TUM Citation Guide Checked20180117 Id1236069
Open the PDF directly: View PDF .
Page Count: 54
|Open PDF In Browser||View PDF|
Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München TUM Citation guide This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. 1|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Content Why, when and what do I have to cite? .......................................................................... 6 Why cite at all? ........................................................................................................ 6 Copyright law and good scientific practice ............................................................... 7 What needs to be cited and when? ......................................................................... 9 The broad field of plagiarism ..................................................................................10 How to cite in the text ....................................................................................................12 How to cite? ...........................................................................................................12 Direct quotations .............................................................................................12 Indirect quotations / Paraphrasing ...................................................................13 Citation styles .........................................................................................................14 Overview on Citation styles .............................................................................14 Citation in science, technology and medicine (STM) .......................................16 Citation in the economic and social sciences ..................................................17 How to create a reference list? ...............................................................................17 Book / E-Books ...............................................................................................18 Book chapter or article from a book / E-Book ..................................................19 Dissertation/Thesis ..........................................................................................19 Entry in an online encyclopedia .......................................................................19 Images ............................................................................................................20 Internet Sources ..............................................................................................21 Interview..........................................................................................................22 Journal articles (print and online).....................................................................23 Maps ...............................................................................................................24 Patents ............................................................................................................24 Personal communication and expert opinion ...................................................25 Research data .................................................................................................26 Standards........................................................................................................26 Tables .............................................................................................................27 Unpublished Sources ......................................................................................27 Frequently asked questions ...........................................................................................29 How can I cite unpublished sources? .....................................................................29 How can I cite images? ..........................................................................................29 2|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München How can I find free images (Creative Commons) ...................................................32 How can I cite maps? .............................................................................................35 How can I cite standards? ......................................................................................36 How can I cite laws?...............................................................................................37 How can I cite data sets? .......................................................................................39 Who is author? Who is co-author? .........................................................................40 How can I cite student projects? .............................................................................41 Do I have to cite myself? ........................................................................................42 Is there an international copyright?.........................................................................42 Reference management software? – Yes! – But which one? .........................................46 Reference management software: Which one is the right one for you? ..................46 TUM Campus license for Citavi ..............................................................................46 TUM Campus license for EndNote .........................................................................47 Free Programs .......................................................................................................47 Reference management and LaTeX .......................................................................48 Support and Information at TUM University Library ................................................48 Recommendation on citation styles at TUM...................................................................50 The APA style (Author-Year style) ..........................................................................50 The IEEE Editorial Style (Numeric style) ................................................................51 The Chicago Style (Footnote style) ........................................................................51 References ....................................................................................................................52 3|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Note: This citation guide was coordinated with the ombudsman’s office for good scientific practice http://www.diversity.tum.de/en/team/officers-and-representatives/ombudspeople-foracademic-staff-members/). The ombudsman’s office strongly recommends adhering to the principles of correct citation and preventing plagiarism outlined. The library of the Technical University of Munich accepts no responsibility for the completeness and accuracy of the information. The information in this paper is intended as advice and is not legally binding. We appreciate your feedback. This citation guide is being updated regularly. However, should you find that the information mentioned herein is not accurate or you have suggestions for further improvement, we would welcome an email to firstname.lastname@example.org. The latest version of this citation guide is available under: https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/node?id=1231945 For further reading on good scientific practice at TUM Information sheet on final papers and theses (http://www.lehren.tum.de/downloads/) FAQs Gute wissenschaftliche Praxis (http://www.gs.tum.de/de/promovierende/gutewissenschaftliche-praxis/faq/) Guidelines for Good Scientific Practice and for Dealing with Scientific Misconduct (https://portal.mytum.de/archiv/kompendium_rechtsangelegenheiten/sonstiges/wiss_Fehlver h.pdf/view) Position paper of the DFG (“Safeguarding good scientific practice“) (http://www.dfg.de/download/pdf/dfg_im_profil/reden_stellungnahmen/download/empfehlung _wiss_praxis_1310.pdf) 4|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Imprint Technical University of Munich University Library Arcisstr. 21, 80333 München email@example.com http://www.ub.tum.de Munich, July 2017 5|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Citation Guide: How do I cite correctly? Writing a research paper does not mean reinventing the wheel. You may and should draw on knowledge and practice that others have already achieved in your field: Science is a cooperative venture! Traceability is crucial. This is the hallmark of ‘good scientific practice,’1 and in addition, allows the readers of your work to investigate the same sources. It also enables the reader to judge whether you have drawn justifiable conclusions from them, and further develop their own knowledge. The findings of other authors, however, are as a rule protected by copyright. If you intend to base your work on these findings, therefore, you must identify where and from whom they come from.2 The top priority in academic work is the clear separation of the work of other authors from your own. This guide therefore deals with the following questions: How do you mark off thoughts, insights and arguments in the text that are not your own? How do you identify your sources in your reference list? How do you link the citation in the text with the source in the reference list? What are the formal rules for citations? What tools are available to help with citation? Why, when and what do I have to cite? Why cite at all? A key element of good scientific practice is attributing work to its proper author. For this reason, you have to reference the author every time you mention others' ideas or results in your scientific work. Beyond this, copyright law requires you to reference when quoting text and images directly. Using citations in a scientific paper can serve different purposes: 1 They distinguish your ideas from those originating from other authors. This means they mark where you use others’ ideas and where your own ideas go beyond the current state of research They refer to established methods, procedures and standards Position paper of the DFG („Safeguarding good scientific practice“) at: http://www.dfg.de/foerderung/grundlagen_rahmenbedingungen/gwp/; Position paper of TUM at https://portal.mytum.de/archiv/kompendium_rechtsangelegenheiten/sonstiges/wiss_Fehlverh.pdf/view 2 For The corresponding wording of the law see German Copyright (Urheberrecht) §51. 6|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München They support your results by referring to other researchers’ findings, reference data e.g. properties of materials or such like There are two important reasons for citing correctly: Many works are protected by copyright law The rules of good scientific practice require you to identify others' ideas (regardless of whether they are protected by copyright law or not) As part of the wider academic community, you also want other authors to respect and cite your work, and not to claim it as their own! In his book, „Wie man eine wissenschaftliche Abschlußarbeit schreibt. Doktor- Diplom- und Magisterarbeit in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften“3 Umberto Eco hits the nail on the head: „Ein Buch zitieren, aus dem man einen Satz übernommen hat, heißt Schulden zahlen.“4 (Eco, 2010, p. 213) Copyright law and good scientific practice Copyright law protects the author of a work from unauthorised use of their intellectual property. This especially includes copying, editing and distributing the work in order to protect the author from financial loss. But according to the German constitution (§14 Art. 2) property should be used to the benefit of the community. Due to this, the rights of the author are in certain respects limited. These limiting regulations are called “Schrankenregelungen”. The most important limiting rule in this regard is the right to citation or "Zitatrecht" (§51 UrhG). „Zulässig ist die Vervielfältigung, Verbreitung und öffentliche Wiedergabe eines veröffentlichten Werkes zum Zweck des Zitats, sofern die Nutzung in ihrem Umfang durch den besonderen Zweck gerechtfertigt ist. Zulässig ist dies insbesondere, wenn 1. einzelne Werke nach der Veröffentlichung in ein selbständiges wissenschaftliches Werk zur Erläuterung des Inhalts aufgenommen werden […]5 3 “How to write an academic research project. Doctoral dissertations and Master's theses in the humanities and social sciences” (Translation Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 4 “To cite a book from which one has taken a line, means to have paid one’s debts.” (Translation Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 5 § 51 Citations: The reproduction, distribution, and public performance of a published work for the purposes of citation is permitted provided that the use is justified in its scope by the specific purpose. In particular, it is permissible if individual works are used following their publication in an independent scientific work to illuminate its content [...] (Translation Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 7|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München When does the right to citation (Zitatrecht) apply? 1. The citation has to be used in an independent scientific work. 2. The purpose of the citations must be given. This means, there has to be a contentrelated connection between your work and the cited work. To illustrate this connection a substantive discussion of the cited work must be given in your work. Without this discussion the citation cannot be used. 3. Consequently, a citation for mere illustration, ornament or workload reduction is not permitted. 4. Always cite as much as necessary but as little as possible. 5. A quotation may not be altered. 6. The quoted text must be identified. 7. You must give a full reference of the source What is protected by copyright law? – §2 UrhG “(1) Copyright law protects works of literature, science and art. This includes 1. 2. 3. 4. language works incl. written works, speeches, and computer programs, musical works, theatrical works including dance, works of fine art including works of architecture and of applied art as well as drafts of such works, 5. photographic works including works created similarly to photographic works, 6. cinematographic works including works created similarly to cinematographic works, 7. illustrations of a scientific or technical nature, such as drawings, plans, maps, sketches, tables and three-dimensional representations. (2) Works as defined by this law are only human intellectual creations”. For a work to be protected by copyright law it has to have a perceptible form. Copyright law applies only to direct citations not to the idea itself. Copyright protection continues up to 70 years after the author’s death, for snapshots, 50 years after its appearance. Incidentally, copyright law allows you to cite in academic work. Do not, however, take this to imply that you are not obliged to cite copyright-free content (e.g. because the author has been dead for more than 70 years, or where the content was published under a copyrightfree license). According to the rules of good scientific practice, all content taken from someone/-where else has to be cited, whether it is protected by copyright or is copyright-free. Good scientific practice Copyright law has to be distinguished from the rules of good scientific practice, which should ensure a high quality in scientific work. Briefly summarised, good scientific practice involves Documenting scientific findings comprehensibly, traceably and accessibly. 8|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Consistently testing your findings and making them accessible for review and testing by others. Maintaining integrity with regard to contributions by partner, competitors and predecessors. It is for these reasons that not only do direct quotations have to be cited but paraphrased ideas as well. What needs to be cited and when? Following the rules of good scientific practice, you have to cite everything you incorporate verbatim or content-wise from external sources. Conversely, this also means: You do not need to cite content available from many sources and which is not new, controversial or unusual. This particularly relates to general knowledge (the fall of the Berlin wall occurred on 09.11.1989, the formula E = mc ² was written by Einstein) and basic knowledge in your area of expertise (e.g. the laws of thermodynamics in physics). There is, however, no clear boundary. As a rule of thumb you can assume that knowledge that can be found in a textbook for the corresponding Bachelor program, does not need to be cited. If you are a student writing an examination paper and you are uncertain ask you supervisor. When in doubt: better cite than sorry. You should always cite the original source, if it exists. Citations of citations, so called secondary citations, you should only use if you cannot access the original source without unreasonable difficulty. This particularly applies to review articles. If in exceptional cases you are obliged to use secondary source citations, you must cite them accordingly. To make it easier for your reader to find the original source we advise to list both original and secondary source in your reference list. Example: Meier 2010, p. 100, cited in Müller 2011 p. 50 To make it as easy as possible for the reader to find the original source we recommend listing both the secondary source and the primary source in the list of reference. Sources should meet the required standards of scientific work. Depending on the purpose of a citation (see 1.1) you should choose the source accordingly. It might be appropriate to cite data sets from a degree thesis if these are correctly cited; especially if the author supervised it themselves and can therefore guarantee its quality. In principal, you should try to find sources which are well recognized. This is especially true for articles from peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings. Journals and proceedings which can be found in big databases like Scopus or Web of Science, you can assume to meet the quality requirements for good scientific sources. This is also true for books which have been published by established publishing houses. 9|48 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Sources which have not undergone quality assurance procedures such as a peer review process may be cited within certain limits (e.g. citation of a product data sheet or the like). In scientific context, citing Wikipedia is viewed with skepticism. Reference lists are often incomplete and the origin of the information given unknown. Even if Wikipedia now places increasing emphasis on references, it is always preferable to access and cite the original source. Moreover, Wikipedia articles can be manipulated easily and the author is often not identifiable. The broad field of plagiarism Plagiarism is when you present someone else’s work as your own. To present someone else’s intellectual property as your own disagrees with the central rules of good scientific practice. If citations are not marked as such, the reader is led to believe that it is an academic work attributable to the author. Plagiarism is not about specific citation styles or oversights in citation, but deliberate concealment of external sources. It is where other authors’ texts are included verbatim, paraphrased, or translated, but not marked as citations. Plagiarism is a serious offence, and may lead to the disqualification of an academic title, or even a criminal prosecution. At TUM there is an ombudsman’s office for good scientific practice, which among other things, deals with cases of plagiarism. The ombudsman’s office is responsible for receiving and investigating complaints, for settling them or where appropriate taking action which might include involving the TUM justice department.6 There are different forms of plagiarism. The main types are7. a. Complete plagiarism / copy & paste plagiarism: to use another author’s text unchanged, without citation, and pretend it is one’s own work. b. Clause splicing / Shake & paste plagiarism: combining fragments of different texts or sentences to form a new text without citation, thus presenting it as one’s own line of thought. c. Idea plagiarism / obfuscation: presenting another author’s ideas in your own words without citing the source. d. Translation plagiarism. Translating an original text from another language without citing the source. Note: Even if an author (e.g. a classmate) willingly consents to the uncited use of her text, you are nevertheless guilty of plagiarism, unless you cite the contribution! (Neville, 2010, p. 30) 6 Further information under www.tum.de/ombudsperson, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org See Weber-Wulff, 2004; Neville, 2010, p. 30; VroniPlag Wiki. Retrieved 07.10.2014 from http://de.vroniplag.wikia.com/wiki/Home 7 10 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Plagiarism arises not only through failure to cite, but even then, if you do reference another’s work, but do not make it clear to the reader how far the citation extends. This happens, for example, when a summary gives the impression that it is the author’s own work when it is not. What can you do to avoid coming under suspicion? Collect and organize your sources carefully from the start. Highlight important points in your reading and excerpting, so that afterwards you still know what you have read and where it comes from. Even in all your written drafts, you should mark the sources and quotations. The easiest way to organize knowledge and manage references is to use an appropriate system from the outset. This can be a simple checklist, but the more usual working method these days is to rely on dedicated software, such as the reference management programs Citavi or EndNote. They will support you from the information gathering stage right through to formatting your references. 11 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München How to cite in the text How to cite? There are various ways to include the findings and thoughts of other authors in your text. Direct quotations The afore mentioned sentence from Umberto Eco, „Ein Buch zitieren, aus dem man einen Satz übernommen hat, heißt Schulden zahlen“8 is used exactly as in the original. It is quoted directly, that is quoted verbatim. Direct quotations are used when the exact wording is important. They are especially common in the humanities, when dealing with a source. Otherwise, you should use direct quotes rarely or even extremely economically. Please note the following: a. Quotations have to be quoted exactly (that means letter for letter including old spelling or spelling mistakes; how to mark those see below). b. Quotation marks indicate a direct quote; longer quotations are indented for stylistic reasons, set in italics, or in a smaller typeface. You can then quote without using quotation marks. c. Accept misspellings or special formatting as in the original source, such as italic or bold; where there is a spelling error in the original source, identify it with the designation [sic]. A detached exclamation mark in square brackets [!] is also sometimes used for this purpose d. Omissions: If you omit a part of the verbatim quote, you must indicate this with [...]. Bailey (2011, p. 66) proposes only three dots ... for omissions, but three dots in round brackets are also common (...). Base your style on the practices in your particular field and the selected citation style. e. Additions: Your own additions or grammatical adjustments to the quoted sentence must be identified, e.g. [Author’s note/Editor’s note/ed. Note], or for grammatical adjustments: Eco notes that "to cite a book [...] means to have paid one’s debts [off]" (Eco, 2010, p. 213). f. Emphases: Emphases which are part of the original source, have to be maintained and marked, e.g. [emphasis by the author / emphasis in original]. Emphases added by yourself have to be marked, e.g. [my emphasis]. 8 “To cite a book from which one has taken a line, means to have paid one’s debts.” (Translation Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 12 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München g. Original language: Always quote in the original language, and insert a translation for minority languages in a footnote. In this case note who made the translation (if you cite a translation, name the source, if you translated it yourself add (translation by the author). Please note, however, that paraphrases should always be in the same language as your own work. h. Quotation within a quotation: If the verbatim quoted section already contains a quote, indicate the outer quotation in single inverted commas. i. Cite source: Varies depending on the citations style but always given directly with the quotation. Indirect quotations / Paraphrasing To incorporate opinions or findings of other authors in your text, you need not quote verbatim. You can also summarize their views or findings in your own words. This procedure does not, however, relieve you of your obligation to cite the author, and so pay your debt! You will by now be familiar with the phrase at the end of the last sentence. It refers back to Umberto Eco (2010, p. 213). This way of referring to another author is known as indirect quotation (or: paraphrasing). In STM subjects (STM = science, technology, and medicine), as well as the economic and social sciences, this is common practice. You should consider the following: a. Use your own words: Summarize what you have read in your own words; this automatically means that you always quote indirectly in the same language as your own work. b. In-text attribution: If the formatting and source citation do not by themselves make it sufficiently clear which content is your own and which you are indirectly quoting, it makes sense to use an introductory phrase: As Eco (2010) points out, by citing a work, one pays the author back for the use of their idea. c. Cite source: After the quoted section, usually with page number. In some subject areas, it is also common to dispense with indirect quotes on the page number. Always remember that you want to make your argumentation as easy as possible to understand - a page number helps your readers check your arguments. d. Vgl.: In German, in some subject areas and citation styles it is usual to insert vgl. before indirect quotations, e.g. (vgl. Eco 2010, p. 213). Cf. is not equivalent to the German vgl. although many dictionaries offer it as a translation. In English academic writing, indirect quotations should be cited directly (without cf. or see). Cf. or see provide further references to compare either similar or contrasting arguments or information. e. Multiple citation: To add support or emphasis to an argument or to demonstrate that the literature is unanimous in this respect, it is possible to insert a multiple citation. The citation would look like this: (see for instance Author1, 2010, p.1; Autor2, 2011, p.2; Autor3, 2014, p.5.). Depending on the subject area and selected citation style, the in-text attribution may be omitted: (Author1, 2010, p.1; Autor2, 2013, p.2). 13 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Citation styles Citing allows you to both name the author and ensure the traceability of the source. To enhance the readability one generally avoids writing the complete source one is acknowledging directly after the quote in the text. Rather, we use a kind of placeholder. For a full list of sources cited, a reference list is created, which can be found at the end of the work. Various types of placeholder may be used: a simple number or the name of the author plus the essay or book title in which the quote was found, either in parentheses after the citation or in a footnote. These placeholders connect the direct and indirect quotations used with the source in the reference list. The type of placeholder and how they are used depends on the citation style. Overview on Citation styles There are a large numbers of recognized citation styles. Academics and publishers develop and maintain these different styles. Therefore, almost every modern academic field, and almost every publisher and journal has its own rules for the correct formatting of citations. If you publish in a journal or a text book the citation style is determined by the requirements set by the editor or publisher. If you are a student writing your final paper, always ask your supervisor or the department which style to use. If there is no set style see chapter 4 where you will find three established citations styles you can use. If there is a standard style for your field, use this. In addition, you have the option of citing according to DIN ISO 690 - this citation standard is recognized throughout Germany. Along with formatting rules for your references, the in-text citation also follows the particular citation style. There are three main variants: a. author-year system In-text citation: with full name, e.g. Meyer (2011), (Meyer 2011), (Meyer 11) or abbreviated name, e.g. (MEY 11) or [MEY11] In the reference list: (Meyer 2011) Meyer, Michael: Title. Place: Publisher, 2011 or Meyer, Michael (2011): Title. Place: Publisher. b. Number system In-text citation:  or (5) 14 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München In the references:  Meyer, Michael: Title. Place: Publisher, 2011. c. Footnote system In-text citation: e.g. quotation² In the references: as a rule on first mention, the full reference appears at the bottom of the page: ____________________ ² Meyer, Michael: Title. Place: Publisher, 2011 for all other entries of the same title, it is usually sufficient, depending on the citation style, to insert a short citation at the end of the page: ____________________ ³ Meyer 2011 Particularly in European citation styles, if the same page in the same work has already been directly cited earlier, the Latin abbreviation ibid. (ibidem) may be used. While its use is declining, reference management programs will insert it, again depending on the citation style, automatically. ____________________ ² Meyer 2011, p. 2 ³ ibid. Some general information: If a work is written by three or more than three authors, there is special set of rules depending on the selected citation style. Bailey (2011) recommends that where there are three or more authors in an in-text citation, only the first be specified and all further author names be replaced with “et al.” (Bailey, 2011, p. 69). For example: where a work is co-authored by Franz Müller, Joseph Mayer, and Sebastian Schmitt 2012 the in-text citation names only the first author and adds et. al. for all other authors. (Müller et al., 2012, p.5). In the references, all authors are listed. Incidentally, if you are using a reference management software, the reference is automatically inserted according to the specifications of the selected citation style; you need not concern yourself further. If you are referring to a specific place in an article or book, you should specify it as precisely as possible, i.e. insert page numbers or other numbering used in the article in your intext citation. The particular citation style governs how the page number is inserted in the citation. This often happens after a comma with "p.", e.g. (Meyer 2011, p. 3), (MEY 11, p. 3), [5, p. 3]. When you quote an entire section from a book or article, you should cite once at the beginning or end of the quotation, not after each sentence. Make it clear that your citation refers 15 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München to the whole section, not only to the first or last sentence, e.g. “The following section summarizes the results from . If details are missing, e.g. the author, the year or the location of publication, you may point this out by using the following abbreviation. This shows that your work is not simply sloppy but that despite further research you could not identify the missing information. Author: o.V. (ohne Verfasser), N.N. (nomen nescio) or N.U. (name unknown) Year: o.J. (ohne Jahr), s.a. (sine annum), n.y. (no year) or n.d. (no date) Location: o.O. (ohne Ort), s.l. (sine locum) or n.p. (no place) Examples of current citation styles (taken from the reference management software, Citavi, read more in chapter 4): Figure 1: Citation styles APA 6th, IEEE Editorial and Chicago notes 16th Citation in science, technology and medicine (STM) Academic achievements in the STM subjects are in most cases not dependent on their exact wording, but are theories, theorems, studies, experimental results, etc. and are usually cited indirectly. In-text citations are indicated with short citations (numbers or author-year system); footnotes are not usual. Direct quotations are rare and should only be used when the precise formulation is important. It is not always customary to put these in quotation marks, e.g. if you “word-for-word” quote a formula or a mathematical theorem. When citing, you can mention the author in the text or only in a short citation. Examples: From the study by Maier and Müller  it is known that... Since the solutions to this equation are always limited [8, Theorem 1.7], it follows that... 16 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München As mentioned afore you should always, if you refer to a particular place in an article or book, specify them as accurately as possible, i.e. insert page numbers or other numbering (as in the last example), which is used in the article in the short reference. Citation in the economic and social sciences Indirect quotes are very common in economics and social sciences. It is important that you reformulate what you have read in your own words and not simply change a few words in the passage quoted. Direct quotations are also common in economics and social sciences, but should be used sparingly and only used when it is essential to reproduce the exact wording of a line of argument or an opinion. You can also mark off longer direct quotations from your own body text by formatting, for example, by indenting the quote (left or right) or using italics. You then do not need to use quotation marks. Be careful to reproduce the quotation exactly and identify omissions with an ellipsis (three dots) in square brackets. To mark quotations in the text, two main systems are common in economics and social sciences: the short citation using the author-year system, and the footnote system. How to create a reference list? A list of references is always found at the end of a chapter or work and you must cite all literature that was used, whether directly quoted or indirectly. The list must be prepared in accordance with uniform rules (in the selected citation style). The titles are either sorted alphabetically by the author's surname or numerically according to the order of their appearance in the text. If you cite multiple publications by the same author within the same year these are marked by e.g. using lowercase letters: Example: Eco (2010a), Eco (2010b). If a publication has no author or editor, you sort by the first significant word in the title. Some journal publishers require items to be sorted in the order in which they were first mentioned in your work. This arrangement of the titles in the list of references is particularly popular for shorter publications or works in which very little literature is cited, and is used only with the number system. Unless otherwise indicated, the references for all the following examples are formatted according to the rules of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) 6th edition. 17 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Depending on the type of publication, the complete list of references contains various elements. Some citation styles prescribe that author names be written out in full while others require the abbreviated (initialized) first names. Generally, it is easier for your reader to trace sources back when the entire author name is given in full. In our examples, given the very wide adherence to the APA style, we have held to the requirement of the Publication Manual the American Psychological Association, where first names are always abbreviated. According to APA style guidelines, the author’s name is always followed by a full stop. If the author is a person there is already a full stop due to the abbreviated first name. However, if the author is an institution the full stop is either added manually or automatically by your reference management program. There are never two full stops in a row. In general, the same requirements apply to electronic publications as for their printed equivalents: authors, title, journal title, issue number, volume number and year of publication must be specified for articles from e-journals, just as for printed journal articles. It makes sense, however, to provide extra information where available (e.g. the DOI). Your readers will be able to trace the source more easily. At present it is recommended to give the DOI as a clickable link „http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-02511-3“ instead of „doi:10.1007/978-3658-02511-3“ (Pampel, 23.09.2016 ). Book / E-Books Printed books [Author last name], [author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title]. [Place of publication]: [Publisher]. Boer, R. d. (2000). Theory of porous media: highlights in historical development and current state. Berlin: Springer. E-Books [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year)]. [Title]. [doi: xxx or Retrieved from URL] Brink, A. (2013). Anfertigung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten: ein prozessorientierter Leitfaden zur Erstellung von Bachelor-, Master- und Diplomarbeiten. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9783-658-02511-3 18 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Book chapter or article from a book / E-Book Chapter from a printed book: [Author last name], [author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title of Chapter]. [In] [Editor(s) first name(s) abbreviated][Editor(s) last name] [(Ed./Eds.9)], [Title of book] [(p./pp. xx-xx)10]. [Place of publication]: [Publisher]. Gander, H.-H. (2010). Verdoppelung der Stimme - Zur Funktion des Zitats als Autoritätsgewinn. In J. Jacob & M. Mayer (Eds.), Im Namen des anderen - Die Ethik des Zitierens (pp. 19-31). Paderborn: Fink. Chapter from an E-Book [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Chapter title]. [In] [A. Editor & B. Editor (Ed./Eds.)], [Book title] [(p./pp. xx-xx)]. [doi: xxxxx or Retrieved from URL most closely linked to chapter] Schieker, M., Neugebauer, E. A. M., Mutschler, W., Claes, L., Maegele, M., & Sauerland, S. (2011). Projektdurchführung. In E. A. M. Neugebauer, W. Mutschler & L. Claes (Eds.), Von der Idee zur Publikation (pp. 79-100). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16069-1_4 Dissertation/Thesis [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title]. [(Type of university writing: dissertation, habilitation thesis ...)]. [University]. Ehlers, W. (1989). Poröse Medien: Ein kontinuumsmechanisches Modell auf der Basis der Mischungstheorie. (Habilitation). Universität-Gesamthochschule Essen. Entry in an online encyclopedia [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title of Article]. In [Editors first name abbreviated] [Editors last name] (Ed./Eds.), [Title of encyclopedia] [(Edition ed.)].11 Retrieved from [URL] Kashy,E., McGrayne, S.B., Robinson, , F. N. H., Suckling, E. E. (2014). Electricity. In Encyclopaedia Britannica Academic Edition. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/182915/electricity12 9 Ed. for one editor, Eds. if there is more than one editor. p. for one page, pp. for several pages. 11 e.g. (4. ed.) for 4th edition. 12 As there is no editor mentioned, this information is left out. 10 19 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Images Note: This applies only to citation for image sources. Please also note chapter 3.2 when citing images. Images (your own or other people’s) should be numbered and titled in your work (number and title, for images above, for tables below). All images should be listed in a separate table of figures. If images, etc. are taken from other works, you must in addition to numbering and titles specify the source from which you took them. The citation is done in the form used elsewhere in the work, e.g. in a footnote, or in short form directly after the title. Example of an image with the source cited in the references: Figure 2: How Plagiarism Works (Weber-Wulff, 2004b) The work referred to in the citation must be listed in the reference list. The table of figures is located at the beginning or end of the work (but before the references) and lists all images in numerical order. The sources of the images (books, webpages, etc.) appear in the full list of references. Example of a List of Figures: Figure 1: The Spatial Distribution of Branch Libraries p.4 Figure 2: Organizational Structure of the University Library p.10 Figure 3: Flow Chart for Book Purchase p. 14 Figure 4: Acquisition Profile for Engineering / Science p. 15 There is no official template for how to cite images in the APA style manual. However, the following example is given as reference for an image from a print journal. 20 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Images from printed works Adapted from "A Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm for the Measurement of Gist and Verbatim Memory” by C. Stahl and K.C. Klauer, 2008, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, p. 573. Copyright 2008 by the American Psychological Association. We deduce the following schema from this example: Adapted from “[Title]” by [Abbreviated 1. author’s first name]. [Last name of 1. author], [further author’s names same as first one], and [last author’s name like first one], [Publication year], [Journal title], [Volume], p. [Page number]. Copyright [Year] by [Copyright holder’s name]. Images from the internet (with and without licence) If you find images on the internet, such as on Flickr or Pixabay, they often do not have accurate information on the image. In the APA style manual, there is no information on how to cite these images. That is why we recommend the following schema: [Author’s last name], [Author’s first name abbreviated]. [(Publication year)]. [Title of the image if available, otherwise short description of the image in square brackets]. [Title of website]. Retrieved from: [URL] If the images was published under a creative commons licence or a comparable licence add the following information before “Retrieved from:[URL] Licensed under [Name of licence including a link to the licenses text]. Here are two examples of images from the internet coming with a license: Weber-Wulff, D. (2004b). [Scissors with scrap of paper]. Kurse über Plagiat - Fremde Federn Finden. 3.2 Wie wird plagiiert? Licensed under GNU General Public License, Version 2. Retrieved 17.07.2015, from http://plagiat.htw-berlin.de/ff-alt/03schule/wie.html Aquila, M. (2006). Theft. Flickr. Licensed under CC-BY-SA-NC 2.0. Retrieved 26.05.2015, from https://www.flickr.com/photos/ibcbulk/256435870 The reference for the printed image from the APA style manual places the reference directly in the image caption underneath the picture. However, we would advise giving the full reference in the reference list as for all other references, and give a short in-text citation in the caption (see Figure 2). Internet Sources There is no definition for websites in the APA style. Electronic resources are subdivided into blog posts, forum contribution, articles in online encyclopedia, and many more. Most reference management programs do not offer such a refined definition. Usually reference management programs offer the reference type web page as a collective term for all internet 21 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München pages. You will, however, notice that the definitions for the APA style reference type web page differ in various reference management programs. It is advisable to double-check the entries for all online sources in the reference list and revise them if necessary. In the following you find a template for online sources that generally follows the APA style (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 215). Most of the time, online sources refer to entries with a publication date (e.g. blog posts, etc.). [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year, month in words day)]. [Title of webpage [type of source, e.g. web page, blog post, etc.]].13 Retrieved from [URL] Weber-Wulff, D. (2014, April 23). Fremde Federn Finden - Kurs über Plagiat; 3.2 Wie wird plagiiert? [Web page] Retrieved from http://plagiat.htw-berlin.de/ff/schule/3_2/wie Because APA style mostly refers to online sources with publication dates, the date following the author’s name should be the posting date, not the access date. If there is no posting date we advise to enter the access date as “Retrieved [DD.MM.YYYY], from [URL]”. In general, we would recommend that all citations from dynamic web pages (e.g. blogs, forums, web pages from institutions, etc.) also include the access date. Make sure your Internet sources are permanently available wherever possible. If available, instead of a URL use a persistent identifier, i.e. a permanently available link (DOI, URN, handle, ...). For dynamic content, such as in wikis or blogs, try to find a URL that links precisely to the content to which you refer. These so-called permalinks (permanent links) work even when the post on the blog or wiki has been updated or changed. For safety's sake, save web pages or print a copy so that you can submit them if in doubt. Some reference management software already offer a function to save screenshots of webpages (e.g. Citavi, Mendeley, Zotero). Interview Interviews, which can be found printed in a magazine, for example, are citable and appear in the reference list. Harvey (2008, p. 69) provides the following example (formatted in CMS Style): 3. Candace Caldwell, "Lust of the Eye," interview by Malcolm Strong, Visual Arts, June 1995, 23-29. The APA Publication Manual also specifies the way in which references of interviews, that are either registered or recorded, should be given. Here are the two examples of APA References: 13 The inner square brackets are displayed. 22 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Smith, M. B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President's Oral History Project, American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC. Sparkman, C. F. (1973). An oral history with Dr. Colley F. Sparkman / Interviewer: Orley B. Caudill. Mississippi Oral History Program (Vol. 289), University of Sothern Mississippi, Hattiesburg. (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 214) Interviews that you have conducted yourself, should be marked accordingly in the text. Kamasin and Ribing (2011, p. 150) recommend specifying the following data: Academic title of the interviewee First name and last name Function in company (in the organization, at the institution) Company, institution address (no private address!) Exact date and time Example: Interview was conducted with: Dr. John Doe Managing Director of Whatnot GmbH 1, Anywhere St., 11111 Nowheresville January 01, 2011 A self-conducted interview may be added to the appendix of your work. Obtain consent from your interviewee before you use any part of the interview and the form in which you wish to use it. Journal articles (print and online) Printed journal articles [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title of article]. [Journal title], [Band / Volume][(Heft / Issue / Number)], [Page numbers14]. Schanz, M. & Diebels, S. (2003). A comparative study of Biot's theory and the linear theory of porous media for wave propagation problems. Acta Mechanica, 161(3-4), 213-235. Electronic journal articles [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title of Article]. [Title of the Journal], [Volume(Issue)], [Pages]. [doi: xxxx or Retrieved from URL] Bryson, D. (2013). Referencing web pages and e-journals. Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine, 36(3-4), 146-149. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109 / 17453054.2013.851649 14 With journals there is never p./pp. given. 23 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Maps For Maps the following details should be provided: Author, title, edition, scale, place of publication, publisher, year, material description (map, relief, architectural drawing), other physical characteristics (on parchment, digital, etc.), size, information on a series the map belongs to. In addition you can differentiate between the individually published maps, and maps from atlases (Northey & Knight, 2007, pp. 234-235): Individually published map Zania. Population over 50 [demographic map]. Zunila: Census Division, Office of International Affairs; 1995 Scale 1: 1,500,000. 2 sheets. Map from an atlas Chatham Islands. Fluvial features [topographic map]. In: Atlas of islands. San Francisco: Floating Press; 2001 p. 44-5. Colour, scale 1: 250,000. In APA style, there are no detailed guidelines for the citation of maps. In the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, merely the following example for the citation for a map is given (Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 210): Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from http://www.co.lewis.wa.us/publicworks/maps/Demographics/census-pop-dens_2000.pdf Electronic map (as online resource s. chapter 3.4) [Cartographer, institution or name of the person (Cartographer)]. [(Year of publication)]. [Title of Map] [[Map type: topographic map, demographic map, etc.]]. Retrieved from [URL] Riedl, A. v. (Cartographer). (1806-1808). Ammer-See [Topographische Karte]. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bvb:12-bsb00026097-14-9 Patents As in-text citation give the patent number and the issuing date. U.S. Patent No. 123,445 (1988) or (U.S. Patent No. 123.445 1988) In the reference list you include the inventor’s name and the official office where the patent can be seen. [Inventor‘s last name], [Inventor’s first name abbreviated]. [(Issue date)] [Name and number of the patent]. [Patent office] 24 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Example: Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Usually there is one patent office in every country. This means that the abbreviation U.S. stands for the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in Washington DC. The abbreviation DE stands for the German Patent and Trademark Office (Deutsches Patent- und Markenamt) in Munich. Other citations styles might also mention: The name of the assignee or applicant. (Patents are often registered by companies.) The registration date (sometimes it might be the approval date or the publication date, so best name which date you use.) The URL to the patent’s full text. Patents often have a version number like A1, A2, … or B1, B2, … This has to be given in the reference, too. Example: DE 27 03 353 A1 DE 10 2005 051 128 B4 Personal communication and expert opinion For unpublished information, which has been given to you by an expert in a personal conversation or via email, APA style lists the following information: [Author last name], [Author first name(s) abbreviated] [(personal communication, [Month in words] [Day], [Year])] Example: T.K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001) In other citation styles you can often find the following information: Full name Qualification / position and workplace / institution Place of work / institution (without postal address or email address) Date and time incl. time zone Title of presentation / subject Type of communication / source with addressee Example: Braun, Gary P. (Prof. for Accounting, College of Business Administration, University of Texas at El Paso) (02.08.2000, 10:18 RDT): „Re: Questions about Accounting Terminology“. Email to Bruce W. Irwin 25 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Womser-Hacker, Christa (Prof. für Angewandte Informationswissenschaft, Institut für Angewandte Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Hildesheim) (01.08.2000, 9:18-9:25 MEZ): Personal communication with Bruce W. Irwin Research data [Author last name], [Author first name abbreviated] [(Publication year)]. [Title] [(Version number)] [[Type of source]]. [Place of publication]: [Publisher/Institution].If the data is available online, in APA style, the URL is given instead of the place of publication and the publisher. Include the URL as [Retrieved from URL]. However, we recommend listing the place of publication and the publisher as well as the URL. Fahrenberg, J. (2010). Freiburger Beschwerdenliste FBL. Primärdaten der Normierungsstichprobe 1993 (Version 1.0.0) [Dataset]. ZPID- Leibniz-Zentrum für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation. Retrieved from http://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.fgjn05an08 Pew Hispanic Center. (2004). Changing channels and crisscrossing cultures: A survey of Latinos on the news media [Data file and code book]. Retrieved from http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/ Standards Information on how to formally and correctly cite or quote standards is available on the Beuth Verlag website15. Here is an example: DIN ISO 8037-1:2003-05, Optik und optische Instrumente - Mikroskope; Objektträger - Teil 1: Maße, optische Eigenschaften und Kennzeichnung (ISO 8037-1:1986) The Beuth-Verlag recommends stating the year and month without a space after the colon (DIN ISO 8037-1:2003-05). However, we recommend you present the data according to the chosen citation style. In APA style, there are no detailed specifications for citation of standards. In the IEEE Editorial Style Manual you will find the following ("IEEE Editorial Style Manual," 2014, p. 36): Basic format:  Title of standard, standard number, date. Examples: 15 http://www.beuth.de/de/rubrik/hilfezitierenvonnormen;jsessionid=MAPLFGB322JLDM23FIU9BFJT.4 26 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München  IEEE Criteria for Class IE Electric Systems, IEEE Standard 308, 1969  Letter Symbols for Quantities, ANSI Standard Y10.5-1968. Tables Copyright law does not protect quantitative data. Therefore, you can always cite them. You can even use extracts from tables in your own table if you mention the source. If you create a table using data from different sources, you have to make clear, where the information comes from. In contrast to the data itself, the display of the data may be protected. If a programme like Excel generates the display, the level of creativity necessary for gaining copyright protection, will usually not be attained. Just as with images, tables should be numbered. All tables are listed in a separate list of tables, with table number, table title, and page number. In contrast to images, table titles usually appear above (image titles appear below). When you use a table from a work, you reference it in the text next to the page number, including the original table number. The work appears in the reference list. Example: Table 1: Übersicht über Stecklingsansätze aus jungen Tabebuia- und Heliocarpus-Pflanzen16 (Heppner, 2009, p. 20, Table 2.2) In the references: Heppner, S. (2009). Vegetative Vermehrung einheimischer Baumarten in Südecuador : physiologische Grundlagen und deren Umsetzung. (Doctoral dissertation, Universität Bayreuth). Retrieved from http://opus.ub.uni-bayreuth.de/volltexte/2010/669/ Unpublished Sources [Author last name], [Author first name abbreviated] [(Year)]. [Title of source]. [Unpublished manuscript/Manuscript submitted for publication/Manuscript in preperation], [Chair/Faculty/], [Name of institution], [Place of institution], [Country]. 16 Overview of approaches cuttings from young Tabebuia- and Heliocarpus plants (Translation Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 27 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Wolters, P. (2001). Koedukation im Sportunterricht - Zwischen Gleichheit und Differenz. Unpublished manuskript, Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Deutschland. 28 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Frequently asked questions How can I cite unpublished sources? Unpublished sources should only be cited if the information is not otherwise available to the reader. In general, unpublished sources are cited in the same way as published ones. Example: Wolters, P. (2001). Koedukation im Sportunterricht - Zwischen Gleichheit und Differenz. Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript, Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg. Unpublished sources may only be cited with the author’s permission. This is not necessary if the copyright has already expired. If possible, include the source in the appendix to make it accessible to your reader. Keep in mind that a permission to cite a work does not automatically include the permission to include an unpublished source in the appendix. Make sure to get this additional permission. The work is not listed in the reference list unless it is available in an archive. In this case, give the information on where to find the document in question at the end of the reference and include it in the reference list. How can I cite images? If you want to use an image in your work, you have to ask yourself the following questions: 1. Does copyright permit the use of the image? 2. Is there a contractual license to use the image? 3. Are there other rights that must be respected? 1. Does copyright permit the use of the image? a) In general, the following applies: The Copyright Act distinguishes between photographic works (= existence of a certain degree of creativity, pursuant to article § 2 para. 1 no. 5 of the Copyright Act), photographs (= any arbitrary snapshot, § 72 of the Copyright Act) and other images e.g. technical drawings. Under German law, each image (= photo work and photographs) enjoys copyright protection from its inception; other images (e.g. technical drawings) are only protected by copyright law if they meet the necessary level of creativity; this means they can be distinguished from program-generated images through the author’s personal creative contribution. The „Grundsatz der Formfreiheit“17 applies: a copyright symbol, sometimes denoted with (©), 17 “principle of freedom of form” (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 29 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München is not necessary and has no influence on the copyright. Each of the above-described works enjoys copyright protection from the moment it comes to existence without having to be applied for.Copyright protection alongside the author's personal rights (e.g. the right to be named as the author and not to be misrepresented) includes the so-called exploitation rights (e.g. duplication, public broadcasting or display). All transformations or alterations to the works may be done only with the permission of the copyright holder (§ 23 German Copyright Act). b) Limitations on copyright The rights of the copyright-holder are limited by the so-called „Schranken des Urheberrechts“18 alone (§ 72 German Copyright Act). The most important barrier to the use of images in scientific work is the purpose of the citation: „§ 51 Zitate Zulässig ist die Vervielfältigung, Verbreitung und öffentliche Wiedergabe eines veröffentlichten Werkes zum Zweck des Zitats, sofern die Nutzung in ihrem Umfang durch den besonderen Zweck gerechtfertigt ist. Zulässig ist dies insbesondere, wenn […] einzelne Werke nach der Veröffentlichung in ein selbständiges wissenschaftliches Werk zur Erläuterung des Inhalts aufgenommen werden […]“19 What is being described here is the so-called academic large citation: if you use a picture, you are always citing a work in its entirety. Therefore, the requirements to cite a picture are higher than for text sources. To cite a picture is allowed only if a certain academic purpose can be demonstrated (e.g. in support of argumentation, presentation of a counterargument, etc.) for the use of the image in an academic paper. To use an image as a mere ornament to the work is therefore inadmissible. The image must clarify and support the content of the work significantly and has to be discussed in your work thoroughly. This means it has to stand in meaningful relation to the written content. The right to citation does not include any modifications of the picture. Example: For your dissertation you use an image of an experimental setup that you need as a basis for further experiments described in your work. You discuss the image thoroughly. You cite the source correctly. The purpose of the citation is explained (experimental setup, which forms the basis of further investigations). The image is properly discussed. Publishing occurs within the context of an academic work (dissertation). 18 “barriers of copyright” (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) § 51 citations The reproduction, distribution, and public performance of a published work for the purposes of citation is permitted provided that the use is justified in its scope by the specific purpose. In particular, it is permissible if [...] individual works are used following their publication in an independent academic work to illuminate its content [...] (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center; emphasis TUM) 19 30 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München The source is properly cited. The image citation is permitted. c) Term of copyright protection The copyright covers photographic works until 70 years after the death of the copyright holder (§ 64 German Copyright Act); for simple photographs for 50 years after the appearance of the photograph (§ 72 para. 3 of the Copyright Act). The period of protection expires at the end of the 70th year after the author's death or at the end of the year 50 years after the snapshot's appearance. After this time, the picture is copyright-free. Due to the rules of good scientific practice you still have to cite it. But now you are permitted to use the image beyond the purpose of citation (substantiating an argument, used in an academic work). Note that the copyright can be passed on to the author’s heirs or to a foundation especially founded for the purpose to represent the authors’ rights after his death. Example: For your dissertation you use a photograph from a historical picture. The picture is not necessary for your argumentation but merely for illustration. The photographer died more than 70 years ago. You cite the source correctly. The copyright holder has died more than 70 years ago: The photograph is copyright-free. The source is properly cited. The image citation is permitted. Summary: In academic papers, you may use images even if you have not produced them yourself. A prerequisite for use is that the images illuminate the content of your work. Images are treated as direct citations, i.e. they must not be altered. Unlike citations from books or essays, which represent only small parts of the complete work, when using an image, you are citing the complete work of another author. 2. Is there a contractual license to use the image? If an image is not citable under copyright law, you can cite it, if you have the consent of the copyright holder to use an image. This consent may be given orally. However if you want to cover your back you might want to ask for a written consent. To do so, it is important to be sure you actually know who owns the copyright. The exploitation rights to an image can also be transferred to a publisher, for example, if the author of the image has already published it and signed a corresponding contract. Balzert, Schröder, and Schäfer (2013, p. 190) provide an important source for obtaining image rights: VG Bild-Kunst: http://www.bildkunst.de. This collecting society (i.e. VG Wort) issues printing permissions for most living artists and photographers. Creative Commons licenses offer another form of written consent for the use of images. These licenses allow the copyright owner to offer the public expanded exploitation rights. Creative Commons licenses thus always extend the provisions of copyright law. For more information see Section 3.3 below. 31 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Note that where an image from a wiki or a website can be copied or saved this does not automatically mean it can be used without permission. The same applies for maps. 3. Are there other rights that must be observed? When using images, you also need to respect the copyright of the depicted subject. This is in addition to the copyright of the author of the image itself, for example, in works of art or buildings. Architectural and artistic works are protected by copyright. You therefore need the consent of the architect and the artist, even if you have taken the photograph yourself. This copyright protection expires 70 years after the creator's death. There is an exception to this rule: You are permitted to make use of the so-called “Panoramafreiheit” (freedom of panorama). You may publish photographs of the exterior of a building without special permission if it is located in a public street or a public place permanently20(§ 59 German Copyright Act). The freedom of panorama also includes works of art when they are situated in a public area. The reproduction (photo or video) must, however, be made from a publically accessible place. A picture that is e.g. taken from the window of a building across the street does not qualify as publically accessible. If the building is not in a publically accessible area, or the picture is of the building's interior, the consent of the architect must be obtained. When recording within buildings and real estate, e.g. stations, stadiums, or private houses, domiciliary rights must be observed. Unauthorized pictures constitute a violation of general personal rights. Again, therefore, the consent of the holder must be obtained prior to publication. If people are visible in a photograph, you also have to be careful: only with the consent of the persons depicted may such images be circulated. You will find the relevant provisions in § 22 KUG (Law on Copyright in Works of Fine Art and Photography). Exceptions to the law include persons recorded as an “incidental addition to a landscape”, public figures, or persons that are recorded as part of a gathering, etc. (§ 23 KUG). How can I find free images? (Creative Commons) Pre-licensing contracts made by the non-profit organization Creative Commons should help to define the rights and conditions for your own productions. It is endemic to CC licenses always to enable the extension of the valid copyright to any further possibilities for use, never to an additional limitation. 20 Works of art which are located in a place only temporarily are explicitly excluded. Example: The wrapped German Reichstag 32 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München From the user's perspective, CC licenses help to find content such as images or videos on the Internet freely available for use. Conversely, the absence of a CC-labeling, however, does not mean that the use of e.g. an image is not permitted. You should in this case carefully check the copyright provisions (see 1.4.3). CC licenses remain valid as long as the copyright for the respective work is valid. Afterwards works licensed by CC are in the public domain, too. The following six licenses are currently available21: Attribution (by): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.” (Creative Commons, 2017f) Attribution – No derivatives (by-nd): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format for any purpose, even commercially.” (Creative Commons, 2017a) Attribution – Non-commercial (by-nc): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material” (Creative Commons, 2017d) Attribution – Non-Commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format” (Creative Commons, 2017b) Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike (by-nc-sa): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material” (Creative Commons, 2017c) Attribution – Share Alike (by-sa): “You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. (Creative Commons, 2017e) Beyond these you might find two other symbols: 21 Please note the licenses are constantly expanded. The representation in the document is as of 25.6.2014. 33 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Public Domain Dedication (CC0 1.0 Universal) “The person who associated a work with this deed has dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. “ (Creative Commons, 2017g) Public Domain Mark 1.0 This work has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights. You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.” (Creative Commons, 2017h) The license terms require that every time you use an item, the name of the copyright holder must be cited. You must also specify a link to the license and specify whether you have modified the item. A CC license does not relieve you of the obligation to cite! The license does ensure that the media found may be used. Bear in mind that not all CC licences can be combined with each other. Figure 1 shows which CC licences can be combined. Figure 3: Compatibilty amongst Creative Commons Licences (Creative Commons, 2015 published under CC-BY 4.0 international licence https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode) You can also specifically search for CC pictures. Certain search engines help to find those. Some examples: CC Search (http://search.creativecommons.org/): A search interface (not a search engine!) specifically for finding CC items. If desired, the following image search engines can be used 34 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München to search in addition to general and media-specific search engines: Flickr, Fotopedia, Google Images, Open Clip Art Library, Pixabay. Flickr (https://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/): Use the Advanced Search to select a CC license for specific images you want to find. Google Image Search (http://www.google.de/imghp): After entering a search term in the Google image search, you can filter results by license (menu item: Search Options rights). Let's CC (http://eng.letscc.net/cc_intro.php): As with CC Search, not a search engine, but an interface that uses a variety of other search engines to locate CC content. How can I cite maps? Maps are subject to copyright protection law and must therefore be cited. While survey data – roads and the like – are free facts, the layout of the map or the particular composition of the data may be protected by copyright. As with images, maps may only be cited directly, i.e. unchanged. This means that using a section of a map or adding your own entries to an existing map is not permitted. The map must always be cited in its entirety and not modified. In most instances, the purpose will not justify a direct citation, since it is not usually a particular map, but merely any map showing the region in question, which is required. In the case of historical work on map printers etc., the citing of maps would of course be justified by the purpose. Otherwise not. Therefore, if you need a map, you should draw it yourself. This is the best way to highlight the information that is relevant to your work. Name the data source on which your map is based. OpenStreetMaps If you nonetheless want to use existing maps, we recommend using OpenStreetMaps. OpenStreetMaps is a free map, whose data is licensed through the OpenData Commons Open Database License (ODbL). The map representations are often under CC-BY-SA license. However, since the maps are created by different people, the license may vary. Therefore, always check which uses the respective license allows. As a rule, use and adaptation is permitted if the source is specified and the new work is licensed under the same conditions. Link the license to the license text or, in the case of printed works, provide the link to the license text. Information about the license is always found below the map on the right. OpenStreetMaps also offers the possibility of creating a permalink for a displayed map excerpt (for permalinks see Chapter 2.3.2, Internet source). You should always specify this permalink in the source to facilitate retrieval. 35 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München In the references: Open Street Maps, Germany (Cartographer). (2016). Map Excerpt Arcisstraße 21, Munich. Map created from Open Street Map data. Open Database License ODbL (http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/). Retrieved from http://www.openstreetmap.de/karte.html?zoom=17&lat=48.14842&lon=11.56825&layers=B0 00TT, on 18.05.2016 If you use a lot of maps in your work, create a reference list of all the maps in your work. Map 1: Arcisstraße 21, Munich (Open Street Maps, 2016), published under Open Database License ODbL How can I cite standards? For the citation of standards special rules apply. If you wish to cite standards, these vary depending on how much you quote. In principle everything exceeding half a page per standard is considered a reproduction and therefore not covered by citation law. Reproductions always need to be approved by the DIN22. Citing standards is permitted according to §51 UrhG. Reproductions of standards need to be approved by the DIN. Permission form: http://www.din.de/cmd?languageid=de&workflowname=initVervielfaeltAntrag 22 The DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) it the German Institute of standards. 36 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München If you are unsure as to whether you need a permit, err on the side of caution and ask the Beuth-Verlag, who represents the interests of the DIN. An example of how to cite standards correctly can be found on the Beuth-Verlag's website. Example: DIN ISO 8037-1:2003-05, Optik und optische Instrumente - Mikroskope; Objektträger - Teil 1: Maße, optische Eigenschaften und Kennzeichnung (ISO 8037-1:1986) Contact addresses for questions and permission form: http://www.din.de/en/about-standards/standards-and-the-law/standards-and-copyright Telephone +49 30 2601-2058 Fax +49 30 2601-1323 Email: email@example.com More information about the reproduction of standards for use in courses is available on our website www.ub.tum.de/normen, and in the leaflet for reproduction of Beuth Verlag standards: http://www.beuth.de/de/rubrik/vervielfaeltigung-din-normen. How can I cite laws? Laws are not protected by copyright (§ 5 UrhG – Urheberrechtsgesetz23) and can therefore be cited without issue. At the first mention of a law in a text, its complete title is mentioned; once an abbreviation is established, it is used in subsequent mentions (example: § 51 Urheberrechtgesetz, thereafter, § 51 UrhG). The rules of good scientific practice require that the sources to which reference is made are marked as precisely as possible. The examples of citations from legal texts given in the APA style manual are tailored to American legal texts. We therefore recommend that you use the same citation style as Brink (2013, p. 224 Fig. 7.2) for the short in-text citation: § [number] paragraph [number] sentence [number] [law (abbr.)] Examples: § 433 para. 2 (BGB24) § 9 para. 1 sentence 1 EStG25 §§ 51 UrhG and 52a UrhG §§ 346 ff. (BGB) 23 German Copyright Law German Civil Code 25 German Income Tax Act 24 37 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München The abbreviations used for short in-text citations should always be included in the list of abbreviations. Whether or not you also include the laws from which you cite in your references depends on the conventions of your subject. Please follow the recommendation of your supervisor. If you do choose to include an entry in the references, the official publication of a law should always be indicated there. Examples of legal references in the references: Urheberrechtsgesetz vom 9. September 1965 (BGBl. I S. 1273), das zuletzt durch Artikel 1 des Gesetzes vom 20. Dezember 2016 (BGBl. I S. 3037) geändert worden ist.26 Bundesnaturschutzgesetz vom 29. Juli 2009 (BGBl. I S. 2542), das durch Artikel 19 des Gesetzes vom 13. Oktober 2016 (BGBl. I S. 2258) geändert worden ist.27 You can also find detailed information on citing laws and regulations of all kinds in the Handbuch der Rechtsförmlichkeit vom Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz (Part B, Chapter 3) 28. For judgments and decisions, Brink (2013, Fig. 7.3) recommends the following model: [Court (abbr.)], [Type (abbr.)] on [Date of decision] – [Reference number], [Location], [Citation] Examples: BFH, B. v. 23.07.1999 - VI B 116/99, BStBl. 1999, II, p. 684. BFH, U.v. 17.12.1986 - VII R 34/86, BStBl 1986 II, p. 123. EuGH, U. v. 5.10.1994, Rs. C-280/93, Deutschland/Kommission, ECR I-4973 = NJW 1995, 945 = EuZW 1994, 688 - Bananenverordnung29. Judgments and rulings are usually not listed in the references but in a separate reference list. The information there corresponds to the references in the text. 26 Copyright Act of 9 September 1965 (BGBl. I S. 1273 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 1273)), most recent- ly amended by Article 1 of the Law of 20 December 2016 (BGBl. I S. 3037 (Federal Law Gazette I, p. 3037)). (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center; emphasis TUM) 27 Federal Nature Conservation Act of 29 July 2009 (BGBl. I S. 2542 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 2542)), which has been amended by Article 19 of the Act of 13 October 2016 (BGBl. I S. 2258 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 2258)). (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center; emphasis TUM) 28 Manual of Technical Legal Formality Part B, Chapter 3 by the Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection 29 Banana Ordinance 38 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Basic citation model for commentaries (Brink, 2013 Fig. 7.5) [Name], [First name], in: [Name of the founder/publisher], [Keyword], [Citation] Example: Short citation in Footnote See Birk, D., in: Hermann, C., Heuer, G., Raupach, A., EStG- und KStGKommentar, on § 11 EStG, note 28. If the author of the comment to be cited is not known, the first part of the citation model ([name], [first name], in:) is omitted: See Herrmann C., Heuer, G., Raupach, A., EStG- und KStG-Kommentar, on § 11 EStG, note 28. Short citation in Author-Year style From Brinks example for footnote styles we derived the following scheme for author-year styles: ([Name], [Year], on § [Paragraph], Note [Number of note]) Example: (Birk, 2003, on § 11, note 28) In the references (full form) Herman, C.; Heuer, G.; Raupach, A. (eds.). (1950/1996). [EStG- und KStGKommentar], Einkommensteuer- und Körperschaftsteuergesetz, Kommentar, 21. ed., last update: january 2003, Cologne: Dr. Otto Schmidt. Battis, U.; Mitschang, S., Reidt, O.; Krautzberger, M.; Löhr, R.-P. (2016). Baugesetzbuch, Kommentar, 13. ed., last update: january 2016, Munich: C. H. Beck. How can I cite research data? Research data forms an important basis for academic knowledge. To derive the greatest possible benefit from the data collected, research data (primary data) is increasingly published in its own right. This allows researchers with different research focuses to analyse, cite and reuse the data. So where can you find research data? How do you cite it? And how do you publish it? Research data is often published on the institute’s or university’s own servers and can be searched in repositories like re3data. A good overview of how to handle research data can be found in the guide „Auffinden, zitieren, dokumentieren: Forschungsdaten in den Sozial- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften“ (Tochtermann, Sure-Vetter, & Wagner, 2014). 39 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München A research data reference should include the following: Author Publication date Title Version (if applicable) Publication agent (Institution) Typ of ressource Identifier (if applicable) Research data can be especially well cited if there is already a DOI registered. Example: Fahrenberg, J. (2010). Freiburger Beschwerdenliste FBL. Primärdaten der Normierungsstichprobe 1993 (Version 1.0.0) [Dataset]. ZPID- Leibniz-Zentrum für Psychologische Information und Dokumentation. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.5160/psychdata.fgjn05an08 If you use research data for your own analyses and present your results e.g. in a table or graph, you cite your source as described in chapter 2.3.3, Tables. Who is author? Who is co-author? There are a number of guidelines and codes of honour governing the proper approach to the subject co-authorship. The „Richtlinien zur Sicherung guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis und für den Umgang mit wissenschaftlichem Fehlverhalten“30 have therefore been adopted at TUM (TUM, 2013). You will find the following regulations there: “Where multiple authors are engaged in research or in the writing of a scientific report, the following co-authors are to be named, 1. Whoever has had a part in formulating the issue, the research plan, the execution of the research for evaluation or interpretation of results, and 2. has contributed to the design or critical revision of the content of the manuscript.” However, the DFG points out that raising funds for a project, managing a department or institution or simply reading a work, does not make a person a co-author (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, 2013, p. 30). The American Physical Society recommends all other parties involved are mentioned in the Acknowledgements ("APS physics: Ethics and Values : 02.2 APS Guidelines for professional conduct.," 2002). 30 “Guidelines for Good Scientific Practice and for Dealing with Scientific Misconduct” (Translation: Karl Hughes, Technische Universität München, Language Center) 40 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Important note: co-authors share responsibility for published papers. If you are listed as a coauthor, you therefore have the right to check the final manuscript before submission. Exception: If you were involved in a specific, definable area, then you are only responsible for this part. Depending on the field, the order of authors also has varying significance. So it may be the case that the incumbent at the chair is named as the last author and has the greatest responsibility, while there are other fields where the first author has the largest share of the publication, etc. Co-authors are sometimes simply arranged in alphabetical order. Note: The order of authors influences e.g. bibliometric analyses. Because often authors listed at the end are not included in the analyses. If you are unsure in which order to name the contributing authors, enquire about the usual practice in your field Sometimes the order is established by drawing lots. Enquire about the usual approach in your field of research. However, when citing sources you always keep the original order of the authors’ names. How can I cite student projects? Students‘ work have to be cited. Even if you supervise student assignments, for example, as part of your Master’s thesis or your dissertation, and have thus contributed to the creation of the work, it remains the case that copyright belongs to the author. Should you want to cite from an unpublished student’s work, you have to seek the student’s (=author’s) permission (F.-G. M. TUM Graduate School, 2012) and document this in your thesis together with the citation. However, it is easier if the student’s work has been published. TUM advises publishing final papers if significant scientific results were obtained. There are different ways to publish: Online publication on the media server mediaTUM: if you want to publish a student examination paper on mediaTUM, please send an email to the address firstname.lastname@example.org or upload the paper yourself using your chair’s mediaTUM account. Our mediaTUM team will be happy to answer any further questions regarding mediaTUM via email@example.com. Making your thesis available at the university library: further information on the library’s website: https://www.ub.tum.de/en/search-find/dissertationstheses#Making%20your%20thesis%20available%20in%20the%20library Another alternative would be to publish a technical paper together with the student, based on the student’s work (i.e. within a publication series at your chair), and to cite this technical paper. 41 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Do I have to cite myself? It is always assumed that scientific findings which appear without a citation 1. 2. 3. 4. come from the author, are new, are published for the first time and are correct and complete (see U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013) Therefore, you must cite your own work if it has been previously published. Nevertheless, information should only be repeated when it is necessary to understand the context. Selfcitations as a means to inflating your h-index is considered disreputable (see Technische Universität München, 2013, p. 4ff.). More information on self-plagiarism can be found here: http://www.ombudsman-fuer-diewissenschaft.de/fileadmin/Ombudsman/Dokumente/Downloads/selbstplagiat.pdf (Meinel, 2013). Is there an international copyright? The principle of “Lex loci protectionis”31 applies to copyright law: the law of the country in which copyright protection is claimed, i.e., in which the work was published. (JuraForum News, 05.09.2011) Example: You publish a paper in the American journal “Cell”. This is where you claim American copyright protection, your paper is subject to the “Copyright Law of the United States of America”. If a copyright infringement of your work occurs in a text published in the UK, in litigation only UK copyright applies. Tip: If you write yourself If you write a paper yourself, always consider the internationally valid ethical rules of good academic practice. As far as the law of citation is concerned, the German legal system is rather strict, so if you stick to these regulations, you are on the safe side. If you publish in another country, however, you will have to comply with copyright law that applies there. You are therefore bound by the copyright law of the country in which you publish. There are efforts to harmonize the copyright laws of individual countries, and international copyright agreements have been concluded. The first treaty under international law in this 31 Latin: “[the] law of the place where the protection is [claimed]” 42 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München field is the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, now the Revised Berne Convention (RBC) of 1886. Currently, 171 states have signed this agreement. Since there are 194 countries in the world, the treaty is of great importance. (Kreutzer, 2013) There are also efforts at harmonization in the EU. Full harmonization has so far failed mainly because of the different legal traditions within the EU: the continental European “droit d'auteur” system (F, D) and the Anglo-American copyright system (GB, IRL) (see Table 1). In the continental European copyright system, the rights of the author, which are exclusively the creator of the work, are protected. In the Anglo-American copyright system, users are protected, which means rights holders can be other than the creator of the work. (Ohly, 2016, p. 10) 43 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Comparison: Urheberrecht vs. Copyright Table 1: Comparison Urheberrecht vs. Copyright (Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2007) Urheberrecht (UrhG) Tradition Protects the intellectual and economic interests of the author; the protected work can’t be separated from its creator Idea Protects the economic interests of the publisher; is meant to support the public good through economic incentive Copyright cannot be waived; After the author’s death his rights pass over to his heirs; the author can grant usability rights Transferability Copyright can be waived (work becomes part of the public domain); the author can transfer all rights, so can the new rights holder Citations: parts of a work may be cited if the author is indicated and further regulations are met Limitations Fair Use (USA): appropriate use of protected works (for education, as inspiration for new works) is allowed without the authors consent Private Copies: copies for private use are permitted within a specified range First sale doctrine (USA): once a work is in the movements of goods it can be resold without further approval Education & Research: a work may be made accessible to a definable group of persons for purpose of education and research Germany & France: 70 years after the author’s death Copyright Fair dealings (Commonwealth): permits a small number of copies for the purpose of private studies, review, criticism or reporting Term of protection USA: 70/95 years after the author’s death UK: 70 years after the author’s death Amongst others Germany, France, Switzerland, Austria, Netherlands, partly EU law 44 | 4 8 Prevalence Amongst others USA, UK, Commonwealth Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Fair use principle in comparison with German citation law The fair use principle in US law is difficult to grasp, so in the US copyright issues can often only be settled by courts. The courts are guided by four factors: 1. the purpose and character of your use 2. the nature of the copyrighted work 3. the amount and substantiality of the portion taken, and 4. the effect of the use of the potential market. (Stim, 2005-2016b) The copyright notice The C in a circle, the American copyright notice, is now also found in publications in other countries than the USA (for example, in Germany). After the ©, the name of the copyright owner and the publication year are mentioned. This sign has no meaning in German copyright, and is not bound to any form; German copyright applies from the date of the creation of a work. (Recht A - Z : Fachlexikon für Studium, Ausbildung und Beruf 2015, p. 103) In the case of publications in the USA, the copyright notice is, however, no longer mandatory, but it is still recommended that you include it, for example, to improve your chances of winning in subsequent litigations. (Stim, 2005-2016a) 45 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Reference management software? – Yes! – But which one? With reference management software, you can automatically cite correctly in the style of your choice. Reference management software helps to: Collect and organise references and files, cite correctly and create a reference list in a predefined citation style Collect, organise and visualise thoughts and quotations Search for literature in library catalogues and databases Plan your tasks Work collaboratively with and connect to other scientists Reference management programs are therefore definitely worthwhile for academic writing. There are meanwhile a wide variety of programs on the market. Reference management software: Which one is the right one for you? For a detailed comparison of reference management software, including a list of questions that will help in choosing the right program, go to: http://mediatum.ub.tum.de/node?id=1108526. The TUM University Library provides all TUM members free access to the software Citavi and EndNote as part of a campus license. TUM Campus license for Citavi Citavi (www.citavi.com) The site license allows you to use the program free of charge in the full version. Although Citavi is a system designed to run on Windows, version 5 will have a web version which will therefore be operating system independent. It is a widely used system at German universities with intuitive graphical user interface in German, English and five other languages. In addition to pure reference management, which also allows group use, further useful program features include knowledge organization and task planning. 3 Steps to Citavi: 1. Download the free version and install: www.citavi.com/de/download.html. With this version, you have full functionality, but with a max. capacity of 100 titles per project. 46 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München 2. License key request: www.citavi.de/tum Subscribe to there with your TUM-mail address: eg @tum.de or @mytum.de 3. Enter the Citavi license key: enter the data in Citavi under “Help license data enter license data for Citavi Pro”. You can then use the Citavi full version and save unlimited titles for any project. TUM Campus license for EndNote EndNote (http://www.endnote.com) and EndNote Web (https://www.myendnoteweb.com/EndNoteWeb.html) EndNote is available for the operating systems Mac OS X and Windows. It offers many options for data import, processing, and enrichment of references. Endnote Web/Online can either be used as an online extension to EndNote or as a standalone tool. In this case, the functionality of Endnote online compared to the desktop version is somewhat limited. Independently of the desktop version, we offer EndNote Web/Online via the license included in the subscription to the Web of Science database. You simply need to create an account. Since Endnote Web/Online is integrated as a feature in Web of Science, data import is very easy and convenient. Download and more information at: http://www.ub.tum.de/endnote Free Programs Bibsonomy (www.bibsonomy.org) Bibsonomy is a social bookmarking system. Users can store shared bookmarks and references on this online platform, and manage and develop content. By assigning keywords (tags), the collected data is structured and is easy to locate on tag clouds. Within the system, different people can join together to create special interest groups. Docear (https://www.docear.org/) Docear is an open source reference management software with a special focus on the area of knowledge organization, e.g. the organization of knowledge in mind maps is possible. The free reference management software JabRef is integrated in the program, allowing optimal work with LaTeX. There is also a corresponding add-on for Word (Microsoft not Mac). JabRef (http://jabref.sourceforge.net) JabRef is a free reference management software that can be used in conjunction with the document preparation program LaTeX. The program allows you to manage BibTeX files and edit with a comfortable user interface. The software is available for Mac OS X, Linux, and Windows. 47 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Mendeley (http://www.mendeley.com) The desktop version of the reference management software Mendeley is available for all major operating systems (Mac OS X, Linux and Windows). In addition, there is a web-based service which, in addition to pure reference management, also includes a social network function. This facilitates group exchanges on academic topics and collaborations. Zotero (http://www.zotero.org) Zotero was originally developed as an add-on for Mozilla Firefox. An additional stand-alone version is now available (for Mac OS X, Linux and Windows). For use with Google Chrome and Safari, there are so-called connectors. A special feature of the system is that you can store personal data collections in addition to the Zotero web pages (with automatic synchronization) and it is also possible to set up groups. This enables you to collect and edit references as part of a special interest group. Reference management and LaTeX The document preparation software LaTeX has a separate feature for reference management in BibTeX format. The reference management programs Docear, JabRef and Mendeley provide very useful support in this format (including automatic import options for reference data). JabRef is an open source program that is specifically designed to work with LaTeX. All three programs will store BibTeX files synchronically in the reference management database (i.e. with the data in Mendeley, JabRef or Docear), even where there are subsequent changes. Docear, which is integrated in JabRef, also offers full support with reference management in BibTeX format. All other reference management software also offer the option of generating and exporting BibTeX files. In case of subsequent changes to the data in the respective reference management software, the BibTeX file must be re-exported, however. Unlike word processing programs such as Microsoft Word, a list of references is not generated when working with the LaTeX reference management program, but by biblatex. Moreover, the citation style is not defined by the reference management software, but is defined in the LaTeX document via the bibstyle. Conclusion: Even when working with LaTeX, it is worth using a reference management software. Support and Information at TUM University Library If you have questions about reference management software, please contact us at: firstname.lastname@example.org 48 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Would you like to attend a course on Citavi or EndNote? The university library offers courses on Citavi and EndNote (both introductory and advanced courses). In our training sessions you will learn how to use these programs effectively. During the course you have the opportunity to use our training computers to try the programmes yourself. All courses are also offered as webinars. Trainers and participants meet online using the online conferencing software Adobe Connect. The link to the meeting room will be provided beforehand. Our interactive webinars offer the opportunity to try out the reference management programs on your own computer. For further information and registration see: http://www.ub.tum.de/en/workshops. Would you like individual advice on your reference management questions? We offer weekly reference management drop-in sessions where individual questions can be discussed. Visit our drop-in session face-to-face or make an appointment for an online consultation (Adobe Connect). The current dates for courses and drop-in sessions can be found on our website at http://www.ub.tum.de/en/workshops. To make an appointment write to email@example.com. Do you have questions regarding the service of the TUM University Library? You can reach our information team in several ways: Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: +49 (0) 89 189 659 220 Whattsapp: +49 (0) 173 861 84 12 Chat: www.ub.tum.de 49 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Recommendation on citation styles at TUM If you have no specific requirements regarding citation styles, we recommend you choose one of the following three styles. These comprise an author-year style, a numbering style, and a footnote style. All three styles are widely used, and are available in most of the reference management programs currently available (including in Citavi and EndNote). The APA style (Author-Year style) Figure 4: Citavi preview für APA 6th ed style There are several copies of The Manual for the Citation Style of the American Psychological Association available for loan at the TUM University Library (https://opac.ub.tum.de/search?bvnr=BV036334071). There is also an electronic version of the APA style simplified by Bernard C. Beins available (https://opac.ub.tum.de/search?bvnr=BV040846081). We also have numerous copies of a short introduction to the APA Citation at the library (https://opac.ub.tum.de/search?bvnr=BV040985867). Useful, up to date information and FAQs on citation can be found on the dedicated website: http://www.apastyle.org. 50 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München The IEEE Editorial Style (Numeric style) Figure 5: Citavi preview for IEEE Editorial style The full manual is available online at: http://www.ieee.org/documents/style_manual.pdf. The Chicago Style (Footnote style) Current issues of The Chicago Manual of Style are available for loan at the TUM University Library (https://opac.ub.tum.de/search?bvnr=BV036632908). Figure 6: Citavi preview for Chicago 16th ed. (notes) style 51 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München References This reference list was created with the reference management programme EndNote and is formatted with the APa 6th citation style. In some cases the reference type in EndNote does not correspond to the APA reference types list. For this reason the references in this list might differ in particular cases from the examples given in this citation guide. APS physics: Ethics and Values : 02.2 APS Guidelines for professional conduct. (2002). Retrieved from http://www.aps.org/policy/statements/02_2.cfm on 05.05.2014 Bailey, S. (2011). Academic writing : a handbook for international students (3. ed.). London [u.a.]: Routledge. Balzert, H., Schröder, M., & Schäfer, C. (2013). Wissenschaftliches Arbeiten : Ethik, Inhalt & Form wiss. Arbeiten ; Handwerkszeug, Quellen, Projektmanagement, Präsentation (2. Aufl. mit 50% mehr Inhalt, 1. korr. Nachdr. ed.). Herdecke [u.a.]: W3L-Verl. Beuth-Verlag GmbH. (2014). Zitieren von DIN-Normen. Brink, A. (2013). Anfertigung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten : ein prozessorientierter Leitfaden zur Erstellung von Bachelor-, Master- und Diplomarbeiten (pp. XII, 275 S.). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-02511-3 Bundesministerium der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. Handbuch der Rechtsförmlichkeit. 3. Auflage. Retrieved from http://www.hdr.bmj.de/vorwort.html on 22.12.2016 Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. (2007). Urheberrecht und Copyright - Vergleich zweier ungleicher Brüder. Retrieved from http://www.bpb.de/cache/images/6/63356-3x2-orginal.gif?D8377 on 19.05.2017 Creative Commons. (2015, October 9.). Adapter's license chart. Frequently Asked Questions: 5. When is my use considered an adaptation? Retrieved from https://wiki.creativecommons.org/index.php/Frequently_Asked_Questions#When_is_ my_use_considered_an_adaptation.3F on 16.09.2016 Creative Commons. (2017a). Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-ND 4.0) Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017b). Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-ncnd/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017c). Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017d). Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017e). Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017f). Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017g). CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication. Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ on 07.07.2017 Creative Commons. (2017h). Public Domain Mark 1.0. Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/ on 07.07.2017 Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. (2013). Vorschläge zur Sicherung guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis : Denkschrift ; Empfehlungen der Kommission "Selbstkontrolle in der Wissenschaft" (Ergänzte Auflage ed.). Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. 52 | 4 8 Universitätsbibliothek Technische Universität München Eco, U. (2010). Wie man eine wissenschaftliche Abschlußarbeit schreibt : Come si fa una tesi di laurea
Source Exif Data:
File Type : PDF File Type Extension : pdf MIME Type : application/pdf PDF Version : 1.5 Linearized : No Page Count : 54 Language : de-DE Title : TUM Citation Guide Author : Universitätsbibliothek der Technischen Universität München Creator : Microsoft® Word 2016 Create Date : 2017:07:12 16:22:57+02:00 Modify Date : 2017:07:12 16:22:57+02:00 Producer : Microsoft® Word 2016EXIF Metadata provided by EXIF.tools