literally as possible. Upper and Lower Case Texts (Capital Letters and Small Letters) Text written in upper case (capital) letters are instructions to the interviewer and should not be read to the respondent. Other texts that you will see written with upper case letters are lists and codes. These also should NOT be read to the respondent. Text written in lower case (small) letters SHOULD be read directly to the respondent. For example, in Question 9 (see Figure 2 below), you should read: “In what year did you get married to your current spouse?”. You should not read the text below that because it is written with upper case (capital) letters. The text in upper case letters is an instruction to you. 17 2 Figure 3 Data Collection Strategy Different Number of Visits: The questionnaire modules can be filled during one or more visits, depending on the level of cooperation from the household, household size, time and availability of direct respondent at the time of interview. Where certain household members are not at home, the interviewer should schedule another visit to the same household when that person is expected to be at home and available for interview. That other visit should be scheduled during the period when it is envisaged that the interviewer would be in that area. Direct Respondent Interviews: In this survey, unlike many other surveys, we collect data directly from the respondents. This is in contrast to surveys where the head of household or his/her spouse is the only respondent, who answers on behalf of all household members. Instead, in the GHS Panel Survey, each person 5 years and above should respond directly to the interviewer for him/herself. For children under 5, a parent or care giver is respondent. The only exception to the age limit rule is where there are other respondent age restrictions as indicated in the various sections of the questionnaire. In some cases a household member may be away from home during the whole period when the interviewer is in that area or the member might be in poor health/disability and cannot answer the questions for him/herself. It might also be that the individual is not allowed to answer. In such cases, the interviewer can ask the most knowledgeable person to answer instead of household member that is unavailable. In order to collect information directly from each household member, interviewers should visit the household as many times as necessary to get information from each individual member. Compliance with these procedures would ensure quality, reliability and accuracy of collected and entered questionnaire data. 1. Data Entry and Correction of Inconsistencies: Immediately after each visit, data will be entered and checked for consistency and completeness. Information would be revealed on any inconsistency, error or omissions, and the supervisor would inform the interviewer on all such corrections which are to be made on a return visit. This system enables data correction by the ones who are most competent to do it: the respondents who gave the original answers themselves. 2. Organization of Work: In order to enable implementation of this methodology, workload by interviewer per certain period of time is to be defined. The interviewer is responsible to complete such work during the given time. 18 Keep in mind that the households to be interviewed could have different cultural background and different reactions, attitudes and behavior in terms of the survey. The interviewer would have to interact with households of different structure, social and economic status, different level of education, employment status, habits, religion, etc. It means that the interviewer should have to develop significant capability of understanding and communication in order to be able to establish good relation with different persons, and that way to achieve success in different situations which he/she could face during the survey, particularly difficult ones. Besides the above mentioned, the interviewer must establish confidence with the respondent, which would enable him/her to get reliable and positive survey results. 1. Access to Information: The moment when the interviewer and respondent meet for the first time is crucial for interview success. Thus, first impression is important, interviewer’s appearance; his/her attitude at the very beginning and what he/she says are crucial for further work. Interviewers should be properly and professionally dressed for their work. Once selected households are located, the interviewer should ask to talk to the head of the household or his/her spouse. He/she should kindly and in a friendly manner greet the person and introduce him/herself. Then the interviewer should explain briefly and concisely the purpose of the survey, importance of the project and the need for cooperation by all household members in carrying out the GHS Panel Survey in Nigeria. An example of how the interviewer could introduce him/herself is as follows: “Good morning/afternoon, I work for National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), which is implementing General Household Panel Survey. Your cooperation and answers would be extremely important since they reflect status of many of our citizens who live in similar conditions. I would appreciate if you and your household members participated in this survey, answering to a group of questions on different topics. We would ask for your cooperation in providing information about your household and services you receive, as well as about individual members of your household. We would also like information about your expenditures on food, as well as your family’s enterprise and agricultural activity. It is important that the interviewer has a friendly attitude towards the respondent with self-confidence. If the interviewer gives the impression of nervousness or insecurity, he/she would not provide enough confidence to the respondent in order to obtain the necessary cooperation, participation and attention. The interviewer should always try to maintain the same mood throughout the interview - if the respondent for any reason gets tired or disturbed, allow a few minutes break or offer to return the following day or the next most convenient time. 2. Communication: Communication is to be established after the interviewer introduces him/herself, explains that this survey is being implemented throughout the country and informs the respondent of the value of cooperation for those who would analyze options for addressing existing problems in the country, until the interviewer becomes ready to start filling the questionnaire. During this short period, the interviewer must explain the purposes of the survey, and emphasize that collected data are confidential. The latter is crucial to avoid any fear of misuse of the answers given. All data would be used for statistical purposes, and the data which identify in any way any person or any household would not be used. Keep in mind that at the beginning of the interview, level of attention, communication, confidence, participation and data provision is low. Interviewer’s task is to gradually increase the respondent’s attention and interest and to maintain it at the highest possible level throughout the interview. Rhythm of the survey, tone of questions, adequate speed in question formulation, dynamics of the interview itself, knowledge about the questions and their order are all factors that determine success of the interview. If the interviewer reads questions with monotonous or nervous voice, or without any rhythm, the obtained information is likely to be of poor quality and the respondent would not be interested to answer. The interviewer should not give the impression that he/she considers him/herself an important person because of the assignment he/she performs on behalf of the government institution. He/she should be open, friendly and decisive and show that he/she is an experienced professional person. 19 He/she should not be authoritative or aggressive. Best communication can be established when the respondent sees that the interviewer is honest and up to his/her task. 3. The Interview: When the interview starts, try to comply continuously with the following instructions: Plan sufficient time for the interview Behave appropriately throughout the interview Do not give any information about which we are not sure, it is better to seem uninformed, but honest. To avoid any conversation or attitude, which could lead to a discussion or argument with the respondent, limit the conversation to the survey topics only Give neither promises nor offer anything as an incentive for the respondent to participate in the survey To the extent possible, try to avoid conducting the interview in the presence of a person, who is not a household member; the respondent could give different answers in the presence of another person Do not show surprise by any answer given by the respondent, either by the tone of your voice or action Comply strictly with the order and format in asking questions from the questionnaire. In other words, comply strictly with instructions given. Any modification could jeopardize the integrity of the information Read questions without applying any pressure on the respondent in any way. Never say something like: "You worked last week, right?”. Never assume that you know the answer in advance In terms of the rhythm of the interview, keep in mind that the interview consists of questions, answers, moment of silence and breaks. Read questions, trying to keep the same rhythm all the time, giving the respondent time to think about the answer. The interviewer must assess the level of respondent’s understanding: question reading speed would depend on this. Besides, the interviewer must pronounce every single word he/she reads clearly Read obligatory questions literarily as they are written in the questionnaire (without any modification). In the case that the respondent does not understand it, read it again. If the respondent does not understand it after the second reading, explain carefully to him/her the purpose of the question, taking care not to amend in any way the original meaning of the question and without any influence on the answer Allow the respondent enough time to answer the question. Try to ensure that respondent does not amend the meaning of the question. Do it in a friendly way - experience will show which are best ways to achieve this To complete the interview, express thanks for the information received - be kind. Try to make good impression during the first visit to the household. Keep in mind that you would have to come again to the same household Do not offer copies of the questionnaire or any other material or anything else that the interviewer is not authorized to distribute When leaving the household, thank all the respondents for their cooperation in the survey, time they spent and the efforts they invested 4. Concepts and Main Definitions: In order to manage the survey properly, a list of key terms have been established, which should help interviewers in carrying out their work. Detailed definitions are provided in relevant chapters on individual modules. 20 Population: Set of elements which make the whole. That could be all the people in a country or an entity, all households, etc. Sample: A part of population representing the whole population. Sample selection is a subject of statistical methods that take into account characteristics of both the population and individual members of the population Direct Interview: Procedure by which information on certain person is collected directly from the person. The person giving information on him/herself is a “direct respondent” Reference Period: Period about which the respondent is asked questions. The survey uses different reference periods depending on the type of required information, respondent’s ability to remember and objectives of each topic to be analyzed Household: Social unit consisting of one or more persons, who use joint accommodation and food. In other words, a household is a group of persons, who normally live in the same household unit (“live under the same roof”), who are or are not related and who eat together (“eat from the same pot”) Head of the Household: A person defined as such for the purpose of the survey, irrespective of reason (the oldest by age, decision maker in the household, a person who earns the most income, based on tradition, etc.) Guest: A person, who uses joint accommodation and food free of charge together with household members. A guest, who stays longer than six months is considered a household member Tenant of the Household: A person, who pays for accommodation in a part of a household. This person is not a member of the household whether they eat on their own or prepare food separately. Such tenant is considered a separate household Students Who Study in Another Town: If supported by the household, are treated as household members even though they are more than six months absent Household Members: Anybody, who meets the following criteria: Members Non-members A household member is present at the moment of interview, if that is the place where he/she spent at least 6 months of the previous 12 months. The household head should be listed as a member even if they did not spend 6 of the previous 12 months in the household. Person absent from the household longer than 6 months (including ones serving military service, in prison, religious service, etc.) Person absent at the moment of interview, if he/she is absent less than six months during the previous 12 months. Those who live elsewhere, visitors or tourists who are in the household less than six months. Guests or other persons, who live in the household longer than six months during the previous 12 months. Tenants, who eat and who do not eat with the household. Newborn babies irrespective of the duration of their stay in the household, as well as the head of the household. Those, who eat in the household but live elsewhere or live in the household but eat elsewhere. 21 Students, who are absent longer than six months but are supported by household members. Similar to tenants – students who pay for accommodation and food to the household. 5. Organization of the Questionnaire. In order to maintain respondents’ attention to achieve good rhythm of the interview, get information in such form that facilitates questionnaire filling. The questionnaire is designed with specific structure and order by which the topic on which questions are asked, are organized. The questions in the questionnaires are organized into sections, which are ordered in sequences one after another; and each is on one of the surveyed topics. The interview must be carried out in exactly the same order defined in the questionnaire. The following tables provide a list of sections and the topics covered. Detailed information on each section can be found in subsequent chapters of this manual. Household Questionnaire Section Topic Respondent Cover Cover To be completed by the field staff 1 Roster To be filled by the HOUSEHOLD or spouse. 2 Education All individuals for themselves unless under age 12; then collect the information from parent or guardian 3 Labour All individuals for themselves unless under age 12; then collect the information from parent or guardian 4A Health All individuals 4B Child Development Children 2 –18 years Remittance All individuals 10 years and above 6A Behavior All individuals 10 years and above 6B Attitude All individuals 10 years and above Non-Farm Enterprises and Income Generating Activities Owner or manager of enterprise 6 9 head of 10A Meals Away from Home Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases 10B Food Consumption and Expenditure Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases 10C Aggregate Food Consumption Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases 11 Non-Food Expenditures Most knowledgeable person or person, who is responsible for household purchases 12 Food Security HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult 13 Other Household Income HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult 14 Safety Nets HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult Economic Shocks and Death HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult 15A 22 Section 15B 15C 16 Topic Death in the Household Respondent HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult Conflict HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult Contact Information HOUSEHOLD head or eligible adult 23 Agricultural Activity Questionnaire Section Topic Respondent Cover Cover To be completed by field Staff. HOUSEHOLD ID must be copied from HOUSEHOLD to Agriculture Questionnaire. A1 Land Farmer, owner or manager of plot A2 Labor Farmer, owner or manager of plot 11C1 Input Cost Farmer, owner or manager of plot 11D Fertilizer Acquisition Farmer, owner or manager of plot A3i. & ii. Agricultural Production Harvest of Field and Tree Crops and Crop Disposition Farmer, owner or manager of plot A4 Agricultural Capital Farmer, owner or manager of plot A5 Extension Services Farmer, owner or manager of plot A8 Other Agricultural Agricultural By-Product A9 (A and B) Fishing Capital and Revenue A10 Network Roster Income: Farmer or caretaker of animals Owner of fishing operations Farmer, owner or manager of plot 6. Type of Information: The GHS Panel questionnaire requires different types of information depending on the topic, which is to be analyzed, age, and level of details and accuracy of required information. 7. Direct Response In case of persons older than 12, such person is the direct respondent. Besides, in sections on specific topic, such as consumption, agriculture and family business, direct respondent is person who is most knowledgeable about this subject (enterprise owner, person who does farming, person in the household in charge of supply, etc.). See previous Table for information on the most suitable respondent for each module of the questionnaire. 8. Questionnaire Filling: The questionnaire includes different elements: Question: It is to be literarily read to the respondent based on which information required in the survey is obtained. Each question is numbered Answer Modality or Core: These are possible answers where the interviewer selects an answer code, which is closest to the respondent’s answer. (Pay attention that in many questions, there are no offered modalities but measured units to be used in the answer (year, KM, kg, etc.) Answer Box: It is a place envisaged to enter given answer Instruction for Interviewer: These are printed in CAPITAL letters, which facilitates survey implementation Skip Patterns: Questions are normally asked in order; one after another. However, in some cases, given answer defines which question to ask next or which question is to be skipped. Questionnaire uses certain marks, which show which question is to be skipped 24 9. Question Types: There are two types of questions used in the GHS Panel questionnaire: Closed Questions a) Both question text and question code are read: For this type of question, the interviewer must literally read both questions and slowly, one-by-one, list of offered codes. In such questions both question and code are printed in small letters. b) Only Question Text is Read: For this type of question, the interviewer reads only the text of the question, waits for the answer and then selects corresponding code and enters it. In this type of question, question text is printed in small letters and question codes are printed in CAPITAL letters. Open Questions: For this type of question, the interviewer reads only question text and then enters answer exactly as given by the respondent. For such questions there are no offered answers, and the interviewer enters either words or numbers depending on the question and answer. “Respondent’s name” is an example of open question where the interviewer enters words. 10. Note for the Interviewer Anything printed in CAPITAL letters presents instruction for the interviewer and should not be read loudly. CAPITAL letters are used in three cases: Instructions for Interviewer: These are instructions for the interviewer on how to ask question, how to enter data, what to do after the answer is given. 25 Example: As it could be seen in the question 15 from the Education Section below, whole question is printed in small letters. It means that the interviewer reads whole question exactly as it is written. 15. What was the amount of the scholarship you received in the 2011-2012 school year? Example: Unlike the question 15, whole text taken from the Assets Section is printed in CAPITAL letters. This question should not be read loudly – this is an instruction for the interviewer and the interviewer has to do what he/she is requested and then move to the next question, which requires information from the respondent. I T E M LIST ALL THE ITEMS IN QUESTION 1 AND THE OWNER OF THE ASSET IN QUESTION 2. IF MORE THAN ONE ITEM, WRITE A DESCRIPTION OF THE ITEM BELOW, OTHERWISE WRITE ONLY THE CODE OF THE ITEM. I T DESCRIPTION E M C O D E 1 2 Brackets and Capital Letters: It means that the interviewer has to replace the word in the brackets by another word, when he/she asks the question. In certain sections of the questionnaire, the word “name” is often written in brackets [NAME]. In such cases this work should be replaced by actual name of the person interviewed at that moment. Figure 3 below shows Flap A open with a part of Section 1 – Roster, shown. If Mrs. Onyido is the respondent on this section of the questionnaire, then following the rules of filling-out the questionnaire, you would seek answers for the person in the first row of the section; in this case, Mr. Onyido. In asking the question, you should replace [Name] with the name of the person on the Flap. You would read question 12 as follows: 26 “What is Mr. Onyido’s main religion?” Example: As it is shown in question 1 (see Figure 4 below), the word animal is written in capital letters in brackets. It means that the word ‘animal’ should be replaced by the name of specific animal from the list below that question. Which means, when this question is asked first time, it would read: “Since the New Year, have you or any member of your household raised or owned any Calf Female?”, when asked for the first line. Figure 4 1. Since the new year, have you or any member of your household raised or owned any [ANIMAL]? ASK FOR EACH ANIMAL AND THEN ASK Q. 2-23 FOR EACH. IF NONE, (►SECTION 11k) YES………1 NO.………2(►NEXT ANIMAL) 101 CALF FEMALE 102 CALF MALE 103 HEIFER 104 STEER Preventing Influence on the Answer: In questions where an opinion is requested, answer modalities are often written in capital letters (that is the other type of closed question). It means that the interviewer does not read answer modalities and waits for the respondent to answer him/herself. (In other questions, modalities are written in small letters and interviewer should read them loudly) Example: In this case we want to make sure that respondent gives the reason why he/she is not currently in school. If the interviewer started reading answer modalities, the respondent might 27 agree with some other modality. But the reason 12 might be the reason why he/she is not currently in school. 10. Why are you not currently in school? HAD ENOUGH SCHOOLING...1 AWAITING ADMISSION.....2 NO SCHOOL/LACK OF TEACHERS ..............3 NO TIME/NO INTEREST....4 LACK OF MONEY..........5 MARITAL OBLIGATION ....6 SICKNESS...............7 DISABILITY.............8 SEPARATION OF DEATH PARENTS......10 TOO OF OLD DOMESTIC TO PARENTS..9 ATTEND OBLIGATION OTHERS ....11 ..12 (SPECIFY) ______________........13 (► 24) 11. Order of Asking Questions and Skip Pattern. In order to maintain logical sequence of filling questionnaire, a system of skip patterns, which enables interviewer to follow course of the interview depending on received answers from the respondent, has been developed. Depending on the answer given by the respondent, some questions would be asked, another would be skipped. In order to ensure this, the questionnaire is to be filled in order, moving from left to right. It helps interviewer to carry out interview without going back and forth and checking previous answers. The questionnaires are to be filled in order, question by question, except in cases of special instruction. Everybody is to be asked question 1, then question 2, 3 etc, see Figure 5. For example, in section where a flap is used, you should record the data one row (or person) at a time. At the end of the section, or where you are instructed to go to the next person, you should record information for the next person in the row below. This should be done until you have completed all persons for that section. How to Use the Flaps There are two flaps in the Household Questionnaire – flap A and B. After the cover has been completed, the next step is to open Flap A on page 34 of the panel household questionnaire. All the information on this flap should be completed for the household. The row where a person’s name is placed on the flap will be the row in which all the information about that person will be given in sections 1 to 4. The flap is kept open so that the row that corresponds to the person will always be visible. 28 Flap B is to be used for the non-farm enterprises section (9) of the household questionnaire. This flap should be prefilled before going to the field. Open flap B before commencing the interview on the nonfarm household enterprise section. Make sure that all non-farm household enterprises captured in wave 2 post-harvest are prefilled. In addition, new non-farm household enterprises should be documented in this flap and the necessary questions asked for this new enterprise in the rest of the section. UPPER and Lower Case Texts (CAPITAL Letters and Small Letters) Texts written in upper case (capital) letters are instructions to the interviewer and should not be read to the respondent. Other texts that you will see written with upper case letters are lists and codes. These also should NOT be read to the respondent. Text written in lower case (small) letters SHOULD be read directly to the respondent. For example, in Question 10 (see Figure 2 below), you should read: “In what year did you get married to each of your wives respectively?” You should not read the text below that because it is written with upper case (capital) letters. The text in upper case letters is an instruction to you. 10. 11. 12. In what year, did you get married to each of your wives respectively? Does [NAME]'s spouse/ partner live in this household now? [ASK ABOUT FIRST THE WIFE FOR REPSPONDENTS WITH MULTIPLE WIVES]. WRITE ID CODE OF CURRENT SPOUSE (OR IN THE CASE OF A POLYGOMOUS MARIAGE, FIRST WIFE AMONG THOSE) WHO LIVE(S) IN THE HOUSEHOLD. LIST THE YEAR FOR YOUR FIRST WIFE AND THEN THE YEAR OF MARRIAGE FOR UP TO 3 OTHER MOST RECENT WIVES. YES.1 COPY SPOUSE ID FROM ROSTER NO.2 (►Q13) WIFE 1 WIFE 2 WIFE 3 WIFE 4 ID CODE 1963 1 2 But, not all respondents should answer all the questions. For example, if person is not employed, he/she should not be asked about his/her job- such questions would be inappropriate. Besides, it would make interview longer and annoy the respondent. For these reasons, the questionnaire includes clear skip patterns, which indicate to the interviewer, which person should not be asked which questions, depending on the answer to previous question. There are numerous instructions for skipping questions and moving to another part of the questionnaire in the most efficient and logical way. Examples of such questions are given below: since they present key component of the questionnaire, their proper understanding would have significant impact on the quality of the answers and duration of the interview. The following signs are used to identify skip patterns: If there is not any sign, then all the respondents are asked the next question, irrespective of their answer to the previous question. 29 Example: If there is no skip pattern, irrespective of ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer to this question, the respondent should be asked the following question 4. 3. Do you have health insurance? YES.......1 NO......,2 If there is arrow ► followed by ‘Q’ and a number ► Q18, it means that the interviewer should move directly to the question with the number, in this particular case question number 18. Example: If person answers question 8 that he/she has taken steps to find a job in the past 7 days, the skip pattern indicates that he/she should not answer question 9, but instead should skip to and answer question 10. After posing question 10 to the respondent, s/he replies that they were available for work. This means the enumerator should skip to question 12. The enumerator then asks question 12 and records the month and year that the person did work for pay. If the worker has never done any work for pay, then the enumerator should skip to question 39. If the worker did not work in the past 12 months, then the enumerator should skip to question 50. 30 8. 9. Have you taken What is the main reason you did any steps within not look for a job in the past 7 the past 7 days days? to look for work? MOST IMPORTANT 10. Were you available for work during the last 7 days? 11. Why were you not available for work during the last 7 days? 12. When was the last time you did work for pay, profit or gain (if any)? REASON STUDENT...........1 IN SCHOOL ............1 HOUSEWIFE/CHILDCARE...2 BUSY WITH HOUSEHOLD TOO OLD/RETIRED.......3 DUTIES ...............2 SICKNESS/ILLNESS......4 TOO YOUNG TO WORK.....3 DISABILITY............5 TOO OLD TO WORK.......4 WAITING FOR REPLY FROM TOO SICK TO WORK......5 EMPLOYER..............6 DISABLED..............6 WAITING OTHER (SPECIFY) FOR RECALL BY IF NEVER, LEAVE BLANK (►Q37) ________________......7 EMPLOYER..............7 ON LEAVE..............8 YES..1 (►10) NO...2 WAITING FOR BUSY SEASON................9 (►Q12) OTHER(SPECIFY) YES..1 (►12) NO...2 _________________....10 IF YOU HAVE NOT WORKED IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS (►Q37) MONTH YEAR Sometimes all persons asked certain question skip to another question, Section or Person. In that case instruction in the box is printed in capital letters. Example: Question 22, everybody who answers this question has no further questions in this section and the interviewer goes to the next person irrespective of the answer. 31 22. What is/was [NAME]'s biological mother's main industry of occupation? AGRICULTURE.........1 MINING..............2 MANUFACTURING.......3 PROFESSIONAL/ SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES..........4 ELECTRICITY.........5 CONSTRUCTION........6 TRANSPORTATION......7 BUYING AND SELLING….8 FINANCIAL SERVICES..9 PERSONAL SERVICES..10 EDUCATION..........11 HEALTH.............12 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION.....13 OTHER, SPECIFY (►NEXT PERSON) __________________.14 12. Types of Data to be entered: There are two types of data to be recorded based on the information direct and transcript. Direct: Direct is when the interviewer needs to enter verbatim what the respondent says. It could be numerical data (quantity or price) or textual data (respondent’s name, employment sector). Transcript: It is when there are predetermined codes for expected different answers. The interviewer should identify corresponding code and enter it in the relevant box. In order to avoid errors in transcription, the interviewer must be particularly careful, taking due care to enter data in the box envisaged for the interviewed person. Since answer box envisaged for interviewed person is distant from individual's ID and distant from the place where question text and modality are loaded, the interviewer must take care to make proper entry. The purpose of shadowed rows is to facilitate this and to separate rows belonging to different household members which are interviewed. 32 13. Measurement Units For all questions where the respondent is asked to specify certain quantity, amount, frequency, etc., different measure units are offered (e.g. kilogram-sack, month-year, meter-kilometer, etc.). The respondent can choose the most suitable measure unit that is easiest for him/her to give answers to required questions. The respondent can choose, within the same section, to give answers for different items in different measure units (e.g. seed use for different crops could be expressed in different measure units). Households or individuals should first choose the unit of measure in which they want to respond in, and then give answer on quantity, amount or frequency. The interviewer enters measure unit code in the corresponding column, followed by the amount, quantity or frequency. The interviewer enters data on such measure unit as the respondent says and does not do any conversion. All necessary conversions would be done by computers during data entry or survey analysis process. Questions would be answered either by whole numbers or by decimal numbers. Decimal is to be separated from the whole number by dot (.). 14. Lack of Information When the respondent, for any reason, gives no answer to the asked question, the interviewer should record 9999 if the respondent does not know or cannot remember the answer or refuses to answer in the relevant box. 15. Entering “0” as an Answer If the question is about quantity (e.g. number of days, hectares, value, KM, etc.) zero is correct answer and should always be entered if the respondent gives such an answer. If the question contains categories, rather than value, zero is not valid answer. The interviewer should enter number, or in case of no answer 9999. In case there are more answers offered for asked question, and the respondent gives only one answer, the interviewer should enter hyphen (-) in the other columns, to indicate that only one answer was given. 16. Correcting Errors in the Questionnaire The questionnaire is to be filled by pen. In case of error, the interviewer should strikethrough the data so that one is still able to see the original and enter correct answer in the same box. The following chapters provide instruction for filling-out the questionnaires and their sections. Pre-Filling Questionnaire The role of an interviewer in completing questionnaires for post-harvest panel survey is crucial. Some sections in the post-harvest panel questionnaires should be pre-filled by the field staff from the post planting questionnaires. The essence is to aid in the development of tracking policy, which will: Ensure that same households/respondents interviewed during Post- Planting (1st Visit) period responded during Post Harvesting (2nd Visit) period To explore relationship between Post-Planting and Post Harvesting in Panel Survey To confirm and validate the inconsistencies in the data collected 33 To track changes over time in behaviour and activities of households/individuals To provide means to gather additional information on households including changes in household composition General Households Questionnaire The following sections should be pre-filled using the already completed HHs Post Planting questionnaires for individual HHs concerned: Cover page Household Identification Section 1 Roster-Panel Households (All household members) Section 1 Non-Farm Enterprises and Income Generating Activities Section 9 Section A-1: Household Identification The interviewer should pre-fill the HH identification section using the already filled pre-filling sheet, filled from the Post planting (1st) visit information. The pre-filling sheet will contain the same information from the post planting cover pages and the necessary household roster flap information. The pre-filling sheet contains both the cover page as well as the flap A household individual information on the same page. In situations where the household is more than 12, we will have two (household size of up to 24) or three pre-filling sheets (household size above 24 but less than 36) – in that order. The interviewer should ensure that the information entered on the cover page of the post-harvest questionnaires and flaps correspond with the information contained in the pre-filling sheets given them for the respective household. A sample pre-filling sheet is presented below. 34 State: Abia, HHID: 010001 SECTION A-1: IDENTIFICATION HOUSEHOLD HHID 010001 SOUTH EAST 4 Abia 1 UMUAHIA NORTH 115 2. STATE: 3. LGA 1 Code Name 1. Zone 1 4. SECTOR (Urban=1, Rural=2) 5. EA VERSION 670 SIR G.N.NWAGBARA 1309 6. RIC 30 7. HOUSEHOLD NO. 9. NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD: MR UJA AGBAEZE 10. ADDRESS OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD: D41 EHIMIRI HOUSING ESTATE FLAP A 1. INDIV 2. 3. 3b. 4. PERSON What is the sex of [NAME]? What is [NAME]'s relationsh ip to the head of household ? OTHER RELATIONSH IP How old is [NAME] (IN COMPLETE D YEARS)? REPORTE D DEAD NAME 1 U AGBAEZE 1 1 2 EUNICE 2 2 3 GRACE 2 3 4 MARY 2 12 5 UJA 1 7 6 OLUCHI 2 8 7 AHAMEFULA 1 7 8 EMMANUEL 1 3 9 10 11 12 35 Procedure for Pre-Filling the Cover Page Copy from the already completed pre-filling sheet unto the Name and code of the zones Name and code of states EA name/code, RIC code, HH number and Name of the Household Head, and all other information required on the cover page of the questionnaire for that particular HH Procedure for Pre-Filling Flap A of the Household Roster One new thing that appears in flap A is individual ID appearing on both extreme columns of this flap. The last column is especially useful to ensure that we don’t ask questions about individuals reported as dead in the household from post planting. Beneath the cover page information for the household is the household roster prefilled data for the flap A. Information on the name, sex, relationship to head, and person reported dead in post planting visit of individual members of the household will be contained in the pre-filling sheet. The interviewer should copy these information exactly as they appear in the pre-filling sheet(s). It must be noted that for households with more than 12 members – the pre-filling sheets will be 2, 3, 4 etc. depending on the actual size of the household as described above. In that case, the number of pre-filled household questionnaires should correspond with the household size. For household members reported dead in post planting, an asterisk should be put on the line corresponding to that individual’s line in the pre-filled flap A so that care is taken not to ask the household about this individual anymore. If any person(s) joined the HH, he/she should be regarded as new member(s) of the HH and will be entered or recorded below as the original members of the HH. This is normally done in the field during the interview process. Interviewers should ask if new members have joined the household since the interview (post planting visit) Procedure for Pre-Filling Non-Farm Enterprises and Income Generating Activities – Flap B o The procedure for pre-filling the flap B is the same as that of flap A, just that here we are dealing with enterprise ID instead of individual ID. Similarly, pre-filling sheets of enterprises operated by the household, captured in wave 2 post-harvest will be pre-filled. The industry code of the specific enterprise will be pre-filled as well. o Any new enterprise should be recorded below as an addition Agricultural Questionnaire The following sections should be pre-filled using the already completed Agriculture Post-Planting questionnaires for individual HHs concerned Household Identification Section (A-1) Flap C (Plot) Flap D (Plot-Crop) Flap E (Crop) Flaps C (Plot), D (Plot-Crop) and E (CROP) In pre-filling the flaps, the following steps should be taken In flap C, list all the plots recorded in the already completed post planting questionnaire for that household 36 Any additional plot acquired but not recorded should be included and tagged ‘new’ Similarly, flap D will be treated as flap C but should be related to crops instead of plots In flap E, list all the crops recorded in flap D (list each crop only once regardless of the number of plots on which it is grown) along with their respective codes. 37 Chapter 4: Household Questionnaire Cover Household Identification (HOUSEHOLD ID): Six (6) Cells Provided The first two cells are for the state code and next cells are for serial number of the questionnaire used in the particular state. Let us use Abia State as an example. The State Code for Abia state is 01. If this is the 1st questionnaire, then it will have code 0001. You should enter the information as 010001. If you use more than 1 questionnaire in a particular household then you must copy the HOUSEHOLDID of the HOUSEHOLD questionnaire to all other questionnaire in that particular HOUSEHOLD. Questionnaire of Total: This refers to number of questionnaires administered in each selected household. E.g. one questionnaire in a household should be filled in as 1 of 1, while two questionnaires in a household should be filled in as 1 of 2 for the household questionnaire and 2 of 2 for the other questionnaire, etc. The information for filling out the Questions below should be copied from the EA Line Map and Selection Sheet Zone: The name and code of the zone where the interview was conducted should be recorded in the space and box provided. State: The name and code of the state, where the interview was conducted should be recorded in the space and box provided. L.G.A: This is the Local Government Area (LGA): the name and code of the LGA where the interview is being conducted should be written in the space and box provided. Sector: A sector can be either Urban or Rural; one box is provided for entry of 1 for Urban and 2, Rural. E.A Code: The E.A. name should be written first, followed by the code E.A. The EA code is make up of four digits and if it less than four digits, there should be leading zero. RIC: This is the replicate identification code number of the E.A. Household Number: The household number is also represented by three digit code. This is the serial number obtained from the listing form in each selected EA and can be copied from the listing form or selection sheet. Name and Address of the Household Head This can be confirmed from the selection sheet and should be printed boldly in the space provided. Supervisor/Interviewer Name: The interviewer/supervisor will write his/her own name and the code assigned to him/her during training as a form of control to ensure the quality of data collected. There is a large box on the right hand side of the cover page of the questionnaire. In the box we have questions AG1 to AG3. The questions AG1-AG3 are used to determine if the Agriculture questionnaire should be administered to the household. Questions AG1 and AG2 should be completed by Interviewer, based on responses from the HOUSEHOLD head. 38 Questions AG3: PLEASE PAY ATTENTION TO THIS PARTICULAR QUESTION. If response to questions AG1 and AG2 is “NO”, then make sure the household has no other agriculture activity including any livestock or fishery activities. Recall that the definition of an agricultural activity is: Agriculture is the system of cultivating soil for production of crops, horticulture, livestock/poultry, fishing, forestry and in varying degrees. If the response of AG1 and AG2 is “2” AND THE HOUSEHOLD HAS NO OTHER AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY, place “2” as response to this question. In the case of all other responses to AG1 and AG2, response to AG3 must be “1”. Date of Interviews (First, Second and Third) This is a six digit number to represent the Day, Month, and Year that the first, the second and the third interviews were carried out. This is applicable when you visit a household multiple times in order to complete the questionnaire. Time of Interview (First, Second and Third): These questions seek to determine the time spent conducting the interview. The starting and ending time must only include the period the interview is being conducted. Note: the times should be recorded in GMT (24 hours) e.g. if the time is 1pm, the correct recording will be 13: 00. Questions 15a, 18a and 21a: These questions serve as a check list for the sections of the questionnaire; yet to be completed at the first visit, second visit and the third visit. At the end of the first day of interview in a household, the interviewer should mark the sections yet to be completed. At the second or third visit, the check list will guide the interviewer to know the sections to concentrate upon in order to complete all the sections of the questionnaire required in that household. Cover Page 3: There are two questions. These questions should be answered when the field work for the HOUSEHOLD has been completed. QUESTION 1: This gives the status of the interview process with the household. That is, it relates to all questionnaires for that particular household. QUESTION 2: This gives the status of data entry for all questionnaires from that particular household. SECTION 1: ROSTER Main objective of this section is to identify all the persons who are household members and collect general demographic information on them, such as age, gender, marital status, etc. The first step in completing the Roster is to open FLAP A. FLAP A is on page 34 of the panel questionnaire and contains Question 1 to Question 5. Respondent: Each individual in the household should respond for him/herself. In the case of children that cannot respond for themselves, a parent/caregiver of responsible adult age in the household can respond on their behalf. Household: In this survey, a household will be defined as a person or group of people, who usually sleep in the same dwelling and with a recognized head; and, who share common eating arrangement for more than 6 months preceding the interview. The following are examples of a household: A household consisting of a man and his wife/wives and children, father/mother, nephew and other relatives. A household consisting of a single person A household consisting of a couple or several couples with or without their children. 39 All listed persons who have been away from the household for more than six months are not considered to be household members except: Person identified as the head of household even if he or she has not been with the household for 6 months Newly born children (or newly adopted) Students and seasonal workers who have not been living in or as part of another household Head of Household: Usually, the head of the household is the person, who provides most of the needs of the household and is familiar with all the activities and occupations of the household members. He/she will be the person named when you ask the question, "Who is the head of this household?" INSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING-OUT THE ROSTER The household roster must be filled out with the greatest care. The following steps must be followed: Completion of FLAP A This flap must be completely filled-out before answering any other question in the Roster. That is, questions 1, 2 3, and 4 will be pre-filled and questions 4a will be completed when the interviewer visits the household. The interviewer should enquire if new persons have joined the household since the last interview. All persons that have joined the household since the last interview should be written immediately below the list of persons already entered in the roster. Question 1 to 5 should then be completed for these new persons that have been added. In filling Flap A, the respondent should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head should be interviewed. Provision is made for 12 household members. If there are more than 12 household members, a second household questionnaire should be used and the first person on the added questionnaire should be number 13 and so on. The interviewer should confirm that household head here is the same as household head listed on the cover page. QUESTION 3: Against each of the names listed, indicate the relationship to the head of household by printing the appropriate code. For instance, Cletus and Helen are members of the household and they are children of the head of the household. In this case, the interviewer should write code 3 in question 3 against the names of these two persons. Mabel is the sister of the head of household, so code 7 should be entered in her case; while Justina, who is Lawrence’s mother, will have code 10 as the entry for this question. Definition of Relationships 1- Household Head: The member, who makes key decisions in the household and whose authority is acknowledged by other members. It should be borne in mind that the key decision maker may not necessarily be the oldest. Other factors within the household can determine who the head is; such as what proportion of income is member’s to total household income. 2 - Spouse is the married or partner by mutual consent of the head. 3 - Own Child refers to biological child. 4 - Stepchild: The biological child of a spouse in a previous union (marriage). 5 - Adopted Child: A child acquired from orphanage 6 - Grandchildren Children from your son(s) or daughter(s) 7 - Brother/Sister: A male/female children born of the same parent 8 – Niece/Nephew: The daughter/Son of the brother/sister of the head of the household. 40 10 - Brother/Sister in –Law: Brother/sister of the spouse of the household head. 11 - Parent in-law: Parent of the spouse of the household head. 12 - Domestic Help (Resident): (Servant, guard, cook and baby-sitter among others) refers to a person who lives with the household and who is paid for services rendered in the household either in cash or kind. 13 - Domestic Help (Non-Resident): (Servant, guard, cook, baby-sitter among others) refers to a person who DOES NOT live with the household and who is paid for services rendered in the household either in cash or kind. 14 – Other Relation: Other relatives of the head of the household. 15 – Other Non-Relation: Other non-relatives. QUESTION 4a: In this question, we are interested in knowing whether the person is still a member of the household. If the person is no longer a member of the household, code 2 and mark with X the individual ID next to this question. Crossing out the individual ID to the right will ensure that once the relevant questions in section 1 have been asked about the individual, no other individual level questions are solicited of this person. QUESTION 5: A "YES" response should be given for all persons added on this visit to the list of household members that were pre-filled. A "YES" should also be given for all persons with less than seven years as recorded in question 4. QUESTION 6: Age is an important variable for most socio-economic analysis and must be established as accurately as possible. This is the age of the person at their last birthday. The age of each person will be recorded in completed years. If someone will be 25 years old in two weeks after the date of interview, the recorded age would be 24. Ages of nine years or less will be recorded with a leading zero – for example ‘03’; infants less than one year old will be recorded ‘00’. For older individuals, who may have problem determining their exact age, the interviewer will probe to obtain an estimate. Try to make the best possible estimate. Please make use of the national calendar of events to assist in determining the ages of such individuals. The Field Supervisor should also be of great help in determining the age of the elderly. Information supplied in QUESTION 4 above should be a guide here. Note also that for children aged 5 years and less, the age is very important in interpreting child malnutrition. The age of persons 100 years and older should be recorded as 98. How to use the historical calendar: Ask of any historical event (national or local) which occurred around the time of birth or childhood Ask how old respondent was when that event occurred or how many years elapsed before his/her birth Then use the information obtained to calculate the age. For example, if respondent was 15 when Nigeria obtained independence, this person should be 15 + 55 (i.e. 1stOctober 1960 to 23rdOctober 2016) = 70 years. If still this methodology fails, try the next approach Simply estimate how old the respondent may be based on some district historical events, or some other events which occurred Note: The date of birth MUST be recorded for all children six years old or less. In all such cases, the interviewer should ask to see the child's birth certificate in order to confirm the information provided. QUESTION 7: Present marital status refers to the respondent's marital status on the day of interview. Note also that marital status to be recorded is the most recent. For example, if a respondent was a widow and now has remarried, the current status is "Married". Definition of Marital Status 1 - Married (Monogamy): Includes all types of marriages e.g. civil, traditional and common law to only one woman. It is also a state of having only one sexual partner at any one time. The word, 41 monogamy comes from the Greek word called “Mono”, which means one or alone and the Greek word, “Gamos”, which means marriage or union. 2 - Married (Polygamy): Includes all types of marriages e.g. civil, traditional and common law to more than one woman. It is also defined as having more than one wife or husband at the same time, usually a man with several wives. 3 - Informal/Loose Union: Refers to a relationship contracted by two adults living together without civil or traditional recognition. Such people may report that they are married, so probe carefully and sensitively to find out the actual marriage contract. 4 - Divorce: When a marriage is legally dissolved 5 - Separation: Living apart without legal backing 6 - Widowed: A situation where one of the couple is dead. 7 - Never Married: A situation where the respondent is single and has never been married before. QUESTION 8: This question seeks to know if this person is a male in a polygamous marriage. If No, the interviewer should skip to question 12. QUESTION 9: The objective of this question is to know how many wives are currently living with the man who is currently in a polygamous marriage at the time of interview. Only men who are currently in a polygamous marriage should answer this question. E.g. if the respondent has two wife the interviewer will write 2 in the space provided and if more 2 than wife the interviewer will the appropriate number in the space provided. QUESTION 10: DROPPED QUESTION 11: This question seeks to determine if the household member’s spouse is currently a member of the household. In the case of a male in a polygamous relationship, the interviewer should enquire of the first wife only. If answer is “No”, record 2 and SKIP to Question 12a. QUESTION 12: This is most senior wife in terms of marriage that lives in the Household. The interviewer should copy the ID Code of the spouse from the Household Roster. QUESTION 12a: All members of the household should answer this question. Record the primary language spoken within the home by the individual other than English. Record language code of the most commonly spoken language if more than 1. QUESTION 12b: All members of the household should answer this question. Record mobile phone ownership. If response to this question is “NO” then skip to Question 13. QUESTION 12c: All members of the household who own a mobile phone should answer this question. Ask if respondent can access the internet using his/her cell phone. QUESTION 13: These questions seek to know if the respondent has been interviewed (or information has been collected on this individual) in the previous round of the survey. QUESTION 14: MOVED TO SECTION 4a QUESTIONS ON MEMBERS JOINING THE HOUSEHOLD SINCE THE LAST INTERVIEW: QUESTIONS 15 TO 27 42 QUESTION 15: This information is useful as a guide to whether or not the person qualifies as a household member using the time rule. The CODE for the date should be recorded and not the date itself. QUESTION 15: This question is for people that have not been captured in the last time the interviewer visited the household. Thus, we want to know when the person joined the household. The interviewer should write only the month code in the space provided for month and the year in which the person joined the household. The CODE for the date should be recorded and not the date itself. QUESTION 16: This question seeks to know why the respondent joined this household. Write the code that is applicable to the response. The option 11 – fled problem area or internally displaced persons (IDPs) – refer to persons who relocated to this household as a result of conflicts, military insurgence, or problems in their previous location. A possible problem or conflicts might be terrorist attack in previous community. QUESTION 17: This question should be answered by all persons in the household. The religion of the household member is required. As there are countless large and small religions, many of which cannot be verified to be real or legitimate, do not try and query what denomination as this creates friction and may result in non-response to the rest of the interview. Note that the religion of small children should also be recorded although this is normally the same as their parents. QUESTIONS 18 to 22: These questions are about the biological father of the respondent. If the biological father is a member of the household then the household Individual Code should be written in Question 19. Carefully identify the respondent's father on FLAP A before writing the code. QUESTION 18: Asks if the household member’s biological father lives in the household. This information is useful for determining whether the child’s (natural) father is alive and to measure the prevalence of orphan-hood and child fostering in the population. The response is either Yes or No; if No skip to question 20. ALL respondents that are asked question 27 should not be asked any subsequent questions in the roster and should be skipped to SECTION 2A, as instructed. QUESTIONS ON MEMBERS THAT HAVE LEFT THE HOUSEHOLD SINCE THE LAST INTERVIEW: QUESTIONS 28 TO 41 These questions should be answered by the head of the household or the spouse of the head of household, or some other responsible adult in the household. QUESTION 28: This question concerns those members, who had left the household from question 4a. We are interested in knowing the main reason why the person left the household. There are possible options offered with codes. Please probe for the main reason why the person left the household and print the appropriate code for the given reason. QUESTION 29: This question seeks to know the month and year in which the person left the household. The code of the month and year should be written instead. QUESTION 30: This question seeks to know if the person resides in Nigeria or outside Nigeria at the time of the interview. If the person leaves outside Nigeria, the interviewer should skip to question 32. 43 QUESTION 31: The interviewer should write the name of the State, the Code as well as the name and code of the LGA that the relocated person lives. The list of the LGA code and state code will be given to each interviewer for proper coding and the supervisors will check what the interviewer has written. The LGA code should be only the last two digits. QUESTION 32: This question is for those relocated household members, who migrated outside of Nigeria. We want to know the country that the individual migrated to. If the respondent does not know the country that the former household member has moved to, then 98 should be recorded as the response. QUESTION 33: This question asks how many months the respondent has been out of Nigeria. The interviewer should record only in months. This is the number of months with leading zeros for single months. E.g. One month should be recorded as 01 and ten months should record as 10. The interviewer should know that the question is asking from date of the last visit; if less than one month, the interviewer should write 01. QUESTION 34: There could be more than one reason that the former household member migrated but this question requires only one response. The single response should be the most important reason for the migration. QUESTION 35: This question seeks to know if the former household member is currently in a job. QUESTION 36 to 38: These questions are about the former household member's current job. A complete description of the job must be provided in question 36 and the appropriate economic activity of the job provided in Question 37. Note that this job that has been written must not be coded in the interview. The one who provided information to the migrated household member on how to find job should be written in question 38. QUESTION 39 to 41: These questions seek to determine the former household member's sources of financial assistance to migrate and to settle abroad. Answers to these questions must conclude with a skip to the NEXT PERSON because no further questions should be asked about the former household member. 44 SECTION 2: EDUCATION FOR MEMBERS IN THE HOUSEHOLD All household members 5 years old and older must have a response. The objective of this section is to measure the level of education or formal schooling of all household members. The key educational indicators that are of interest are enrolment rates and dropout rates. Dropouts are persons of primary or secondary school age that are not currently attending school. Additional educational indicators include the highest grade completed and the type of school attended (private or public). This section also collects information on literacy levels and education expenditure Respondents: Ideally, all household members should respond for themselves. Proxy answers are allowed as parents/guardians can answer for their children who are under 12 years old. In other case where it is not possible for individual response, the head of household or the spouse of the head of household should respond on behalf of the household members that are not available for the interview. In this section, the term ‘school’ includes primary, secondary and post-secondary schooling, as well as any other intermediate levels of schooling in the formal school system. It also includes technical or vocational training beyond the primary-school level, such as long-term courses in mechanics or secretarial work. Schools that carry out non-formal education are also included here. Ensure that respondents understand what is meant by ‘non-formal education’. A non-formal education includes religious schools, such as Quranic schools, that do not teach a full, standard school curriculum. If a school teaches religious courses but also includes the standard curriculum – such as many Catholic schools – it would be coded as a standard school. Pre-school is listed for children, who do not attend grade 1 at age 5 but do attend some form of organized learning or early childhood education programme, whether or not such a programme is considered part of the school system. The definition of organized early learning programme does not refer to programme offering only babysitting or child-minding. FLAP A on page 34 should be used with this section. QUESTION 1 (DROPPED) and 2: These questions are for the interviewer and are designed to provide guidance as to the next section to be answered by the respondent. A response must be written before any skip action is taken. If the person is less than 5 years, then the interviewer should skip to section 4, health. QUESTION 3 and 4: These questions are to identify the respondent. If the individual is answering for him/her self, then 1 should be written in question 3 and skip to question 5, otherwise, code 2 and provide the ID of the person responding from the household roster. QUESTION 5: The response to this question is "YES" if the respondent can BOTH read and write in any language. If the respondent can read but cannot write, or write but cannot read, or can neither read nor write, then the correct response is "NO". QUESTION 6: This question is designed to separate the respondents into persons that have attended school and those that have not. Attendance does not mean that any level was completed. It should also be noted that the term "school” includes Quaranic schools. If the individual has never attended school, skip to Q8. QUESTION 7: This question is for individual members that have never been to school. We are interested in knowing the main reason why the individual has never been to school. Although this question can have more than one valid response, it is a single response question and only the MAIN reason is required. 45 Responses such as "NONE" and "DON'T KNOW" should be recorded under Other Specify. Once you code the response here, skip to the next person or section for this individual. QUESTIONS 8 to 27: These questions are for persons that have attended school. QUESTION 8: The interviewer should ask the respondent at what age did him/her start schooling. The interviewer is expected to probe further using stories, events and illustrations that happened for the elderly ones to assist them to recall from memory the age. QUESTION 9: This is the highest level that was SUCCESSFULY completed by the individual. Refer to the Q21 of the household roster for the description of levels of education in the country. QUESTION 10: Qualification means certification at the respective level. That is, the respondent has passed all necessary qualifying examinations and coursework at that level. Definition of Qualification Codes: NONE: The respondent has not been certified to have completed any level. FSLC: First School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in primary school. MSLC: Modern School Leaving Certificate is attained after spending six (6) years in the primary school and three years of Modern school. VOC/COMM.: Vocational/Commercial is a certificate obtained after going through artisan/art craft training e.g. Mechanic, Tailoring etc. JSS: Junior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of the first three (3) years in secondary school. SSS (O’ Level): Senior Secondary School is a certificate obtained after completion of six (6) years in secondary school. A Level: Advance Level is a certificate obtained after two (2) years completion of higher secondary school (HSC). NCE/OND: (NCE) National Certificate of Education is a certificate obtained after completion of three (3) years in college of education. (OND) Ordinary National Diploma is the certificate obtained after completion of first two (2) years in the Polytechnic. School of Nursing: This is a certificate obtained after spending three (3) years in the school of nursing. BA/BSc./HND: Bachelor of Arts/Bachelor of Science/Higher National Diploma are obtained after three (3), four (4), five (5) or six (6) years of university or polytechnic education. Technical or Professional Diploma: It refers to a Diploma Certificate obtained from any polytechnic or university. Masters: Refers to any Masters degree. It is the second degree obtained in the university after Bachelors (first degree). Examples include Master of Science (MSc), Masters of Business Administration (MBA). Doctorate: Refers to PhD: Doctor of Philosophy is the third level degree obtainable in the university after Masters. QUESTION 11: DROPPED 46 QUESTION 12: DROPPED QUESTION 13: This question asks about the respondent's enrolment in school in the current school year, 2015 - 2016. The school can be any of those with the levels listed in question 15 below. QUESTION 14: This is a single response question, so only the main reason should be given. For persons that are elderly or who do not consider further education necessary, option 1 should be recorded, i.e. "HAD ENOUGH/COMPLETED SCHOOLING". Once the code for the main reason has been written, skip to Q23 for this individual. QUESTIONS 15 TO 24: These questions are only for persons enrolled in school in the current school year, 2015 - 2016. QUESTION 15: This question is for enrolment in the current school year: 2015 to 2016. Even if the respondent is not presently attending but has been registered in a class at the school, the code level in which the person is enrolled (or registered) should be recorded. QUESTION 16: This question seeks to know institution that operates the school that the individual is enrolled in the current school year. A school in Nigeria can be run by the federal government, state, local government, or some religious body. The right code of the school should be written. QUESTION 17: This question sought to find out the means by which the individual attends school. Some individuals might mainly walk to school; others might use the bus or some commercial means of transportation. This is a single response method so the main method is required. The method is considered "main" if that is the method used for most/all of the journey on most days. QUESTION 18: We want to know how long it takes the individual to reach school using the main means coded in question 17. This is the time usually taken on a typical day. Note that the times which have been coded, are in minutes. The interviewer should record the CODE for the time and not the time itself. QUESTION 19: The question seeks to determine if the individual is currently on scholarship, i.e. is registered for a scholarship for this current school year: 2015 to 2016. If the individual has no scholarship for the current school year, then code “2” and skip to question 23. QUESTION 20 to 22: These questions seek to determine the amount of money to be received this current year under the scholarship, the period over which the scholarship is to be received, and what the benefit covers. The interviewer should ask for an official document (if any) and copy out the amount, otherwise ask the respondents for the actual amount. The value of the scholarship for 2015 - 2016 may include one or two school years. However, the amount to be entered is the value for the current year only. If during the current school year the person has two scholarships of different amounts, the sum of the amounts received must be calculated and entered. The number of years over which the scholarship has been granted should be recorded in question 21 and the source of the scholarship in question 22. The organization that granted the scholarship should be given in question 22 by printing the appropriate code. 47 QUESTION 23: This set of questions is intended to determine education expenses for each household member that was or is in school at any time during the school year in the past 12 months. These expenditures may be in cash or kind, and include all amounts since the beginning of the academic year 2015 to 2016. When the individual is unsure of the amount, you should probe and, if possible, ask for an approximate value and enter in the appropriate COLUMN. In most cases, the authorities of the school will send the parent/guardian a fee schedule, so you can ask for it and copy out the expenses under each category. But make sure that this fee schedule is for the whole academic session up to the present time and not for one school term. The amount should be recorded in absolute value. IF THERE WAS NO EXPENDITURE, WRITE 0. IF THERE WAS EXPENDITURE BUT THE RESPONDENT DOES NOT KNOW HOW MUCH, THE INTERVIEWER SHOULD PUT A DASH "-". Note Categories A-G: If expenditure for this student can be fully given in the Sections A-G and the values are known for all of these categories, then the amounts should be recorded in the appropriate column. If there was no expenditure in any category, then 0 should be entered in that category. Category H: This category is used in order to report: i. ii. Education expenses that are not one of those identified in categories A-G. Total of expenditure in SOME of the categories A-G for which the respondent does have the exact figures. Category I: This category should be used when the respondent cannot individually identify the areas of education expenditure. That is, the respondent only knows the expenditure as a lump sum value. The lump sum value should be placed in category I. A dash should be placed in all the categories (A-G) that makes up the lump sum value placed in category I. If the individual provides expenditure in the individual categories, then the aggregate is not necessary. QUESTIONS 24 to 27: These questions are about REPEATING LEVELS IN PRIMARY AND/OR SECONDARY SCHOOL and are for persons currently attending school or who have attended either or both of these school levels in the past. QUESTION 24: This question sorts those that repeated at the primary and/or secondary level, or did not repeat at all. If the individual never repeated any school level, then skip to the next section for this person. QUESTION 25 to 27: These questions collect information on the last level in the list that was repeated (Question 25); the reason for repeating the level (Question 26); and how many times the level indicated in Question 25 was repeated (Question 27). QUESTION 28: DROPPED After completing this section, all respondents are routed to SECTION 3A SECTION 3A: LABOUR In this section, we collect information on the labor activities of men, women and children in the household. It is important not to confuse labor activities with a person’s main activity. These are not the same. A person’s main activity may be a housewife or a student, but they may have other labor activities that should be recorded in this section. For example, a wife who has her own plots or her own small business should not be excluded from this section, even if she primarily works in domestic activities. Domestic activities are not included in this section of the questionnaire, but her other activities would be included, even though she may consider being a housewife her “job”. A child who is a student may consider themselves to be primarily a student without a job, but they may help their parents as unpaid family labor with their businesses or agricultural activities. For example, if a child 48 works on his parent’s farm or in their carpentry shop, the child’s farming or carpentry activities should be included, even if the child does not receive payment directly for the work. We are concerned with labour activities of members in the past 7 days only. Respondent: This section concerns all household members aged 5 and above. You should confirm eligibility of the household members to respond to the questions. For children under 12, the parents or adult member of the household could answer on their behalf. Where some household members are absent, proceed with the interview for all those present but make the necessary arrangements to call back and continue the interview with absentee members after ascertaining the appropriate time that they would be available. If it is not possible to interview the person directly, a proxy response is possible. Terms and Definition Some definitions and terminology used in the questionnaire include: Main Occupation: This is the work to which most time is devoted when a respondent has more than one job. For instance, the main occupation for the past 7 days of a respondent who farms mostly and also goes fishing during the dry season is farming. The Last 12 Months: This refers to the period of 12 consecutive months just before and including the interview day. During the interview, you should be specific. For example, if the interview takes place on March 10, 2016, then we refer to all the preceding months down to March 9, 2015. Secondary Occupation: This is the work to which much of the respondent's time is devoted after the main occupation. In the example given above, fishing would be the secondary occupation of the farmer in the 7 days. However a respondent may have more than one secondary occupation. Reference Period: The reference periods used in this section are the last seven days and the last twelve months. When conducting the interview, the interviewer should direct the respondent to consider the seven days and the last 12 months prior to the day and month of the interview. For example, if the interview is taking place on a Wednesday, the interviewer should ask the respondent to consider the seven days from last week Tuesday. QUESTION 1: This is a filter question to confirm eligibility of the household member to provide information in this section. Only household members 5 years and older are allowed to answer the rest of the questions in this section. QUESTION 2: This question is to confirm whether information is being provided in proxy or by the household member himself/herself. QUESTION 3: If response is given by proxy, then the ID of the respondent should be written in this column. QUESTIONS 4 – 6c: These questions seek to capture information on the various types of work that each eligible member of the household was engaged in for the past 7 days. The respondent should answer each question. While Question 4 asks about engagement in paid work, Question 5 seeks information about engagement in farming activity owned or rented by a member of the household and Question 6 asks if there was engagement in own account work or business in enterprise belonging to him or someone in the household e.g. trader, carpenter, etc. Question 4b, 5b and 6b ask for the number of HOURS worked in each employment in the last 7 days. For question 5c and 6c, indicate the main use of the product from this employment by printing the appropriate code. Take note of the skips in question 4, 5, and 6. 49 QUESTION 7: Interviewer should check if there is any “Yes” response in Questions 4 or 5 or 6. If there is a ‘Yes’ response, the interviewer should skip to question 12b. Otherwise, he should continue to Question 8. QUESTIONS 8: Those who were not engaged in any economic activities (wage/salaried, non-farm enterprise, and agricultural employment) in the last 7 days should indicate whether they took any steps to look for job. And for those who did, the interviewer should skip to Q10. QUESTIONS 9: This question seeks to find out the main reason (constraints to job search) why the individual did not work (constraints to job search) in the last 7 days. The household members, who did not look for work in the last 7 days will give the main reason why they did not look for job and the interviewer should thereafter skip to Q38. QUESTIONS 10: Those who took steps to look for job should again indicate whether they were available for work in the last 7 days. For those members who were available for work, the interviewer should skip to Q38. QUESTIONS 11: Those who were not available for work should indicate the main reason why they were not available. The interviewer should then print the appropriate code. Once the reason for the individual’s non-availability for work has been coded, the interviewer should skip to question 38. QUESTIONS 12b: This question makes reference to question 4. Everybody who was engaged in any economic activity in the last 7 days should indicate whether they have ever done any wage/salaried work for pay in the last 7 days. This question refers strictly to wage/salaried work owned by non-members of the household including company, or other employers outside of the household. If the response is a no, the interviewer should skip to Q38. QUESTIONS 13: Those, who have ever done any wage/salaried work in Q12b, the description of the primary activity in the main job should be given by the respondent. The interviewer should thereafter code the activities using the occupation codes provided at the end of this manual. QUESTIONS 14 - 15: In these questions, we want to know the sector of occupation of the respondent’s main wage/salaried work described in question 13. The economic activities in the main job, and the employers should be indicated by the respondents by printing the appropriate sector and employer codes. QUESTION 15b: This question asks for whether the employment that the member was engaged in is an apprenticeship job. This is meant to separate paid apprenticeship from unpaid apprenticeship employments. QUESTION 15c: Here we are interested in capturing the size of the enterprise that the individual is engaged in as well as learning the person’s knowledge about where he works. The appropriate code should be written for the number of employees in this enterprise. QUESTION 15d: We are interested in knowing whether the individual employee is enrolled a pension scheme for this job. The focus here is this job. The individual might have enrolled in pension plans for different jobs but we are interested in the job under investigation. The interviewer should probe to ensure he/she gets the right answer. A “Yes” or “No” answer is required for this question. 50 QUESTION 15e: This question seeks to separate contract works or casual works from permanent works. This asks if the individual has a letter of appointment or agreement for this very job. A letter of appointment here refers to any written document that qualifies the individual to be an employee of that entity. A “Yes” or “No” answer is required for this question. QUESTION 15f: This question is interested in uncovering employer-provided health insurance for the individual employee, either fully or partially. This is not the same as the individual being personally enrolled in a health insurance scheme with employer contribution. A “Yes” or “No” answer is required for this question. QUESTIONS 16 - 18: The number of months in the last 12 months and the number of weeks during these months as well as the number of Days in the last 7 days did the employed respondent actually work?. Note that Q16 requires not more than 12 months. Similarly, question 17 should be less than or equal to 52 weeks, and QUESTIONS 19 – 20: DROPPED QUESTIONS 21: The respondents are required to provide information on the payment they have received. The first part requires the last payment amount in Naira while the second part seeks the time unit in which the payment was honoured. If the individual has not yet received the payment, please as for how much he/she expects to receive. QUESTION 22: This question seeks to know the major decision maker in terms of the disposition of the earnings from this main employment. The respondent is to indicate the people in the household who, decide how the payments received from this employment should be used. Interviewer can ask for up to two people and write the individual IDs of these members. QUESTION 23 – 24: Besides regular salary/wage, did the individual employee receive any in-kind payment or allowance for this employment? If Yes, the interviewer should write code 1 for question 23 and proceed to question 24 to answer the amount and time unit of payment. Secondary Occupation: This is the work to which much of the respondent's time is devoted after the main occupation. In the example given above, fishing would be the secondary occupation of the farmer in the last 7 days. QUESTIONS 25 – 37: Details about the status of the respondent’s second job are asked in these questions. These questions are the same as that of the main job but with reference to the second job for somebody, who says yes in questions 4, 5 or 6. QUESTIONS 38: Eligible members of the household are required to confirm whether they contribute to the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). QUESTIONS 38a: This is a filter question to verify whether the individual respondent did collect/ chop firewood the previous day. A “Yes” or “No” answer is required for this question. A “No” answer skips to question 39a. 51 QUESTIONS 39: The individual is required to state the number of minutes spent during the previous day of the interview to collect or chop firewood or other fuel materials for the household use. Option codes are given and the interviewer is supposed to print the appropriate code for the response. QUESTIONS 39a: This is a filter question to verify whether the individual respondent did collect/ fetched water the previous day. A “Yes” or “No” answer is required for this question. A “No” answer skips to next section of the questionnaire. QUESTIONS 40: The respondent is required to state the number of minutes spent during the previous day of the interview to collect or fetch water for the household use. Option codes are given and the interviewer is supposed to print the appropriate code for this question. QUESTION 41 – 49: These questions are for those household members who did no salaried/wage work in the last 7 days. If a household member worked in the last 7 days, then a “NO” response to question 41 should skip him/her to the next section. NOTE: ALL PERSONS THAT WORKED IN THE PAST 7 DAYS (SEE QUESTION 4 IN SECTION 3A) MUST HAVE WORKED IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS. QUESTION 41: This is a filter question to know if the individual worked in the last 7 days. For those households, who did not work in the last 7 days, this question will allow us to proceed to ask them about their employment in the last 12 months. If there is a ”YES” response in question 12b, then that indicates that the household member was working in the last 7 days, which automatically means that he/she worked in the past 12 months and the response to this question should be "YES". If the response is "YES", the interviewer should skip to the next section. If the response is "NO", the interviewer should continue with the rest of the questions in this section. QUESTION 42: Asks about being engaged in paid work (i.e. as an employee) in the last 12 months for those households, who did no wage/salaried work in the last 7 days. QUESTION 43: A description of the respondent’s main occupation in the past 12 months should be written clearly and completely. This description should be written in such a way that there will be no confusion in identifying the correct occupation code. All occupation codes should be written outside the interview time. The occupation codes are given in Appendix 1 of this manual. QUESTION 44: A description of the type of business (or industry), where the respondent did the job recorded in question 43, should be written clearly and completely. This description should be written in such a way that there will be no confusion in identifying the correct industry code. All industry codes should be written outside the interview time. The industry codes are given in Appendix 2 of this manual. QUESTIONS 45 - 47: These questions are designed to determine how much time the worker spent doing this main job. The term "employment" includes working in one's own business. QUESTION 45: The time period is the last 12 months and the question asks, “Of these 12 months, how many were spent in this job?” This time does not have to be consecutive months but is number of months in total. For example if the respondent worked all of February, April and June and two weeks in September then the number of months are 3.5. 52 QUESTION 46: The reference period is the months that was spent in this job, i.e. the months that correspond with the number given in question 45. The value given in this question should be less than or equal to the value given in question 45 multiplied by 4, except when the value given in question 45 is zero. QUESTION 47: This is an average value for this job over the past 12 months. A typical work week is made up of 8 hours per day or a total of 40 hours for the week. The value given can be much more or much less than this. The maximum could be as much as 80 hours per week or even more - but not too much more. QUESTION 48: The employer in this main occupation should be identified and the code written as the response. If the respondent is working in their own business, then the response should be "SELFEMPLOYED". QUESTION 49: This question has two parts: the amount received and the period that that payment covers. The interviewer should take care that the amount and time code properly match. SECTION 4: HEALTH A key aspect of household welfare is the ability to seek and have access to medical care when required. This section contains health condition(s), activities of daily living, pre-natal care, immunization and nutrition. Respondent: This part should be administered to each member of the household. Parents or guardians can, however, answer for younger children, while respondent 12 years and older should respond for themselves. QUESTIONS 1– 14 REFERENCE PERIOD IS FOUR WEEKS AND QUESTIONS 15 – 21 REFERENCE PERIOD IS 12 MONTHS. Several skip instructions were introduced and Interviewer should STRICTHLY FOLLOW THE SKIP INSTRUCTIONS GENERAL HEALTH CONDITION QUESTION 1: This is a filter to know whether the individual consulted any medical practitioner or dentist or traditional healer in the last 4 weeks. The visit does not have to be because the individual has a health or dental problem. If the individual responds No, then skip to Question 3, otherwise, continue to question 2. QUESTION 2: In this question, we are interested in knowing the reason(s) why the individual consulted a health practitioner list in Q1. The reasons are for all the visits in the past 4 weeks. The question allows for up to three reasons. If there are more than three reasons, only the three most important ones should be taken. QUESTION 3: This question is for all household members, whether or not they consulted any health practitioner, traditional healer or dentist, etc. in the last 4 weeks. A “Yes” response takes us to the next question, while a “No” answer, skips to question 13. 53 QUESTION 3b: If the individual suffered either injury or illness within the reference period, the interviewer should probe to get the most serious one from the individual and record the appropriate code. QUESTION 4: Asks if the illness/injury made household member stop or was unable to undertake his/her usual activities in question 4 (refer to the injury or illness mentioned in Q3). NOTE: Usual activities refer to the activities or activity that the respondent spends most of his/her time doing. This could be work on the job, attending school, doing housework, etc. A “Yes” response continues to Q5, while a “No” answer, skips to Q6. QUESTION 5: In asking Question 5, the interviewer should probe to get the number of work or school (or housework etc.) days missed in the previous four weeks because of the condition given in question 3. QUESTION 6 – 8: These questions are for those persons, who suffered an illness or injury in the past 4 weeks. QUESTION 6: This question seeks to find out which category of health practitioner was visited, if any. The question provides for up to two different categories of health practitioners. If the respondent did not visit a health practitioner, i.e. code "12", the interviewer should record the code and skip to question13. "Consult" in this question means to be examined by a Doctor, Medical Assistant, Nurse, Pharmacist, Midwife, Traditional healer or other health practitioners for diagnosis and/or treatment of the illness or injury. Explanation of some of the categories of health practitioners is given below: Traditional Healer refers to one who uses medicinal herbs and plants to treat patients. In some cases a traditional healer may also use signs, prayers or folk remedies. Traditional healers are concerned with treating the whole person, focusing on family and social relationships. The traditional healer's approach is a holistic one, with the mind, body and spirit being regarded as special elements in the healing process. A doctor is physician, who examines, diagnoses, and treats patients. A nurse can be synonymous to a physician assistant, who examines, diagnoses, and treats patients under the supervision of a physician. A person educated and licensed to practice nursing and one, who is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Medical assistants are referred here are licensed health care workers, who perform the administrative and clinical tasks that keep the offices of health practitioners running smoothly. A midwife is a person; usually a woman but can be a man, who is trained to assist women in childbirth, i.e. the person serves as an attendant at childbirth but is not a physician. A pharmacist is a person trained to formulate and dispense drugs or medications. The pharmacist has formal training through completion of an accredited university program in pharmacology. Licensure is required upon completion of the program and prior to serving as a pharmacist. Patent Medicine Vendor (PMV) supplies a large portion of the drugs used by the public in African countries to treat illnesses. They are similar to pharmacist but with no formal training and are more like sales people selling medicine to people. They are in fact similar to kiosk medicine vendors. A Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) is one, who assists the mother during childbirth. She may have acquired skills by delivering babies herself, or through apprenticeship from other TBAs. 54 QUESTION 7: This question asks the place where the consultation took place. Provision has been made for up to two locations. These should be the most or main locations and should match with the consultation(s) in question 7. Definitions of some of the locations listed are given below. Dispensary, Health Centre or Health Post is typically the lowest level of care, or first point of entry into the health system. Pharmacy is a retail shop where the predominant product sold is mainly medicine but at times other articles are sold and a pharmacist is in sight. This does not include kiosks where a pharmacist is not available. One may have a prescription or ask the pharmacist to prescribe medication. MCH Post is a Maternal and Child Health post. Main function concerns health status of mother and children. Consultant Home refers to medical practitioner’s home. Faith Base Home is a health facility that is being run by religious body e.g Hamadiyah health centre, catholic hospital, etc. Other refers to any other classification not stated above and includes over-the-counter purchases in kiosks through self-prescription. QUESTION 8: This is the authority under which the location given in question 7 falls. For example, if the person consults a doctor in a hospital, the interviewer will need to determine whether it is a federal, state, or local government hospital, etc. The first and second type of establishment in this question must match with the first and second place of consultation in question 7. Definitions of some of the types of establishments are given below. Federal Govt is a union comprising a number of partially self-governing states united by a central ("federal") government. State Govt is the self-governing status of the state and is a component of the federal government. It is the second hierarchy of the government in Nigeria. Local Govt is the political administration of the smallest subdivisions of a country's territory and population. It is the third level of the government in Nigeria. Community based run health facility may be public or private as they are managed by the community. However, most community run facilities are public institutions. Religious Body is a facility managed and supported by a church (religious) organisation. The question does not ask denomination or sect so interviewer must be very careful when probing for a response. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is said to include a wide range of local organizations that are recipients of both local and foreign assistance. It is a voluntary non-profit grouping of individuals with a purpose of enhancing the legitimate economic, social and/or cultural development of a group of people or an organization e.g. Society for Family Health. Private refers both to Group Partnership (group of people or entities that come together to open and manage a health facility jointly) or Individual (sole) – health facility owned by one person. QUESTION 9: This question refers to the FIRST consultation fee, i.e. the money just to see the doctor which is usually paid in advance and includes payment made for the card. The amount here does not include money for drugs, or any medical supplies. QUESTION 10: The amount in this question refers to only the FIRST consultation, same as in question 9, and is for transportation costs two-ways, i.e. going for the consultation and returning home. 55 QUESTION 11 and 12: These questions seek to determine how long it takes to travel to, and see the health practitioner. Both the travel time (question 11), and the waiting time (question 12), must be given in hours and minutes. Note: The waiting time in question 12, is how long it took after the respondent was registered. Examples of how to record travel and waiting times: If time taken is less than 60 minutes e.g. 55 minutes, enter 0 in the HOURS column and 55 in the MINUTE column. If 1 hr 20 min, then enter 1 under the HOUR column and 20 under the MINUTE column. QUESTION 13 and 14: These questions are about medicines and drugs purchased over the counter, from a kiosk or from Patent Medicine Vendors (PMV) in the past 4 weeks. Question 14 asks the total amount spent. Note that these are purchases of ALL medicines and drugs, not just those related to the consultation with the health worker. All amounts should be written as a whole number without commas. QUESTIONS 15-21: Reference period is 12 months preceding date of interview. QUESTION 15-16: To be Admitted (hospitalised) in a health facility means to stay in a health facility or centre (hospital, clinic, dispensary, or traditional healing center etc.) for at least a period of one night on the recommendation of a consulted health practitioner. This does not include healthy people staying or sleeping in the hospital/premises to attend to sick relatives or a woman who went to deliver a baby. However, a pregnant woman that was admitted due to illness, should be included. If “Yes” in Question 15 then ask Question 16 how many nights he/she stayed e.g. if five nights, it should be as recorded as "5". QUESTION 17: This amount includes all costs incurred due to the admission, excluding consultation fees and cost of medicines. That is consultation cost and medicines are NOT included in the admission charges. QUESTION 18: Medicine and medical supplies includes bandages, plaster, medical blade, cotton and any item used for the purpose of treatment in the last 12 months. If response to Question 18 is “No”, skip to Question 22A or else ask Question 19 to know the total cost. QUESTION 20: Ask the respondent for the person, who paid for most of the expenses incurred. This includes consultation, admission, treatment, purchase of medicine and medical supplies in the last 12 months if any; but if none, that is, you paid yourself, then code appropriately. QUESTION 21: Ask the respondent apart from what was paid from others how much did you pay yourself (own pocket) for medical expenses. Note this does not include any medicines or medical supplies or drug over the counter. Also if all expenses are paid by the respondent then the amount spent by him/her should be recorded OR ELSE LEAVE SPACE BLANK. ACTIVITIES AND FUNCTIONING Developmental disabilities are a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are due to mental and/or physical impairments. This question includes both physical and mental disabilities and is meant to capture conditions, which are permanent. Physical and mental disabilities to be considered here are those which prevent the person from maintaining a significant activity or schooling. This may be some 56 physical impairment of limbs, a physical disease, or mental illness, which renders the person incapable of pursuing a significant activity. Note: Someone, who is temporarily disabled due to a broken leg would not be considered disabled – their impairment is temporary. Respondent: This part should be administered to each member of the household but parents or guardians can answer for young children. Some people have difficulty in doing certain activities. The term “difficulty” has broad applicability. This term may cover components of quality, quantity, time required and assistance required performing the tasks or actions mentioned. Persons with very mild limitations are sometimes unsure as to where to draw the line between a “real difficulty” and normal change associated with aging. However, as the severity of the difficulty increases, the uncertainty diminishes. This asks general questions on daily activities. It asks if household member has difficulty in performing his day to day tasks. Probe and code appropriately. QUESTIONS 22A - 22D: These are affirmative questions and interviewer is not expected to leave any of the questions blank (i.e. No skip instruction to be observed). The response is either YES=1 or NO=2 and you are not expected to record both options. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is defined as a constellation of behaviors indicating social, communicative and behavioral impairment or abnormalities. The essential features of ASD are (a) impaired reciprocal social interactions, (b) delayed or unusual communication styles and (c) restricted or repetitive behavior patterns. A child is included as a confirmed case of ASD if he or she displays behaviors as described by a qualified professional. A qualified professional is defined as an educational, psychological or medical professional with specialized training in the observation of children with developmental disabilities (e.g. special education teacher, clinical/developmental/school psychologist, speech/language pathologist, learning specialist, social worker, developmental pediatrician, child psychiatrist, and pediatric neurologist). Cerebral Palsy refers to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. It is due to a non-progressive brain abnormality, which means that it does not get worse over time, though the exact symptoms can change over a person's lifetime. The impairment of motor function may result in paresis, involuntary movement, or in coordination and does not include motor disorders that are transient, that result from progressive disease of the brain, or that are due to spinal cord abnormalities/injuries. Children with cerebral palsy are known by being (a) diagnosed as having cerebral palsy by a qualified physician or (b) identified by other qualified professionals as having this disability on the basis of physical findings noted in source records. A qualified professional is defined as a physician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, nurse practitioner, or physician's assistant, who specializes in developmental disabilities, neurology, orthopedics or pediatrics. A determination is made by medical staff that the physical findings are consistent with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. Mental Retardation is defined as a condition marked by an intelligence quotient (IQ) of <=70 on the most recently administered psychometric test. In the absence of an IQ score, a written statement by a psychometrics that a child's intellectual functioning falls within the range for mental retardation is acceptable. The severity of mental retardation is defined according to some standards and this question does not ask or require the degree of retardation/illness. Vision Impairment means that a person's eyesight cannot be corrected to a "normal" level and is measured visual acuity of 20/70 or worse, with correction, in the better eye. Vision impairment may be caused by a loss of visual acuity, where the eye does not see objects as clearly as usual. It may also be caused by a loss of visual field, where the eye cannot see as wide an area as usual without moving the eyes or turning the head. In the absence of a measured visual acuity, a child is considered a case if a source record includes (a) a functional description 57 by a qualified physician or vision professional, of visual acuity of 20/70 or worse (e.g. light perception only) or (b) a statement by a qualified physician or vision professional that the child has low vision or blindness. Hearing Loss is defined as a measured, bilateral, pure-tone hearing loss at frequencies of 500, 1000 and 2000 hertz; averaging 40 decibels (dB) or more, unaided in the better ear. In the absence of a measured, bilateral hearing loss, children meet the case definition if their source records include a description, by a licensed or certified audiologist or qualified physician, of a hearing loss of 40 dB or more in the better ear. Intellectual Disability is characterized both by a significantly below-average score on a test of mental ability or intelligence and by limitations in the ability to function in areas of daily life, such as communication, self-care, and getting along in social situations and school activities. Intellectual disability is sometimes referred to as a cognitive disability or mental retardation. Children with intellectual disability can and do learn new skills, but develop more slowly than children with average intelligence and adaptive skills. There are different degrees of intellectual disability, ranging from mild to profound and can be defined by their intelligence quotient (IQ), or by the types and amount of support they need. QUESTIONS 23: Ask – does the person have difficulty in doing certain activities – such as, seeing even with glasses. Three options are provided here, and only one should be chosen. If option 1 is chosen, then the interviewer should skip to question 37. NOTE: For babies, the response should be taken as no difficulty unless the disability is so glaring. If the difficulty started from birth or not up to a year the interviewer should record (0). QUESTIONS 24-34: DROPPED QUESTION 35: This question sorts to examine the impact of the vision disability on the amount of work that the individual can undertake on a daily basis. If the individual has some difficulty, ask if the difficulty reduces the amount of work he/she can do at home, at work, or at school. Check the options and select the appropriate one for each of the sub-questions. QUESTION 36: DROPPED QUESTION 37 – 39 TREATED BED NETS MODULE It is recognized that consistent use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITN) decreases the incidence of clinical malaria and malaria-related deaths, especially in very young children and pregnant women. Consequently, many countries are now instituting programmes that promote the use of ITNs. There are various types and brands of mosquito nets. Some require regular treatment with insecticide. Others are factory-treated and do not require re-treatment for 6 to 12 months (pre-treated) or 36 months (permanent type). The information in question 37 requires the individual net information in the household. This seeks to find out the types of bed nets that household use to sleep yesterday; if the response is NO=4 skip to Q51. If the response is YES=1,2, OR 3 you should proceed to the next Question and ask how the informant obtains the bed net if given for free. – the interviewer should skip to Question 51; but if the bed net was purchased, the interviewer should ask in Q39 to know the cost. The price should be written in absolute value. 58 NOTE: If the respondent is not sure of the types of bed net the interviewer should probe to get the correct response, try to observe the net, if possible. All bed nets should be considered, including the ones used by the little babies. QUESTION 40 -50: DROPPED ANTHROPOMETARY QUESTION 51: This is for the interviewer – check the age of the entire household member from the FLAP and record 1 for children 0–7 years (0 – 84 months) and 2 for persons aged above 7 years. Note that 0-7 means 0 to one day before the 8th birthday. Weights and heights of all eligible children under seven in the household will be measured. After, all the modules for children under 8 must be completed. However,if the child will not be around please take time to measure the child before the mother or caregiver leave the households. Measurement of heights and weights will be the responsibility of the supervisor, to be assisted by the interviewer. Each team will have one set of measuring boards and weighing scales. Therefore, once you have completed question 51, if you have a child between 0– 84 months in the household, be ready to start anthropometric measurements. You should call your supervisor to join you in the household, together with the equipment. In some cases, the entrance of supervisor to the household may not be possible; in such cases the team is to measure the child outside.If allowed in, the interviewer may perform the measurements inside the household, with the assistance of the mother. Each child will be weighed and measured and the results will be recorded in his/her column. Ensure that the weight for each child is recorded on the correct column. Procedures for Weight and Height Measurements and how to Record Weight Measurement Method Always explain the weighing procedure to the mother. The child should be weighed completely nude. Ask for the mother’s authorization and help to undress the child. Always set the scale on a flat solid surface. If the ground is sand or the scale is unstable for other reasons, place the scale on a flat piece of wood to ensure proper function. The digital scale can be used to weigh children in two different ways: 1. Children who can stand on their own can be weighed by stepping on the scale and standing unsupported. 2. Babies and young children can be weighed in the arms of an assistant or of the mother. This second way is called, “weighing with adjusted calibration”. Preparation for the Use of the Scale 1. Remove all packaging material from the underside of the scale. 2. Put the batteries into the scale. 3. Place the scale on a hard and flat surface (board, concrete or solid ground). Soft or irregular surfaces would cause errors in the weight measure. 4. The scale will not function if it is too hot. It is best to place it in the shade out of direct sunlight. If the scale becomes overheated, place it in a cooler space and wait for 15 minutes before reusing it. 5. Handle the scale carefully: Do not drop or let the scale fall. Do not weigh people over 150 kg. Do not store the scale in a hot place or expose it to sun for long periods. Protect the scale from excessive humidity. 59 The battery scale has an on/off button in the battery compartment under the machine. Turn it off when not in use. Remove the batteries from the scale if the scale will not be in use for a long time. Cleaning To clean the scale, wipe the surface with a wet cloth. Never immerse the scale in water. Figure 2- Weighing with Adjusted Calibration Double weighing also known as “weighing with adjusted calibration” To weigh a young child, you must first weigh the mother or assistant, tare the scale to zero, and then weigh the adult and child. The scale will automatically calculate the weight of the child. To weigh a child with this method you must use the Mother-and-Baby function. - Ensure that the scale is on. - Wait until the zeros in the screen stop flashing. - Have the mother step on to the scale without the child to take her weight. - Press the Mother-and-Baby key to activate the special tare function. The display returns to zero and the scale is ready to take the weight of the child. NOTE: THE PERSON MUST REMAIN STILL WHILE ON THE SCALE. - Have the mother take the child into her arms. The accurate weight is shown when the numbers in the display stop blinking (after about three seconds). The Mother-and-Baby function remains switched on until the Mother-and-Baby key is pressed again or the scale switches off. The supervisor reads the measure out loud; the interviewer repeats the measure while it is recorded in the questionnaire. The assistant double checks the correct recording of the weight measure. 60 Weighing with calibration: important notes The weight of the person, who will hold the baby has to be shown (and immediately calibrated) before they are given the child to be weighed. Only the person, whose weight has been tarred can hold the baby to be weighed. Problems with Digital Scales What to do if … 1. No weight is displayed when there is someone on the scale a. Check if the scale is switched on? b. Check if the batteries are still charged? 2. The scale keeps switching on during transport for example. a. Ensure that the switch inside the battery compartment is set to OFF when the scale is not in use. 3. The scale displays a weight, not zero after transportation or installation of new batteries a. Wait until the scale switches off automatically after 2 minutes. The scale then should work normally after. 4. The zeros do not appear on the screen before weighing. a. Start the scale again after it switches off automatically. Ensure there is no weight on the scale. 5. The zeros appear on the screen. a. Start the scale again after it switches off automatically. Ensure there is no weight on the scale. 6. The screen shows a battery image. a. Battery power is running low .Change the batteries in the coming days. 7. BATT appears in the screen. a. The batteries are empty. Change the batteries. 8. STOP appears in the screen. a. Maximum weight of 150kg has been exceeded. 9. TEMP appears in the screen. a. The temperature for use of the scale is too high or too low to ensure proper function. Allow 15 minutes for the scale to cool and try again. 10. The screen displays E and a number. a. Start the scale again after it switches off automatically. Ensure there is no weight on the scale. If the scale continues to not work, change the scale out with the spare. Height Measurement Methods Always explain to the mother the height measurement procedure. Note that you will need to remove shoes and any hair pieces or braids in order to accurately measure the child. HEIGHT OR LENGTH 61 Standing height For children 24 months of age or older 1. Supervisor or Interviewer: Place the board vertically and against a wall, table or other support. Ensure that the board does not wobble or feel unstable. 2. Supervisor or Interviewer: Ask the mother to take the child’s shoes off and to undo any braids or hair decorations that could interfere with the height measurement. Ask her to bring the child to the board and to kneel directly in front of the child in order to maintain eye contact. 3. Interviewer: Kneel on the right hand side of the child and ensure that the child is standing straight on the board. 4. Supervisors: Kneels on the child’s left (Arrow 3). This allows the measurer to be at the correct position to adjust and measure the child correctly. If either the assistant or measurer is standing they are NOT FOLLOWING the proper methods and will not make correct measures. 5. Interviewer: Put the child’s feet flat and joined at the centre and against the back and base of the board. Put your right hand just over the child’s ankles to ensure that the child does not stand on his/her toes (Arrow 4); and your left hand on the child’s knees to ensure that the legs are held straight and the knees are not bent (Arrow 5) and to hold gently against the board. Verify that the child’s legs are straight and that the heels and the calves are against the board. Inform the measurer when you have finished positioning the feet and legs and are ready for the measure. 6. Supervisors: Tell the child to look straight ahead towards his/her mother, who should be in front of him/her. Ensure that the child’s line of vision is parallel to the ground (Arrow 8). Put your open hand on the child’s chin. Close your hand gradually (Arrow 9). Do not cover the child’s mouth or ears. Ensure that his/her shoulders are at the same level (Arrow 10), hands on the side and not gripping to the height board (Arrow 11). Ensure the head, the shoulder blades and the buttocks are against the board (Arrows 12, 13 and 14). With your right hand, lower head piece to the child’s head. Make sure you’re pressing on the child’s hair gently (Arrow 15). Questions 51 to 54 should be completed appropriately. SECTION 4B: CHILD DEVELOPMENT Respondent: Mother or primary care giver of the child [primary caregiver- someone who has spent more than 6 months with the child taking core responsibility]. This section is for household members that are between 2 and 18 years of age. During the interview the Mother or Caregiver should only respond to these items as they related to members of the household, who are aged between 2 to 18 years. Introductory Note to the Section: In this section of the interview, we are interested in estimating the number of children, who may be with developmental disabilities and other difficulties in day to day interaction; as this information will be vital for helping the government, NGOs and other stakeholders in planning intervention services for them. QUESTION 1: This is a filter question to know whether the individual is between the ages of 2 and 18. If the individual is not within this age cohort, skip to the next person, until finally you skip to the next section of the questionnaire. QUESTION 2: The ID code of the child's mother or primary care giver of the child in the household should be recorded here. The interviewer should check the Flap to ensure that the right code is selected. Ensure that the child, whose information is being sought, DOES NOT answer for him/her-self. 62 QUESTION 3: This question seeks to determine if the mother had any concerns about the child’s development during the first 3 years of life. The areas of concern are listed in the columns under this main question. A Yes/No answer should be provided for each sub-question. Note that there is no skip here, so all questions must be answered. NOTE: The following questions DO NOT make reference to the first 3 years of the child but rather the current life of the child. In the set of questions that follow, we want to know the states of the child development now. QUESTION 4 – 9: These set of questions ask if the child speaks, repeats words, initiates conversation or communicates using gestures in an understandable manner. A Yes/No response should be provided. If the child cannot speak, or do any of the listed conditions at all, record 2 and skip to the appropriate question, otherwise, record 1 and proceed accordingly. QUESTION 4: This question asks if the child has speech which any other person (not familiar to him/her) can understand. If the answer is No, skip and go to question 6. QUESTION 5: Seeks to find if the child’s speech is comparable to that of their peers. QUESTION 6: This question tries to capture stereotyped and repetitive use of words. The word or phrase may be meaningful;, however its usage is limited, is repetitive and has the same continuous intonation. QUESTION 7: This question tries to capture Echolalia (unsolicited repetition of vocalization made by another person). The focus is on the repetition of the last thing someone said over and over again. QUESTION 8: The focus here is on whether the child can pass a message non-verbally, e.g. using gestures that are listed or any other appropriate, for that setting. QUESTION 9: This question checks whether a child can initiate a conversation and participate in the flow of such a conversation. E.g. a child describing to the mother/caregiver what happened during play time and provides more information when probed. QUESTION 10-17: Inquires about the child’s facial engagement and imaginative expression, interaction with other children, interests and behavioral patterns. A Yes/No response should be provided for each question. QUESTION 10: The parent/caregiver is asked whether the child is reactive to socially responsive smile (a smile elicited when a parent smiles at the child, calls them etc.). QUESTION 11: In this question, the focus is on caregiver’s opinion of the child’s use of gaze while communicating. Inquire about the use of appropriate, socially modulated gaze when the child speaks to someone. E.g. ask the parent if his/her child looks directly into their eye as is expected of a child when they are communicating to an adult. 63 QUESTION 12: This question tries to capture the extent to which a child is able to communicate their emotion using appropriate facial expression. For instance, if they are sad or angry, can the parent/caregiver tell based on their facial expression? The parent/caregiver can be asked if, first, they can tell their child’s feeling based on facial expressions and second about the variety of these facial expressions. QUESTION 13: Here, the interest is on whether a child is able to play out games with different roles they have observed and to incorporate objects in such plays in a manner showing they have a good understanding of the roles different people play or experience on a daily basis. There are two bits into this: The role playing; and doing it with other children. One could ask the mother if they have seen their child participate in these role plays. Using locally relevant examples of these imaginative or pretend plays is important. QUESTION 14: To elicit whether a child is socially aware of people and things around him/her as reflected by his/her ability to engage with the people and the environment. QUESTION 15: This question asks about the child’s participation in joint play with other children. Ask the mother/caregiver whether the child spends most of his/her time playing with others in children’s play, where there is turn taking or playing alone. An important differentiation here is playing alongside others, where the child maybe next to others who are playing but he/she does their own things. QUESTION 16: Tries to capture if the child has any excessive interest in things children his/her age would not be that interested in, beyond level of normal curiosity. One could inquire from the parent if there are thing(s) their child is interested a lot in that his/her peers would not show the same level of interest QUESTION 17: Seeks to find if the child has the habit of doing same things over and over again in similar manner e.g. you can ask the parent if they have observed their child repeating the same behaviour over and over. The focus is repetitive behaviour with objects that upsets or cause discomfort to the child, if disrupted. QUESTION 18: Looks at unusual and/or repetitive movements or posturing using their body parts e.g. hands, fingers or arms. Specific examples are provided. Note for Interviewer: The interviewer is encouraged to ask with demonstration to the parent and answer yes if any one of the given examples is positive. Note for Trainer: The trainer is encouraged to show videos of these mannerisms to the people being trained. QUESTION 19: Here, the question is looking at rigidity and ritualized day-to-day activities. The parent/caregiver is asked if any sudden or unexpected change in day-to-day routine of their child can cause extreme upset or discomfort. QUESTION 20: The question wants to elicit if the child is obsessed with certain knowledge that peers his/her age would not be obsessed with. 64 QUESTION 21: The question wants to elicit if the child is obsessed with doing things that peers his/her age would not be obsessed with. QUESTION 22: The focus here is obsession with unusual or odd things. QUESTION 23: Looks at obsession with toys/objects but specifically whether the child doesn’t want to use the whole toy/object because they want to focus on parts of the toy/object rather than the whole toy/object. QUESTION 24: This question determines if the child shows high or low levels of tolerance to certain sensory inputs for instance, he/she is able to withstand lots of pain, loud noise or is upset by noise, lights etc. This should always be in comparison to children their age. QUESTION 25: This question seeks to look at whether the child is excessively interested in specific sensory inputs from their environment for instance excessive touching or smelling/ sniffing of objects. This should always be in comparison to children their age. SECTION 6: REMITTANCES This section captures information on income of the household through remittance. A remittance is the transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her home country. Remittances contribute to economic growth and to the livelihoods of people worldwide. Moreover, remittance transfers can also promote access to financial services for the sender and recipient, thereby increasing financial and social inclusion. Reference Period: The reference period for this section is the past 12 months. Respondent: The respondent are all household members 10 years and older currently living in the household. QUESTION 1: This is a filter question to determine whether or not the individual received any monetary or in-kind gift from abroad, either from friends, relatives, or organizations in the past 12 months. The interview should end for persons that did not receive any monetary (cash) gift or in-kind (non-cash) gift from abroad in the 12 month period before the interview. QUESTION 2: Again, this is a filter question directed towards individual access to monetary gift from outside Nigeria in the past 12 months from sources listed in the above. Persons that received a cash gift from abroad in the past 12 months should respond with "YES" and provide details about the cash gifts(s) in questions 3 and 4. If no cash gift was received in the time period, then the response should be "NO" and the interviewer should skip to question 5 (requires questionnaire correction???). QUESTION 3: DROPPED QUESTION 4: This question asks for the total monetary gift that the individual received from abroad and the currency unit in the past 12 months. It must be noted that some individuals might have received monetary gifts in Naira as well as in other foreign currencies. The interviewer should help the individual to convert all into a common currency and the total value written under AMOUNT and the corresponding unit written under UNIT column. All monetary gifts can for instance be converted into 65 Naira, and the unit code 5 written, or converted into any of the listed foreign currency and the appropriate code printed in the UNIT column. QUESTION 5: This question focuses only on any in-kind gift received by the individual from abroad in the last 12 months. The interview should end for persons that did not receive any in-kind (non-cash) gift from abroad in the 12-month period before the interview. In-kind benefits come in the form of electronics, automobiles, etc. that the individual received from abroad in the last 12 months. QUESTION 6: This question requires that the respondent identify the in-kind gift that was received. This question could have more than one response but only the gift of greatest value should be recorded. QUESTIONS 7: DROPPPED QUESTION 8: The interviewer will record the total estimated value of the in-kind gift received by the individual in the last 12 months, as well as the appropriate currency unit code. For instance, if the individual received a car at N500000 and a mobile phone valued at N20000, then the total value of inkind gifts received from abroad should be N520000. QUESTION 9: This is the sender of the gift. This is not necessarily the person giving the gift. QUESTION 10: Here, we are interested in the main purpose for which the remittance was sent. Note that this question is for those who received either monetary gift, in-kind gift, or both. The code for the main reason should be printed in the appropriate column. NOTE: THIS IS THE END OF THE INDIVIDUAL LEVEL QUESTIONS SECTION 6A: BEHAVIOUR This section captures information on perceptions and behavior of key household members within a hypothetical context under a given set of constraints. Respondent: The respondent is the head of the household, spouse or other senior member. Questions 2 to 10 do not have any real world contexts. This can generate confusions for respondents. Please repeat the questions if you think the respondents do not understand the question. Please do not frame questions, add any contexts or give examples. Also please do not explain the purpose of the questions. The purpose of this section is to find out how the experience of conflicts affects the way people think and make decisions. However, please do not explain it. Also, please do not explain the purpose of each question. For example, Question 2 assesses respondent’s patience. But do not use the word “patience” because some respondents may choose patient options and try to give you an impression that they are patient. QUESTION 1: The ID code of the respondent should be recorded here. The interviewer should check the Flap to ensure that the right code is selected. 66 QUESTION 2: Present the respondent with the two options, and ask which one he/she prefers. Record the chosen option and skip to question 3 if option 1 is selected or question 4 if option 2 is selected. QUESTION 3: Present the respondent with the two options, record the chosen option and skip to question 5 if either option 1 or 2 is selected. QUESTION 4: Present the respondent with the two options, record the chosen option. No skip here QUESTION 5: Present the respondent with the two options, record the chosen option and skip to question 6 if option 1 is selected or question 7 if option 2 is selected. QUESTION 6: Present the respondent with the two options, record the chosen option and skip to question 8 if either option 1 or 2 is selected. QUESTION 8-9: Present the respondent with the two options; record the chosen option. QUESTION 10-12: Ask the questions as directed and record the chosen option. SECTION 6B: ATTITUDE This section captures information on the respondent’s state of mind during the last 7 days. Respondent: The respondent is the head of the household, or other senior member. QUESTION 1: Record the number of days over the last 7 days period during which the respondent experienced each of the listed feelings. SECTION 9: NON-FARM ENTERPRISES This section obtains information on Non-Farm income generating activities or enterprises of the household. We want to identify changes that have taken place since the last post-harvest visit (Second Wave). For example, is there any enterprise that has stopped functioning, since the last post-harvest visit? Or is there a new enterprise in the household since that visit? To accomplish this task, it is important to pre-fill all the nonfarm enterprises existing during the last post-harvest visit into this current post-harvesting questionnaire, providing the industry code and the original enterprise ID code as appropriate. There is also the need to update Flap B with new enterprises that are likely to be found in the household in this current visit. In the context of this survey, enterprise refers to any trade (in food, clothes or various articles) or professional activity (like that of a private lawyer, doctor, a carpenter, mason, etc.) offering services for payment in cash or in kind. This refers to an economic unit producing goods or providing services. Characteristics of defining a household enterprise are: A household enterprise is a segment of the economy typically comprised of small-scale producers and distributors of goods and services; and consisting largely of independent, self-employed producers. It is an informal-sector business and tends to operate with very little capital; to use a low level of technology and skills; and to provide low incomes and unstable employment. Household non-agricultural income-generating enterprises include those that produce or trade goods or services, including owning a shop or operating a trading business, no matter how small. 67 However, post-harvest processing and trading of agricultural crops should not be listed here. Examples of household enterprises are mat making, brick making or working as a carpenter, firewood selling, shoe shining, metalwork, tailoring, repair work, food processing, fish marketing, petty trading and so on. RESPONDENT: The respondent should be the owner or manager of the enterprise. QUESTION 1: In question 1, the interviewer will pre-fill Flap B with information from wave 2 postharvest questionnaire indicating respectively, industry code and enterprise ID code. For each pre-filled enterprise, interviewer will provide information from questions 2 to 29 accordingly. In addition, the interviewer will list in, new enterprises that are likely to be found in the household, during this current visit and provide information from questions 2 – 29, appropriately. Once the new enterprise is listed, the interviewer should provide the sector code using the INDUSTRY CODES provided in Appendix 2 of this manual. QUESTION 2: Here, we are interested in knowing whether the listed enterprise in question 1 is an original enterprise from wave 2 post-harvest or a new one listed in the current interview. If it is a new enterprise, skip to question 5, otherwise, continue to question 3. QUESTION 3: This question asks to know whether this enterprise is currently operating or it has closed down either permanently, temporarily or seasonally. If it is currently operating, write code 1 and skip to question 5. If the enterprise is seasonally operated, move to next activity or enterprise, otherwise, continue to question 4. QUESTION 4: Question 4 seeks to find out the main reason why the income generating activity has stopped working. If the enterprise has stopped operating, the interviewer should find out why the enterprise is not operating now. There are 10 options listed from which to pick one. Question 4a: Asks when the income generating activity stopped operating – list the year and month. Note the restrictions on the time and year: this should be between March 2013 and May 2016. QUESTION 5: This question seeks to find out the owner of the enterprise so that needed information about this very enterprise can be obtained from him/her and also to determine if owners are those who manage their enterprises. The interviewer should find out who in the household owns the enterprise. There is provision for a maximum of two persons in case more than one person owns the enterprise. Interviewer should not enter more than two persons’ ID in Question 5. Use Flap A to obtain the ID of the owner in the household. QUESTION 6: Unlike question 5, question 6 wants to know who manages this very enterprise. The interviewer should find out who manages the enterprise because the owner may leave the enterprise to another person to manage it for him or her. Like in Question 5, there is a provision for a maximum of two persons. QUESTION 7: This question is for enterprises that were operating wave 2 post-harvest as well as those currently listed. The interviewer should find out if the current manager or owner of the enterprise is the same person who was managing the business during the last post-harvest interview. Note the options and the skips. For options 1 and 3, the interviewer should skip to question 9, otherwise, continue to question 8. 68 QUESTION 8: If the ownership or management of the enterprise has changed between the last postharvest visit and now, the interviewer should find out, by picking one of the options listed here. QUESTION 9: The interviewer is required to record the ID of the respondent that is providing the information about the currently operating enterprise. QUESTION 10: In this question, we are interested in knowing whether the enterprise has been operational in the last 12 months or if a new enterprise; and for how many months it has been operating within the past month. It will also help identify those enterprises that stopped operating for some time in the past and came back to business again. Again, it will be used to estimate yearly income from the enterprise. The interviewer should find out how many months the enterprise operated in the last 12 months. Mark “X” in the months of the years that the enterprise operated. QUESTION 11: We want to know where the household operates this income generating activity. Ask about the location of the enterprise from the options provided and record one option. QUESTION 12: We want to know if the enterprise is registered with any government agency. Government Agency here includes the Internal Revenue Service, Registrar General, or any Union or Association acting on behalf of the government. QUESTION 13: We want to know the household members, who are engaged in this enterprise. The interviewer should probe to know those who are being paid for engaging in the enterprise and those, who do not receive payment on the business. For each listed ID, please indicate the numbers of days that the individual worked in this enterprise per month. Note the restrictions on this question that the total number of days’ work on an enterprise cannot exceed 31 days. Note also that we have made provisions for PAID and UNPAID household labour in the income generating activity. Household members can work either as a paid or unpaid employee, but cannot belong to both. QUESTION 13a: Record the average number of hours worked per day by an individual in this enterprise. Note the restrictions here that hours worked per day cannot exceed 18. QUESTION 14: We want to know the number of employees, who are not household members engaged in the enterprise, disaggregated by sex (male and female). List the total number of each of male and female employees in the appropriate column. QUESTION 15: We want to know the main source of income used to start the enterprise. If more than one source, mention a maximum of the three main sources from the options listed in order of importance. QUESTION 16: Seeks to know if the owner of the business tried to get loans from formal sources such as banks and other financial agencies for the enterprise’s operation in the last12 months. If it is no, skip to Q18. QUESTION 17: We are interested in knowing the borrowing capacity of the enterprise and the success at doing so. In addition, we seek to know if the enterprise eventually got the credit sought for; either from a bank or other formal financial agencies. We expect a “Yes” or “No” response here. 69 QUESTION 18: This question is for those enterprises for which the individual indicated he/she did not try to secure any loan to finance activities of the business in the last 12 months. We want to further ask if the respondent used a loan from both formal and informal sources to finance the business operations. A Yes/No response is required here. If it is “no,” skip to Q21. QUESTION 19: Seeks to know the source of credit that was used in operating the enterprise within the last 12 months. Please, select a maximum of two options from the options listed. QUESTION 20: We want to know how much money was borrowed to finance this enterprise in the last 12 months. For instance if the individual borrowed N35,000, write 35000 under NAIRA. QUESTION 21: We want to know if the enterprise has any outstanding loans that are being repaid, either in cash or kind, within the last 12 months. Note that this question is for all enterprises that are currently operating. If the answer is no, skip to Q23. QUESTION 22: For those enterprises that have outstanding loans, the interviewer should write down the amount of loan that has been repaid (include loans in-kind). For example if the loan repaid for this enterprise is N12,000, write 12000 under NAIRA. Convert in-kind loans into monetary value equivalent and record and add to other cash loans and record appropriately. QUESTION 23: We want to know who the buyers of the products or services of this enterprise are. Please, pick a maximum of two options from the listed options in order of importance. The appropriate code for each chosen option should be written. If option 8 (other specify) is chosen, please ensure to specify the other buyer of the product and/or services of this enterprise. QUESTION 23a: This question seeks to know if the enterprise uses generator, either solely or partially for its operation. Note that if the business is located in the household’s dwelling and uses generator for both domestic and business use, this should be considered as a “Yes” in this question. Again, if the business requires electricity for its operation, then it is possible to also use generator, especially given the frequent black-outs. If the business doesn’t use generator for its operation, please write 2 and skip to Q24. QUESTION 23b: We want to know if the generator used to operate the business is owned by the owner of the business (household member - owned) or it is being rented. Write the appropriate code for whether the generator used for the business is owned or rented by the owner of the enterprise. QUESTIONS 24: We want to know the current value of physical capital stock, including all tools, equipment, buildings, land, vehicles that are used for the business. Note that the emphasis here is using those physical capital stocks for the enterprise’s operation. If the asset is owned by the household but is not used for the business, it should not be considered here. Ask the respondent to put value on all these assets used for the business’ operation and record the sum total in the column given. For example if the assets used by the owner for the enterprise are car, tools, equipment and machinery and have the following values: car is N250,000, tools N50,000, equipment and machinery N200,000. Then the total value of physical stock used for the business should be written N500,000, and therefore 500000 should be written here. QUESTIONS 25: This question seeks to examine the total variable cost of the enterprise, by putting value on all inputs used for the enterprise’s operation. Note that inputs used are NOT the same as the physical 70 capital stocks listed in question 24. For instance, if the enterprise is a tailoring type, then, inputs will include tread, pins, clothes, etc. but does not include the sewing machine. Similarly, for a restaurant type of enterprise, inputs will include the raw food materials, oils, etc. but does not include the cooking pots, cookers, etc. Ask the respondent to give the total value of all the inputs currently available. The correct Naira value should then be written. QUESTIONS 26: We are interested in knowing the total value of finished goods that are ready for sale. For a tailoring business, this will be sewn clothes. Put value on all those and write the Naira value in the column provided. QUESTION 27: This question is used to examine the total revenue of the enterprise in the past one month. The interviewer should be careful at asking this question since it is not referring to the profit made in the past one month. For restaurant type enterprises, this is the total sales for the past one month. For tailoring businesses however, this refers to the money from sale or delivery of sewn clothes, including the cost of variable inputs given in question 25. If an item has been produced but not sold yet, this should be excluded in estimating the total sales. QUESTION 27a: This question is for estimating the net returns of the business in the last one month. This is also the profit of the enterprise in the past one month. Profit is the difference between sales (total revenue) and total variable cost. Record the Naira value in the column provided. QUESTION 28: We want to know the business costs last month in terms of wages & salaries, purchase of goods for sale (inventory), transport, fuel for generator, maintenance of generator, insurance, rent, interest payment on loans, raw materials, others. For instance, the amount spent on rent or shop or any other kind of rent in the course of running the business last month, put the total amount together and record under rent. With respect to transport, we want to know the money spent on transport in running the business last month. This may include moving about on business trips; money spent transporting raw materials and finished products to and from market. Put these expenses under transport together and record, e.g. 100000. QUESTION 29: We want the owner or the manager of the business to mention three most important constraints to non-farm business operations and growth. Use the constraint codes to your right on this page of the Questionnaire. QUESTION 30: This question should be answered by all households whether or not they operate nonfarm enterprises. We want the respondent to indicate three primary constraints preventing HH members from opening a non-farm business. Again, use the constraint codes to your right on this page of the questionnaire. Print the appropriate codes in the spaces provided. SECTION 10A: MEALS OUTSIDE THE HOUSEHOLD This section is designed to capture information on the food that any household member bought that was prepared outside of the household. If the food was prepared outside the household, whether it was consumed outside the home or inside the home, it is considered as a meal taken outside the home. For example, food bought from mama put, bukataria, canteen or any other eatery. This will include all that was purchased in the joint, when relaxing e.g. having drinks, pepper soup, isiewu and nkwobi, etc. Note that it is those food items bought outside and consumed within the last seven (7) days that are to be recorded here. 71 NOTE: Reference Period: Past seven (7) days Respondent: Most knowledgeable adult member of the household. The interviewer should endeavor to allow the respondent sufficient time to think (recall) what has been spent on the items. The prepared meals have been listed with their codes (1 - 9). The interviewer should allow the respondent to differentiate the time that the meals are consumed so that it can be categorized as follows: Breakfast – this is food taken in the morning Lunch – food consumed in the afternoon Dinner – food eaten in the night Other items are listed that are not dependent on the time of day. QUESTION 1: This question captures all items that are purchased and consumed outside the home by all household members during the past 7 days. Items that were purchased and consumed outside the home should be indicated using the code, “1”. If the item was not purchased and consumed outside the home by any household member, then enter code “2” and continue down the list. There should be a response for all the items before moving to question 2. QUESTION 2: Give the total value of each item that was purchased by the household outside the home. The value of the purchase for each item should be the total that was spent by all household members on that item. If the food was given for free, the estimated value of the food should be entered. Example: Mr. and Mrs. Ike live with their three children. Mr. Ike ate lunch at his office on Monday, which cost N350. On Wednesday Mr. Ike left his office very late and on his way home decided to buy some snacks and drink at Mr. Bigg’s. The cost of the snacks and drink was N200. Mr. Ike’s eldest son went out on Thursday evening and decided to buy drink to cool himself. He bought a bottle of 1759 (big stout) and after that he bought pepper soup – both of these amounted to N1500. Friday morning Mrs. Ike decided to buy akara (bean cake) and bread for breakfast for the family which also cost N700. Note that this breakfast was consumed at home, though purchased outside the house. SECTION 10B: FOOD CONSUMPTION AND EXPENDITURES This section covers expenditure of the household on various food items purchased and/or consumed in the past 7 days. A complete list of food items has been given in the section and the household must provide a response about all items on this list. Note also that food item photo album is provided to help in specifying the unit for the food items for this section. Respondent: This is a male/female in the household who is responsible for food preparations or food purchases made by the household in the past 7 days. QUESTION 1: Ask for each item if the household consumed any of these food items during the past 7 days. If the respondent answer is “YES” about any item, then code “1” for response of the item. Otherwise, code “2” should be written as the response and no further questions should be asked for this item, Ask about all items before moving to Question 2. 72 QUESTION 2: Write the total quantity of food item consumed by the household in the last 7 days and the appropriate unit code. For example, if 3 congo of guinea corn was consumed by the household within the past 7 days, write “3” under the quantity column and code “07” in unit column. QUESTION 3 and 4: Out of the total quantity of the food item consumed by the household in question 2, Question 3 asks for the total quantity purchased by the household in the past 7 days. Write the quantity and enter the unit code as appropriate. E.g. if the household purchased a 4 liter keg of palm oil during the past seven days and this cost 3000 Naira, then the interviewer must record “4” under quantity and code “03” under unit; while the price will be recorded under QUESTION 4 as 3,000. If none of the consumed item was purchased in the past 7 days write “0” under quantity and leave unit and amount blank: and skip to question 5. QUESTION 5: Ask from the respondent how much of this [ITEM] consumed came from purchases made during the past 7 days or before. NOTE: Interviewer, note that it is possible to purchase an item within the past seven days and not consume out of the items within the past seven days but if there is a purchase in the past seven days, the quantity and the price should be captured and written in appropriate columns. QUESTION 6: This seeks to know out of the items consumed, how much of it came from own production (own production is where the household has planted and reap crop and/or raise animals). Write the quantity and code the unit of the items where applicable but if NONE, record “0” in the quantity and leave unit blank. QUESTION 7: How much of consumption of this [ITEM] came from gifts and other sources during the past 7 days? NOTE: This did not include party food and food taken outside the home. The OWN PRODUCTION and GIFT items may not necessarily be past seven days but the quantity consumed from the item is in the past seven days. Interviewers should take note of the following: QUESTION 2 must be related to Q5, Q6 and Q7. Thus, the sum of questions 5, 6 and 7 should equal question 2 In case of items in pieces, heaps, etc. show the pictures to the respondent and let them show you the size they have consumed and use it to record the weight Record whatever local unit given to you by the respondent Check the weight list given to you before you record any weight All liquid content is expected to be in liters or centiliters; if you have it in milliliters, it should be converted to liters or centiliters. E.g. 500ml is 50cl; 710ml is 71cl;, 325ml is 32.5cl When you are recording for sachets, tins, packets etc., make sure that the weight is written as it appears on the content e.g. bournvita 450g, butter 250g, etc. If it is more than one, then you multiply by the quantity, which means if 2 bournvita was purchased, you will write “900” under quantity and “02” under unit When you are reporting in gm, do not add decimal point. (0.900g is different from 900g) 0.900g is incorrect If any unit of measurement is mentioned apart from the ones in the options, interviewer should try and find out how many commonly used measurements can be found in it 73 Example A family of six consumes 3 mudu of millet and purchased 5 mudu at the rate of 200 naira per mudu two days prior to the interview but did not consume out of it. 4milk cups were consumed from the purchase made in July. Another one mudu was taken from the previous harvest season; and one mudu and six cups were consumed from the millet grandma sent to them 2 months ago – all these took place within the last 7 days. Assuming one mudu contains 10 milk cups.This family consumed 3 tubers of yams (two medium size and one large size) and ¼ schnapps bottle of palm oil – all the consumption came from purchases made yesterday. The 3 tubers of yam cost 500 Naira, while the 4 liters of palm oil cost 1500 Naira How will you complete this respondent, who consumed the following items in the past 7 days? Items Consumed Price Sachet peak powdered = 40 (purchased) Peak Chocó powdered = 35 1pkt of sugar = 220 ” Cowbell powdered = 450 ” = 130 ” Peak milk One medium butter ” = 200 ” ½ kilogram of meat (gift) Fuju milk 500ml (gift) ½ bottle of palm oil (schnapps’ bottle) (own production) Two kilogram one hundred and fifty gm (2 tubers of yam from previous harvest season) SECTION 10C: AGGREGATE FOOD CONSUMPTION This section is divided into two parts: The first part is on food consumption of household members only, which intends to ask how many days in the past 7 days that the different groups of food items were consumed. This should include consumption both inside and outside the home. The second part of the module asks about sharing of meals with persons that are not household members. The information is collected by age groups (i.e. children between 0 – 5 years, 6 – 15 years, adults between ages of 16 – 65 years and people over 65 years old) and covers: • The total number of days in the past 7 days that food is shared with persons that are not household members • The total number of meals that were shared with these non-household members in the past 7 days QUESTION 8: This question captures the number of days the particular food group was consumed both inside and outside the home, by all household members during the past 7 days. You are to record zero if none of food group items was consumed. QUESTION 9: Is a leading question that seeks to know if over the past one week (7 days), there were people not listed as household members (READ LIST FROM HH ROSTER) or ate any meals in the household. If the respondent answer is “YES,” then code “1” and proceed to questions 9 and 10, otherwise code “2” and proceed to next section. 74 QUESTION 10: Seek to know the total number of days in which any meal was shared with people not listed as household members in the roster. QUESTION 11: Seek to know the total number of meals that were shared over the past 7 days within specified age range of people (such as Children 0- 5 years, 6 – 15 years, adults 16 – 65 years and people over 65 years old). The interviewer should mention these age cohorts to the respondent and record the response in the appropriate column. SECTION 11: NON-FOOD EXPENDITURES This section relates to general expenditure of the household on non-food items. The section is subdivided into four modules. The grouping is done on the basis of items purchased in the past 7 days, one month, 6 months, and 12 months. Generally, the household reports on the items purchased and the amount that was paid. Respondent:These are persons mainly responsible for household purchases. It might not necessarily be the person who goes to the market but the one who controls the purchases. Recall Period: The recall period differs from one module to another The fist module with item code 101-104 uses a 7-day recall period. The following instructions pertain to the question pairs: 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and 7 and 8. The interviewer should ask the respondent if the household has purchased any of these items during the reference period (i.e. the last 7 days, one month etc.). If “Yes,“ ''1'' should be recorded as the response to this question and the total amount spent on this item written in the Second Question under NAIRA. If No (''2'') i.e. the household did not spend anything on the particular item during the reference period, skip to the next item. If there is a response of ''1'' to the first question, then the amount spent must be stated in the second question. The first question should be asked for all items in the module before moving to the second question. QUESTIONS 9, 10 and 11 seek to determine the value of a special group of items that may either have been purchased or acquired without cost. Question 9 asks if these items were used in the past 12 months. If the item was used, the respondent will be asked (in Question 10) to provide a value of the items consumed during the reference period. Question 11, enquires as to the amount spent during the reference period for the quantities of the listed items purchased by the household. NOTE: The amount of items should be recorded in absolute value e.g. if it is one thousand five hundred. It should be written as 1,500. If there is no purchase, the interviewer should record “0” under item and leave the amount space blank. Let us consider, this example, if an item cost N1,500.40 (One Thousand Five Hundred Naira, Forty Kobo; then round down to 1500 Naira. 75 SECTION 12: FOOD SECURITY Food security refers to the availability of food and one’s access to it. A household is considered food secure when its members do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. Respondent: Female in the household responsible for food preparation and/or food purchases QUESTION 1: This question concerns the number of days the respondent and/or other members of the household have to eat less meals, less diverse foods, etc. in the last 7 days. The question stretches from (a) to (l) and the interviewer is to enter in each of the cases, the number of days. If the household did not experience any of these in the last 7 days, enter zero. Example if one has to rely on less preferred food for three days out of the last seven days you enter (3). QUESTION 2: This question seeks to find out if the members of the household eat 3 square meals in a day by the different age groups. The interviewer has to find out how many meals including breakfast are taken by (a) adults and (b) children (6-59 months) per day. Example: if the adults eat three meals a day in the last 7 days, enter (3) under adults and if the children (6-59 months) eat five times, enter (5) under (6-59 months). QUESTION 3: We want to know if adults eat roughly different variety of meals from adults, as well as measure the incidence of malnutrition in the household. In this question if every member of the household eats roughly the same diet, the interviewer should enter 1 for “Yes” and skip to question 5, otherwise, enter “2” and continue. QUESTION 4: This question is meant to assess the incidence of malnutrition among children in the household. The interviewer is to find out from the respondent who in the household eats a more diverse variety of foods among the three groups – men, women and children (6-59 months).This is a rank type (1 to 3) of question for the different categories of people. If it is the children that eat more diverse variety of foods you enter (1) and if the women are next you enter (2), finally you enter (3) for men. You should not repeat codes for the same group of persons. QUESTION 5: The interviewer should find out if the household has had a situation where there was not enough food to eat within the past 12 months. If the response to this question is “Yes,” you enter (1) and continue to question 6, otherwise, enter (2) and move to next Section. QUESTION 6: Here, we want to know the months of the years 2015 and 2016 that there was not enough food to feed the household. The months of the year is coded from January (1) February (2)……..December (12). The interviewer is to enter in the column provided for 2015 and 2016. If it occurred more than once, enter the codes and separate with a coma in both 2015 and 2016. QUESTION 7: We are interested in knowing the reasons why there was not enough food for the household in the months listed in Q6. The possible causes are coded from (1) to (11).You are to list them according to the order of importance in spaces (a), (b), (c) that is 1 st, 2nd and 3rd. Example if floods/water logging is the most possible, enter 8 as number one; inadequate household food stocks due to lack of farm input, enter 4 as number two; and food in the market was very expensive, 5 is entered as the third. 76 SECTION 13: OTHER INCOME Other household income comes in the form of income from assets/properties owned by the household, including rental of properties, land (excluding lands rented out for agricultural purposes), buildings, interest on savings and other financial assets, dividends, etc.) Interviewer should note that other household incomes DO NOT include regular sources of incomes such as agriculture, wage/salary and non-farm household enterprises. In this section these questions should be asked to the household head (or a knowledgeable adult member of the household) for all individuals from fifteen years and above. Respondent: Household head or other adult with most knowledge about other income sources. QUESTION 1: This question is restricted to other incomes from financial assets such as savings interest, returns on shares, dividends or investment in other businesses not run by the household. The interviewer will like to know if any member of the household received any regular income from the listed sources in the last 12 months. If yes, enter (1) and continue, otherwise, enter (2) and skip to Q3. QUESTION 2: Of the listed sources in question 1, we want to know how much total income the household received in the past 12 months. Thus, we want the Naira earned from savings interest, and other investment income in the last 12 months. It is to be entered in absolute value in the column for Naira. QUESTION 2b: We are interested in knowing who in the household decides how the earnings from interest on savings, and other investments should be used. The ID code(s) of the person(s) from the household roster should be recorded in the column provided. QUESTION 3: This question is restricted to incomes from household rental of properties, such as buildings, chairs, generators, land (not rented out agricultural lands), etc. The interest here is on incomes received from renting of properties owned by the household. The interviewer should find out if any member of the household received any regular income from rental of property in the last 12 months. A Yes/No response is required. If no, record (2) and skip to question 7. QUESTION 4: Here, we want to know the type of property the respondent is receiving rental income from. For any other property not listed, the interviewer should specify the type. QUESTION 5: We want to know how much in total did the household receive from renting out those properties listed in question 4 for the past 12 months. QUESTION 5b: Again, we are interested in knowing who in the household decides how the earnings from interest on savings and other investments should be used. The ID code(s) of the person(s) from the household roster should be recorded in the column provided. QUESTION 6: This question is to find out if any member of the household received regular income from other sources EXCLUDING those received from INCOME FROM SOURCES COLLECTED IN PREVIOUS SECTIONS (i.e. REMITTANCES, LABOR INCOME, AGRICULTURAL INCOME, PROPERTY, SAVINGS, INTEREST, ETC).If Yes, enter (1) and continue with the interview, otherwise, enter (2) and skip to the next section. 77 QUESTION 7: The names of the other sources from which the household received incomes not listed above should be written here. QUESTION 8: In this column you are to state all the income the household received from this other source in Naira. QUESTION 8b: Here again, we are interested in knowing who in the household decides how the earnings from interest on savings and other investments should be used. The ID code(s) of the person(s) from the household roster should be recorded in the column provided. SECTION 14: SOCIAL SAFETY NETS Social Safety Nets or “Socioeconomic Safety Nets” are non-contributory transfer programs that seek to protect the poor or those vulnerable to shocks and poverty from falling below a certain poverty level. Safety net programs can be provided by the public sector (State and aid donors) or by the private sector (NGOs, private firms, charities, and informal household transfers). Safety net transfers include: Cash Transfers Cash Transfer: These are defined as the provision of assistance in the form of cash to the poor or to those who face probable risk of falling into poverty in the absence of the transfer. The main objective of these programs is to increase poor and vulnerable households’ real income. Food-Based Programs such as supplementary feeding programs and food stamps, vouchers, and coupons Food-based safety net programs support adequate consumption and contribute to improving nutrition and securing livelihoods. They are different from other safety net programs in that they are tied to the provision of food, either directly or through cash-like instruments (food stamps, coupons) that may be used to purchase food. In-Kind Transfers such as school supplies and uniforms This refers to allowances that are paid to families with children under a certain age. These kinds of transfers can be in form of subsidies on school uniform or school supplies or children’s goods. Conditional Cash Transfers Conditional cash transfers (CCT) programs provide cash payments to poor households that meet certain behavioral requirements, generally related to children’s health care and education. Price Subsidies for Food, Electricity, or Public Transport Subsidies guarantee access to essential commodities at prices that consumers can afford. Public Works Public works programs provide unskilled workers with temporary labor-intensive jobs during critical times. Public works can include road construction and maintenance, maintenance of public spaces and buildings, irrigation infrastructure, reforestation and soil conservation. The output of such programs is twofold: jobs of short duration for work to increase income, and creation of public goods in the form of new or improved infrastructure. Fee Waivers and Exemptions for Health Care, Schooling and Utilities The main objective of fee waivers, exemptions and scholarships is to provide the poor with financial resources to use public services such as education and health facilities. The program enables the poor access to free health services. 78 Safety nets are part of a broader poverty reduction strategy interacting with and working alongside social insurance; health, education and financial services; the provision of utilities and roads; and other policies aimed at reducing poverty and managing risk. The safety net as a whole should provide coverage to three rather different groups:The chronic poor: Even in "good times" these households are poor. They have limited access to income and the instruments to manage risk, and even small reductions in income can have dire consequences for them. The Transient Poor: This group lives near the poverty line, and may fall into poverty when an individual household or the economy as a whole faces hard times Those with Special Circumstances: Sub-groups of the population for whom general stability and prosperity alone will not be sufficient. Their vulnerability may stem from disability, discrimination due to ethnicity, displacement due to conflict, "social pathologies" of drug and alcohol abuse, domestic violence, or crime. These groups may need special programs to help them attain a sufficient standard of well-being. The main objectives of this section are to identify the various safety net programs available. Safety nets redistribute income to the poorest and most vulnerable with an immediate impact on poverty and inequality. To see how safety net programs have been able to impact positively on the future of households that they otherwise may have missed, e.g. education, health, income generating opportunities To what extent have safety net programs succeeded? Some Definitions: Supplementary Feeding Programs provide direct transfer of food to target households or individuals. The food may be prepared and eaten on site (e.g., in child feeding centers or at schools), or given as a dry ration to take home. Supplementary feeding is often provided as an incentive for participation in public services such as primary health care (pre and post-natal as well asbaby care) and education. The most common forms are maternal and child feeding and school feeding. School Feeding Programs encourage children’s enrolment and improve their ability to pay attention in class. They vary from the provision of breakfast, lunch or a midmorning snack, to a combination of these. School feeding programs are often integrated with health and nutrition education, parasite treatment, health screening, and provision of water and sanitation. Food for Work (FFW) Programs provides food rations in exchange for a given amount of work done. FFW programs have long been used to protect households against the decline in purchasing power that often accompanies seasonal unemployment, drought, and other periodic disruptions. Emergency Food Distribution includes direct provision of food, supplementary feeding for vulnerable groups, and therapeutic feeding during crises, emergencies and situations in which people are displaced. These last-resort programs save lives by preventing malnutrition and morbidity. Food Stamps, Vouchers and Coupons are near-cash paper tokens targeted to poor households that they can be used to purchase food at authorized retail locations. Some instruments restrict households to buying only a few specific foods, while others allow them to purchase any food. Respondent: This person should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head in the household should be interviewed. This person should be a member of the household and must be capable of providing all necessary information. Other members of the household can help by adding information or details in the questions concerning themselves. 79 QUESTION 1: This question seeks to find out if the household or any member of the household has been part of any programs in the past 12 months. The interviewer should ask this question for all the programs listed before proceeding to ask questions 2-5. The response here is either “1” for “yes” or "2” for “no”. Note also the skip instruction here. QUESTION 2: The total value of the assistance received from the program is what this question seeks to find out. There are three forms of assistance listed: cash assistance, food assistance and other/in-kind assistance. In the food assistance, the amount of food (e.g. 50kg of rice) will be captured thus: 50 will come under amount and kg will come under unit. The equivalent amount in cash (Naira) will come under cash value. In other/in-kind assistance, the equivalent in cash of this assistance is what is captured under cash value. These are the codes for unit for food assistance: Kilogram .......... 1 Litre.................. 2 QUESTION 3: Who received this assistance? Is it the entire household or an individual in the household? The response here is either 1 for entire household or 2 for specific household members. Note that if the assistance was given to the entire household, the interviewer should skip to Q5. QUESTION 4: This question identifies the household member(s) that received the assistance. The roster ID of member is recorded. Provision has been made for up to five household members to be recorded where applicable. QUESTION 5: The respondent is asked the last time the house hold received the assistance. The month and the year (in four digits) are recorded. SECTION 15A: ECONOMIC SHOCKS Typically, the word shock is used to describe a surprisingly intense emotional or psychological reaction to information or an occurrence which may take its toll on the individual or household. Shock may be an event or happening or a factor that affect the individual or the entire household negatively, economically. The death of the bread winner in a household may have a negative impact economically on the household. Thus, this section seeks to capture events that may have affected the household over the last three years (since 2014). Respondent: This person should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head in the household should be interviewed. This person should be a member of the household and must be capable of providing all necessary information. QUESTION 1: This question seeks to capture whether the household has been affected by any of the shocks since 2014. All the shock options in this question are asked and responses taken before going to answer questions 2– 5 for each “Yes” response. The response here is either “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. 80 QUESTION 2: Over the years 2014 – 2016, we want to know how many times the event has happened. For instance, if the household experienced the non-farm, theft of crops, cash, livestock or other property 2 times in 2014, 3 times in 2015 and 2 times in 2016, then the total to be entered in question 2 of shock code 9 should be “7”. QUESTION 3: Here we want to know which years the event occurred. For the example given in question 2, the interviewer should mark 2014, 2015, and 2016 with an X since the event occurred in all these years. QUESTION 4: For the number of shocks that has occurred since 2014, ask the respondent to rank the most significant shock the household has experienced in terms of most severe (1), more severe (2) and Severe (3). QUESTION5: Here we are interested in knowing which household social and economic activities were mostly affected by the shock. Ask the respondent to mention which aspects of the household were mostly affected by the shock and record up to 4 impacts. Use the codes to the extreme right of this page of the questionnaire. QUESTION6: This question intends to identify which members of the household were affected by the shock most. Using Flap A of the household roster, record the ID(s) of household member(s) mostly affected by the event, separated by comma for more than one member. Where the shock affected the entire household, record “98”. SECTION 15B: DEATHS Death is the termination of the biological functions that sustain a living person. The word refers to the cessation of life of person or persons in the household. Phenomena which commonly bring about death include, malnutrition, accidents resulting in terminal injury, and diseases. Note that this section concerns persons who were members of the household in the last 12 months, but are deceased. Respondent: This person should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head in the household should be interviewed. This person should be a member of the household and must be capable of providing all necessary information. Other members of the household can help by adding information or details in the questions concerning themselves. QUESTION 1: This is a filter question that seeks to find out if any member of the household died in the last 12 months. The response expected here is “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. If the response is 2, the interview for this section ends and the interviewer should skip to the next section, otherwise, continues with the interview for this section. QUESTION 2: The name of the deceased is requested for here if the response in question one is "YES". This is important to ensure that the person listed here as deceased was actually a member of this household before the demise in the last 12 months. 81 QUESTION 3: We are interested in the sex of the deceased household member – code “1” for male and “2” for female. QUESTION 4: This question will be used to estimate life expectancy among panel households. Thus, the age in completed years of the person when he died should be written out clearly. Note that we are interested in the last 12 months. What was the age of the person when he/she died? E.g. 50 QUESTION 5: The date of death is asked in this question. This date is captured in double digits for day, month, and year e.g. 020810. QUESTION 6: This question seeks to know the cause of death? There are five options to pick from. Only one option is allowed. SECTION 15C: CONFLICT In this section, we collect information on any violent event that members of the household have experienced directly or indirectly. We are interested in the occurrence to all the events that are related to a situation of conflict, violence and insecurity that may impact on the household. Our definition of violent event include death, physical aggression, injury, sexual aggression, being forced to work, kidnapping, robbery, displacement and dwelling, land and asset robbery or destruction. We also collect information on who was the perpetrator of the violence, which was the cause/reason of the violent event, and which have been the effects of the violent event on the household. We are interested in collecting information over a long period of time, starting from 2010. Since we expect these events to be few, it is extremely important that they are precisely recorded as for the time of occurrence. Respondent: This person should preferably be the head of the household. If the head is absent, then a responsible and knowledgeable adult, preferably the spouse of the household head in the household should be interviewed. This person should be a member of the household and must be capable of providing all necessary information. QUESTION 1: This question seeks to capture information on the various types of violent events that the household may have experienced. Ask to recall an event in 2010. This will help the respondent to answer to the questions. Ask if the household has been affected by any of the listed violent events since 2010. Go through the list and record “1” next to each event for which the response is “YES” and “2” next to events for which the response is “NO”. QUESTION 2: Ask how many times each violent event has occurred since 2010. If it never occurred, write “0”. QUESTION 3a – 8b: With these sets of questions, we want to know in which year the events occurred and who the perpetrator was. Member refers to family member. For each event, ask if the violent event occurred in the years 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015/2016. A “NO” answer in a column “a” (the column of a year) skip to another column “a” (the column of another year). For a “YES” answer in a column “a”, go to the next question for that event and ask for the perpetrator of the event. Enter correct perpetrator code. If one event occurred more than once, when asking for the perpetrator, refer to the worst event. For instance, if the family dwelling suffered from robbery, when indicating the perpetrator, ask for who 82 the perpetrator of the robbery was during which more value was stolen. In case of death, report the perpetrator of the last event for that year. For example, if there were two members killed, report the perpetrator of the second killing (the most recent one). Fill questions 3a – 8b, for each event. Next, go to the following event. For instance, start from event 1 (any family member killed) and ask all questions until 8b. Then, move to event 2 (any member suffered from physical aggression) and start again from 3a until question 8b. QUESTION 9: From this question on, we focus on the most recent happening for each type of violent event. Start from event (1) and go through Q9 to question Q17. Then move to event (2) and so on, for all events (1-12). For any violent event, ask for the year and month of the most recent happening of the event. Check that the year of the event referred as the most recent one corresponds to the responses in Questions 3a to 8b above. For example, if event occurred in 2014 but not in 2015/16, year in Q9 is 2014 and all the question Q10-Q17 will refer to the event in 2014. QUESTION 10: Ask for the location of the most recent event. Enter the correct code. QUESTION 11: Ask for the gender of the person affected by the most recent event. If more than one event for the person, report the gender of the person most strongly affected by the violent event. If event is death, indicate the gender of the youngest. This question does not apply to events 9-10-11-12. QUESTION 12: Ask for the most important cause of the most recent event. Enter the appropriate code. QUESTION 13: Ask for the most important consequences of the most recent event. Enter up to 2 consequences using appropriate codes. Record them in order of importance for the family: report in column 1st, the most important and in 2nd, the other one. QUESTION 14: Determine if any household member contacted anyone to report the event (YES/NO). QUESTION 15: Ask who the event was reported to. Use the appropriate code. “Report” means making any action (official, unofficial, formal or informal) to make others aware of the happening of the event. QUESTION 16: Ask if the household received any assistance following the most recent event. By assistance, we refer to any type of help including providing food, money or psychological support. QUESTION 17: Determine who provided this assistance. Provide up to 2 of the most important sources of this assistance. Record them in order of importance for the family: report in column 1st, the most important and in 2nd, the other one. CONTACT INFORMATION This section of the Household Questionnaire is very important to the Panel Survey. By virtue of the Panel Survey, it is required that any respondent that has moved away from the former residence must be tracked or followed up as a matter of necessity. Therefore, the interviewers should obtain the Head 83 of household contact information as requested in the questionnaire, such as phone numbers, address, and phone numbers of some reference persons. QUESTION 1: The interviewer should obtain from the head of household, his or her mobile phone number, or landline/cell phone or both. This would be useful to track him if there is need to do so in subsequent years. QUESTIONS 2A - 2C: The interviewer should go a step further to obtain the same information as above from at most three members of the household. Other information needed is the person’s name, ID from the household roster and telephone number as requested in the questionnaire. Having collected contact information on the household members, the interviewer would ask the head of household to provide two reference persons who can help to trace him (Head of household) if the need arises. QUESTIONS 3A1 - 3A5: We need the following contact information about the two reference persons: name, relationship to the head of household, telephone number and contact address. Note that one of the two reference persons must be living in the same village or town with the head of the household as requested in the questionnaire. The second of the two reference persons must be a contact that lives outside the village or town of the head of household. The essence of the reference person’s information is that this can be used to track the head of household, if he moves away in the near future to another place unknown to the interviewers. These reference persons should know the household and its members very well to be able to provide information about the household in the future. 84 Illustrations Example 1 Phone Number for Household Head: Landline Cell phone 1A Name: Mr John Opara 01-2647288 0802 4441613 Phone Phone Numbers for other household members 2A Name: Mrs Mary Opara ID (From Roster) 2B Name: Mr Peter Opara ID (From Roster) 4, Phone - 0803 777 9010 ID (From Roster) 6, Phone - 0703 555 5553 2C Name: Miss Rita Opara 2, Phone - 0802 555 5556 Example 2 Phone Number for Household Head: 1A Name: Mr John Opara Phone Landline Cell phone - - Phone Numbers for other household members 2A Name: Mrs Mary Opara ID (From Roster) 2B Name: Mr Peter Opara ID (From Roster) 4, Phone - 0813 444 4444 ID (From Roster) 6, Phone – 0703 555 5555 2C Name: Miss Rita Opara 2, Phone - 0909 999 9999 Head of Household’s Address: Plot 340, Independence Avenue, Central Business District, Garki, Abuja. This address is compulsory because neither the head of household nor any member of his household has a Mobile or Landline telephone. The only alternative available is to collect the correct address of the head of the household. We expect that the address is detailed enough including to the nearest bus stop (especially in urban areas) to facilitate easy location of the household. QUESTION 4: We want the interviewer to write his/her contact details (name and phone number) on the contact information sheet of all households he/she interviews. This is important to help in locating the household in the future. For instance in case we have to track the household in the future, the tracking team will call the interviewer for direction if they experience difficulty locating the household. 85 Chapter 5: The Agricultural Questionnaire INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to collect data on the household’s agricultural activities to link with nonagricultural activities for household welfare. Information on livestock was collected in the post-planting visit and will not be collected in the post-harvest visit. Agriculture is the system of cultivating soil for production of crops, horticulture, livestock/poultry, fishing, forestry and in varying degrees. The agricultural outputs and marketing of the agricultural products are also covered in this survey. Agriculture plays a vital role in many developing countries like Nigeria and therefore it is very important that this section is to be accurately administered. Respondent: Respondent is the head of the household or the person best informed about the agricultural activities of the household. In some parts, the individual holders identified in the household can be invited to give the answers. Spanner Head: Contains a statement of intention to be communicated to the respondent by the Interviewer. This is to assist the Interviewer to follow the sequence of the interview and to get his or her mind prepared on the next issue to be addressed. Note that it is important for every interviewer to take note of the content of all spanner heads in this questionnaire. Note: Interviewer must ensure that the answer to a particular question is appropriately recorded before acting on the skip instruction. THE PRE- FILLING ASPECTS: In the training venue, the sections of the questionnaires to be pre-filled were listed as follows: Table 1: ASPECTS TO BE PRE-FILLED IN AGRICULTURE QUESTIONNAIRE SECTION QUESTION NO. AGRICULTURE QUESTIONNAIR E COVER PAGE – HOUSEHOLD IDENTIFICATION FLAP C – PLOT ROSTER Q1, Q1b, Q2 FLAP D – PLOT-CROP ROSTER PLOT ID, CROP ID, Q1, Q2 FLAP E – CROP ROSTER Q1, Q2 PRE-FILLING PROCEDURE: The method of pre-filling should be done according to instructions listed below: The writing must be in either Blue or Black Biro. No questionnaire should be moved out of training venue. The Cover Page of Agriculture Questionnaires should be pre-filled by copying from household pre-filling sheet. QUESTIONNAIRE _ OF _ TOTAL: This aspect should NOT be pre-filled. Leave it blank. Flap C, questions 1, 1b and 2 should be pre-filled from the agricultural pre-filling sheets. Flap D, questions 1 and 2 only should be pre-filled using the agriculture pre-filling sheets. Questions 3 and 4 will be answered during the interview. Flap E, questions 1 and 2 should be pre-filled using the agriculture pre-filling sheets. 86 COVER PAGE SECTION A-1: HOUSEHOLD IDENTIFICATION is the cover page of the Questionnaire. This cover page contains the same identification which corresponds to Household Questionnaire cover page. Copy to this Agriculture Post – Harvest questionnaire cover page accordingly. QUESTIONNAIRE _ OF _ TOTAL: This is to give the total number of questionnaires used per household in serial arrangement when it is more than one. For example, if three questionnaires were used in a farming household, complete QUESTIONNAIRE _ OF _ TOTAL as QUESTIONNAIRE 1_ OF 3 _ TOTAL, QUESTIONNAIRE 2_ OF 3_ TOTAL and QUESTIONNAIRE 3_ OF 3_ TOTAL, the numbering must start from household questionnaire. For example, if a household used two Household questionnaires and one Agricultural questionnaire, then the response in the Agriculture cover sheet would be “3 of 3 TOTAL”. QUESTIONS 12, 13 & 14: SECTIONS MISSING/INCOMPLETE AFTER 1ST/2ND/3RDINTERVIEW – During the 1ST/2ND/3RDinterview, if the section(s) missing and/or incomplete was discovered, tick the most appropriate option from the list of sections provided. Multiple selections are possible. Otherwise, leave blank for none missing and/or incomplete section after the interview. OBSERVATIONS ON THE INTERVIEW: Interviewer should complete this space provided for comment or critical issue observed during the interview in the household. Such pieces of information will be helpful to the supervisor, monitors and analyst of this questionnaire. Otherwise, leave blank if there is no important issue noticed after the interview. Read and Pay special attention to the instruction in upper case before writing any important observation. SECTION A1: LAND The section on land lists all plots, which are owned or cultivated by the household. It collects information on plot size (both farmer estimated and GPS measurement), ownership, management, acquisition and use. The skip pattern is somewhat complicated with many questions only relevant for newly listed plots (and already collected for plots found in the Post-Planting visit). The most important aspect of this section is the plot measurement. Plots that were not measured in the post-planting phase MUST be measured in this visit unless they are out of the LGA. The pre-filling sheet will indicate which plots were not measured or incorrectly measured in post-planting. RESPONDENT: Farmer, owner or manager of plot. Every effort should be made to interview the manager of the plot. FLAP ROSTER: This flap is located on page 24 of the questionnaire and should be folded out when starting Section A1. The flap lists all PLOTS cultivated or owned by the household and includes the name and description of each plot, whether the plot was measured in the post-planting visit, and who manages the plot. USE OF FLAP C: Start the interview using the agriculture questionnaire, open FLAP-C to the left of the questionnaire. All plots captured in the previous visit should have had their information pre-filled in Flap C. Before proceeding to question 3 in section A1, the interviewer should list the plots listed in the previous visit to the respondent and then must ask the respondent if there are any new plots obtained since the last 87 interview. New plots should then be listed starting on the first available line after the visit 1 plots. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 10 PLOTS, AN ADDITIONAL AGRICULTURAL QUESTIONNAIRE MUST BE USED FOR THE ADDITIONAL PLOTS. IT IS NEVER ACCEPTABLE TO EXCLUDE A PLOT IF THERE IS NO MORE SPACE ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE. QUESTION 1: This question should cover all plots operated in the household since the last interview; and add the new plots operated. Pay special attention to the instruction in upper case before writing any response. NOTE: PLOT NAME: The local name that was given to the location where the plot could be found is needed here. DESCRIPTION: To give useful information about how the plot can be located. QUESTION 1b: Indicate whether the plot was measured using GPS in the previous visit. This information will be provided on the pre-filling sheets and should be filled before proceeding to the field. For new plots, the response should be recorded as 2 (“No”). QUESTION 2: This question asks for the person who manages each plot in the household. For plots found in the post-planting visit, the manager ID will be pre-filled as reported in the previous visit. For new plots, the manager ID must be copied from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER to the column provided. Make special note of the instruction: The respondent for this section and all plot level sections should be the manager of the plot. QUESTION 3: Indicate whether the plot is newly added in this visit. It is very important that this question is answered correctly since it will determine which questions are asked for this plot. SKIP INSTRUCTION: Where the response is “yes”, move to question 8 on the same row. Otherwise, continue to question 4. QUESTION 4: Ask if anyone in the household still owns or cultivates each plot listed. If the plot is no longer owned or cultivated by someone in the household, we will want to know how it was disposed of. If the response is “no”, move to question 5. Otherwise, continue to question 4b. QUESTION 4b: Refer to question 1a on Flap C for the response to this question. This question will again indicate whether the plot was measured in the post-planting visit. If it was not measured, every effort should be made in this visit to measure the plot. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, skip to question 23. If the response is “no”, then the plot should be measured using the GPS unit. The GPS information (area and coordinates) should be recorded in Questions 9 and 10. You do not need to ask the respondent for the estimated area of the plot. Only the GPS measurement is required for post-planting plots that were not measured in that visit. QUESTION 5: In question 5, we seek to know how a plot that is no longer owned or cultivated by the household was disposed of. Ask the respondent and record the most appropriate option from the coded list. If the response does not correspond to a coded option, record 8 (other specify) and also, clearly write the specification. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If any of options 1 to 5 is taken, skip to question 7. Otherwise, continue to question 6. 88 QUESTION 6: This question is only asked for plots that have been sold since the last visit (responded 6, 7, or 8 in question 5). Ask for the total amount of money received for sale of the plot including estimated value from in-kind payments. Record the total value in Naira. SKIP INSTRUCTION: After recording a response here, move to the next plot. This section in finished for this plot. QUESTION 7: If the response is any of options 1-5 in question 5, find out the major reason for getting rid of this PLOT. Select the most appropriate option from the list given. If other specify is chosen (option 10), record the specification. SKIP INSTRUCTION: After recording the response here, skip to the next plot in the plot roster. QUESTION 8: Record the ID of the person responding to this section from the household roster (Flap A in the household module). NOTE: The respondent for each plot should ideally be the manager of the plot. QUESTION 9: This question seeks for the cultivated area of PLOT in number and local unit of measure from the farmer’s recall as well as area measured by the use of Global Positioning System (GPS). Ask the respondent what the area of the plot is. Record the Unit and Number given by the respondent. BE CAREFUL TO ENTER THE AMOUNT APPROPRIATELY; PAYING SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE DECIMAL POINT PROVIDED IN THE RESPONSE AREA. DO NOT LEAVE SPACES TO THE RIGHT OF THE DECIMAL BLANK (FILL WITH ZEROES INSTEAD) For example, if the farmer responds that the plot is about 1 and a half acres; record 1.50 under Number and 5, under Unit. After completing the interview, ask the respondent to accompany you to the plot and measure the area using the GPS device provided. Record GPS measurement in Square Meters in the column labeled “GPS MEASURED IN SQ. METER”. BE CAREFUL TO ENTER THE AMOUNT APPROPRIATELY PAYING SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE DECIMAL PROVIDED IN THE RESPONSE AREA. DO NOT LEAVE SPACES TO THE RIGHT OF THE DECIMAL BLANK (FILL WITH ZEROES INSTEAD). For example, 2600.5 sq. meters should be written as 2600.50in the space provided. ALL PLOTS SHOULD BE MEASURED USING GPS. The only exception is plots that are out of the LGA. Some respondents will be resistant to accompany you to the plot, but you should make every effort to convince them. QUESTION 10: Use GPS to get the Coordinates from the center point of the PLOT. For example, you measure plot 1 in household 150012 and find the GPS coordinates indicated by the device are N 070 25.567; E0040 12.294..The coordinates should be provided in the appropriate boxes. BE SURE TO ENTER LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE IN THE CORRECT COLUMNS. TAKE NOTE OF THE “N” AND “E” TO ENSURE THIS IS DONE PROPERLY. The PLOT LABEL is 15001201, which is a combination of Household ID (150012) and PLOT ID (01). The recording is as follows: LATITUDE (North) LONGITUDE (East) PLOT LABEL 07025.567 04012.294 15001201 NOTE: PLOT LABEL: Is a combination of questionnaire household ID (HHID) and Plot ID. 89 QUESTION 10a: Record whether this plot was measured with GPS. If the plot was measured, skip to Question 10c. Otherwise, proceed to Question 10b. QUESTION 10b: If the answer to question 10a is “no”, record a response for why there was no GPS measurement. If code 5 is chosen, provide the specification. QUESTION 10c: Record any indication if this is a new plot in this visit. The answer to this question should correspond to Question 3. While this question may seem repetitive, it is necessary to ensure the appropriate questions are asked for new plots and not repeated for old plots. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, proceed to Question 11. If “no”, skip to Question 23. QUESTIONS 11-22 SHOULD ONLY BE ASKED FOR PLOTS ADDED IN THIS VISIT. QUESTION 11: Ask for the person(s) that manages each PLOT. The individual ID of the manager(s) must be taken from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER. At least one manager must be recorded, though up to two mangers may be provided. Pay special attention to the instruction (in upper case) before writing any response. QUESTION 12: Find out how the new plot was acquired. Then pick the most appropriate option that matches the response given. SKIP INSTRUCTIONS: If the response is option 1, continue to question 13. If the response is option 2 move to question 19.If the response is option either 3 or 4 move to question 21. If the response is option 5 move to question 15. QUESTION 13: If option 1 was selected in Question 12, ask for total amount paid for this PLOT, including estimated value of payments made in-kind. Record the amount in Naira. QUESTION 14: Ask for the person who owns this PLOT in the household. The owner ID must be copied from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER to the columns provided. A maximum of two persons’ ID s are needed. QUESTION 15: Ask whether the respondent has the right to sell this PLOT. If the response is “yes”, record 1 and write 2 for “No”. QUESTION 16: Find out whether the respondent has the right to use this PLOT as collateral for a loan. If the response is “yes”, record 1 and 2 for “No”. QUESTION 17: Find out whether any other member of the household has right to sell this PLOT or use it as collateral. SKIP INSTRUCTION: Move to Question 21 if the response is “No”. Otherwise, continue to Question 18. QUESTION 18: If the respondent indicated in Question 17 that there were other members of the household who could sell or use a plot as collateral, ask here who the other members are. A maximum of three (3) persons’ IDs from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER are needed. 90 SKIP INSTRUCTION: After recording the response, skip to Question 21. QUESTION 19: Ask for the total amount paid IN CASH for renting this [PLOT] since the beginning of the planting season. Record the amount in Naira. QUESTION 20: Ask for the total value of IN-KIND payments made for renting this [PLOT] since the beginning of the planting season. Estimate the in-kind payment in Naira only. QUESTION 21: Ask if there are any other members of the household, who cultivate crops or are the primary decision makers on this PLOT. These are persons NOT listed as managers in previous questions. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, continue to Question 22. If the response is “no”, skip to the next plot in the roster. QUESTION 22: If response is “yes” in question 21, ask the respondent to specify the other decision maker(s) on this PLOT. THESE SHOULD NOT BE PERSONS PREVIOUSLY REPORTED AS MANAGERS. A maximum of four (4) persons’ ID from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER is needed. SKIP INSTRUCTION: After recording the response(s), skip to the next plot in the roster. QUESTIONS 23 – 25 SHOULD ONLY BE ANSWERED FOR PLOTS RECORDED IN THE PREVIOUS VISIT. QUESTION 23: In this question, we seek to know whether the manager of the plot has changed FROM THE PREVIOUS VISIT (THE ID RECORDED IN Q2). SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, continue to Question 24. If the response is “no”, skip to the next plot in the roster. QUESTION 24: If the response is “yes” in question 23, ask who is (are) the current manager(s) of this PLOT. A maximum of three (3) persons’ ID from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER are needed. BE SURE THAT THE MANAGERS ARE LISTED IN ORDER OF THEIR MANAGERIAL RESPONSIBILITIES. QUESTION 25: If the response is “yes” in question 23 (the manger has changed), ask what the main reason why the manager has changed for this PLOT. Select the response from the given list of options. If option 7 is taken, write the response and code 7 and clearly record the specification. SECTION A2: LABOUR This section collects information on labour used on each plot since planting. While this includes all activities since planting was completed, the activities are separated into two separate categories: (1) those after planting but before harvest (Questions 1 – 13) and (2) those during and after harvest (Questions 14 – 26). Information on household, hired, and exchange (free) labour are collected. Hired labour is separated into three categories based on sex and age: (1) male adults, (2) female adults and (3) children (under the age of 15). NOTE: THIS SECTION (AND SECTIONS 11C2, 11D, AND A3.i) SHOULD ONLY BE ASKED FOR PLOTS THAT WERE CULTIVATED BY THE HOUSEHOLD IN THE RAINY SEASON. For uncultivated plots, leave the line for the plot blank for this and the following sections. BE SURE THE PLOT ID CORRESPONDS TO THE PLOT ROSTER (Flap C). 91 QUESTIONS 1a – 13 REFER TO ACTIVITIES FOLLOWING PLANTING BUT PRIOR TO HARVEST. THIS INCLUDES ACTIVTIES SUCH AS WEEDING, RIDGING, FERTILIZING, SPREAD OF PESTICIDES/HERBICIDES, ETC. QUESTION 1a: This question intends to find out the total number of household members who worked on the given plot. Note that this question asks for the TOTAL number of household members who worked on plot between planting and harvesting. QUESTION 1: This question asks detailed information on members of the household that work on each plot performing activities after planting and before harvest. For each member that worked on the plot, 4 distinct questions must be asked: 1. Record the individual ID of the relevant member 2. How many weeks this member worked on the plot between planting and harvest 3. How many days per week this member worked on the plot between planting and harvest a. Since this is days per week, the response cannot exceed 7 days. 4. How many hours per day this member worked on the plot between planting and harvest a. Since this is hours per day, the response should not exceed 18 hours. First, ask the respondent to enumerate all household members that worked on each PLOT during the last rainy season AFTER PLANTING BUT PRIOR TO HARVEST. Copy EACH person’s ID from household Roster to complete Harvest Labour table. If no household members worked on the plot after planting and before harvest, record a dash (-) in each column for member ID and leave the others blank. If less than four members worked on the plot, record a dash in the other columns for member ID. IF MORE THAN 4 MEMBERS WORKED ON THE PLOT, FILL OUT THIS SECTION IN AN ADDITIONAL AGRICULTURE QUESTIONNAIRE. After all members are specified, ask the detailed questions about how much the member worked on the plot between planting and harvest (weeks, days, and hours). Pay special attention to the notes provided in the questionnaire. IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE INTERVIEWER ASKS THE QUESTIONS EXACTLY AS THEY ARE WRITTEN IN THE QUESTIONNAIRE. If the respondent provides an unreasonable response (for example, worked more than 7 days in a week), check to make sure the respondent understands the question. NOTE: It must be made clear to the respondent that the work time must be specific to each plot. In previous waves, in some cases, the responses seem to indicate that the respondent is working on multiple plots simultaneously which is impossible. Perhaps they work every day on two plots but spend 5 hours each day working on one plot and 5 hours each day on the other. This should not be recorded as 10 hours worked per day on both plots. NOTE: It must also be made clear that the individual listed actually worked on the plot. In previous visits, some respondents have listed their children as working full time on the plots; however the children only accompanied their parents to the field but did not perform any work. In this case, the children should not be listed – only members that actually performed work on the plot. QUESTIONS 2 – 10 REFER TO HIRED AND FREE LABOR THAT WORKED ON THE PLOT AFTER PLANTING BUT BEFORE HARVEST. QUESTION 2: This question asks for the number of men (15 years or older) hired to do work on this PLOT between planting and harvesting in the last agricultural (rainy) season. Record the number accordingly. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If no men were hired, record zero and skip to Question 5. Otherwise, continue to Question 3. 92 QUESTION 3: Ask the respondent how many days the hired men worked on this PLOT between planting and harvesting in the last agricultural (rainy) season. NOTE: This is the number of days men were hired, not the number of man-days. For example, if two men were hired to work 2 days each, you would record “2” days, not “4” days. QUESTION 4: Ask how much the manager normally pays per day to all men hired between planting and harvesting in the last agricultural (rainy) season in Naira. This is how much the farmer normally pays per day to all the hired men. For example: On Plot 1, five men were hired for 7 days and paid N4,000 per day each, then the TOTAL DAILY payment by the farmer is N20,000 (5 men X N4,000 per day). Therefore, 20,000 should be recorded for Q4. Another example: On Plot 3, three men are hired to work for a single day; the first was paid N3,000, the second N2,000 and the third N5,000. Then the amount to record in Q4 is 10000. QUESTIONS 5-7: Correspond to Questions 2-4 but refer instead to adult females (15 years or older). Refer to the notes above for Questions 2-4. QUESTIONS 8-10: Correspond to Questions 2-4 but refer instead to children (under 15 years old). Refer to the notes above for Questions 2-4. QUESTION 10b: The interviewer should check the responses for questions 2, 5 and 8 to determine if the household hired any person to work on the plot. If the response was zero for questions 2, 5 and 8, record “yes” and skip to Question 12. Otherwise, continue to Question 11. QUESTION 11: If any persons were hired to work on the plot between planting and harvest, this question seeks to determine whether any hired labor was given in the form of harvested crop. Record the crop code, quantity, and unit for the TOTAL quantity of the crop given out to ALL hired workers. If more than one crop was given, only list the crop given out the most. If no harvested crop was given to any hired worker, enter zero for quantity and leave crop code and unit blank. Get the total quantity given out as payment to all hired workers for harvesting on this PLOT. QUESTION 12: Ask the respondent how many (if any) men, women, or children (under 15 years old) from other households worked for free on each plot. This includes exchange labour (persons, who worked on the plot in exchange for household members working on the laborer’s plot) as well as persons, who assisted for nothing in return. If there were no persons who worked for free, record zero in all columns and skip to Question 14. QUESTION 13: Ask the respondent for the source of free labour from other households that worked on PLOT between planting and harvesting. List up to three different sources in the network roster and record the network roster ID code under Question 13. QUESTIONS 13a – 26 REFER TO HOUSEHOLD, HIRED, AND FREE LABOR THAT WORKED ON THE PLOT DOING ACTIVITIES RELATED TO HARVESTING AND THRESHING. Follow the same instructions enumerated above for questions 1-13 for PLOT activities related to harvesting and threshing. 93 SECTION 11C2: INPUT COSTS This section collects detailed information on the use of various inputs including pesticides, herbicides, animal traction and equipment; and machinery. The use of these inputs is an important factor that can determine how successful crop production is for the household. It is also important to know how much the household spent on these inputs to assess their profit from agricultural production. RESPONDENT: As for section A1 and A2, the ideal respondent for this section is the manager of each plot. If the manager is not available, the respondent should be another adult member of the household, who is knowledgeable about inputs used on the PLOT. QUESTIONS 1 – 9 ASK ABOUT PESTICIDE USE ON EACH PLOT. Pesticide: A substance for destroying pests, especially insects and small animals like rat. QUESTION 1: This question determines whether pesticide was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. Record the response as “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response in question 1 is “no”, skip to question 9. If the response is “yes”, continue with Question 2. QUESTION 2: If question 1 is yes, enquire for the quantity of pesticide used on the PLOT during the agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. If more than one kind of pesticide was used, record the TOTAL quantity used. The appropriate quantity and unit code should be recorded for each PLOT. QUESTION 3: In addition to the quantity, it is also necessary to know the source of the fertilizer. Ask the respondent to identify the source(s) of pesticide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. List up to two sources for pesticides in the network roster and record the Network Roster ID codes under question 3. NOTE: Network Roster is a set of lists (i.e. a group-name to an Individual, a corporate body and organization) that are connected to the listed locations so that they can share information. Also, it represents a list of items which are linked to a particular group and location in a serially arranged form. The Network Roster table must be completed by the Interviewer before assigning Network code(s) to any response to the questions. How to Use the Network Roster: For sources of pesticide, the responses obtained were, “Mr. Williams in Kado market, Abuja.” and “Abuja Municipal Area Council, Garki.” The Network Roster would be completed as shown below: Network Code N1 N2 Name Mr. Williams Abuja Municipal Area Council Network 9 17 Location 5 6 Having completed the Network Roster table in respect of Question 3, the interviewer must flip back to the two cells provided for Network Code in Question 3 to record the responses captured in the Network Roster as N1 and N2 respectively. QUESTION 4: This question asks for the amount of money paid to each source to obtain the pesticide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. The amount paid to each source as specified in Question 3 should be recorded in the appropriate column (the amount paid to source 1 in question 3 should be recorded under the “Source 1” column in Question 4). If there is a single source in Question 3, leave the second source column blank in Question 4. 94 QUESTION 5: Similar to Question 4, this question asks for the in-kind payments made to each source to obtain the pesticide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. If there is any in-kind payment, estimate and record the value of these non-cash items in NAIRA. E.g. 10 tubers of yam is equivalent to 2700 Naira; write 2700 in the appropriate source column. QUESTION 6: Ask the respondent if any of the pesticide used on the PLOT was received for free. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, continue to Question 7. If the response is “no”, skip to Question 9. QUESTION 7: If the response to question 6 is 1 (Yes), enquire for the quantity of pesticide used for free on the PLOT this agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. The appropriate quantity and unit code should be recorded for each PLOT. If there were multiple types of free pesticides used on the PLOT, record the TOTAL amount of free pesticides. QUESTION 8: This question determines who gave most of the free pesticides this agricultural season. A maximum of TWO sources should be listed with the appropriate network roster codes. QUESTION 9: In addition to know whether and how much pesticide was used by the household, it is also important to know if pesticide was not available for purchase when needed. This question asks if there was any time since this planting season that pesticide was not available when it was needed. QUESTIONS 10 – 18 ASK ABOUT HERBICIDES USED ON EACH PLOT. Herbicide: A toxic substance to some plants used to destroy unwanted vegetation called weeds. QUESTION 10: This question determines whether herbicide was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. Record the response as “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response in question 10 is “no”, skip to question 18. If the response is “yes”, continue with question 11. QUESTION 11: If Question 10 is yes, enquire for the quantity of herbicide used on the PLOT during the agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. If more than one kind of herbicide was used, record the TOTAL quantity used. The appropriate quantity and unit code should be recorded for each PLOT. QUESTION 12: In addition to the quantity, it is also necessary to know the source of the fertilizer. Ask the respondent to identify the source(s) of herbicide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. List up to two sources for herbicides in the network roster and record the Network Roster ID codes under question 12. QUESTION 13: This question asks for the amount of money paid to each source to obtain the herbicide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. The amount paid to each source as specified in question 12 should be recorded in the appropriate column (the amount paid to source 1 in question 12 should be recorded under the “Source 1” column in question 13). If there is a single source in question 12, leave the second source column blank in question 13. QUESTION 14: Similar to question 13, this question asks for the in-kind payments made to each source to obtain the herbicide used on the PLOT this agricultural season. If there is any in-kind payment, estimate and record the value of these non-cash items in NAIRA e.g. 10 tubers of yam is equivalent to 2700 Naira – write 2700 in the appropriate source column. QUESTION 15: Ask the respondent if any of the herbicide used on the PLOT was received for free. 95 SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, continue to question 16. If the response is NO, skip to question 18. QUESTION 16: If the response to question 15 is “1” (yes), enquire for the quantity of herbicide used for free on the PLOT this agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. The appropriate quantity and unit code should be recorded for each PLOT. If there were multiple types of free herbicides used on the PLOT, record the TOTAL amount of free herbicides. QUESTION 17: This question determines who gave most of the free herbicides this agricultural season. A maximum of TWO sources should be listed with the appropriate network Roster codes. QUESTION 18: In addition to know whether and how much herbicide was used by the household, it is also important to know if herbicide was not available for purchase when needed. This question asks if there was any time since this planting season that herbicide was not available when it was needed. QUESTIONS 19 – 26 ASK ABOUT ANIMAL TRACTION ON EACH PLOT. Animal Traction: A process of using larger animals (cattle, horses, donkey, etc.) to assist farmers in carrying out farming tasks such as ploughing, planting, ridging, weeding and harvesting. QUESTION 19: This question determines whether animal traction was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. Record the response as “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response in question 10 is “no”, skip to question 26. If the response is “yes” continue with question 20. QUESTION 20: If question 19 is “yes”, enquire for the TOTAL number of days that animals owned by the household were used for animal traction on the PLOT during the agricultural season. This covers all types of activities and types of animals. However, days should not be double counted. If the farmer used a cow and a donkey to work on a plot on the same day¸ then the correct response is 1 day, not 2 days. QUESTION 21: Asks for the TOTAL number of days that rented animals were used for animal traction this agricultural season. If no animals were rented, record zero and skip to question 25. QUESTION 22: The interviewer should ask for the source(s) of rented animal(s) used on the PLOT. Record a maximum of TWO source(s) for each PLOT with the appropriate Network Roster codes. QUESTION 23: This question asks for the amount of money paid to each source to rent the animals used on the PLOT this agricultural season. The amount paid to each source as specified in question 22 should be recorded in the appropriate column (the amount paid to source 1 in question 22 should be recorded under the “Source 1” column in question 23). If there is a single source in question 22, leave the second source column blank in question 23. QUESTION 24: Similar to question 23, this question asks for the in-kind payments made to each source to the animals used on the PLOT this agricultural season. If there is any in-kind payment, estimate and record the value of these non-cash items in NAIRA e.g. 10 tubers of yam is equivalent to 2700 Naira, write 2700 in the appropriate source column. QUESTION 25: One additional cost to using animals (both owned and rented) is for feeding the animals. This question asks for the amount spent on feeding the animals used for traction this agricultural season. The amount should be recorded in NAIRA for each PLOT. 96 QUESTION 26: This question determines whether there was any time since this agricultural season that animal(s) was/were not available for rent when it was needed. Record the response as “1” for “Yes” or “2” for “No”. QUESTIONS 26 – 27 ASK ABOUT EQUIPMENT OR MACHINERY USED ON EACH PLOT. Equipment/Machine: A tool that is needed to do any farming activities either mechanically or manually e.g. Tractor, Harvester, etc. QUESTION 27: This question seeks to know whether any owned or rented equipment / machinery were used on PLOT this agricultural season. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to SECTION 11D. Otherwise, proceed to question 28. QUESTION 28: If question 27 is “yes”, ask for the number of machines or equipment owned by the household used on this PLOT during the agricultural season. Up to THREE (3) different types of equipment/machines are allowed from the list of options. Specify the number of each machine type along with the appropriate machine code. For option 11 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. If no owned machines were used, record zero under quantity for machine type 1 and leave all other columns blank. If less than three owned machine types were used, leave the extra columns blank. QUESTION 29: Similar to question 27, this question asks if any rented equipment/machinery were used on PLOT this agricultural season. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to question 34. Otherwise, proceed to Question 30. QUESTION 30: If question 29 is “yes”, ask for the number of machines or equipment rented in by the household used on this PLOT during the agricultural season. Up to THREE (3) different types of equipment/machines are allowed from the list of options. Specify the number of each machine type along with the appropriate machine code. For option 11 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. If less than three types of machines were rented, leave the extra columns blank. QUESTION 31: Having completed question 30, ask for the source(s) of rented machine or equipment used. Record a maximum of TWO source(s) with the appropriate Network Roster codes. QUESTION 32: This question asks for the amount of money spent on renting equipment/machines from ALL sources on the PLOT this agricultural season. The TOTAL amount should be recorded in NAIRA for each relevant PLOT. QUESTION 33: This question asks for the how much was spent in-kind to rent equipment/machines from ALL sources on the PLOT this agricultural season. The TOTAL estimated value of in-kind payments should be recorded in NAIRA for each relevant PLOT. E.g. 10 tubers of yam is equivalent to 2,700 Naira – write 2,700 in the columns accordingly. QUESTION 34: This question determines whether there was any time this agricultural season that the equipment/machines was/were not available for rent when it was needed. Record the response as “1” for “yes” or “2” for “no”. 97 SECTION 11D: FERTILIZER ACQUISITION INTRODUCTION: This section obtains information on fertilized used on each PLOT. Fertilizer is a common input used to promote growth of crops. This section covers both organic and inorganic fertilizer. How the fertilizer was acquired is also considered including fertilizer left over from the previous season, acquired for free, purchased as well as purchase using e-wallet fertilizer subsidies. CHANGES FROM WAVE 2: This section has undergone some significant changes from wave 2. First, this section was originally administered in the post-planting visit but has been moved to the postharvest visit in this wave. This change was made to ensure that we capture any fertilizer used after planting but before harvest. Another major change is that a greater distinction has been made between ORGANIC and INORGANIC fertilizer. In previous waves, both organic and inorganic fertilizer have been included in the same questions. However, this led to underreporting of organic fertilizer. In this version, the questions from previous waves have been limited to INORGANIC fertilizer and a new set of questions added at the end that are specific to ORGANIC fertilizer. Lastly, some questions were added to capture the use of e-wallet fertilizer subsidies. RESPONDENT: Farmer, owner or manager of plot Fertilizer: An artificially prepared substance or an organic manure containing nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium added to soil in order to make plants grow and improve its yields. Organic fertilizer: Includes natural products such as animal and plant by-product, most commonly manure or crop residue. Inorganic fertilizer: Includes artificially derived, chemical fertilizers, commonly NPK or urea. QUESTION 1: This question will determine whether this section is required for each PLOT. Interviewers should ask the respondent if ANY fertilizer including INORGANIC AND ORGANIC were used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Make sure that the respondent understands that organic fertilizer includes manure, compost, or crop residue. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “yes”, proceed to question 1a. If the response is “no”, this section is not required for the current plot, skip the next PLOT on the plot roster. QUESTON 1a: This question will determine whether any INORGANIC fertilizer was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. Be sure to read the examples of inorganic fertilizer so the respondent understands what INORGANIC fertilizer is and does not confuse it with ORGANIC. QUESTIONS 2 – 5 CAPTURE FERTILIZER USED ON THE PLOT THAT WAS LEFT OVER FROM A PREVIOUS SEASON. QUESTION 2: If question 1a is “yes”, ask if any fertilizer used on the PLOT was any leftover from the previous season. This would be fertilizer that they may have used in the previous rainy or dry season. It could also be fertilizer acquired more than a year ago. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to question 5a. Otherwise, proceed to question 3. QUESTION 3: If question 2 is “yes”, ask for the type of the leftover INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. If more than one type was used that was left over, specify the type that was used the most. For option 4 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. 98 NOTE: In wave 2, there was a coded option 3 which has been deleted. QUESTION 4: This question asks for the quantity of the leftover INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record the quantity of leftover INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT and specify the appropriate unit code. QUESTION 5: Find out the reason for the choice of ORGANIC fertilizer used on this PLOT. Record the appropriate code from the options provided. For option 5 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. QUESTIONS 5a – 5e CAPTURE FERTILIZER PURCHASED USING E-WALLET FERTILIZER SUBSIDIES USED ON THE PLOT E-Wallet Fertilizer Subsidy Program: A government program whereby farmers can receive a subsidy from the government for the purchase of inorganic fertilizer. The subsidy is typically transferred to farmers via their mobile device. QUESTION 5a: This question determines whether any INORGANIC fertilizer was used on the PLOT that was purchased using e-wallet fertilizer subsidies. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to question 6. Otherwise, continue to question 5b. QUESTION 5b: Ask for the type of INORGANIC fertilizer purchased using e-wallet subsidy that was used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Only one response is allowed for each plot from the listed options. If more than one type was used, specify the type that was used the most. For option 4 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. QUESTION 5c: This question asks for the quantity of INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT that purchased using the e-wallet fertilizer subsidy. Record the quantity and specify the appropriate unit code. QUESTION 5d: This question asks how much was paid for the fertilizer that was used on the PLOT and purchased using the fertilizer subsidy. THIS SHOULD BE THE FINAL COST TO THE FARMER (after the subsidy). Record the cost in NAIRA. QUESTION 5e: The interviewer should ask the respondent how much they would have paid for the fertilizer they used if they had not received the e-wallet subsidy. When the response to this question is compared with that for question 5d, we can estimate the amount of the subsidy. QUESTIONS 6 – 11 CAPTURE FERTILIZER USED ON THE PLOT THAT WAS AQUIRED FOR FREE QUESTION 6: This question determines if any INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT was acquired for free. NOTE: FREE FERTILIZER EXCLUDES ANY FERTILIZER LEFTOVER FROM PREVIOUS SEASON. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to question 12. Otherwise, proceed to question 7. QUESTION 7: If the response for question 6 is “yes”, ask for the type of the FREE fertilizer used most on the PLOT. Record the appropriate code from the options provided. For option 4 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. 99 QUESTION 8: This question asks for the quantity of free INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record the quantities of INORGANIC fertilizer used and acquired for free on the PLOT; and specify the appropriate unit code. QUESTION 9: Ask the respondent where they acquired the free INORGANIC fertilizer since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record up to TWO source(s) with the appropriate Network Roster codes from the network roster. QUESTION 10: Ask for the amount paid for transportation to acquire the INORGANIC fertilizer received for free since the beginning of the agricultural season. THIS AMOUNT SHOULD INCLUDE ALL TRIPS TO AND FROM THE FARM. Record the TOTAL amount in NAIRA. QUESTION 11: This question asks what the main mode of transportation used to bring back the FERTILIZER received for free since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record the appropriate code from the options provided. For option 8 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. QUESTIONS 12 – 35 CAPTURE FERTILIZER USED ON THE PLOT THAT WAS PURCHASED QUESTION 12: Ask whether any of the INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT was purchased since the beginning of the agricultural season. NOTE: ANY FERTILIZER PURCHASED USING AN E-WALLET SUBSIDY SHOULD BE EXCLUDED FROM PURCHASES. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to question 36. Otherwise, continue to question 13. QUESTION 13: Having completed Question 12 as “yes”, the interviewer should ask which household member(s) paid for the INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT. Copy the ID from the Household Roster. Record a maximum of TWO ID codes for each plot. QUESTION 14: This section allows for two different sources for the purchased fertilizer. In this question (and questions 15 –23), information will be collected regarding the first source. The interviewer should ask the respondent for the MAIN SOURCE of the purchased INORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Make an entry in the Network Roster and record the appropriate Network Roster code here. QUESTION 15: Ask the respondent what the type of INORGANIC fertilizer was purchased from the MAIN SOURCE. Record the appropriate code from the options provided. For option 4 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. QUESTION 16: This question asks for the quantity of INORGANIC fertilizer purchased from the MAIN SOURCE that was used on the PLOT. Record the quantity used on PLOT that was purchased from the MAIN SOURCE and specify the appropriate unit code. QUESTION 17: Ask for the amount paid for transportation to acquire the INORGANIC fertilizer purchased from the MAIN SOURCE. THIS AMOUNT SHOULD INCLUDE ALL TRIPS TO AND FROM THE FARM. Record the TOTAL amount in NAIRA. QUESTION 18: This question asks what the main mode of transportation used to bring back the FERTILIZER purchased from the MAIN SOURCE and used on the PLOT since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record the appropriate code from the options provided. For option 8 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. QUESTION 19: Ask the respondent for the value (in NAIRA) of the FERTILIZER purchased from FIRST SOURCE since the beginning of the agricultural season. Record the response in NAIRA. 100 NOTE: The value of the fertilizer that was used is not necessarily the same as the amount paid for the fertilizer. QUESTION 20: Ask for the source of finance for the purchase of the INORGANIC fertilizer from the FIRST SOURCE. Record the appropriate code from the options provided in the column provided. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response to question 20 is option “1”, skip to Question 24. Questions 21 -23 will ask for additional information regarding the fertilizer purchased using credit. Otherwise, proceed to question 21. QUESTION 21: Ask for the amount paid up-front for the INORGANIC fertilizer purchased from the MAIN SOURCE. INCLUDE CASH PAYMENT AND ESTIMATED VALUE OF IN-KIND PAYMENTS. IF NOTHING WAS PAID UP FRONT, RECORD ZERO (0). QUESTION 22: Ask how much was repaid or that will be repaid for the INORGANIC fertilizer purchased using credit. This should be the amount that will be paid in addition to how much was paid up front. Be sure to INCLUDE CASH PAYMENT AND THE ESTIMATED VALUE OF IN-KIND PAYMENTS. QUESTION 23: Lastly, ask the respondent for the source of credit for the purchase of the INORGANIC fertilizer from the FIRST SOURCE. Record the appropriate Network Roster code for the source. If there was more than one source, record the source where the most credit was given. QUESTION 24: Apart from FIRST SOURCE in question 14, ask whether there was any SECOND SOURCE from whom the INORGANIC fertilizer was purchased since the beginning of the agricultural season. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If question 24 is “no”, skip to question 36. Otherwise, proceed to question 25 to answer detailed questions regarding the fertilizer purchased from SECOND SOURCE. QUESTIONS 25 –35 CORRESPOND TO QUESTIONS 13 – 23 FOR THE FIRST SOURCE FOR PURCHASE. REFER TO THE INSRUCTIONS FOR THE EQUIVALENT QUESTIONS ABOVE. QUESTIONS 36 –41 ARE ABOUT THE USE AND ACQUISION OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER QUESTION 36: In addition to inorganic fertilizer, ORGANIC fertilizer is also commonly used to enrich the soil and improve crop yields. This question determines whether any ORGANIC fertilizer was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. Some examples of ORGANIC fertilizer are manure, crop residue, compost, etc. If ORGANIC fertilizer was used on the PLOT, then the more detailed questions on the use and acquisition of the ORGANIC fertilizer should be administered (questions 37 – 41). Otherwise, skip to the next plot. QUESTION 37: Of course the most important information we would need about the ORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT is the QUANTITY that was used. Ask the respondent how much was used on the PLOT. BE SURE THEY UNDERSTAND THAT THEY SHOULD ESTIMATE THE AMOUNT SPECIFICALLY USED ON THAT PARTICULAR PLOT. QUESTION 38: The cost of the fertilizer is also an important factor. This question will indicate how much (IF ANY) of the ORGANIC fertilizer used on the PLOT was purchased. Record the quantity purchased THAT WAS USED ON THE PLOT. The response in this question should not be more than the quantity reported in Q37. If none of the ORGANIC fertilizer was purchased, record zero for quantity, leave unit blank, and skip to question 41. 101 QUESTION 39: In addition to the quantity purchased, we also want to know how much the household spent on purchasing the ORGANIC fertilizer THAT WAS USED ON THE PLOT. This amount should only include the cost of the fertilizer that was actually USED on the PLOT. QUESTION 40: The final question regarding the purchase of ORGANIC fertilizer is to identify the source of the purchase. The source identified by the respondent should be recorded in the Network Roster as necessary and the appropriate network code recorded under question 40. QUESTION 41: This question asks for the amount of money paid to transport the ORGANIC fertilizer that was used on the PLOT this agricultural season. This should include all ORGANIC fertilizer purchased or otherwise acquired. ORGANIC fertilizer from within the household, (e.g. manure from household livestock), should be recorded as zero. SECTION A3i: CROP HARVEST INTRODUTION: This is one of the most important sections of the Agricultural module. This section collects information on the harvest of crops. Harvest information allows computation of yields, which is a critical determinant of household well-being for agricultural households. This section also has information on the time of harvest, whether the crop was harvested; and who made decisions regarding how to use the harvested crop. Special attention must be paid to Question 6 (the quantity harvested). This question is one of the most important questions in the entire survey. This module has its own Flap (Flap D) that should be partially pre-filled prior to proceeding to the field. NOTE: This section is at the PLOT-CROP level. All responses must be particular to a specific crop grown on a specific plot. For example, if maize was grown on plots 1 and 2, there should be a separate line for the maize grown on plot 1 and the maize grown on plot 2. CHANGES FROM WAVE 2: The most significant change from Wave 2 is the former section A3 has been split into two sections: A3i and A3ii. Section A3i is specific to PLOT-CROP harvests, while section A3ii collects information at the CROP level. Some additional questions have also been added to this section regarding the timing of harvest, harvested area (in percent of total plot area) and partially completed harvests. FLAP D PLOT-CROP ROSTER: Before commencing the interview for this section, open FLAP D. Flap D contains the PLOT-CROP roster, or the list of all cultivated plots and the crops that were grown on them. Each line of the roster should identify a particular crop grown on a particular plot. Plot ID, Crop ID, Question 1 and Question 2 should be pre-filled before proceeding to the field with all PLOTCROPs reported in the post-harvest visit. Before proceeding to answering the detailed harvest questions, the interviewer must first ensure the list of crops grown on each plot (the PLOT-CROP roster) is complete. The interviewer should go plot-byplot and list for the respondent all crops that were reported to be grown on the plot in the previous visit. THE INTERVIEWER MUST THEN ASK THE RESPONDENT IF THEY HARVESTED ANY ADDIITONAL CROPS ON THE PLOT. Any additional crops should be added to the roster with the appropriate plot ID and crop ID. Lastly, the interviewer should ask the respondent to list the crops grown on plots that were newly acquired since the previous visit (new plots added to the plot roster on Flap C). THE INTERVIEWER SHOULD CAREFULLY READ THE INSTRUCTION UNDER QUESTION 1 BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH THE INTERVIEW. QUESTION 1: Write the name of each crop in each plot correctly. The crop names will be pre-filled from the post-planting visit information. Having the crop name serves as a check on the crop code. The 102 crop code can sometimes be mistakenly written, however, the correct crop code can be determined from the crop name. QUESTION 2: In addition to the name, the crop code is also required. This question will also be prefilled prior to proceeding to the field. For newly added PLOT-CROP observations, reference the complete set of crop codes that are provided on the flip page. Locate the appropriate code and carefully copy it to question 2. QUESTION 3: Before asking detailed questions about the harvest, it is important to first determine whether the crop has actually been harvested. Ask if the [CROP] that was planted on [PLOT] was harvested during the agricultural season. If the [CROP] grown on [PLOT] was not harvested, we want to know why it was not harvested. Therefore, if the response is “no”, proceed to question 4. However if the [CROP] in [PLOT] was harvested, proceed to the detailed questions starting with question 4a. QUESTION 4: Following a “no” response in question 3, ask the respondent why the [CROP] planted on [PLOT] was not harvested. Record the code for the reason provided by the respondent. If there was more than one reason, record the most important reason. SKIP INSTRUCTION: FOR ALL RESPONSES TO QUESTION 4, SKIP TO THE NEXT CROP. The rest of this section will not be administered for this PLOT-CROP. QUESTION 4a: This question asks when the harvest of [CROP] planted on [PLOT] commenced. Record the month (code) and year the harvest began. This information can be used to determine how long after harvest the respondent is being interviewed. QUESTION 5: One very important aspect of the harvest is the total area on which a CROP was harvested on a particular PLOT. Ask the respondent the size of the area of land on which [CROP] was harvested on [PLOT]. THE AREA SHOULD BE REPORTED IN BOTH AREA AND PERCENT OF THE TOTAL PLOT AREA. Having the percentage of the total area will allow for easier use with the GPS measurements collected in the plot roster. QUESTION 6: This is one of the most important questions collected in the survey. It asks for the TOTAL amount of [CROP] harvested on [PLOT] this agricultural season. THE INTERVIEWER SHOULD PAY EXTRA CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THIS QUESITON AND RECORD THE RESPONSE ACCURATELY. Allow the respondent to report the quantity in a unit of their choosing. If the unit is a non-standard unit (not kg, g, L, mL), show the respondent the appropriate photo of the unit provided in the album of reference photographs. Allow the respondent to confirm the size of the unit (if applicable) and adjust the quantity to better reflect the pictured unit. Record the quantity and unit code (listed on the flip page) in the appropriate column. QUESTION 6a: One alternative measure to the quantity harvested is to ask for the estimated value of the harvested crop. Ask the respondent to estimate the value of the [CROP] harvested on [PLOT] in NAIRA. If the respondent is unclear, explain that the value of the harvest is how much money they would receive if they sold the entire harvested [CROP] on [PLOT]. QUESTION 6b: In some situations and for some crops, it may be the case that the harvest has not been completed yet. The farmer may only have started harvesting very recently and has not completed or perhaps some of the crop had not yet fully developed to point of harvesting. This question will identify whether this is the case for [CROP] planted on [PLOT]. 103 SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the harvest is completed (yes), then proceed to question 6c to answer when the harvest was completed. If the harvest is not yet completed (no), skip to question 6d and ask how much more they expect to harvest. QUESTION 6c: If the harvest period has been completed (question 6b is yes), then we want to know when the harvest was completed. Record the month and year the harvest was completed. SKIP INSTRUCTION: For all responses, skip to question 6e. QUESTION 6c: If the harvest has not been completed (question 6b is no), we want to know how much more the respondent expects to harvest of [CROP] from [PLOT]. See the instruction for question 6 for reporting and asking about harvest quantities. QUESTION 6d: This question should be administered for all PLOT-CROP that were harvested. Ask for the person that made decisions concerning the use of the total harvested [CROP] grown on [PLOT] in the household. This is the person(s) that were the primary decision maker(s) regarding how to use the harvested crop (e.g. how much to sell, how much to consume, etc.) List a maximum of TWO person’s ID from the Household Roster. SECTION A3ii: CROP DISPOSITION INTRODUCTION: This section collects detailed information on how harvested crops were used (sold, consumed, stored, etc.). This information is critically important to account for commercialization/sale of crops including income from sales as well as the extent of own consumption from production. FLAP ECROP ROSTER: Open FLAP ECROP ROSTER before the commencement of interview for this section. Unlike the previous flaps, this flap should not be pre-filled before going to the field. The first step in this section is to fill out Flap E using information from the PLOT-CROP roster listed in Flap D. The interviewer should look through Flap D and list ALL CROPS THAT HAVE BEEN HARVESTED by the household (even if the harvest is not complete).This consists of any crop listed on Flap D for which the response to Question3 on Flap D is “yes”. Unharvested crops should not be listed on Flap E. Unlike on Flap D, THE SAME CROP SHOULD NEVER BE LISTED TWICE ON FLAP E. For example, if the household harvested two separate plots of maize, maize should only be listed ONCE on Flap E. All responses in section A3ii should reflect the entire amount of the harvested CROP, regardless of the plot that the crop was harvested from. QUESTION 1 & 2: Write the name and crop code for each HARVESTED crop from FLAP D. BE SURE TO ONLY LIST EACH CROP ONCE. QUESTIONS 3 – 10 COLLECT INFORMATION ON THE SALE OF UNPROCESSED CROP QUESTION 3: This question will determine whether the household has sold any unprocessed CROP that was harvested this season. Unprocessed crops are crops that are still in their raw format and have 104 not been dried, ground, or milled. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the household did sell unprocessed CROP (yes), continue to answer detailed questions 3 – 10. Otherwise, proceed to question 11. QUESTION 4: The month in which the unprocessed crop was sold is also of interest. This can be used to determine how long after harvest the crop was sold. Ask for the month during which the unprocessed crop was sold and enter the appropriate code. NOTE: The month codes do not match the number of the month. If the unprocessed CROP was sold over a period of months, record the month in which the most was sold. QUESTION 5 & 6: The TOTAL quantity of the unprocessed crop sold (question 5) and the value of those sales (question 6) are the most important elements of this section. This will inform as to how much of the crop was sold, the total revenue from sale of the unprocessed crop, as well as the price the farmer received for the unprocessed crop. Record the quantity and unit code as shown on the flip page. SEE THE BOX BELOW REGARDING PRODUCTION QUANTITIES. Record the TOTAL value of sales in question 6. A NOTE ON COLLECTING PRODUCTION QUANTITIES: When asking the respondent for the quantity of a CROP, always allow the respondent to report the quantity in a unit of their choosing. If the unit is a non-standard unit (not kg, g, L, mL), show the respondent the appropriate photo of the unit provided in the album of reference photographs. Allow the respondent to confirm the size of the unit (if applicable) and adjust the quantity to better reflect the pictured unit. You should only question their response if the unit seems inappropriate for the CROP. For example you would not expect to report the quantity of yam reported in milk cup. Be especially careful to correctly record the unit code. QUESTION 7: In addition to the quantity and value, the source of the sale should also be collected. Ask the respondent who they sold the unprocessed crop to. Up to two sources can be listed. Record the reported source in the Network Roster (if they are not already there) and record the appropriate network code(s) under question 7. QUESTIONS 8 & 9: Both of these questions refer to specific members of the household. Question 8 asks for the person that is responsible for taking the unprocessed crop to the market and negotiating the sale. Question 9 asks for the person(s) that decide how to use the earning from the sale of CROP. Record a maximum of TWO person’s IDs from the Household Roster for both questions. QUESTION 10: Lastly, the promptness of the payment for the sale of the crop should be asked. This information will help determine whether the respondent was paid right away or had to wait for the payment. Record the appropriate code from the list of options provided that best corresponds to the response given by the respondent. QUESTIONS 11 – 17: Series of questions asked for the quantity of harvested CROP that was used for various means. SEE THE BOX ABOVE REGARDING PRODUCTION QUANTITIES. For all questions, if the response is “none”, record zero for quantity and leave the unit blank. The means of the disposing crop for each question are as follows: Question 11: Stored as seed for the next season. Question 12: Used as animal feed. 105 Question 13: Consumed by household members. Question 14: Given as payment (in-kind) to labourers. This includes agricultural and agricultural labour. Question 15: Given as payment (in-kind) to non-labour. Question 16: Given as reimbursement for sharecropping. Question 17: Given out as gifts. non- QUESTION 18: This question is similar to questions 11-17 but is slightly more complicated. This question asks for the quantity of the harvest of [CROP] that was post-harvest loss. Post-harvest loss consists of the crop that was harvested but was lost/damaged/made unusable after harvesting. For this question, the respondent can either report the quantity lost or the share of the harvest that was lost. The share is allowed in this question since the respondent may not know the exact quantity that was lost. If the respondent reports the quantity, SEE THE BOX ABOVE REGARDING PRODUCTION QUANTITIES. QUESTIONS 19 –27 COLLECT INFORMATION ON THE SALE OF PROCESSED CROP QUESTIONS 19 –24 CORRESPOND TO QUESTIONS 3 – 10 FOR UNPROCESSED CROP.SEE THE NOTES ABOVE FOR THE CORRESPONDING QUESTIONS. QUESTION 25: Since this series of questions refers to the sale of processed CROP, we want to know exactly how the CROP was processed. Record the appropriate response. If there were multiple forms of processing for the CROP, report the most common type of processing. QUESTION 26 & 27: These two questions capture whether any electricity was used to process crop and if so, the source of that electricity. If no electricity was used to process the crop, skip to the next crop. SECTION A4: AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL This section captures information on the agricultural capital possessed by the farming household. The possession include tractor, plough, planter, boat, fishing net, etc., and are important in measuring farming household welfare and standards of living. It is also important to determine how advanced the capacity for agricultural production of the household is. Respondent: The main respondent is the head of the household and/or an adult household member currently living in the household. QUESTION 1: This question seeks to determine the number of the listed items that are owned by the farming household. The number of items owned should be entered in the row corresponding to that item. If the household owns none of these items, then write “0” in question 1 and move to the next item. Obtain a response on ALL items before moving to Question 2. NOTE: The item must be in good working condition. If the item is not functioning, it should be excluded. For the others, specify (code 322), and be sure to provide the description of the item. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is ZERO, go to NEXT ITEM. If response to the entire list is ZERO, skip to SECTION A5a. QUESTION 2: Ask for the person(s) who owns this [ITEM] in the household. Write the person’s ID from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER. NOTE: If the ITEM is owned by more than one person write their ID codes separated by comma (,) or if owned by entire household write ‘98’ before proceeding to questions 2 to 8. 106 QUESTION 3: This question seeks to determine the age of the item IN YEARS. The age will have bearing on its current value. The value of older items will have depreciated more than new items. If the item was purchased less than past 12 months ago, then write “0” under YEARS column. QUESTION 3b & 4: In order to determine the current value of the item, it is helpful to know the initial purchase price of the ITEM (Question 3b) as well as the estimated current value of the item if sold today (Question 4). First, ask how much was paid for ONE of the ITEMsat the time of purchase and record the answer under Question 3b. Then ask the respondent how much they would receive if they sold one of ITEM in its current state. NOTE: Both of these questions refer to the cost/value of a SINGLE UNIT OF ITEM. That is, if the household owns 3 ploughs, the purchase price and current sale value of A SINGLE plough should be reported. If the household owns more than one of a particular item, the purchase price and current sale value of THE NEWEST ITEM should be reported in questions 3b and 4. QUESTION 5: It may be that there are other persons BESIDES THE OWNERS LISTED IN QUESTION 2 that use the ITEMs. Ask the respondent to list any ADDITIONAL persons, who use this [ITEM] in the household. Record up to 3 persons’ IDs from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER. NOTE: The persons listed in this question should be different from the owners reported in question 2. This question is only concerned with persons other than the owners. QUESTIONS 6 – 8 COLLECT INFORMATION ON RENTING OUT THE OWNED ITEMs QUESTION 6: The household may have generated additional income from renting out their agricultural equipment to other farmers. If so, it is important that this additional income is taken into account. This question ascertains whether the household rented out any [ITEM].SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, skip to the NEXT ITEM. Otherwise, proceed to question 7. QUESTION 7: This question will give information on how much the household received from renting out [ITEM]. Record the TOTAL value of all rentals in Naira. QUESTION 8: Ask for the number of days the [ITEM] was rented out. Knowing the number of days that the [ITEM] was rented out will allow calculation of the price per day for renting out [ITEM]. Record the TOTAL number of days that/those [ITEM]s was/were rented out in the column provided. SECTION A5a: EXTENSION SERVICES (TOPICS) INTRODUCTION: This section collects information on agricultural extension services or advice received regarding agricultural practices. This information will help indicate whether such programmes are effective at promoting improvements in agriculture. RESPONDENT: Farmer, owner or manager of plot. Note: Agricultural Extension Service: Technical assistance/advice (or a demonstration of new agricultural techniques) given to a farmer or group of farmers to improve productivity. Topic Code: Unique serial number was assigned to each of the listed TOPICS in question 1 to continue the interview orderly. 107 QUESTION 1: Asks whether anyone in the household received any advice on [TOPIC] during the recent agricultural season. Receiving “advice” here includes both sharing information and providing training to anyone in the household. Households can receive advice from the same source on more than one topic. Record the response as either “1” for “yes” or 2 for “no” against each topic. Pay special attention to the instruction in upper case letters before writing the response. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no” for any of the listed topics, move to NEXT TOPIC. If response to the entire list is “no”, skip to section 8. QUESTION 2: We are interested in knowing the source of the information about the TOPIC during the agricultural season. Record the code from available list of options. For option 14 (other specify), the response must be written out clearly in the column provided. NOTE: The responses to this question will be required to complete section A5b. SECTION A5b: EXTENSION SERVICES (SOURCES) INTRODUCTION: This section collects information on the SOURCE of agricultural extension services or advice received regarding agricultural practices. The source will be identified as well as who received the advice, how often the advice was received, as well as any payment incurred to receive the advice. RESPONDENT: Farmer, owner or manager of plot Note: Source Code: A serial number is assigned to each listed SOURCE in question 1 to continue the interview orderly. Peer Farmer: A group of farmers, who grow the same type of crop in a single community. Lead Farmer: A farmer, who is the most active in growing certain crops or who has the largest PLOT of a certain crop or an outstanding farmer in a community that most farmers look up to. They might also be the first to try a new agricultural technology. Farmer Field Day/School: A day that both the extension worker and a group of farmers agree for training and practicing new farming procedures. QUESTION 1: Mark “X” to each identified source of advice FOR ANY TOPIC as reported in question 2 of section A5a. Ensure that all topics were completed by marking “X” against the identified source(s) before proceeding to Question 2. QUESTION 2: For each source marked “X”, enquire for the member of the household members that received advice/information through [SOURCE] in the last 12 months. List a maximum of FOUR persons from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER and then copy the persons’ ID in the provided columns accordingly. QUESTION 3: Find out the number of times someone from this [SOURCE] visited any household member’s farm during the agricultural season. Record the NUMBER of VISITS per source accordingly. If there is no visit made, record Zero (0) and skip to question 5. Do not complete the block cells. QUESTION 4: The interest here is to decipher the number of the visits out of the total that the household solicited (requested) from the SOURCE. Get the number of solicited visits. Record the NUMBER of SOLICITED VISITS per source accordingly. If there is no solicited visit made, record 108 Zero (0). Do not complete the block cells. Pay special attention to the instruction in upper case letters before writing the response. NOTE: The number of solicited visits CANNOT be greater than the number of visits reported in Question 3. QUESTION 5: This question is seeking the number of times this agricultural season that a member of the household visited or met this SOURCE at a location different from the household’s dwelling or farm plots. Record the number for the entire household per SOURCE accordingly. If there is no visit/meeting made, record Zero (0). Do not complete the block cells. QUESTION 6: Enquire for the number of times any member of the household attended a meeting with this [SOURCE] this agricultural season. Record the TOTAL NUMBER for the entire household per source accordingly. If there is no visit made, record Zero (0). Do not complete the block cells. QUESTION 7: Ask whether any of the household members paid anything for receiving advice or information from this [SOURCE] during the agricultural season. Record the response as either 1 for “Yes” or 2 for “No” against each source. Do not complete the block cells. If the response is No for any of the listed sources, skip to Question 9. QUESTION 8: Get the TOTAL amount paid by the household for receiving advice or information from this [SOURCE]. Enter the total amount in NAIRA for the entire household including the cash and in-kind payments. Ask the respondent to estimate the value of any in-kind payments. QUESTION 9: Of course one important element to measuring the effectiveness of an agricultural extension service is whether the recipient found the information useful. This question asks how useful the information/advice from this [SOURCE] to the household regarding farming practices is. Only one response is required here and the interviewer should be careful at which option to choose. SECTION A8: OTHER AGRICULTURAL INCOME This section collects information on the harvest of agricultural by-products that generates income for farmers. Any other by-product not identified here should be recorded and coded “8” in the by-product list. RESPONDENT: Owner or caretaker of animals BY-PRODUCT CODE: Unique serial number was assigned to each listed BY- PRODUCT in Question 1 to enable the interview continue orderly. QUESTION 1: Ask whether any member of the household produced any of the listed BY-PRODUCT during this agricultural season. Record the response as either “1” for “yes” or 2 for “no” against each listed item. Move to NEXT ITEM if the response to any of the listed items is, “no”. Ensure that all items were completed before continuing from question 2. Go to NEXT SECTION if response to the entire list is “no”. 109 QUESTION 2: We are interested in knowing the number of months during the agricultural season that the household produced the listed by-product. Record the number of the months. E.g. Record “3” in the provided column, for three months. QUESTION 3: The focus here is on the average monthly production of the specified by-product during the agricultural season. Record the average quantity produced per month and the corresponding unit code from the listing on the flip page. NOTE: The only allowable unit for EGGS is PIECES. Please ask the respondent to report the average number of eggs that were produced per month. QUESTIONS 4 – 8 COLLECT INFORMATION ON THE SALE OF BY-PRODUCTS QUESTION 4: Ask whether or not the household sold the specified by-product produced this agricultural season. A Yes/No response is required here. If no sales of this by-product were made, skip to the next by-product, otherwise continue to question 5. QUESTION 5: Ask for the quantity of the by-product sold during the agricultural season. Write the total quantity sold beneath quantity and fix the appropriate unit from the food item unit codes shown on the flip page. NOTE: The only allowable unit for EGGs is PIECES. Please ask the respondent to report the number of eggs that they sold. QUESTION 6: Ask for the total value of sales of [BY-PRODUCT] during this agricultural season. Record the amount in NAIRA for both cash and in-kind payments in the provided column. Add cash amounts and estimated value of in-kind payments. QUESTION 7: Ask which member(s) of the household were responsible for taking the BY-PRODUCT to market and negotiating the sale. List a maximum of TWO persons from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER and then copy the persons’ ID in the space provided accordingly. QUESTION 8: Ask which member(s) of the household controlled the earnings from the sale of BYPRODUCT. List a maximum of TWO persons from HOUSEHOLD ROSTER and then copy the persons’ ID in the space provided accordingly. SECTION A9a: FISHING Fishing is one of the many agricultural activities carried out in the country. There are two types of fishery: fish farming/cultured and fish hunted/un-cultured. Fish farming refers to fish that are nurtured or raised from fingerling to maturity and harvest. It is usually done in controlled ponds (i.e. earthen pond, concrete pond, tank, plastic, etc). Fish hunting refers to the act of capturing fish in a natural water body such as lake, river, stream, sea or ocean. In the questionnaire, when referring to fish farming, the terms “RAISING” and “HARVEST” will be used since you harvest a crop of farmed fish. When referring to fish hunting, the term “CAPTURE” will be used. Make sure this differentiation is clear when recording the respondent answers. Respondent: Household member(s) responsible for fishing activities. 110 QUESTION 1: This is a filter question to determine whether this and the following section need to be administered to the household. The question asks if any person in the household was involved in ANY fishing activities (raising or capturing fish) in the last 12 months. Their response is either “yes” (1) or “no” (2).SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, end the interview. Otherwise continue to Question 2. QUESTION 2: After determining whether the household participated in any fishing activities, we want to know what kinds of fish they raised or captured in the last 12 months. Ask Question 12 for all types of fish listed. If fish other than the coded options were harvested/captured, then fill in up to 3 additional fish in the “other (specify)” rows and indicate the type of fish next to the line. SKIP INSTRUCTION: Move to NEXT FISH if the response is “no” for an item. QUESTION 3: Find out the number of weeks that any member of the household caught or raised [FISH SPECIES] listed in Question 2 in the last 12 months. Record the number of week(s) in the provided column. QUESTION 4: Ask for the quantity of fish caught or harvested by any member of the household or hired fishers on average per week in the last 12 months. THIS AVERAGE SHOULD BE IN THE MONTHS WHEN THE FISH WAS CAPTURED / HARVESTED. Ensure that the quantity caught or harvested per fish with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit code is inserted into Quantity and Unit Code columns as expected respectively. Note that there are separate columns for CAPTURE and HARVEST. For units “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. QUESTION 5: Find out the average quantity sold per week of CAPTURED fish by any member of the household in the last 12 months. If there was any quantity of CAPTURED fish sold, ensure that the quantity is recorded with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit code and is inserted into Quantity and Unit Code columns as expected respectively. For units “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. If there was no CAPTURED fish sold, record zero in quantity, leave unit blank and skip to question 7. QUESTION 6: If question 5 recorded any sales, find out the average price per packaging unit of the CAPTURED fish during the week of sales operation. The packaging unit should correspond to the unit reported in question 5. Record the price in Naira. QUESTION 7: Find out the average quantity sold per week of HARVESTED fish by any member of the household in the last 12 months. If there was any quantity of HARVESTED fish sold, ensure that the quantity is recorded with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit code is inserted into Quantity and Unit Code columns as expected respectively. For units PIECE and HEAP, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. If there was no HARVESTED fish sold, record zero in quantity, leave unit blank, and skip to question 9. QUESTION 8: If question 7 recorded any sales, find out the average price per packaging unit of the CAPTURED fish during the week of sales operation. The packaging unit should correspond to the unit reported in question 5. Record the price in Naira. 111 QUESTION 9: Inquire about the number of weeks that ANY fish (captured or harvested) was sold in the last 12 months. Record the number of week(s) in the space provided. QUESTION 10: Find out the average quantity of FISH consumption on average per week either caught or harvested by any member of the household. Ensure that the quantity caught or harvested per fish is recorded with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit codes and inserted into Quantity and Unit Code columns as expected respectively. For units “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. QUESTION 11: Ask for the number of weeks that any member of the household processed FISH SPECIES in the last 12 months. Examples of processing for fish are drying, smoking, freezing, etc. Record the number of week(s) in the last 12 months. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If they did not process any FISH, write zero (0) and move to SECTION A9b. QUESTION 12: If question 11 recorded any processing of FISH in the last 12 months, find out the average quantity of FISH processed per week. Two different processing types are allowed. Record the quantity and unit code and processing code under the appropriate columns. NOTE: Pay special attention to the instruction in upper case before writing any response. For units, “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. QUESTION 13: Find out the average quantity of FISH sold, processed, using PROCESSING TYPE 1 REPORTED IN QUESTION 12 by other members of the household and/or any hired persons per week in the last 12 months. If there was any quantity of fish processed, ensure that the quantity of fish processed is recorded with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit codes and inserted into Quantity sold and Unit Code columns as expected respectively. For units “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. QUESTION 14: If question 13 recorded sale, ask for the average price of processed FISH using PROCESSING TYPE 1 REPORTED IN QUESTION 12 that was sold by other members of the household and/or any hired persons per packaging Unit. Ensure that the price of fish sold is recorded in Naira. QUESTION 15 & 16: These questions duplicate Questions 13 and 14 but for fish processing using PROCESSING TYPE 2, refer to the notes for those two questions above. QUESTION 17: Find out the number of weeks that any member of the household sold PROCESSED FISH SPECIES in the last 12 months. This includes fish processed using either processing type specified in Question 12. Record the number of week(s) in the last 12 months. QUESTION 18: Ask the respondent for the quantity of processed FISH produced by the household that was consumed per week on average. Two processing types are allowed. If there was any quantity of fish processed by the household that was consumed, ensure that the quantity of fish processed is recorded with corresponding appropriate option from the list of unit codes and inserted into Quantity Unit Code and Processing Code columns as expected respectively. For units, “PIECE” and “HEAP”, 112 be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. SECTION A9B: FISHING CAPITAL & REVENUES INTRODUCTION: This section collects information on fishing capital (boats/canoes) owned or rented by fishery households as well as information on labour used in the capture, harvest, or fish processing. Respondent: Household member(s) involved in fishing activities (Fish hunting and/ or capture) Capital refers to money that can be used for further wealth. Revenue refers to money that comes into a business from the sale of goods or services. QUESTION 1: This question will determine if the household used any boat or canoe (rented or owned) for fishery activities in the last 12 months. If the household did not use (responded NO), then there is no need to administer questions about boats/canoes and the interviewer should skip to question 10. Otherwise, continue to question 2. QUESTION 2: If response in question 1 is “yes”, ask for the number of boats/Canoes operated by the member(s) of the household in the last 12 months. Record the number in cell (box) provided. QUESTIONS 3 – 9 COLLECT INFORMATION ON SPECIFIC TYPES OF BOATS/CANOES USED IN FISHERY ACTIVITIES. QUESTION 3: The question seeks to determine the number of listed ITEM(S) owned by the household. Record the number owned in the column provided. SKIP INSTRUCTION: Ask for each ITEM. If none, put zero (0) and go to next item. QUESTION 4: For those BOATS owned or rented by the household, ask the respondent to estimate the TOTAL value of ITEM(S) given in question 3 if it were to be sold today. This should be the TOTAL values of ALL boats used, not the value of a single boat. Record the estimated value in Naira. QUESTION 5: In addition to owned boats, we want to know about boats that the household rented. Ask whether any member of the household rented ITEM in the last 12 months. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, go to question 8. Otherwise continue the interview. QUESTION 6: If question 5 has yes as response, ask for number of days that ITEMwas rented during the last 12 months. Record the number of day(s) in the column provided. QUESTION 7: Most importantly, we need to know how much the household spent to rent the boats. Ask for the average amount paid per day by the household to rent ITEM during the last 12 months. Record the value in Naira. 113 QUESTION 8: Even though the household may not have paid to use the boat, there may have been some additional running costs associated with use of the ITEM. Ask for the total costs of operating ITEM on fuel, oil and maintenance per week during the last 12 months. Record the value in Naira. QUESTION 9: In addition to maintenance and fuel costs for ITEM, the household may have incurred some costs for fishing equipment. Ask the respondent for the TOTAL cost of operating ITEM on maintaining fishing nets/gear per week during the last 12 months. Record the value in Naira. QUESTIONS 10 – 20 COLLECT INFORMATION ON LABOR USED IN THE CAPTURE/HARVEST OF ANY FISH. QUESTION 10: Inquire for the number of adult males hired in fishing business in the last 12 months. Record the number of adult males hired and total weeks worked in the two columns provided. QUESTION 11: Inquire for the number of adult females hired in fishing business in the last 12 months. Record the number of adult females hired and total weeks worked in the two columns provided. QUESTION 12: Inquire for the number of children (<15 years old) hired in fishing business in the last 12 months. Record the number of children (<15 years old) hired and total weeks worked in the two columns provided. QUESTION 13: The interviewer should check whether the household hired ANY PERSONS to work for the household fishing business. (A zero response in questions 10, 11 and 12 altogether). SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the household did not hire any labor – (no) -skip to question 21. Otherwise, continue the interview. QUESTION 14: For households that did hire labor, we want some additional information. This question determines if the hired workers were paid a fixed wage. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the hired workers were not paid in cash, skip to question 16. Otherwise, ask question 15. QUESTION 15: The question seeks to determine average amount paid to each hired worker per week. The interviewer should help respondent to estimate for a week pay if the hired workers were paid daily. Record the weekly payment in Naira to the three columns provided (i.e. Adult Males, Adult Females and Children) accordingly. QUESTION 16: The hired worker may also have been paid in-kind with fish. This question seeks to determine whether the hired workers were given fish as part of remuneration. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, go to question 18. Otherwise, continue the interview. QUESTION 17: If the response in question 16 is yes, seek to determine average quantity of FISH given out as remuneration to each hired worker per week in the last 12 months. Record the quantity with appropriate unit code to the columns provided for Adult Males, Adult Females and Children as expected respectively. For units, “PIECE” and “HEAP”, be sure to show the respondent the appropriate photos in the reference photo album to ensure they are providing an accurate quantity. 114 QUESTION 18: The question seeks to determine whether the hired workers were given cash from fishing activities as part of remuneration. This is different from Question 14 in that the cash is a portion of fishing revenue. SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is “no”, go to question 20. Otherwise, ask question 19. QUESTION 19: If the response in question 18 is “yes”, ask for the average amount paid per week as remuneration to each hired worker in the last 12 months. Record the amount in Naira to the columns provided for Adult Males, Adult Females and Children (<15 years old)as expected respectively. QUESTION 20: The question seeks to determine any other in-kind benefit paid as remuneration to each hired worker per week in the last 12 months. Record the estimate cash value of in-kind benefit in Naira to the columns provided for Adult. QUESTION 21 & 22 COLLECT INFORMATION ON ANY ADDIITONAL COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH FISHING ACTIVITIES. QUESTION 21: The question seeks to determine whether there is any OTHER cost incurred from raising FISH by the household in the last 12 months. The response is either yes (1) or No (2).SKIP INSTRUCTION: If the response is No, end the interview. Otherwise ask question 22. QUESTION 22: If the response in question 21 is “yes”, ask for the amount spent per week on the following costs: fish feed, irrigation of fish pond/ pools, and fish nets maintenance. Record the cost value in Naira to the columns provided as expected respectively. END OF INTERVIEW. SECTION A10: NETWORK ROSTER The purpose of this section is to identify the individuals, organizations, firms, shops and government offices that individuals deal with, particularly around agricultural production. This is to get the sources of input for farmers through mentioned businesses. Also to obtain the source of market outlets for farm outputs and so on. The response would be obtained during the interaction with respondent and enumerator. During this interview, you will come across a question that would refer to [SEE NETWORK ROSTER]. For example a question in SECTION 11D - Question 9 – “Since the new year, from whom did you receive most of the FERTILIZER for free?” ENUMERATOR: LIST UP TO TWO SOURCES IN THE NETWORK ROSTER AND THEN COPY THE NETWORK CODES HERE” If the respondent said, “I got the fertilizer from Mr. Kareem in Wuse Market, Abuja.” Instead of writing the response raw, go to the NETWORK ROSTER and interpret this information. Then transform the response to the name (Mr. Kareem), Network (local market-Code 9) and Location (Within the town – Code 4). Note that there is a network code printed and listed to the left of name which started with N1. This N1 code should be written in the answer cell as response to the question. In another question, the response in the interview may be that he sold crops to Mr. Kareem. Check the network roster to identify that Mr. Kareem in Wuse market has code N1. This N1 code could be repeated since the sources are from the same person. 115 Assume that the third question was SECTION 11I-Question 23 – “Who was your main provider for the vaccination services?” ENUMERATOR: LIST UP TO TWO SOURCES IN THE NETWORK ROSTER AND THEN COPY THE NETWORK CODES HERE. If the response was the vaccination services obtained from Name (Moba LGA), Network (Government –code 17) and Location (Within the state –code 6). This would be written in the second line of the Network Roster against N2. Pick N2 as the Network code to be fixed into the appropriate column(s) in question 23 mentioned above. NETWORK ROSTER TABLE Network Code Name Network Name Code Location Name Code N1 Mr. Kareem 9 3 N2 Moba LGA 17 6 116 USE OF GPS DEVICE: NAVIGATION OF GPSMAP62 INTRODUCTION: The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a piece of technology equipment used for variety of activities (navigating, mapping, etc). The advantage of this technology over the old method of farm survey (i.e. compass, pole and tape) is enormous. It is more accurate in measurement, faster, easier and requires less number of people to use. THE NAVIGATION OF GPSMAP62 Firstly, open the battery cage behind the device to load a pair of alkaline (lithium) battery as appropriate. Step 1: Switch on the GPS by pressing the POWER BUTTON for 1-2 seconds. Step 2: Wait for at least two (2) minutes to allow the GPS to initialize. Step 3: Press Page button to locate Main Menu. Wait for a second, a new menu that contains some icons will be seen. Step 4: Navigate to locate “set up” and press “enter”: a new menu that contains some icons will be seen. Step 5: Navigate to locate “system” and press “enter”; a list of menu would appear. Review as follows: GPS change to ”normal” and interface change to ”NMEA In/out”. Step 6: Press “quit” returning to the menu. Step 7: Navigate to locate “display” and press “enter”; a list of menu would appear. Review as follows: timeout change to ‘stay on’, and battery save change to ‘on’. Etc. Step 8: Press “quit” returning to the menu. Step 9: Navigate to locate “page sequence” and press “enter”; a list of menu would appear. Move to “add page” and press “enter”. Highlight ”satellite” and press “enter”. Highlight “move” and press “enter” - the satellite would go to Main menu page with red ink. Move ”satellite” to the position of interest and press “enter”. Step 10: Press “quit” returning to the menu. Step 11: Navigate to locate “page sequence” and press “enter” - a list of menu would appear. Move to ”add page” and press “enter”. Highlight ”area calculation” and press “enter”. Highlight “move” and press “enter” - the area calculation would go to main menu page with red ink. Move ”area calculation” to the position of interest and Press “enter”. Step 12: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 13: Navigate to locate “page sequence” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ‘”add page” and press “enter”. Highlight ”track manager” and press “enter”. Highlight “move” and press “enter” - the track manager would go to main menu page with red ink. Move ”track manager” to the position of interest and press “enter”. Step 14: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 15: Navigate to locate “units” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ”distance and speed”; review as ”metric”, elevation change to ”meters (m/mm)”, depth, put ”meters” and temperature, change to ”Celsius". Step 16: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 17: Navigate to locate “time” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ”time format” review as ‘24-hour’ and ‘time zone’ change to ‘Lagos’. Step 18: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. 117 Step 19: Navigate to locate “position format” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ‘map datum’; review as ‘Minna’. Step 20: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 21: Navigate to locate “heading” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ‘Display’; review as ”numeric degrees” and “north reference” change to “User” and go to “line”; change to ”bearing (large)”. Step 22: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 23: Navigate to locate “tracks” and press “enter” - a list of menu would appear. Move to ”track log” review as ”record, show on map”. Record method pick, "auto”. Recording interval, put ”normal” and “auto archive”, change to ”daily”. Step 24: Press “quit”, returning to the menu. Step 25: Navigate to locate “map” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ”orientation”; review as ”track up”. Step 26: Press “quit” twice, returning to the main menu. Step 27: Navigate to locate “routing” and press “enter”. A list of menu would appear. Move to ”guide method”; review as ”prompted” and calculate routes change to ”pedestrian”. Step 28: Press “quit” twice, returning to the main menu. Step 29: Press “power button” to shut down. Step 30: Keep the device in a safe wallet. TEST RUN Step 1: Switch on the GPS by pressing the POWER BUTTON for 1-2 seconds. Step 2: Wait for at least two (2) minutes to allow the GPS to initialize. Step 3: Press page button to locate” satellite”. Satellites will continue to appear on the screen as bar charts as well as on the circuit (greenish in colour). On screen top, the accuracy level in metre of the GPS would be seen at right hand corner-side while the coordinates of the GPS location would be seen at left hand side (latitude & longitude). Step 4: Press “quit” and return to the list menu. Step 5: Navigate to locate “area calculation” and press “enter” button. Be prepared to indicate the starting point to walk round the boundary of the farm plot. Step 6: Returning to the original starting point, wait a few seconds and press “enter”. Be prepared to record the current track covered. Step 7: A map would appear indicating Nigeria. “Calculate” would be highlighted; press “enter”. Step 8: Record the area in square meter and press “enter” to save Track. Step 9: A menu would appear indicating “enter name” on top, follow by the date of the current track. Compose the name as you like. Navigate to “done” and press “enter”. The name typed would appear. Step 10: Press “quit” and return to the Area calculation to start a new farm plot track. Continue repeating Steps 5 – 9 till maximum satisfaction is reached. Step 11: Having finished farm plot track at a location, Step 12: Press “quit” and return to the list of menu. Step 13: Navigate to locate “track manager” and Press “enter” button. The list of farm plots tracked would be seen according to the name given to each of them. Step 14: Navigate to highlight the plot of interest and press “enter”. The list of menu would be seen. Navigate to “view map” to see the sketch of the movement around the plot. 118 Step 15: Press “quit” twice, returning to the main menu. Step 16: Repeat the same procedures to survey other plots (Farms). Step 17: Press “power button” to shut the device. Step 18: Keep the GPSmap62 device in a safe wallet for next schedule. Tracking of Households Attrition of the panel households is expected and it is recognized that, if not addressed, this attrition will increase over time. Some of the common reasons for the attrition of households are: Household moves from its original location and failure to track the household to the new location Household members move to another household thus altering the composition of household originally sampled Household refuses to continue to participate Death of household member(s) In the GHS-Panel survey, efforts will be made to prevent attrition that could potentially arise through households moving from one location to another. These efforts will include: Collecting tracking information when interviewers visit households during the survey and discover that they have moved. Household relocation could present as one of two possible scenarios: o All members of the household moved together from the original location to a new location o All members of the household did not move to the same new location (i.e. household moved and split) Tracking of households to their new location Reintegration of tracked households into the sample for the following visit In the next visit, a tracking questionnaire will be administered for households that have moved or moved and split. The tracking questionnaire to be used is presented in the section below. Administering the Tracking Questionnaire The tracking Questionnaire (see Appendix 4) should be administered when the household is no longer located at the address where it was found in the previous visit (i.e. Post-Planting, 2012). In cases where individuals have left the household, this information will be captured in the household questionnaire, i.e. Section 1: Household Roster Question 30. There are a number of scenarios that could be encountered which could be clear indications that the household has moved from its original location. These are: 1. The dwelling that was occupied by the household in the previous survey is now vacant 2. The dwelling is now occupied by a completely different household 3. The dwelling previously housing the household no longer exists (i.e. demolished, converted to a business, etc.) 119 In any of these circumstances, the interviewer should report to the supervisor that it appears that the household has relocated. The interviewer, under the guidance of the supervisor should make efforts to confirm that the household has moved. These efforts will include enquiring from: Neighbors, community members or the leadership of the community – in that order The new occupant of the household, in cases where the dwelling is occupied by a completely new household. If information is not available from the occupant of the dwelling, then persons identified in the categories above should be approached Neighbors, community members or the leadership of the community – in that order – in the case where the dwelling previously occupied by the household no longer exists The information received about the relocation of the household should be ideally confirmed from alternate sources in the community. NOTE: If the household has moved to a location within the same compound or EA, then the household should be found and the questionnaire administered; and the relocation (new address) noted in the comments section on page 3 of the household questionnaire. If the supervisors and interviewer are satisfied that the household has moved or moved and split, then: 1. This should be indicated by opening the household questionnaire on page 3 and placing a '6' as a response to question 1: Status of Questionnaire. No further entry will be made in the household questionnaire 2. A Tracking Form should be completed for the moved household The Tracking Form The Tracking Form consists of three sections: 1. Household Identification 2. Relocated Household Information and 3. Informant Identification Section 1: Household Identification The household identification section (up to QUESTION 9) should be filled from the household questionnaire that was prepared for the household. Question 8a: This question asks if all members of the household have died. This is a new addition to the list of questions on the tracking form. If all members of the household have died, then you tick Yes and end the administration of the tracking form. Note also that if all members of the household have died, there is no need filling the main questionnaire. Question 10: Should be filled based on information gathered from the community. The state officer or supervisor should indicate the type of relocation of the household. We have also added a new option to the Tracking Type to cater for households with all members deceased. Section 2: Relocated Household Information This section collects information about the date and nature of the move. QUESTION 1: Note how the date should be entered. Effort should be made to get the most detail i.e. day, month and year. If exact day is not available, try to get month and year; and if that is not available, enter the year only. QUESTION 2: If the move is not permanent, then this household has not relocated and we only need to know the date when the household will be returning (Question 3) and the person(s) providing the information (Section 3). If the move is permanent then we need to know the type of relocation. 120 QUESTION 4: If household members have all moved together, then we need to know if this is within Nigeria (Question 6). If they have not all moved together (move and split), then we need to know how many parts they have split into (Question 5). QUESTION 6: Whether households have moved as a whole or moved and split, we need to know whether the move(s) are within Nigeria. If there is no move within that Nigeria to track, then we terminate this section and record information on the informant(s) (Section 3). If there is/are a move(s) in Nigeria to track then answer Questions 7-11b about the first new location of the household. QUESTION 11b: If household has moved as a whole, terminate this section and provide information on the informant(s) (Section 3). If household did not move together, then provide information on the locations (within Nigeria) and the household members that went to these various locations. Start with the household head and spouse(s) of the household head. Section 3: Informant Information This section must be filled irrespective of the status of the household. Every effort should be made to obtain the information from multiple informants (provision has been made for up to three). Phone number contacts for these informants is critical and of utmost importance. Supervisors and interviewers should make all effort to obtain phone contact information for all informants. Final Step Tracking questionnaires should be returned to the State Officer. The State officer will complete the shaded, "FOR STATE OFFICE USE ONLY", section on the cover page by: Ticking the appropriate boxes, Writing the state(s) and state code(s) to which the household has moved. The State Officer will file these forms with its corresponding questionnaire for return to NBS Headquarters. 121 Appendix 1: Occupation Codes S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 International Standard Classification of Occupations Legislators Senior Government Officials Traditional Chiefs & Head of Villages Senior Officials of Political Party Organization Senior Official of Employers, workers and other Economic interest Organizations Senior Officials of Humanitarian and other Special-Interest Organizations Directors & Chief Executives Production & Operations Managers Finance and Administration Managers Personnel and Industrial Relations Managers Sales and Marketing Managers Advertising and Public Relations Managers Supply and distribution Managers Computing Services Managers Research and Development Managers Other Specialized Managers General Managers in Agriculture General Managers in Manufacturing General Managers in Construction General Managers in Retail & Wholesale Trade General Managers in Restaurants and Hotels General Managers in Transportation General Managers in Business Services Firms General Managers in Personnel Care, Cleaning Repairs and Related Services Physicists and Astronomers Meteorologists Chemists Geologists and Geophysicists Mathematicians and Related Professionals Statisticians System Designers and Analysts Computer Programmers Other Computing Professionals Architects, Town and Traffic Planners Civil Engineers Electrical Engineers Electronic and Telecommunications Engineers Mechanical Engineers Chemical Engineers Mining Engineers, Metallurgists and Related Professionals Cartographers and Surveyors Other Architects, Engineers and Related Professionals Biologists, Botanists, Zoologists & Related Professionals Bacteriologists, Pharmacologists & Related Professionals Agronomists and Related Professionals Medical Doctors Dentists Veterinarians Pharmacists Other Health Professionals (Except Nursing) Nursing and Midwifery Professionals Colleges, University & Higher Education Teaching Professional Secondary Education Teaching Professionals 122 Code 1110 1120 1130 1141 1142 1143 1210 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 2111 2112 2113 2114 2121 2122 2131 2133 2139 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2211 2212 2213 2221 2222 2223 2224 2229 2230 2310 2320 S/N 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 International Standard Classification of Occupations Primary Education Teaching Professionals Pre-primary Education Teaching Professionals Special Education Teaching Professionals Education Methods Specialists School Inspectors Other Teaching Professionals not Elsewhere Classified Accountants Personnel and Careers Professionals Other Business Professionals Lawyers Judges Other Legal Professionals Archivists and Curators Librarians and Related Professionals Economists Sociologists, Anthropologist & Related Professionals Psychologist Social Work Professionals Authors, Journalist & Other Writers Sculptors, Painters & Related Artists Composers, Musicians & Singers Choreographers and Dancers Film, Stage and Related Actors and Directors Religion Professionals Chemical & Physical Science Technicians Civil Engineering Technicians Electrical Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Chemical Engineering Technicians Mining and Metallurgical Technicians Other Physical Science & Engineering Technicians Computer Assistants Computer Equipment Controllers Photographers & Image & Sound-Recording Equipment Controllers Broadcasting and Telecommunications-Equipment Controllers Medical Equipment Controllers Other Optical & Electronics Equipment Controllers not elsewhere classified Ships' Engineers Ships' Deck Officers & Pilots Aircraft Pilot & Related Workers Air Traffic Controllers Air Traffic Safety Technicians Building & Fire Inspectors Safety, Health & Quality Inspectors (Vehicles, Processes & Products) Life Science Technicians Agronomy & Forestry Technicians Farming & Forestry Advisers Medical Assistants Sanitarian Dieticians and Nutritionists Optometrists & Opticians Dental Assistants Physiotherapists and Related Workers Veterinary Assistants Pharmaceutical Assistants Other Health Associate Professionals (Except Nursing) Primary Education Teaching Associate Professionals Pre-Primary Education Teaching Associate Professionals 123 Code 2331 2332 2340 2351 2352 2359 2411 2412 2419 2421 2422 2429 2431 2432 2441 2442 2445 2446 2451 2452 2453 2454 2455 2460 3111 3112 3113 3114 3116 3117 3118 3121 3122 3131 3132 3133 3139 3141 3142 3143 3144 3145 3151 3152 3211 3212 3213 3221 3222 3223 3224 3225 3226 3227 3228 3229 3310 3320 S/N 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 International Standard Classification of Occupations Special Education Teaching Associate Professionals Other Teaching Associate Professionals Securities, Finance Dealers & Brokers Insurance Representatives Estate Agents Travel Consultant Organizers Technical & Commercials Sales Representatives Buyers Appraisers & Values Auctioneers Other Finance & Sales Associate Professionals Trade Brokers Clearing & Forwarding Agents Labour Contractors & Equipment Agents Other Business Services Agent & Trade Brokers Administrative & Related Associate Professionals Legal & Related Business Associate Professionals Other Administrative Associate Professionals Custom & Border Professionals Government Tax & Excise Officials Government Welfare & Pension Officials Government Licensing Officials Commissioned Police Officers & Detectives Other Government Associate Professionals Social Work Associate Professionals Decorators & Commercial Designers Radio, Television & Other Announcers Street, Night Club & Related Musicians, Singers & Dancers Clowns, Magicians, Acrobats & Related Workers Athletes & Related Workers Non-Ordained Religious Associate Professionals Statistical & Finance Clerks Stock Clerks Production Clerks Transport Clerks Library & Filling Clerks Mail Carriers & Sorting Clerks Coding, Proof-Reading & Related Clerks Scribes Flight Attendants & Travel Stewards Transport Conductors Travel Guides and Ground Hosts House Stewards and House Keepers Waiters and Bartenders Institution-based Personal Care Workers Home-Based Personal Care Workers Other Personal Care Workers Hairdressers, Barbers, Beauticians & Related Workers Companions and Valets Undertakers and Embalmers Other Personal Services Workers not Elsewhere Classified Fashion and Other Models Shop Sales Persons & Demonstrators Stall and Market Salespersons Field Crops & Vegetable Growers Tree Shrub Crop Growers Gardeners, Horticultural; Nursery Growers Mixed Crop Growers 124 Code 3330 3340 3411 3412 3413 3414 3415 3416 3417 3418 3419 3421 3422 3423 3429 3431 3432 3439 3441 3442 3443 3444 3445 3449 3450 3461 3462 3463 3464 3465 3470 4122 4131 4132 4133 4141 4142 4143 4144 5111 5112 5113 5121 5122 5131 5133 5139 5141 5142 5143 5149 5210 5220 5230 6111 6112 6113 6114 S/N 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 International Standard Classification of Occupations Dairy & Livestock Producers Poultry Products Mixed Animal Producers Market Oriented Crop & Animal Producers Forestry Worker and Loggers Charcoal Burners & Related Workers Aquatic Liege Cultivation Workers Inland & Coastal Waters Fishery Workers Deep-Sea Fishery Workers Hunters and Trappers Subsistence Agricultural and Fishery Workers Miners & Quarry Workers Short Fires and Blasters Stone-Splitters, Cutters and Carvers Builders Traditional Materials Bricklayers, Stonemason & Tile Setters Concrete Placers, Concrete Finishers and Terrazzo-Workers Carpenter and Jointers Other Building Frames and Related Workers Roofers Plasterers Insulators Glaziers Plumbers and Pipe Fitters Building and Related Electricians Painters and Paperhangers Metal Moulds and Core Makers Welders and Flame-Cutters Sheet-Metal Workers Structural Metal Prepares and Erector Riggers and Cable Splices Under-Water Workers Blacksmiths, Hammersmith's, Forging-Press Workers Tool Maker, Metal Patter Makers and Metal Makers Machine Tool Setter Operators Metal Grinder, Polishers and Tool Sharpeners Motor Vehicle Mechanics and Filters Air Craft Engine Mechanics and Fitters Electrical Mechanics and Fitters Electronic Fitters and Services Radio and Television Service Telegraph and Telephone Installers Electrical Line Installers Repairs & Cable Jointers Precision Instrument Makers Repairs Acoustical Musical Instrument Jewelry and Precious metal Trade Workers Potters and Related Clay and Abrasive Formers Glass Formers, Cutters Grinder and Finishers Glass Engrave and Etchers Glass and Ceramic Painters and Decorators Handicraft Workers in Wood and Related Materials Handicraft Workers in Textile, Leather and Related Materials Compositors and Type Setters Stereotypes and Electrotypers Bookbinders and Related Workers Silk Screen, Block and Textile Printers Meat and Fish Butchers and Preparers Bakers, Pastry Cooks and Confectionery Makers 125 Code 6121 6122 6123 6130 6141 6142 6151 6152 6153 6154 6210 7111 7112 7113 7121 7122 7123 7124 7129 7131 7132 7133 7134 7135 7136 7141 7211 7212 7213 7214 7215 7216 7221 7222 7223 7224 7231 7232 7241 7242 7243 7244 7245 7311 7312 7313 7321 7322 7323 7324 7331 7332 7341 7342 7344 7345 7411 7412 S/N 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 International Standard Classification of Occupations Food Beverage Testers and Graders Tobacco Preparers and Tobacco Products Markers Wood Treaters Cabinet Makers & Related Workers Wood Working Machine Setter Operators Basketry Weavers, Brush Markers and Related Workers Fibre Preparers Weavers, Knitters and Other Hand Textile Products Makers Tailors, Dress Makers and Hatters Fur Tailor and Related Workers Textile Patternmakers and Cutters Sewers, Embroiderers and Related Workers Upholsterers and Related Workers Pelt Dressers, Tanners and Fell mongers Shoe Makers and Related Good Workers Mining plant Operators Mineral Ore and Stone-Treating Plant Operators Well Drillers and Borers and Related Workers Ore Smelting Metal Converting and Refining Furnace Operators Metal Melters, Casters and Rolling-mill Operators Metal Heat - Treating Plant Operators Metal Drawers and Extruders Glass and Ceramic Kiln Operators Other Glass & Ceramic Plant Operators Sawmill, Wood Panel and Related Wood-Processing Plant Operators Paper Pulp Preparation Plant Operators Paper Making Plant Operators Crushing Mixing & Grinding Equipment Operators Cooking, Roosting & Related Heat - Treating Plant Operators Filtering and Separating Equipment Operators Still Reactor Operators Petroleum Refining Plant Operators Other Chemical-Processing Plant Operators Power-Generating Plant Operators Steam Turbine, Boiler & Engine Operators Other Power Generating & Related Operators Automated Assembly-Line Operators Industrial Robot Operators Cement and Other Mineral Processing Machine Operators Pharmaceutical & Toiletry Products Machine Operators Ammunition and Explosive Products Machine Operators Metal Finishers, Plasters and Coaters Photographic Products Machine Operators Other Chemical Products Machine Operators Type Making & Vulcanizing Machine Operators Other Rubber and Plastics Machine Operators Wood Products Machine Operators Printing Machine Operators Binding Machine Operators Paper and Paperboard Product Machine Operators Spinning and Winding Machine Operators Weaving and Knitting Machine Operators Sewing and Knitting Machine Operators Textile Bleaching, Dyeing & Cleaning Machine Operators Other Textile Product Machine Operators Meat & Fish Processing Machine Operators Dairy Products Machine Operators Baked Goods Producing & Cereals Processing Machine Operators 126 Code 7413 7414 7421 7422 7423 7424 7431 7432 7433 7434 7435 7436 7437 7441 7442 8111 8112 8113 8121 8122 8123 8124 8131 8132 8141 8142 8143 8151 8152 8153 8154 8155 8159 8161 8162 8169 8171 8172 812 8221 8222 8223 8224 8229 8231 8239 8240 8251 8252 8253 8261 8262 8263 8264 8269 8271 8272 8275 S/N 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 International Standard Classification of Occupations Sugar Processing and Refining Machine Operators Tea Coffee Cocoa & Chocolate Preparing & Producing machine Operators Tobacco Products Processing Machine Operators Brewers, Wine & Other Beverage Machine Operators Electrical Machinery Assemblers Metal, Rubber & Plastic Products Assemblers Wood Related Materials Products Assemblers Other Stationery Machine Operators & Assemblers Railway Engine Driver Railway Barkers, Signalers & Shutters Motorcycle Drivers Cart, Taxi & Light Van Drivers Bus & Train Drivers Heavy Truck Drivers Motorized Farm & Forestry Machinery Operators Earth-Moving & Related Machinery Operators Crane, Hoist & Related Material Moving Equipment Operators Lifting -Truck Operators Ship's Deck Crews & Related Workers Street Foods Vendors Street Vendors, Other Products Door-to-Door & Telephone Sales Persons Shoe Cleaning & Other Street Services Domestic helpers and Cleaners Helpers and Cleaners in Offices & Hotels & Related Workers Hand Launderers and Pressers Building Caretakers Windows Cleaners Messengers Package & Luggage Watchers and Doorkeepers Private Security Guards Vending Machine Money Collectors and Meter Readers Garbage Collectors Sweepers and Related Labourers Farmland & Labourers Forestry Labourers Fishery, Hunting & Tapping Labourers Mining & Related Labourers Construction & Maintenance Labourers Road, Dams & Similar Constructions Building Construction Labourers Assembling Labourers Hand Packers and Other Manufacturing Labourers Freight Handlers Hand and Pedal Vehicle Drivers Drivers and Operators of Animal-Drawn Vehicles and Machinery 127 Code 8276 8277 8278 8279 8282 8284 8285 8290 8311 8312 8321 8322 8323 8324 8331 8332 8333 8334 8340 9111 9112 9113 9120 9131 9132 9133 9141 9142 9151 9152 9153 9154 9161 9162 9211 9212 9213 9311 9312 313 9321 9322 9331 9332 9333 Appendix 2: Industry Codes INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION OF ALL ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES (ISIC) Notes: This is the International Standard Industrial Classification of Economic Activities (ISIC) Rev. 3.1. This classification becomes final after being approved by the Statistical Commission. A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing 01 - Crop and animal production, hunting and related service activities 02 - Forestry and logging 03 - Fishing and aquaculture B - Mining and quarrying 05 - Mining of coal and lignite 06 - Extraction of crude petroleum and natural gas 07 - Mining of metal ores 08 - Other mining and quarrying 09 - Mining support service activities C - Manufacturing 10 - Manufacture of food products 11 - Manufacture of beverages 12 - Manufacture of tobacco products 13 - Manufacture of textiles 14 - Manufacture of wearing apparel 15 - Manufacture of leather and related products 16 - Manufacture of wood and o f products of wood and cork, except furniture; manufacture of articles of straw and plaiting materials 17 - Manufacture of paper and paper products 18 - Printing and reproduction of recorded media 19 - Manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products 20 - Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products 21 - Manufacture of basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations 22 - Manufacture of rubber and plastic products 23 - Manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products 24 - Manufacture of basic metals 25 - Manufacture of fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment 26 - Manufacture of computer, electronic and optical products 27 - Manufacture of electrical equipment 28 - Manufacture of machinery and equipment 29 - Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers 128 30 - Manufacture of other transport equipment 31 - Manufacture of furniture 32 - Other manufacturing 33 - Repair and installation of machinery and equipment D - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 35 - Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply E - Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 36 - Water collection, treatment and supply 37 - Sewerage 38 - Waste collection, treatment and disposal activities; materials recovery 39 - Remediation activities and other waste management services F - Construction 41 - Construction of buildings 42 - Civil engineering 43 - Specialized construction activities G - Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 45 - Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 46 - Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles 47 - Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motor cycles H - Transportation and storage 49 - Land transport and transport via pipe lines 50 - Water transport 51 - Air transport 52 - Warehousing and support activities for transportation 53 - Postal and courier activities I - Accommodation and food service activities 55 - Accommodation 56 - Food and beverage service activities J - Information and communication 58 - Publishing activities 59 - Motion picture, video and television programme production, sound recording and music publishing activities 60 - Programming and broadcasting activities 61 - Telecommunications 62 - Computer programming, consultancy and related activities 63 - Information service activities K - Financial and insurance activities 64 - Financial service activities, except insurance and pension funding 65 - Insurance, reinsurance and pension funding, except compulsory social security 129 66 - Activities auxiliary to financial service and insurance activities L - Real estate activities 68 - Real estate activities M - Professional, scientific and technical activities 69 - Legal and accounting activities 70 - Activities of head offices; management consultancy activities 71 - Architectural and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis 72 - Scientific research and development 73 - Advertising and market research 74 - Other professional, scientific and technical activities 75 - Veterinary activities N - Administrative and support service activities 77 - Rental and lea sing activities 78 - Employment activities 79 - Travel agency, tour operator, reservation service and r elated activities 80 - Security and investigation activities 81 - Services to buildings and landscape activities 82 - Office administrative, office support and other business support activities O - Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 84 - Public administration and defense; compulsory social security P - Education 85 – Education Q - Human health and social work activities 86 - Human health activities 87 - Residential care activities 88 - Social work activities without accommodation R - Arts, entertainment and recreation 90 - Creative, arts and entertainment activities 91 - Libraries, archives, museums and other cultural activities 92 - Gambling and betting activities 93 - Sports activities and amusement and recreation activities S - Other service activities 94 - Activities of membership organizations 95 - Repair of computers and personal and household goods 96 - Other personal service activities T - Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods - and Services - producing activities of households for own use 97 - Activities of households as employers of domestic personnel 130 98 - Undifferentiated goods - and services -producing activities of private households for own use U - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies 99 - Activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies The Classifications registry keeps updated information on Statistical Classifications maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD). 131 Appendix 3: Sampling Considerations for the Conflict Module of the Panel Survey 1. Background and Objectives of the Conflict Module Given the negative impact of the violent conflicts in some parts of Nigeria, it is important to measure the effect of these conflicts on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population, including education, health and poverty. Therefore the World Bank and NBS team working on the national Panel Survey are developing a new conflict module for the Panel Survey. 2. Sample for Panel Survey A sample of 500 EAs and 5,000 households were selected for Wave 1 of the Panel Survey from the 2010 General Household Survey (GHS) sample based on the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) master sample. The sample for the Panel Survey was designed to provide reliable results and a longitudinal analysis at the level of 6 zones of Nigeria. Since the conflicts are concentrated in particular Local Government Areas (LGAs) within 16 states of Nigeria, there is concern that the number of panel sample households in the conflict areas would be too small to provide reliable results for the conflict indicators. For this reason it was decided to examine the possibility of selecting a supplemental sample of households in the conflict areas to improve the level of precision for the conflict indicators. 3. Identification of Sample EAs in Conflict Areas The following 13 states were identified as having the largest concentration of conflicts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Adamawa Bauchi Bayelsa Benue Borno Cross River Delta Kaduna Kwara Nassarawa Plateau Rivers Yobe One source of information on the geographic location of violent conflicts is the ACLED (Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project) database. This database includes information on the number of conflict incidences by LGA in Nigeria since the year 2000. Therefore these data were used to identify the LGAs with the highest concentration of conflict incidences between 2012 and 2014, within the 16 states identified as having the most problems with conflicts. Different options were explored based on this sampling approach for the conflict study. A simulation study was conducted to estimate the additional sample based on different criteria. First, we identified the panel sample EAs in each LGA listed in the ACLED “conflict frequency” spreadsheet. That spreadsheet does not include some LGAs, so it is assumed that the missing LGAs have less conflict, or data are missing. Next we tabulated the total number of conflict incidences between 2012 and 2014 for each LGA in the spreadsheet, since this is the period initially covered in the questionnaire. Then for the 13 states identified as having more conflicts we found the LGAs that had 5 or more conflict incidences 132 between 2012 and 2014, and which also have sample EAs in the Panel Survey. This survey has a total of 72 sample EAs in the LGAs with 5 or more incidences of conflict (within the 16 states). 4. Sampling Strategy It would be simpler and more cost-effective to select additional households in the current Panel Survey sample EAs that are found in LGAs with a higher incidence of conflict than it would be to select additional EAs. If we select 5 additional sample households in each of the 72 EAs in LGAs with 5 or more incidences of conflict since 2012, this would add 360 sample households for the conflict study. The Panel Survey has a sample of up to 10 households per EA (sometimes less due to attrition), so it would be reasonable to select 5 additional households in the sample EAs that are in LGAs with 5 or more conflict incidences. In this case a cross-sectional sample could be used for the conflict study, consisting of all the panel households in the sample EAs and the additional sample households that are selected in the 72 EAs. 5. Listing of 72 Sample EAs in Conflict LGAs In order to have an updated frame for selecting 5 additional households in each of the 72 sample EAs in conflict LGAs, it is recommended to conduct a new listing of households in each of these EAs. It is important to ensure complete coverage of each sample EA by strictly following the map to identify the EA boundaries. 6. Selection of 5 Additional Sample Households in Each Sample EA In order to avoid selecting any panel sample household again from the updated listing, it will be necessary to identify the 10 sample panel households in the new listing and exclude them from the selection of the 5 new households. Once these households are excluded, the 5 additional households will be selected using systematic random sampling. The cross-sectional sample for the analysis of the conflict module data will consist of the panel households from the current wave, and the 5 new households selected in each of the 72 sample EAs in the conflict LGAs. New weights will need to be calculated for this cross-sectional analysis. 133 Appendix 4: Conflict Oversample States and EAs Zone Name State State Name LGA Sector EA Number of HH North East 2 Adamawa 205 2 712 5 North East 2 Adamawa 207 2 1302 5 North East 2 Adamawa 210 2 1300 5 North East 2 Adamawa 221 2 18 5 Subtotal 20 North East 5 Bauchi 502 1 2194 5 North East 5 Bauchi 502 2 3878 5 North East 5 Bauchi 508 2 718 5 North East 5 Bauchi 508 2 984 5 North East 5 Bauchi 518 2 1304 5 North East 5 Bauchi 518 2 1588 5 Subtotal 30 South South 6 Bayelsa 601 2 640 5 South South 6 Bayelsa 605 2 162 5 South South 6 Bayelsa 606 2 1372 5 South South 6 Bayelsa 607 2 1892 5 South South 6 Bayelsa 608 1 3978 5 South South 6 Bayelsa 608 2 748 5 Subtotal 30 North Central 7 Benue 702 2 632 5 North Central 7 Benue 705 2 4186 5 North Central 7 Benue 708 2 754 5 North Central 7 Benue 713 2 304 5 North Central 7 Benue 719 1 1612 5 Subtotal 25 North East 8 Borno 802 2 1152 5 North East 8 Borno 803 1 944 5 North East 8 Borno 805 2 46 5 North East 8 Borno 807 2 946 5 North East 8 Borno 807 2 1438 5 134 North East 8 Borno 807 2 2396 5 North East 8 Borno 811 1 1558 5 North East 8 Borno 811 2 390 5 North East 8 Borno 812 2 866 5 North East 8 Borno 816 2 1270 5 North East 8 Borno 817 1 2476 5 North East 8 Borno 820 2 1030 5 North East 8 Borno 821 1 1448 5 North East 8 Borno 821 1 5062 5 North East 8 Borno 823 2 548 5 North East 8 Borno 826 2 926 5 Subtotal South South 80 9 Cross River 908 1 278 Subtotal 5 5 South South 10 Delta 1005 1 662 5 South South 10 Delta 1005 2 1374 5 South South 10 Delta 1008 2 1314 5 South South 10 Delta 1008 2 1718 5 South South 10 Delta 1012 2 936 5 South South 10 Delta 1025 2 1774 5 Subtotal 30 North West 18 Kaduna 1804 1 2690 5 North West 18 Kaduna 1808 2 1726 5 North West 18 Kaduna 1814 2 678 5 North West 18 Kaduna 1816 1 378 5 North West 18 Kaduna 1820 2 450 5 North West 18 Kaduna 1823 1 1822 5 Subtotal 30 North Central 23 Kwara 2308 1 556 5 North Central 23 Kwara 2308 1 5180 5 Subtotal North Central 10 25 Nasarawa 2508 135 1 2788 5 North Central 25 Nasarawa 2509 2 248 5 North Central 25 Nasarawa 2511 2 1424 5 Subtotal 15 North Central 31 Plateau 3101 2 604 5 North Central 31 Plateau 3103 2 874 5 North Central 31 Plateau 3105 1 2914 5 North Central 31 Plateau 3109 2 1026 5 North Central 31 Plateau 3115 2 680 5 North Central 31 Plateau 3116 2 1344 5 Subtotal 30 South South 32 Rivers 3209 1 1208 5 South South 32 Rivers 3215 1 1896 5 South South 32 Rivers 3215 1 2978 5 South South 32 Rivers 3215 1 4712 5 South South 32 Rivers 3222 1 1624 5 South South 32 Rivers 3222 1 2780 5 South South 32 Rivers 3223 2 390 5 South South 32 Rivers 3223 2 578 5 Subtotal 40 North East 35 Yobe 3503 1 54 5 North East 35 Yobe 3506 2 1040 5 North East 35 Yobe 3507 2 746 5 Sub total 15 Total 360 136 Appendix 5: TRACKING FORM T1 138 139 140 141 Appendix 6: Field Work Form General Household Panel Survey Field Report Form Date: INTERVIEWER: STATE: LGA: EA Code HH NO. Total Number of Questionnaires Questionnaire Number in HH Questionnaire Status □Household □Agriculture □Complete □Incomplete □HH Refused □Not Located □HH Replaced □Vacant □Household □Agriculture □Complete □Incomplete □HH Refused □Not Located □HH Replaced □Vacant □Household □Agriculture □Complete □Incomplete □HH Refused □Not Located □HH Replaced □Vacant Explanation and Comments
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