Train ABA Supervision Curriculum BCBA Reference Manual 3.0.0


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BCBA Reference
TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: Volume 1
Edited by:
Benjamin Theisen
Zachary Bird
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BCBA Reference Manual
TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: Volume 1
Edited by Benjamin Theisen & Zachary Bird
ISBN13: 978-0-9856329-3-9
3 4 5 6 7 8 20 19 18 17 16
Bx Dynamic Press
SAN: 990-1396
5031 Fair Ave #424, N. Hollywood, CA 91601
BCBA Reference Manual
TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: Volume 1
Edited by Benjamin Theisen and Zachary Bird
Table of Contents
SECTION ONE: Getting Started
1. Introduction
2. ABA Supervision Taxonomy
3. Refresher: Key Takeaways from the 8 Hour Supervisor Training Curriculum
SECTION TWO: Supervised Fieldwork Curriculum
4. Annotated 4th Edition Task List™
SECTION THREE: Submitting the Application and Beyond
5. Upon Completion
About the Authors
Executive Editors
Ben Theisen founded TrainABA in January
2014 as an excuse to deliver supervision sem-
inars. He is a BCBA and has worked in applied
behavior analysis since 2006.
Cell: 1+310-801-5450
My name is Zachary Bird. I’m a BCBA and
a managing partner at TrainABA. You won’t
find my phone number here but I still share
the same vision you hear when Ben speaks
passionately about TrainABA.
I’m currently working on my PhD in Be-
havior Analysis at Simmons College. I used to
live near Los Angeles, but Boston was as far
away as my wife and I could get from Ben
without leaving the country.
I work hard each day to learn ways to ad-
vance the field of behavior analysis. ABA is
my greatest passion. Everyone who knows
me, knows this about me. I’ve spent time in
center-based programs, non-public schools,
in-home programs, and worked as a consult-
ant internationally. TrainABA is a company
designed to provide tools for the behavior an-
alytic community in general, whether it be in a
university setting, an ABA center, or in-home
ABA program.
I hope the work Ben and I have done over
the last two years will result in a supervision
system you appreciate and can use every day.
If you don’t like it, or you don’t use a Train-
ABA product in your work or school every
day, please bombard Ben’s cell phone with
discouraging text messages.
Additional Editors
Casey Clay is a BCBA-D. He earned his
Ph.D. in the Disability Disciplines program
at Utah State University and his Master of
Science in Applied Behavior Analysis from
Northeastern University. He has several years
of clinical experience at the New England
Center for Children and the Utah Behavior
Support Clinic. His research interests include
assessment and treatment of challenging be-
havior, social interaction and preference as-
sessment methodologies, and training proce-
dures in these areas. His work has been pub-
lished in multiple peer-reviewed journals. He
has also served as a guest reviewer for the
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA)
and the Journal of Positive Behavior Inter-
ventions (JPBI).
Caleb Davis is a BCBA. Currently, he is a
PhD student in the Behavior Analysis pro-
gram at Simmons College. He received his
Master of Science in Applied Behavior Analy-
sis from Western New England University.
During graduate school he received his BCBA
supervision requirements while working at the
New England Center for Children. His re-
search interests include the assessment and
treatment of severe problem behavior and er-
rorless learning procedures. Caleb has pre-
sented his research at both national and re-
gional conferences.
Contributing Authors
This book would not have been made possible
without contributions from a set of behavior
analysts. Their roles were crucial in developing
this book. The editors offer a special thank
you to Jason Zeigler for his extraordinary con-
tributions to this project, which would not
have been completed without him.
Jason Zeigler is a BCBA currently working
for the Walpole Public School District in Wal-
pole, Massachusetts. He received his Master’s
of Education with a concentration in autism
spectrum disorder and applied behavior anal-
ysis from Cambridge College in 2011. He has
worked in a variety of settings serving stu-
dents of various age ranges and cognitive abil-
ities. Previously, Jason had worked as a head
teacher at the Evergreen Center, an assistant
clinical director at the May Institute, and as a
BCBA in the Marlborough Public School dis-
trict. This wide range of experiences has given
him a well-rounded professional outlook with
experience serving students with various disa-
bilities as well as typically developed students
with behavioral issues. His research interests
include functional behavior assessment, be-
havioral skills training, sensory processing dis-
order, interventions for students with ADHD,
sensory deficits, and anxiety, and effective
training methodologies. Jason’s current posi-
tion has him consulting, assessing, and
providing programming and behavioral sup-
port for a number of students ranging from
preschool to high school. He enjoys research,
training others in applied behavior analytic
principles, assessment, and problem solving
various maladaptive behavior concerns to cre-
ate effective interventions for students on his
case load.
Additional Authors
Dalena Anzivino is a BCBA. She completed
her undergraduate degree from York Univer-
sity, a post-graduate certificate program from
George Brown College, and a Master’s of Ap-
plied Disabilities Studies with a Specialization
in ABA from Brock University, Canada. Her
studies at Brock University led to a publica-
tion as a contributing author of a chapter in a
handbook for ABA practitioners on genetic
syndromes and ABA. Over the past ten years,
she has worked with children and adolescents
diagnosed with autism, providing direct ser-
vice, clinical supervision for both home based
and centre based Intensive Behavioural Inter-
vention (IBI) programs, as well as facilitating
training workshops for direct support staff
and parents.
Candice Colón-Kwedor is a BCBA. She was
first introduced to behavior analysis as an un-
dergraduate at Virginia Tech. She then re-
ceived her Master of Science in Applied Be-
havior Analysis from Northeastern University
and fulfilled her graduate assistantship re-
quirements and BCBA supervision require-
ments at the New England Center for Chil-
dren. Her research interests include the treat-
ment of automatically maintained behavior,
verbal behavior and the assessment and treat-
ment of severe challenging behavior. Her re-
search has been published in the Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and has
been presented at national and regional con-
ferences. She has also served as a guest re-
viewer for The Analysis of Verbal behavior
(TAVB) and Behavioral Interventions (BI).
She is currently a doctoral candidate in the Be-
havior Analysis Ph.D. program at Western
New England University and is a Senior Clin-
ical Director at the May Institute’s May Center
for Autism and Developmental Disabilities in
Randolph, Massachusetts.
Emma Martin graduated in 2007 from the
University of Bath with a Bachelor’s degree in
Psychology. Her Bachelors included a place-
ment year and as such she spent a year work-
ing at the Institute of Child Health in London
with two research teams conducting research
on autism. She worked as a Lead Teacher at
the Jigsaw School in the UK, which is an In-
dependent Day School for children with au-
tism and severe learning difficulties. At that
time, she also completed a Master’s Degree in
Education with a concentration in high-inci-
dence disabilities with Nicholls State Univer-
sity. In 2011, she moved to Bermuda and be-
gan work as a Senior Verbal Behavior Thera-
pist for Tomorrow’s Voices, an Autism Early
Intervention Centre. She became a Board Cer-
tified Behavior Analyst in 2012.
Angela Pao-Johnson is a BCBA and has
been in the field since 2004. She was first in-
troduced to applied behavioral analysis while
interning at UC San Diego’s Autism Center
for Excellence. Since then, she has worked
with a wide range of individuals ages 1 to 70
across a multitude of settings, which include
home, schools, clinics and adult group homes.
She has created protocols for several agencies,
designed and implemented social skills classes,
overseen the training of over 100 behavioral
interventionists and led a series of behavior-
ally based trainings for teachers across Los
Angeles School District. She currently resides
in Los Angeles with her loving husband, Mike
and their daughter Imogen.
Pamela Shea is currently the clinical supervi-
sor of Behaviour Services at Ottawa Chil-
dren’s Treatment Centre. She completed her
Masters in Applied Disabilities (Brock Uni-
versity), a Graduate Certificate in Behavior
Analysis (University of North Texas), Behav-
ioural Science Technology (St. Lawrence Col-
lege), an Honours Degree in Psychology
(Queen’s University), and is a BCBA. She has
over 25 years of experience in the field of
ABA, has worked as a clinical supervisor, a be-
haviour consultant, senior therapist, a BCBA
supervisor and has taught at two colleges. She
has worked in community based behaviour
services and the provincial IBI within multi-
disciplinary teams, in residential, vocational,
home, day care and school environments. She
is a member of OCTC’s Ethics Advisory
Committee and has spearheaded the develop-
ment of a Functional Analysis Ethical Review
Committee for medium and high severity
functional analyses and is a member of the
Christian Horizons Ethical Review Commit-
Carolyn E. Stephens has worked in the field
of autism and applied behavior analysis for
over 30 years. Her academic training includes
intervention in early childhood, learning disa-
bilities, and moderate and severe intellectual
disabilities. She has completed single subject
research related to joint attention in children
with autism. As an assistant professor in spe-
cial education she taught and supervised un-
dergraduate and graduate students in special
education at the university level. She is cur-
rently working as a behavior analyst to design
and implement individual behavior support
plans for children and adults. To address the
gap between needs and behavior training
within public agency systems, she has de-
signed and presented a year-long workshop to
introduce applied behavior analysis concepts
and skills to supervisors in an eight-county
area serving adults with developmental disa-
Sarah Teske grew up in a small, historic town
in New Hampshire. She studied Psychology
and English at the University of New Hamp-
shire. She spent three years teaching at the
New England Center for Children while she
acquired a master’s degree in applied behavior
analysis through Northeastern University. Sa-
rah went on to receive her certification as a
BCBA and also obtained her special ed. teach-
ing certification in the state of N.H. She has
been working in the field of autism for 15
years and currently works for William J. White
Educational and Behavioral Consulting Ser-
vices Inc., consulting for schools in both
Maine and New Hampshire. In her spare time
Sarah likes to write children’s books and gar-
den. She has been collaborating with other
professionals to enhance the field of ABA.
She currently lives on the seacoast of Maine
with her husband and two sons.
Kelly Workman, M.A., M.S., is a BCBA who
started her career in ABA in 2007. Her work
in ABA has focused on assessment and inter-
vention programs for individuals with autism
and other developmental disabilities across
the lifespan in the home, school, workplace,
and group home settings. Kelly has also pro-
vided supervision, training, and consultation
for several years. Kelly has an avid interest in
clinical behavior analysis and is currently com-
pleting a doctoral program in clinical psychol-
ogy at the University of La Verne, with the
goal of applying behavior analysis to chronic
and severe mental health issues. She received
extensive training in behavioral and cognitive-
behavioral therapies including ACT, DBT,
CBT, and CBASP, and incorporates principles
of operant conditioning to facilitate behavior
change when treating individuals with mental
health concerns. Kelly is passionate about her
clinical work and is receiving specialized train-
ing in working with populations who present
with pervasive emotional dysregulation, life-
threatening suicidal and non-suicidal self-
harming behavior, and trauma-related con-
We would like to thank certain individuals
whose professional activities influenced the
development of this book in some way.
Brooke Mackenzie was contracted for ad-
ministrative edits and worked expedi-
Natasha Harris helped organize legal and
administrative paperwork.
Rabeha Motiwala helped with early re-
search in summer 2014.
Angie Bird provided feedback and great
ideas throughout the editing process.
Stephanie Ortega evaluated the logic of the
supervision system to help Ben and
Zach develop a conceptually-systematic
approach. Her razor-sharp analysis and
creativity was a tremendous help.
Christie Caccioppo, Vivienne Nelson,
and Sharon Noble provided insightful
feedback in an early stage collaboration
group in summer 2014.
Ellie Kazemi’s own work in supervision
curriculum is important to the ethical
practice of evidence-based supervision
and we encourage readers to explore
her resources. Ben had the privilege to
work with Dr. Kazemi at the Southern
California Consortium for Behavior
Analysis, which she founded. It helped
Ben understand the role project man-
agement played in helping service pro-
viders collaborate.
Gary Geer provided much-needed coaching
support for project management. When
the editors were fully immersed in the
messy writing process, Mr. Geer helped
us step back, prioritize, and focus.
Eduard S. Alterson generously provided his
economic genius and industry
knowledge in summer 2014, helping
Ben analyze the ABA supervision in-
dustry mathematically. Mr. Alterson’s
calculations helped create a financial
forecast for completing the book.
John Youngbauer coined the name of “As-
sociated Aardvarks for Autism,” a ficti-
tious behavioral service provider. Ben
borrowed the name for the case study
in the Supervisor book. Dr. Young-
bauer’s lifelong contributions to behav-
ior analysis could fill volumes of books
this size.
OBMNetwork is an excellent resource with
annual subscriptions available for the
price of one dinner. At the time of
publishing the first edition of this
book, there were 21,233 BACB certifi-
cants and only 236 members of the
OBMNetwork – a mere 1.11%.
Paula Braga-Kenyon provided support
throughout entire book writing/edit-
ing process whether she was aware of it
or not.
Olga Shapovalova provided insight and
support with initial stages and various
parts of editing. She inspires us with her
work in multiple languages while we
struggle to work in just one.
Carl Cheney contributed to our solid re-
source list on a few of the more difficult
to find topics.
Gregory Hanley provided and continues to
provide his vision for our field and
a simple call-to-action to behavior ana-
lysts everywhere: "Read JABA."
Michael Ballard contributed ideas, inspira-
tion and support.
Bill Ahearn advocated and continues to ad-
vocate for taking a big-picture perspec-
tive on our field and promoting systems
to increase the quality of training in our
Imagine my surprise when I returned to
applied behavior analysis from a 3-year sab-
batical in 2013. How different could things
be? It was night and day. In less than a presi-
dential term, the BACB® had doubled its
membership, supervision had guidelines, and
universities had ABA master’s degrees
online. My MBA no longer met the degree
requirements. ABA students were talking
about SAFMEDs. What the heck were SAF-
That was around the time I leaned back in
an old squeaky chair at a school startup out-
side Los Angeles, manding to Zach Bird, my
new colleague, from across the hall. “Zach,”
I said, waiting for him to unpeel his eyes
from the computer screen. Zach’s desk con-
tained a red pen, no papers, and a week’s
worth of vegetarian meal replacement bars,
some of which were opened. “Yeah?” he re-
sponded. He blinked a few times to let me
know he was ready. I put my hands behind
my head and stretched my heels onto the
Craigslist desk. “What’s a SAFMED?”
Zach looked at me like I had two heads.
Then, he gave me a full explanation. Zach
was different than any BCBA® I had met.
He had just left New England Center for
Children, where new BCBAs provided direct
care, and arrived in Southern California,
where every BCBA® was made an automatic
manager. Here, exam pass rates were around
40% at popular schools and negative rein-
forcement was occasionally defined as taking
away a preferred item to decrease behavior.
Our differences were what brought us to-
Zach was hands-down the biggest behav-
ior analysis geek I had ever met. Yet there
was something lovable about the way he an-
swered my questions that made me keep ask-
ing. As I write these words, I can hear his
voice in my mind saying, Reinforcement,
What was so reinforcing about talking
ABA with Zach? We talked philosophy, pri-
vate events, things Skinner said, and, of
course, anything by Patrick Friman. I intro-
duced Zach to some of my non-ABA friends
and they thought he was the most interesting
person they had ever met. He was bright, en-
thusiastic, and incredibly humble.
Zach and I cared deeply about the same
thing the future of ABA. My approach was
through business and marketing, hoping to
see a world where ABA organizations ran
like clockwork and other industries would
want to know our secrets. Zach was into
technology and research.
We agreed that behavior analysts would
benefit globally if supervisors had resources
at a molecular level. This book may not look
like much but it took us a very long time to
make, not to mention our countless web-
chats, whiteboard sessions, Elon Musk blogs,
and epic plans to change the world. We envi-
sioned a world where behavior analysts could
focus on supervision instead of spending
time figuring out how to supervise. This
book was a step in the right direction.
Yet we walked those steps slowly. Months
passed. We made slow progress. And then
there was Jason. Mr. Jason Zeigler was a Bos-
ton-area BCBA and absolute powerhouse.
We worked with Jason 10 months before
meeting him face-to-face, filming Registered
Behavior Technician training videos at our
“studio” (my tiny 1-bedroom apartment in
the North Hollywood Arts District of Los
Angeles). Jason was charismatic, fun, and
Gary Geer, my longtime mentor and part-
ner in TrainABA, had a good joke about Ja-
son. He said, “Did you see his Cooper book,
Ben?” I said, “Yeah. Lots of underlining and
margin notes, right?” Gary laughed. “He
could use a black highlighter, if you know
what I mean,” Gary said, playfully. “Yeah,
because he has the whole thing memorized
so he doesn’t need to see the words,” I re-
plied. “Exactly,” Gary said. From that day
forward, whenever I thought of Jason I im-
agined him blacking out the Cooper text af-
ter memorizing each section. I was grateful
that Jason lended his talents to finishing this
book. He is an outstanding resource and
gifted presenter, full of passion and creativ-
At the time this book was finished, we had
plans to launch a mobile app version that
would forever change the field of ABA. Buy-
ing this book was like voting with your dol-
lars. With this purchase, you voted for Train-
ABA’s vision to save time. It was a vote for
Zach and me to keep being ambitious, hum-
ble social entrepreneurs trying to bring the
world more ABA. We thank you for buying
this book even if you have no idea who we
are and we look forward to seeing you
someday soon. Launching this book is the
biggest thing we have ever done. Thank you
for sharing the moment with us. We appreci-
ate you so much.
Here’s to a better field. We will keep work-
ing hard to save you time. I hope this book
helps you find a few hours to do something
you love.
Ben Theisen, Editor
Getting Started
Chapter 1
Thank you for purchasing this book as part of
the TrainABA Supervision Curriculum system. It will
save you dozens of hours enough to plan a nice
vacation for yourself or find extra time through-
out the week to jump on Facebook, search
Google, add Ben on Twitter, or catch up on Net-
The system was built in response to two things
happening at the same time like weather when
warm air mixes with a cold front and creates a
storm. The warm air was the developing industry
of applied behavior analysis (ABA) professional
services, marked by variability in university train-
ing and fieldwork that resulted in low Behavior
Analyst Certification Board® (BACB®) exam
pass rates. The cold front was the shock of Ben’s
15-month old niece dying from Sudden Unex-
plained Death of a Child in 2012. At the wake, her
father urged parents to, “read one more story or
“give one more piggy back ride.” Time was pre-
Ben was deeply affected. In the months that
followed, he ran supervision webinars and was
struck by how many unpaid hours BCBAs com-
pleted at home. “We have to,” some would say,
“There’s no time to do it at work.” Supervisors
described reading emails during family dinners
and writing reports with a laptop from the bleach-
ers at soccer practice. It made Ben sad to think of
what his brother-in-law said at the wake. Time
was precious. If his sister had worked through
dinner the night before his niece died, they may
have regretted it forever. Ben knew the industry
would eventually correct itself but it could take
decades before supervision was structured.
Ben pondered the warm and cold weather con-
ditions, metaphorically, and used his economics
training to calculate when and who would create
standardized supervision curriculum. Private
agency supervisors created makeshift solutions
but stopped developing them once the systems
met their minimum needs. Universities focused on
their own practicum programs.
The TrainABA Supervision Curriculum system
took two years of full time effort to develop.
There were only 3,000 BACB®-exam candidates
in 2013. Even if Ben sold books to 25% of them,
he would have made less than minimum wage. It
was a pet project that Ben took way too seriously.
Zach joined in to help, probably because he felt
sorry for Ben and also realized Ben would finish
the project but did not know enough ABA litera-
ture to do it justice. They made slow progress un-
til Jason Zeigler joined the party. That guy was a
powerhouse. (Other contributors are mentioned
in the About the Authors section.) The result was
the overly sophisticated TrainABA system that
you hold today. We hope it keeps you organized
and saves you time while the ABA profession de-
In the coming years, we will see a more perfect
ABA world. It will be beautiful. We are privileged
to have a front row seat to the development of
our field. We are honored to take this journey
with you.
Okay, enough storytelling. Thank you for pur-
chasing the system. Here is what you bought:
TrainABA Supervision Curriculum includes the
items below.
1. TrainABA Supervision Curriculum:
BCBA Reference Manual
2. TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: In-
dependent Fieldwork (this book)
3. TrainABA Supervision Curriculum:
RBT Credential
The TrainABA Supervision Curriculum system helps
a. Grow your company’s management team
with less stress on the system
b. Get from start to finish with a page-by-
page, week-by-week program (supervision
contract fieldwork BACB® applica-
c. Find systems to help you track supervision
hours and signature forms to email to the
d. Use Individual and Group meeting agendas
e. Save dozens of hours by not reinventing
the wheel
f. Check pre-assigned homework
4 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
g. Track ongoing progress on the 4th Edition
Task List™ assessment
h. Prepare for BACB®-exam with test topics
built into fieldwork
i. Organize essential supervision materials
and meetings in one place, accessible by
phone or computer
TrainABA is a BACB®-Approved Continuing
Education (ACE) provider. We specialize in re-
sponding to supervision-related problems that are
global in scope and too complex or time-consum-
ing for other organizations and universities to
The 4th Edition Task List face sheets are or-
ganized by “segments” (more about those later) to
make it easier to complete and check homework
TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: Independent
Fieldwork contains exercises for the supervisee to
complete in a week-by-week progression that
cover all 168 items on the 4th Edition Task List
with the following:
1. Individual meeting agendas
2. Group meeting agendas
3. Ongoing homework assignments
4. 4th Edition Task List™ assessment
The hours are not tracked in the book as a safe-
guard in case the book was lost. Keep your signa-
ture forms on a storage cloud online and in a pa-
per file for seven years.
Introduction 5
6 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Chapter 2
Supervision Taxonomy
1. What is ABA supervision?
2. A Taxonomy of ABA supervision
3. BACB® Influence in the Development of Formal Behavior Analysis Su-
What is ABA Supervision?
What is "supervision"? Most definitions in-
dicate that it is the act of providing supervi-
sion or oversight, involving directing in rela-
tion to execution and performance.
Supervision in Management
"Supervision" is most used in relation to
business administration, in the realm of man-
agement. Human supervisors are employed to
supervise humans and systems.
Supervision of Humans and Systems
It would be unusual to use the term "super-
visor" to describe a machine that monitors in-
formation (including that generated by a hu-
man), or to describe a human that oversees in-
formation generated solely by a machine. The
typical use of the word, "supervisor" implies a
human to human interaction related to execu-
tion or performance.
Supervision in ABA Settings
The words, "execution" and "performance"
are commonly used in business settings and
could be used within the context of behavior
analysis. However, more precise language fur-
ther locates "supervision" in the field of ap-
plied behavior analysis. A manager at a typical
business corporation "supervises" an em-
ployee to monitor performance and execution
of tasks. In ABA settings, managers would
more likely say they, "supervise staff to meas-
ure how effectively they implement a behav-
ioral plan."
Direct vs. Indirect ABA Supervision
One might also describe ABA supervision
as, "Overseeing direct implementation" or
"following the procedures. An ABA subordi-
nate may be evaluated on procedural integrity,
procedural drift, and other direct measures of
staff performance. The client's progress may
be a direct measure of the subordinate's per-
formance. However, client progress is an indi-
rect measure of supervision efficacy.
Increase of Management Problems in ABA Organi-
The proliferation of autism behavior ser-
vices has accompanied the rise in manage-
ment problems at private practice ABA agen-
cies, centers, and special education school set-
tings. Management at such organizations have
not widely adopted management practices to
solve the repetitive problems occurring at the
workplace in daily operations.
The primary reasons include:
1. Decision makers are unaware of how
to identify the problem
2. Unaware of how to solve it
3. Have made unsuccessful attempts to
solve it in the past and believe they ei-
ther exhausted possible solutions or
that the problem cannot be solved
4. Lack resources in behavior analytic lit-
erature and have come to view the
problem as a non-issue because it does
not seem to be covered in ABA
8 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
The above reasons are potential barriers if
all resources are equal. However, more im-
portant barriers include time constraints, lack
of money to pay consultants, and a tendency
to focus on work that is expressly billable as
opposed to management strategies, which re-
quire time, creativity, and a willingness to
gather and analyze data over time to find
"what works" at a particular organization us-
ing an experimental approach.
What Is Being Done
It is perhaps surprising that behavior analy-
sis professionals are not leading the manage-
rial movement to solve such problems, given
the curious nature of behavior analysis profes-
sionals and their propensity for solving prob-
lems in the world around them.
A Taxonomy of ABA Supervision
In the 8 Hour Supervisor Training work-
shops, TrainABA moderators generally intro-
duce the supervision taxonomy by addressing
the “big picture” of policy-level issues govern-
ing the professional practice of applied behav-
ior analysis. The presenter posits that such
policy both necessitated and helped define
how ABA supervision would be practiced.
Policy varies across countries, states, and
provinces, and various funding sources share
properties with specific differences.
As such, we acknowledge that no single
“source”, whether an academic, private, or
government model created ABA supervision.
It has evolved with the proliferation of pro-
fessional behavior analytic services for indi-
viduals with developmental disabilities,
namely autism. ABA supervision existed prior
to the formation of the Behavior Analyst Cer-
tification Board® (BACB®) in 1999. How-
ever, the BACB® has grown. It has served as
the primary centralized regulatory organiza-
tion for professional ABA services.
After introductions, the workshop pre-
senter often asks the following set of ques-
How Does Policy Influence How Funding Sources
Choose Providers?
How do funding source requirements influence the pro-
fessional practice of applied behavior analysis services?
In the USA, the answer is generally that pol-
icy is written and a licensing body enforces
compliance. However, the professional prac-
tice of behavior analysis is currently experi-
encing an early stage developmental period.
More states are passing legislation. Some
states are still in the process of licensure for
ABA professionals.
Generally, the process involves policy lan-
guage for licensure that acknowledges the
BACB® certification credential and identifies
an established licensing board to regulate
practitioners. Other practices, such as psy-
chology, have their own licensing boards and
may opt to include behavior analysts within
their board.
Other service delivery professions, such as
psychology, have similar requirements as the
BACB®, such as required education, super-
vised experience (1500 hours), ethical compli-
ance code, continuing education require-
ments, etc.
As states adapt to the growing demand for
professional behavior analytic services, many
have acknowledged the BACB® certification
as a requirement for billing. The BACB® is
not a licensing body but serves as the central
regulatory body for certified professional be-
havior analysts. It is the authoritative body for
certification and credentialing in professional
ABA services around the world. The BAC
is an influential global organization. Its inter-
national impact has been possible, in part, be-
cause it is not bound by a specific state or fed-
eral government. Such would not be the case
if the BACB® was created as a licensing or-
ganization in Florida, its state of origin. The
BACB® is currently headquartered in Little-
ton, Colorado, USA. Its strong influence in
shaping the practice of professional behavior
analysis services merits a prominent role in a
taxonomy for ABA supervision today.
Licensing body standardizes practi-
tioner KSAs, ethics, practice (medi-
cine, psychology, counseling, etc.).
If no licensing body available, some
authoritative body for certification
Supervision Taxonomy 9
or credentialing assumes that role
(BACB in 1998).
BACB® Influence in the Development of
Formal Behavior Analysis Supervision
In recent years, the BACB® has established
a model for the professional delivery of be-
havior analytic services for insurance provid-
ers. It involved a hierarchy upon which a
BCBA or BCBA-D oversees a BCaBA, who
supervises a behavior technician. It is com-
mon practice for companies to omit the
BCaBA. In such cases, the BCBA or BCBA-
D may oversee the behavior technicians di-
Individuals with BACB® certification are
not required to supervise. Some certified prac-
titioners work directly with clients, particularly
in group home settings and other consulting
situations where monthly hours are low and
hiring a direct implementation professional
would not be appropriate. However, the
global rise in autism diagnoses has warranted
a high demand for appropriate structure of
professional behavior analytic services that
serve children with autism. Such services are
delivered in homes, schools, and centers. Ap-
plied behavior analysis practitioners typically
train and supervise professionals who imple-
ment behavior analytic programming directly
with staff.
Generally, the certificant acts as a supervi-
sor who analyzes data, conducts most or all
elements of the assessment, designs and de-
velops behavioral programming, and reports
on progress. It is typical for ABA certificants
to function in a supervisory role under such a
service delivery model. However, not every
certificant supervises staff.
Most, but not all certificants, supervise clinical staff.
Some work directly with clients or in research roles.
The BACB® established the BCBA,
BCBA-D and BCaBA credentials in its early
years. However, the organization has grown
from roughly 200 members in 2000 to over
19,200 active participants at the time this book
was published.
In the summer 2014, the BACB® intro-
duced the Registered Behavior Technician
(RBT) Credential. This was a standardized
credential for individuals who provided direct
implementation of behavior analysis pro-
It should be noted that some confusion
over terminology has arisen among practition-
ers as the RBT credential is becoming more
A rule-of-thumb:
“Certification” is for Supervisors and “credential-
ingis for Direct Implementation staff.
The ABA Supervision taxonomy, therefore,
applies to individuals who either hold or are
candidates for BACB® certification. RBT
Credentialees are supervised by individuals
who hold a BACB® certification. However,
credentialees do not supervise.
We draw this distinction to help define and
locate the meaning of an ABA supervisor. The
following chart identifies the basic difference
in requirements for supervisors ABA certi-
fication versus those they supervise RBT
10 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
(This book is NOT for developing behavior techni-
Behavior Technicians
ABA Credential
High school diploma
RBT 40 hour Training
RBT Assessment
Fingerprints/RBT application
Ongoing Quality Assurance
Ethical/Disciplinary Standards
Ongoing supervision
*BCaBAs require ongoing supervision from a BCBA or BCBA-D
Directors and
ABA Certification
University diploma
University hours (270)
Supervised Experience
Certification exam
Ongoing Quality Assurance
Ethical/Disciplinary Standards
*Ongoing Supervision for
Continuing Education Units
8 Hour Supervisor Training
Supervision Taxonomy 11
12 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
The following chart depicts the typical arrangement for ABA service delivery for an organi-
zation whose staff hold BACB® credentials.
In the above chart, where is the candidate
the intern who is accruing hours toward satis-
faction of her or his credential application cri-
Suppose the position is called the supervisor
intern. Is the supervisor intern billable? Herein lies
the problem or solution for many ABA
professionals around the world.
Consider the supervisor intern. Such a position
is occasionally covered by policy or funding
source, especially when a unique negotiation
has been reached. The problem is simple: how
can you bill for supervision hours if your su-
pervisor does not hold a credential? The an-
swer is often complicated by economic condi-
tions of supply and demand for autism inter-
vention services. Autism is a public health cri-
sis that is difficult to solve because there are
far more people with autism than credentialed
behavior analysts to serve them. The challenge
at the policy-level is to provide enough legis-
lation to safeguard clients with qualified ser-
vice providers. Legislation that is too rigid
makes it difficult for companies to “keep the
lights on,” or meet minimum expenses to turn
a profit. Often, practitioners assume that a
company is making a lot of money because
they see clients, employees, laptops, trainings,
catered lunches, and office space. Yet organi-
zations in the ABA industry must exercise re-
straint and deliberation for their business
practices. For example, what happens when a
company can only be paid for services pro-
vided by a BCBA, yet all the BCBAs in the
area are gainfully employed?
Let’s say a local university observes the
growing demand for professional behavior an-
alysts has increased. That university creates a
certification program as a hybrid or
standalone master’s degree that satisfies the
university hours required by the BACB. A few
years pass. The university has graduated its
first class. Yet the university does not have a
practicum and it is the responsibility of the
graduates to complete their supervised experi-
ence hours. What would the students do?
They would reach out to local companies for
employment after all, it will soon be time to
repay student loans in hopes that a company
can provide a training system for the individ-
The recent graduate may face a mixed land-
scape, shaped by the contingencies the com-
pany faces for promoting and/or billing for
that supervisor intern. There are a few common
Supervision Taxonomy 13
Two local funding sources reimburses
companies ONLY for supervision
hours performed by a BCBA.
o One source formally allows the
agency to have the supervision hours
performed at the rate of a Behavior
Technician (lower rate).
o The other source does not reimburse
work performed by a non-credentialed
supervisor. They will discontinue ser-
vices unless all supervisor hours are
performed by a credential holder.
14 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Supervision Taxonomy 15
Case Study:
Associated Aardvarks for
Autism (AAA)
Associated Aardvarks for Autism (AAA)
was a fictitious ABA agency. Their directory
was tasked with deciding whether to offer an
internship program for university graduates of
a local ABA master’s program. AAA would
select one intern to pilot the program. The in-
ternship was meant to fulfill the 1,500 hours
of supervised experience toward the BCBA®
credential. AAA hoped the program would re-
sult in developing a new supervisor who could
be on the AAA team, rising from the ranks of
the company. This supervisor would, AAA
presumed, be more loyal to AAA in apprecia-
tion for the internship. Also, the intern would
have learned how to get things done at AAA.
These were attractive characteristics that were
almost impossible to find from outside
BCBA®s, which were in scarce supply any-
AAA’s Accountant
AAA’s director asked the accounting de-
partment to create Table 2.1, which summa-
rized cashflow for the internship. The ac-
countant assumed they would hire the intern
at $45,000. That included a 50-week year at 30
hour/week, for which half of the hours were
to be provided as direct implementation of be-
havioral programming. The engagement cul-
minated in a complete 1,500-hour internship,
satisfying the requirements toward the
BACB®’s credentialing application.
The 30 hours per week led to the quickest
possible completion of the supervised experi-
ence hours for the ABA credential internship.
The accountant interviewed the clinical direc-
tor and was informed that the BAC per-
mitted up to 50% of intern hours for direct
implementation. What were the other hours?
The accountant asked about scheduling meet-
ings, billing, drive-time, and planning meet-
ings that were not clinical. Unfortunately,
those things were considered “non-clinical”
of “administrative” hours. They could not be
counted toward the intern’s credentialing
The accountant knew that at least half of
the intern’s hours needed to be clinical but
could not be direct implementation of behav-
ioral programming. For that reason, the ac-
countant only calculated 15 hours per week of
billable work for the intern to serve as a be-
havior technician. He knew the other half in-
cluded program development, report writing,
parent education, and staff training. The com-
pany had one funding source that allowed in-
terns to bill for these services. However, two
other funding sources required the full cre-
dential for reimbursement. For that reason,
the accountant described the “other 50%”, as
he called it, as a gray area category that may or
may not be billable. But how could he help
offset more of the cost of internship, so the
company would not have to pay so much
money out of pocket?
Funding Sources
The accountant considered the types of re-
imbursement contingencies the company
faced. The most lenient funding sources al-
lowed the company to bill for the intern’s pro-
gram development and report writing, gener-
ally under the supervision of a credentialed in-
dividual. Other funding sources will not pay
for any supervisor hours performed by a non-
credentialed ABA professional. The most
conservative funding sources only reimburse
for supervision performed in the presence of
the client by a credentialed ABA professional.
In the AAA Company for Table 2.1, the
funding source allowed only direct implemen-
tation hours to be billed by the intern. These
hours are performed by a behavior technician
and take the form of direct service.
The accountant recommended AAA to
minimize the out-of-pocket expense of the in-
ternship by assigning a salaried individual as
the supervisor for the 75 hours a supervisor
would need to spend supervising that intern.
16 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
The director asked how much money that
would save.
Estimating Supervision Costs
The accountant created Table 2.2 to esti-
mate costs if the intern’s supervisor would
have been paid hourly. The table reflected $45
per hour for the supervisor wage. It was a safe
estimate considering the BACB® and Associ-
ation of Professional Behavior Analysts
(APBA) 2012 study which showed that most
supervisor hours were reimbursed $40-$50
per hour. The accountant found those data in
a BACB® newsletter from 2012. The director
forwarded those emails to him regularly. He
was glad to have the opportunity to show he
had read them.
Billing for Parent Education Groups
AAA also recognized that the intern could
run Parent Education Groups as part of their
50% of non-direct implementation hours.
Fortunately, AAA could be reimbursed for
these hours. It was not a huge savings, but it
neutralized some of the costs of the intern’s
hourly rate. The Parent Education Groups
only added 4 hours per week to the Intern’s
Consulting the Clinical Director
The accountant approached the clinical di-
rector for ideas on the rest of the internship
hours. It looked like AAA needed to meet the
30 hours per week in the agreement but they
were short. Adding 1.5 hours per week of su-
pervision, 4 hours for parent education, and
15 hours of direct implementation left a defi-
cit pf 9.5 hours to fill. The company met those
hours by scheduling the intern for staff train-
ing, along with program development and re-
port writing for clients on the intern’s direct
implementation caseload.
Putting It Together
As a result, the intern was able to satisfy a
requirement toward the BACB® credential
application and was paid $45,000 for the year.
Admittedly, it was not a huge amount of
money for someone with a master’s degree.
The intern felt it was fair because she was only
asked to work 30 hours per week. There were
some travel time hours and expenses, which
were handled separately in compliance with
law. The company ultimately lost $12,750 for
the year.
AAA knew they would lose the money this
year but hoped the intern would pass the cre-
dentialing exam soon and stay with AAA, bill-
ing at a full supervisor rate. That would allow
AAA to earn a higher reimbursement rate for
the hours the supervisor worked. More im-
portantly, it meant AAA could add some cli-
ents from their waiting list, placing these cli-
ents on the new supervisor’s caseload.
A Risk for the Company
AAA recognized that the main incentive for
a company to sponsor an intern was the pos-
sibility of serving more clients once the intern
earned the credential. It was a gamble for
AAA. Not every intern passed the credential-
ing exam. In this case, they requested tran-
scripts from the possible interns they were
considering. They wanted an intern with the
highest possible grades because they believed
previous academic performance suggested a
history of work habits and a higher likelihood
of having acquired the skills needed to pass
the credential exam.
Final Decision
AAA knew that other ABA agencies in the
area were using contracts to keep interns at
their companies for long enough to recoup
the cost of the internship. They weighed the
pros and cons of contracts but chose to revisit
that issue at a later date.
Ultimately, they were ambivalent about the
internship. The director said, “If someone
told you to pay $12,750 today and there was
only a 58% you could get that money back in
2 years, would you invest?” She was referring
Supervision Taxonomy 17
to passing rates on the exam. The clinical di-
rector looked up the university pass rates for
graduates of that local program and found
that 60% of graduates passed the exam on the
first try.
These data did not impress the director.
The decision was made to offer the internship
as a trial. The clinical director selected a sala-
ried supervisor and put pressure on her to
make sure the intern learned the BAC4th
Edition Task List fully. “If she doesn’t pass
the exam, I’m holding you responsible,” said
the clinical director. The supervisor accepted
the challenge and implemented the proce-
dures in Section 2 of the TrainABA super-
vised experience book. Years later, the intern
had passed the exam on her first attempt and
was successfully managing a caseload of 12 cli-
ents. She was a success story. AAA realized
that not all internship stories have happy end-
See the following pages for Table 2.1 and 2.2 to see what the accountant gave the director at
18 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Supervision Taxonomy 19
20 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Resources for the Supervised Experience Process
Items in Bold are required by the BACB® for credentialing. Non-bold items are supplemental materi-
1. Contract
2. module
a. "Registration" (See page 23)
3. Clients (generally)
4. 4th Ed. Task List
5. Experience Verification Forms
6. Supplementary Materials
7. Homework
1. Contract
2. module
3. Clients
4. 4th Ed. Task List
a. Assessment
b. Meeting agendas
5. Experience Verification Forms
6. Supplementary Materials
7. Homework
8. Create Performance Management
a. Personal Development
b. Modeled after IEP, BSP, PBIP
9. Ongoing Payment
a. Company
b. University
c. Private pay
10. Time Retainer
11. Technology
a. Journals, online videos,
12. Communication
a. Synchronous: Phone, stream-
ing webcam, video chat
b. Asynchronous: Email, rec-
orded audio/video
Supervision Taxonomy 21
Beyond the Taxonomy
Have you located yourself as an ABA su-
pervisor in the taxonomy? Can you write the
steps of the Supervised Experience Process?
If not, please review the charts above. The
goal of this chapter was to identify the type of
supervision you offer, or plan to offer, as a su-
pervisor in the field of applied behavior anal-
The next chapter identifies pre-requisites
needed for supervising certification candi-
dates. It includes checklists to identify the re-
22 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Rules and Guidelines for Supervision of BACB® Experience
This document reflects the BAC’s recent supervision standards, effective January 1, 2015.
BACB® Rules for Supervision
1. Each supervisee must have a valid supervision contract. Multiple exemplars and
comprehensive guidelines are available at®
2. Each supervisor must have completed both of the following by December 31, 2014.
a. Complete 8 Hour Supervisor Training from a BACB® ACE provider (Available from
TrainABA as a live webinar)
b. Complete an online, competency-based supervision module on
c. Complete 3 CEUs for supervision for every recertification cycle
3. Each supervision period is 2
consecutive weeks
4. Ratio of Independent Fieldwork to Direct Supervision must be
no less than 5%
the end of the 2 week period (You MUST provide Direct Supervision 5% or more of
their Independent Fieldwork by the end of each 2-week period.)
5. Per 2 week supervision period, no more than 50% of supervision can be direct care.
The other 50%+ must be behavior analytic in nature
6. Start/end dates may not be more than 5 years apart.
7. Supervision must be face to face. Real-time video is okay. Think of Google Hangouts,
FaceTime, Skype, etc.
8. 5% of 1500 hours = 75 hours of independent fieldwork experience
9. Supervision hours may be counted toward total experience hours
10. No more than 50% of supervision (per 2-week period) can be in a group format
11. Group maximum = 10 supervisees
12. You do not need to provide Direct Supervision every week
13. Must meet at least once for every 2 week period
14. Content must be behavior analytic (Do not discuss billing, travel time, non-clinical
scheduling, etc.)
Mathematical Assumptions
Supervisors must provide 5% of 1,500 Independent Fieldwork hours = 75 hours
Supervision period is two weeks in duration
(75 hours total) DIVIDED BY (maximum of 3 hours per 2-week period) = 25 meet-
ings, one per 2 weeks
Up to 50% of supervised experience hours can be delivered in group format
Therefore, deliver group supervision meetings that are 1.5 hours in duration, once per
2 week period
Also provide individual supervision for 1.5 hours in duration for each 2 week period
Given the math above, Train ABA recommends you make group supervision meetings
1.5 hours long (90 minutes) for full time staff. We built the agendas around the 90
minute model
Supervision Taxonomy 23
If your supervisees do not work 30 hours per week during both weeks of the 2-week
supervision period, you will need to adjust the math to provide exactly 5% of the hours
they provided. See rules below.
Rules for Calculating How Many Hours Your Supervisee Has Completed
1. Your supervisee must work at least 10 and up to 30 hours during both weeks of each
2-week supervision period
2. You must provide supervision for 5% of these hours
3. You do not need to provide exactly 50% of group supervision every 2-week period,
but we use that model for this protocol because it makes the math easier
4. When your supervisee works less than the expected amount of hours for a week or 2-
week period, adjust your supervision hours to equal 5% of their hours worked
5. If they work more than 30 hours in one week, the company can pay wages but the
BACB® will not recognize extra hours
Registration Process
There is a new BACB® requirement for su-
pervisees to “register” before beginning Ex-
perience Hours. It was first mentioned in the
BACB®’s September 2012 Newsletter. The
Supervisor must complete the module imme-
diately if she has not already done so. All su-
pervisees must complete the process at the
outset of the supervised fieldwork.
The registration process has two steps:
1. Create a login at®
2. In that login, complete the same Supervi-
sion Policies Module required by individu-
als who wish to supervise those accruing
Experience Hours. In plain English, your
supervisees must complete the same su-
pervision module as you. Additionally,
they are expected to do it at the outset of
supervision. Some supervises may not
know of this requirement. Please advise
your supervisees to complete this module
immediately. It takes approximately 1.5
hours and is available free of charge.
NOTE: Supervisees need only complete the module
once, regardless of how many approved supervisors with
whom they have completed Supervised Experience.
Train ABA is not endorsed by the BACB. The information presented is not meant to represent the opinion of the BACB
and any references to the BACB or are used with respect to their copyrights.
Chapter 3
Refresher: Key Takeaways from the 8-Hour Su-
pervisor Training Workshop
The BACB® 8-Hour Supervisor Training Workshop curriculum has 6 sec-
Part 1 Purpose of Supervision
Part 2 Features of Supervision
Part 3 Behavioral Skills Training
Part 4 Delivering Performance Feedback
Part 5 Evaluating the Effects of Supervision
Part 6 Ongoing Professional Feedback
These sections are summarized briefly in visuals and charts below. This chapter is meant to
serve as a refresher for the concepts presented in the 8-Hour Supervisor Training workshop. It
is not a substitute for the workshop. These materials are taken from the TrainABA 8-Hour
Supervisor Training Workshop. For more information, or to sign up a colleague for the work-
shop, visit:
26 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Purpose of Supervision
“The purpose of supervision is to im-
prove and maintain the behavior-ana-
lytic, professional and ethical reper-
toires of the supervisee and facilitate
the delivery of high-quality services to
his/her clients.
--BACB® 8-Hour Curriculum Training Out-
line, 2012
Behavior-analytic &
Facilitate high-
Refresher 27
Features of Supervision
Appropriate Supervision Activities
Focus on developing new ABA skills
Use BACB® Fourth Edition Task List
Follow 7 Dimensions of Behavior Analysis (BATCAGE) (Baer, Wolf, & Risley,
Give supervisees multiple sites, varied experiences, different supervisors
Conducting assessments to determine the need for behavioral intervention
Designing, implementing, & systematically monitoring skill-acquisition and behavior-
reduction programs
Oversee implementation of behavior-analytic programs by others
Training, designing behavioral systems, and performance management
Using behavioral skills training to Model and rehearse various behavior analytic skills
and procedures.
Engaging in role-play scenarios in natural and contrived situations for various skills
Other items directly related to ABA
Inappropriate Supervision Activities
(Non-examples of content for group supervision meetings)
Attending meetings with little or no behavior-analytic content
Scheduling, travel time, billing
Using unproven or non-behavior analytic interventions
Non-behavioral administrative activities, non-behavioral assessments (diagnostic or
intellectual assessments)
Features of Supervision
Effective January 1st, 2015, the BACB® will only permit
individuals who completed a training experience to
supervise individuals pursuing BCBA® or BCaBA®
8-hour workshop
Modules on
3-hours Supervision CEs
--BACB®, 2012 newsletter
28 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Recertification Requirements Before January 1, 2015
Recertification Requirements After January 1, 2015
3 in
years 32
Refresher 29
Using Behavioral Skills Training
Why is Behavioral Skills Training (BST) popular in ABA supervision now?
In 2012, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board® created a document called the “Supervi-
sion Training Curriculum Outline”. It contained the required topics for Approved-Continuing
Education (ACE) providers who would provide the 8-Hour Supervisor Training curriculum.
Section (3) of this (6) section document was titled, “Behavioral Skills Training (BST)”.
BST is found in various JABA articles and books by behavior analysts. Perhaps the best ex-
ample of BST is found in Raymond Miltenberger’s 2011 textbook, “Behavior Modification Prin-
ciples and Procedures.
An 8-step BST procedure is outlined on the following page.
30 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Behavioral Skills Training
1. Provide a rationale for why the target skills are to be trained
2. Provide a succinct, written description (instructions) of the target skills
a. Scripts are included in this document. Be sure to provide a script to employ-
3. Provide a detailed, vocal description (instructions) of the target skills
a. Trainer reads script aloud to trainee
4. Demonstrate (model) each of the target skills
a. Trainer is first to role play, demonstrating correct behavior for trainee
b. Include examples and non-examples
c. If training scenario is a non-example, trainer deviates from script and sce-
nario is terminated with positive feedback.
5. Require trainee to practice (rehearse) each target skill
a. Trainee role plays scenarios from the list
b. Include examples and non-examples
c. If training scenario is a non-example, trainee deviates from script and sce-
nario is terminated with positive feedback
6. Provide positive and corrective feedback to supervisee
a. Provide it vocally, immediately following trainee role play
b. Deliver positive feedback to trainee throughout training, aiming for 4:1 ratio
c. Deliver corrective feedback directly.
7. Repeat the previous step until supervisee performs each target skill correctly
8. Assess application and generalization of skills to new targets, clients, and settings,
when appropriate
Refresher 31
Delivering Performance Feedback
Corrective Feedback
1. Provide an empathy statement
2. Describe ineffective performance
3. Provide a rationale for desired change in performance
4. Provide instructions and demonstration for how to improve designated per-
5. Provide opportunities to practice the desired performance
6. Provide immediate feedback
Evaluating the Effects of Supervision
Evaluate supervision with evidence-based, intervention specific criteria for:
Client performance
Staff performance
Supervisory behavior
Ongoing Professional Development
1.03 Professional Development (+RBT)
Behavior analysts who engage in assessment, therapy, teaching, research,
organizational consulting, or other professional activities maintain a rea-
sonable level of awareness of current scientific and professional infor-
mation in their fields of activity, and undertake ongoing efforts to main-
tain competence in the skills they use by reading the appropriate litera-
ture, attending conferences and conventions, participating in workshops,
and/or obtaining Behavior Analyst Certification Board certification.
--BACB Professional and Ethical Compliance Code, Ver. 9/23/2014
The supervisor should be able to describe the following methods for his/her ongoing profes-
sional development as a supervisor
Creating a continuous learning community to enhance supervisory and training behavior
• Regular review of resources and research for best practices in supervision
The supervisor should be able to describe the following methods for his/her ongoing profes-
sional development as a supervisor and to the supervisee:
Supervisory study groups
Attending conferences
Seeking peer review
Seeking mentorship
Regular review of resources and research relevant to supervisee’s area of practice
Seeking consultation when necessary
32 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Supervised Fieldwork Curriculum
Chapter 4
Annotated 4th Edition Task List
36 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-01 Measure Frequency
Frequency - A ratio of count per observa-
tion time; often expressed as count per stand-
ard unit of time and calculated by dividing the
number of responses recorded by the number
of standard units of time in which observa-
tions were conducted (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007, p. 85)”*
Hand Raising - A student is sitting in
an hour long class. The student
raises his hand 3 times to ask and an-
swer questions during the class. The
bell rings once and the student goes
to his next class. Frequency of hand
raising is 3 per hour.
Ask your supervisee to identify the
frequency of hand raising above.
Ask your supervisee to create an-
other example and non-example of
his/her own.
Have supervisee measure a fre-
quency of a behavior on the job or
in a role play.
Have supervisee graph the fre-
quency measured on the job or in a
role play.
Relevant Literature:
Catania, A. C. (2013). Learning (5th ed.).
Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W.L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis.
Related Lessons:
I-01 Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g. rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time)
* Alternatively, frequency is not always de-
fined synonymously with rate throughout the
discipline of behavior analysis. Catania (2013,
p. 443) defines frequency as “total responses
over a fixed time, over a session of variable
duration or, in trial procedure, over a fixed
number of trials.” Cooper, Heron, & Heward
(2007) functionally defines “count” as Catania
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 37
A-02 Measure Rate
Rate - “A ratio of count per observation time;
often expressed as count per standard unit of
time and calculated by dividing the number of
responses recorded by the number of number
of standard units of time in which observa-
tions were conducted (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007, p. 85).”*
Eating Chips
o Example: A young child is
sitting at a table where
there is a bag of potato
chips. They eat 8 chips,
stand up, and walk to the
living room to watch TV
for the rest of the hour.
Rate of chip eating is 8 per
Basketball Dribbles
o Example: Child is playing
basketball for 30 minutes.
Dribbles 7 times and then
practices foul shots. He
shoots 15 times and be-
tween each shot he drib-
bles 3 times. Frequency of
dribbling is 52 dribbles per
30 minutes.
Ask your supervisee to identify the
frequency of chip eating or basket-
ball dribbles in examples.
Have supervisee measure a fre-
quency of a behavior on the job or
in a role play.
Relevant Literature:
Catania, A. C. (2013). Learning (5th ed.).
Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., &
Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior
Related Lessons:
I-01 Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g. rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time)
* Alternatively, rate is not always defined syn-
onymously with frequency throughout the
discipline of behavior analysis. Catania (2013)
defines rate as “responses per unit time” (p.
458) but frequency as “total responses over a
fixed time, over a session of variable duration
or, in trial procedure, over a fixed number of
trials(p. 443) Cooper, Heron, & Heward
(2007) functionally defines “count” whereas
Catania defines frequency”.
38 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-03 Measure Duration
Duration – “A measure of the total extent of
time in which a behavior occurs (Cooper,
Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 79).
Sarah gets a fancy new piece of fur-
niture from one of those Swedish
companies. When it arrives, Sarah
realizes that it is not assembled. She
reads the complicated set of direc-
tions and begins putting it together
at 2:12pm. Armed with a screw-
driver and an Allen wrench, she con-
sistently works to put it together un-
til 3:43pm. Phew! Maybe next time
she will order the one that comes
fully assembled! The duration of the
project was 1 hour and 31 minutes.
Benny gets a new yo-yo for his birth-
day and plays with it for 20 minutes
after eating his cake and ice cream.
He puts it down to play tag with his
sister. The duration of yo-yo playing
is 20 minutes.
Ask your supervisee to identify the
duration of furniture assembly from
the example above
Ask your supervisee to create an-
other example and non-example of
his/her own
Have your supervisee measure the
duration of another behavior on the
job or in role-play.
Have the supervisee graph the dura-
tion of another behavior measured
on the job or in a role-play.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W.
L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis.
DeLeon, I. G., Iwata, B. A., Conners, J., &
Wallace, M. D. (1999). Examination of
ambiguous stimulus preferences with
duration-based measures. Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 111-114.
Related Lessons:
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
I-01 Define the behavior in observable and
measurable terms
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g., rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time).
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 39
A-04 Measure Latency
Latency - A measure of temporal locus; the
elapsed time from the onset of a stimulus (e.g.,
task direction, cue) to the initiation of a re-
sponse” (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p.
Example: Hitting the snooze button or hit-
ting the break
Example: Gertrude is not a morning
person. Her alarm goes off at pre-
cisely 5:30AM. She hears the annoy-
ing wail but doesn’t respond imme-
diately. After 32 seconds of beeping,
she whacks the snooze button, rolls
over and goes back to sleep. Latency
to turning off the alarm is 32 sec-
Example: Marty is driving down a
country road. Out of nowhere a
herd of deer dart out in front of his
car. It takes Marty 5 seconds from
the time he first sees the deer to hit
the break. Latency from the time the
deer are spotted to applying pressure
to the break is 5 seconds.
Non-example: Gertrude is not a
morning person. Her alarm goes off
at precisely 5:30 AM. She does not
respond to its annoying wailing and
continues to sleep despite the noise.
The alarm stops on its own 1 hour
Ask your supervisee to identify the
latency of a few responses of your
Ask your supervisee to create an-
other example and non-example of
his/her own.
Have your supervisee measure the
latency to another behavior on the
job or in role-play.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward,W.
L. (2007). Applied behavior analsis.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Edu-
ThomasonSassi, J. L., Iwata, B. A.,
Neidert, P. L., & Roscoe, E. M. (2011).
Response latency as an index of re-
sponse strength during functional anal-
yses of problem behavior. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(1), 51-67.
Related Lessons:
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
I-01 Define the behavior in observable and
measurable terms
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g., rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time).
40 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-05 Measure Interresponse Time (IRT)
Interresponse time (IRT) - “…the elapsed
time between two successive responses”
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 80).
Example: Frisky pets
Example: Sparky loves to bark at
passing cars. He hears a car drive by
the house and barks. Thirty-seven
seconds later another car passes by
and Sparky barks again. Interre-
sponse time between barking at the
vehicles is thirty-seven seconds.
Example: Doodles the cat likes to
scratch the furniture. She walks over
the chair and sinks her claws in.
Eleven seconds later Doodles walks
over to the couch and begins to
scratch again. Interresponse time
between scratches is eleven seconds.
Example: Roger the rooster doesn’t
know that he’s only supposed to
crow at dawn. He lets out crows all
day long. He is observed to crow at
3:43 in the afternoon. He crows
again at 3: 59. Interresponse time
between crows is sixteen minutes.
Non-example: Sparky’s owner acci-
dentally steps on his tail. Sparky
yelps from the pain.
Ask your supervisee to identify the
interresponse time in the examples
Ask your supervisee to create an-
other example and non-example of
his/her own.
Have your supervisee measure the
interresponse time of a behavior on
the job or in a role-play.
Have your supervisee graph the in-
terresponse time measured on the
job or in a role-play.
Relevant Literature:
Blough, D. S. (1963), Interresponse Time
as a Function of Continuous Variables:
A New Method and Some Data. Journal
of Experimental Analysis Behavior, 6: 237
Cooper J.O, Heron T.E, Heward W.L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.)
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Favell, J.E., McGimsey, J.F., & Jones, M.L.
(1980). Rapid Eating in the Retarded:
Reduction by Nonaversive Procedures.
Behavior Modifications, 4, 235-239.
Related Lessons:
A-05 Measure Interresponse time (IRT)
I-01 Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g. rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time)
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 41
A-06 Measure Percent of Occurrence
Percent of occurrence - “A ratio formed by
combining the same dimensional quantities
such as count or time; expressed as a number
of parts per 100; typically expressed as a ratio
of the number of responses of a certain type
per total number of responses. A percentage
represents a proportional quantity per 100
(Cooper, Heron & Heward, 2007, p. 701)
Example: Greeting
Example: Twelve strangers walk by
an elderly man. He greets three of
them and ignores the rest. The per-
cent of occurrence of greeting
strangers is 25%.
o To compute: Divide num-
ber of greetings emitted by
the man (3) by the total
number of opportunities to
greet (12) and multiply that
product by 100 to yield a
percentage (3/12= 0.25 x
100= 25%).
Non-example: Twelve strangers
walk by an elderly man. He greets
three of them and ignores the rest.
The percent of occurrence of greet-
ing strangers is 0.25.
Demonstrates proportional relations
well (e.g. can indicate how many
times an individual engaged in a tar-
get response given a set number of
opportunities available).
Has no dimensional quantities (e.g.
does not indicate how many target
responses were emitted nor how
many opportunities were given)
When there are few response oppor-
tunities (e.g. fewer than 20), percent
occurrence measures may skew per-
formance (e.g. An individual an-
swering 1 out of 2 problems correct
on a math test will receive the same
score of 50% as an individual an-
swering 25 out of 50 problems cor-
Imposes an artificial ceiling of meas-
urement (e.g. 100% may be subjec-
tive; suggests that a learner perform-
ing at 100% cannot improve)
(Cooper et al., 2007).
Provide hypothetical situations and
ask your supervisee if using percent
of occurrence measures are appro-
Provide various hypothetical situa-
tions and ask your supervisee to cal-
culate percent of occurrence
Have supervisee graph percent of
occurrence measured on the job or
in a role play
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Related Lessons:
I-01 Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
42 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-07 Measure Trials to Criterion
Trials to criterion - “A special form of event
recording; a measure of the number of re-
sponses or practice opportunities needed for
a person to achieve a pre-established level of
accuracy or proficiency” (Cooper, Heron &
Heward, 2007, p. 87).
To use, one must first determine what con-
stitutes a response opportunity, and what the
criteria for mastery will be. Response oppor-
tunities can vary depending on the target be-
havior. For example, an opportunity for
spelling accuracy could be a 10-question
spelling test. An opportunity for responding
to one’s name within five seconds might be
every time someone called the individual’s
name. Other measures such as latency, per-
cent occurrence, rate and duration can be used
to compute trials to criterion data. For in-
stance in the latter example to compute
whether the individual is responding to his
name within 5 seconds, data would have to be
taken on latency to respond per opportunity
(Cooper et al., 2007).
A behavioral interventionist is teaching a
child how to brush her teeth. She teaches
this using a task analysis that involves
backwards chaining. She provides two
opportunities per session for the child to
complete this skill. Data reflect that it
takes the child on average four opportu-
nities before she is able to complete the
step being taught independently and to
move to the next step in the task analysis.
Have your supervisee list uses for tri-
als to criterion data.
In a clinical setting or during role-
play, have your supervisee determine
which intervention is more efficient
using trials to criterion data.
Have your supervisee complete trials
to criterion data in various scenarios.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lahey, B. B., & Drabman, R. S. (1974). Facili-
tation of the acquisition and retention of
the sight-word vocabulary through to-
ken reinforcement1. Journal of applied be-
havior analysis,7(2), 307-312.
Related Lessons:
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
H-03 Select a data display that effectively
communicates relevant quantitative relations.
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 43
A-08 Assess and Interpret Interobserver Agree-
Interobserver agreement (IOA) refers to
the degree to which two or more independent ob-
servers report the same observed values after meas-
uring the same event” (Cooper, Heron, & Heward,
2007, p. 113).
There are four basic types of IOA as described by
Johnston and Pennypacker (2009):
Total agreement - Smaller total ÷ Larger total X 100
= % Agreement
Exact agreementTotal agreements ÷ Total num-
ber of intervals X 100 = % Agreement
Interval agreement Total agreements ÷ Total
number of intervals X 100 = % Agreement
Occurrence/nonoccurrence agreement Total
agreements ÷ Total number of intervals X 100 = %
“By reporting the results of IOA assessments, re-
searchers enable consumers to judge the relative
believability of the data as trustworthy and deserv-
ing interpretation” (Cooper et al., 2007, p. 114). It,
however, should be noted that the “…fact that two
observers reported the same measure of the target
behavior for a session says nothing about the accu-
racy or reliability of either (Johnston & Penny-
packer, 2009, p. 149).
John is conducting a functional analysis (FA) on ag-
gression in one of his students. He has asked Mary
to observe the behavior and record data simultane-
ously with him to calculate Interobserver agree-
ment. He plans on conducting a 5-minute session
with 30, 10-second intervals. He plans to use inter-
val agreement IOA. He records 4 instances of ag-
gression during the FA in the 21st, 22nd, 23rd and
24th interval. Mary records 4 instances in the 21st,
22nd, 23rd, and 25th interval. He calculates IOA to
be 97% or 29/30 intervals.
John is conducting a functional analysis on aggres-
sion in one of his students. He asks Mary to come
in and observe but does not provide her with a data
recording sheet to take data on the behavior. At the
end of the session he asks Mary if she saw any ag-
gression during the session.
Have supervisee watch a video of client exhib-
iting target behavior. Ask him/her to record
frequency data on the behavior. Record data
on the same video and compare data after
Provide supervisee with 2 sets of data sheets
based on the observance of the same behav-
ior. Have him/her calculate Interobserver
agreement based on the data provided.
Assign supervisee recommended article on
Interobserver agreement. Have him/her sum-
marize the article and share this with peers
Relevant Literature:
Boyce, T.E., Carter, N., & Neboschick, H. (2000).
An Evaluation of Intraobserver Reliability
versus Interobserver Agreement. European
Journal of Behavior Analysis, 1, (2), 107-114.
Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E. & Heward W.L. (2007).
Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd Ed.), Upper
Saddle River, NJ. Pearson Prentice Hall.
Johnston, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (2009). Strat-
egies and tactics of behavioral research.
Watkins, M.W. & Pacheco, M. (2000). Interob-
server Agreement in Behavioral Research:
Importance and Calculation. Journal of Be-
havioral Education, 10, 4, 205-212.
Related Lessons:
A-01: Measure Frequency (i.e., count)
A-09: Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of meas-
urement procedures.
B-02: Review and interpret articles from the behav-
ior-analytic literature.
G-06: Provide behavior-analytic services in collab-
oration with others who support and/or provide
services to one’s clients.
H-02: Select a schedule of observation and record-
ing periods.
I-01: Define behavior in observable and measura-
ble terms.
I-05: Organize, analyze, and interpret observed
J-09: Identify and address practical and ethical con-
siderations when using experimental designs to
demonstrate treatment effectiveness.
K-05: Design and use systems for monitoring pro-
cedural integrity.
44 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-09 Evaluate the accuracy and reliability
of measurement procedures
Evaluating the accuracy and reliability of
measurement procedures involves “measur-
ing the measurement system” (Cooper,
Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 110). As human
error is the biggest threat to the accuracy and
reliability of data, measurements must be eval-
uated to determine trustworthiness. Accuracy
of measurement is determined when the ob-
served values equal the true values. Establish-
ing a true value requires the use of a different
measurement procedure than the one used to
record the observed value. This often makes
it difficult to determine a true value for many
of the behaviors of interest. Measures of reli-
ability should be used when a true value can-
not be established. Reliability of measure-
ment is determined when the same value is
given across repeated measures of the same
event, thus reliability reflects consistency.
Accuracy: You and a friend decide to
go on a 5-mile run. Your friend tells
you that she can monitor the dis-
tance because her legs always start to
hurt once she runs 5 miles. You, be-
ing a data-driven behavior analyst,
decide that your friend’s measure-
ment procedure might not be the
most accurate so you use your smart
phone app to track the distance.
Your measurement system will likely
reveal a better estimate of the true
value of the distance you ran.
Reliability: Using the example for ac-
curacy, both measures can be relia-
ble if at the end of the run your
friend tells you that you must have
run 5 miles because her legs hurt and
your app indicates you ran 5 miles.
Ask supervisee to evaluate the accuracy
and reliability of a measurement proce-
dure that is being used with a client.
Ask supervisee to provide definitions and
examples of accuracy and reliability.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Improving and assessing the
quality of behavioral measurement.
Applied Behavior Analysis (pp. 102-
124). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pear-
son Prentice Hall.
Johnston, J. M., & Pennypacker, H. S. (1993a).
Strategies and tactics for human behavioral
research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ Erl-
Related Lessons:
A-01 Measure frequency (i.e., count).
A-02 Measure rate (i.e., count per unit time).
A-03 Measure duration.
A-04 Measure latency.
A-05 Measure interresponse time (IRT).
A-06 Measure percent of occurrence.
A-07 Measure trials to criterion.
A-08 Assess and interpret interobserver agree-
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
H-02 Select a schedule of observation and re-
cording periods.
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 45
A-10 Design, plot and interpret data using
equal-interval graphs
Line graph - “In applied behavior analysis,
each point on a line graph shows the level of
some quantifiable dimension of the target be-
havior (i.e. the dependent variable) in relation
to a specified point in time and/or environ-
mental condition” (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, p. 129).*
The behavior analyst defines behavior in
quantifiable, observable terms to measure
consistently and accurately. The behavior is
measured in terms of a pertinent aspect of be-
havior that can be counted or assessed across
observers. When data are plotted, the patterns
they make provide for a visual analysis of lev-
els of the behavior (shown on the vertical, y-
axis) as the behavior occurs at a specific point
in time or environmental condition (shown on
a horizontal, x-axis). Graphs are drawn with
the y-axis in a two-thirds ratio to the x-axis in
order to enable accurate comparison of inter-
vention results across graphs. The analysis in-
terprets levels of data points, directions
(trend), and stability or variability of data
paths within a single condition or viewed
across different conditions. These factors help
an analyst assess if an individual is responding
to intervention efforts in a therapeutic or non-
therapeutic direction. As a result of this sys-
tematic interpretation of results, the analyst
continues treatment strategies or alters them
until the line graph shows consistent behavior
change in a therapeutic direction.
Designing an equal interval line graph:
Approximate ratio of y to x-axis is 2:3
The target behavior to measure was the
percent (dimension) of math home-
work (varied number of problems as-
signed) a student completed each
morning when math homework was
assigned (session).
Lowest possible percent of homework
completed was zero and highest possi-
ble percent (100%) is shown at equal
intervals of outside tic marks.
Before intervention began, John
showed a baseline pattern of com-
pleting between zero and 10% of his
assigned math homework.
Zero value is raised above the x-axis
to see data points clearly.
Baseline lasted 4 sessions in a non-
therapeutic pattern.
Conditions changed from baseline
to intervention between Session 4
and 5.
The intervention included John’s
teacher praising him each day that he
returned any part of his math home-
work assigned.
In the first session of intervention,
John turned in 10% of his home-
work. The second day after receiving
teacher praise, John increased his
completed amount of homework to
40% of the assignment.
John did not always increase the per-
cent of homework completed each
day that math homework was given.
The intervention data path shows an
increasing trend overall throughout
the intervention condition of teacher
praise for math homework comple-
Although data showed some varia-
bility, John reached criteria of at least
90% of math homework completed
for 3 consecutive days on the 12th
day of teacher praise for his efforts
to return homework.
46 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Figure 2 Percent of daily math homework
John completed in September
*AB designs can show relations between base-
line and intervention responding but
cannot be used to show cause and ef-
Ask the supervisee to explain why
the percent of homework completed
was the correct dimension to meas-
ure for this intervention.
Ask supervisee to explain the reason
the AB graph design cannot be used
to demonstrate experimental control
but can be used in applied settings to
indicate consistent and therapeutic
Ask supervisee to find missing ele-
ments in a line graph you design.
Ask the supervisee to operationally
define a repetitive behavior of a
friend or family member, identify a
dimension of that behavior that
would accurately represent occur-
rences of the behavior, and then de-
sign a line graph to show results.
Give the supervisee a line graph you
design and ask supervisee to inter-
pret level, trend, variability, and data
path characteristics within and
across conditions.
Relevant Literature:
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2013). Applied
behavior analysis for teachers (9th ed). Bos-
ton: Pearson.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis.
Gast, D. L., & Ledford, J. R. (Eds.).
(2010). Single subject research methodology in
behavioral sciences. Routledge.
Vanselow, N. R., & Bourret, J. C. (2012).
Online Interactive Tutorials for Creat-
ing Graphs with Excel 2007 or 2010. Be-
havior analysis in practice, 5(1), 40.
Related Lessons:
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
H-02 Select a schedule of observation and re-
cording periods.
H-03 Select a data display that effectively
communicates relevant quantitative relations.
H-04 Evaluate changes in level, trend, and
I-05 Organize, analyze, and interpret observed
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g. rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time)
J-15 Base decision-making on data displayed
in various formats.
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 47
A-11 Design, plot, and interpret data using
a cumulative record to display data
Cumulative recordrecording method that
involves “the number of responses recorded
during each observation period is added to the
total number of responses recorded during
previous observation periods (Cooper,
Heron & Heward, 2007, p. 138). The value on
the y-axis represents the cumulative number
of responses recorded and the value on the x-
axis represents time (i.e., observation periods).
Once the response rate exceeds the maximum
value on the y-axis, the curve resets to zero
and begins again. Cumulative records display
the overall response rate and visually depict
the learner’s rate of acquisition for a series of
behavior targets (e.g., total number of skills
mastered throughout services, number of
sight words learned). Data are interpreted on
a cumulative record by analyzing the slope in
which the steeper the slope, the higher the re-
sponse rate.
The cumulative record below indicates
the number of attributes learned by a first
grade student. The overall response rate
is 13 attributes across 181 sessions. In
general, data in this graph suggests that
there was a fairly slow rate of acquisition.
However, the slope is much steeper be-
tween sessions 1 and 61, indicating that
the rate of acquisition was quicker during
the first part of the intervention.
Ask supervisee to identify behavioral
targets that would be appropriate to
graph in a cumulative record
Ask supervisee to create a cumula-
tive record graph.
Show supervisee various examples
of cumulative records and ask super-
visee to interpret the data.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Constructing and interpreting
graphic displays of behavioral data. Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis (pp. 126-157). Up-
per Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice
Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Sched-
ules of reinforcement. New York, NY:
Related Lessons:
A-10 Design, plot, and interpret data using
equal-interval graphs.
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
H-02 Select a schedule of observation and re-
cording periods.
H-03 Select a data display that effectively
communicates relevant quantitative relations.
H-04 Evaluate changes in level, trend, and
H-05 Evaluate temporal relations between ob-
served variables (within &between sessions,
time series).
121 41 61 81 101 121 141 161 181
Cumulative Number of Attributes
48 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
A-12 Design and implement continuous
measurement procedures (e.g., event re-
Event recording – “measurement procedure
for obtaining a tally or count of the number of
times a behavior occurs” (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007, p. 695).
Examples of contexts that are likely to be ap-
propriate for an event recording procedure:
Property destruction that typically
occurs two to five times a week.
Correct responses to the question,
What do you want?” when asked in
at least six distributed trials each day.
Examples of contexts that may be inappropri-
ate for an event recording procedure:
Vocal Stereotypy that occurs on and
off so rapidly that an observer would
not be able to accurately determine
the start and end of the stereotypy.
Aggressive behavior in a classroom
setting with one teacher, who must
conduct instruction, interact with
other students, and count hitting be-
havior that often includes multiple
An observer may increase counting accuracy
by using a counting device with low-technol-
ogy (i.e., masking tape around the wrist for
tally marks or a golf-stroke counter or with
high technology (i.e., iPad or laptop direct ob-
servation programs).
Ask the supervisee to describe situations
that would be appropriate to use event
recording procedures.
Ask the supervisee to describe situations
that may not be appropriate to use an
event recording procedure.
Ask the supervisee to use an event re-
cording procedure to measure 3 re-
sponses at one time. Ask the student to
design a datasheet and method for
counting that will help the observer rec-
ord the responses accurately.
Relevant Literature:
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis. Up-
per Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Educa-
Kelly, M. B. (1977). A review of the observa-
tional datacollection and reliability pro-
cedures reported in the Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis, 10 (1), 97-101.
Sasso, G. M., Reimers, T. M., Cooper, L. J.,
Wacker, D., Berg, W., Steege, M., & Al-
laire, A. (1992). Use of descriptive and
experimental analyses to identify the
functional properties of aberrant behav-
ior in school settings. Journal of Applied
Behavior Analysis, 25 (4), 809-821.
Related Lessons:
A-09 Evaluate the accuracy and reliability of
measurement procedures.
H-01 Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording.
I-01 Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms.
FK-47 Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g. rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time).
FK-48 State the advantages and disadvantages
of using continuous measurement procedures
and discontinuous measurement procedures
(e.g. partial- and whole-interval recording,
momentary time sampling.)
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 49
A-13 Design and implement discontinu-
ous measurement procedures (e.g., partial
& whole interval, momentary time sam-
Time sampling “…refers to a variety of
methods for observing and recording behav-
ior during intervals or at specific moments in
time. The basic procedure involves dividing
the observation period into time intervals and
then recording the presence or absence of be-
havior within or at the end of interval Three
forms of time sampling used often by applied
behavior analysts are whole-interval record-
ing, partial-interval recording and momentary
time sampling(Cooper, Heron, & Heward,
2007, p. 90).
Whole-Interval Recording
Once the interval has ended, the observer rec-
ords whether the behavior has occurred
throughout the entire interval. Whole-interval
recording tends to underestimate how much a
behavior is occurring because the behavior
has to be emitted for the entire interval in or-
der to get recorded (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007).
Hand-flapping: student moves one or both
hands repeatedly and rapidly by bending at
the wrist, such that fingers move more than
2 inches.
Non-example: waving hand to say “hello”
or “goodbye.
An observer divides a 5-minute ob-
servation period into intervals of 5
seconds. A student flaps his hands
for the entire 5-second interval. At
the end of the 5-second interval, the
observer records the behavior as
having occurred.
Palilalia: student repeats a word, phrase, or
sentence with no direct, observable relation-
ship with the immediate environment.
An observer divides a 5-minute ob-
servation period up into intervals of
10 seconds. A student emits palilalia
for the entire 10-second interval. At
the end of the 10-second interval,
the observer records the behavior as
having occurred.
Partial-Interval Recording
With the partial-interval recording method,
the time of observation is again divided into
intervals and a behavior is recorded as having
occurred if it has occurred at some point during
the interval. Data are usually reported as per-
centage of intervals (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007).
Calling-out behavior in a pupil: student
raises voice above conversation level when
not called on by teacher.
A 30-minute observation period is
divided into one-minute intervals.
At the end of the one minute inter-
val, the behavior is recorded as hav-
ing occurred because the pupil
called-out after the first 30 seconds
of the interval.
Toy play: child touches or manipulates toys.
A 5-minute observation period is di-
vided up into 10-second intervals.
The observer records the behavior
as having occurred in the last 10-sec-
ond interval because the child had
engaged with the toy at some point
during the interval.
Momentary Time Sampling
With this type of measurement, a period of
time is divided up into intervals and the ob-
50 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
server records whether the behavior is occur-
ring at the precise moment the interval ends.
(Cooper, Heron and Heward, 2007)
Movie watching: client is seated, and head
and eyes are oriented toward screen.
An observer is measuring a client’s
engagement with a movie across a 2-
minute period. The 2-minute period
is divided up into 5-second intervals.
The observer records the behavior
as being present at the end of the
first 5-second interval as the client
was watching the movie appropri-
ately at that specific point in time.
Ask your Supervisee to describe
each of the 3 types of time sampling
methods listed above.
Have your Supervisee practice each
type of data collection method in
his/her job role or through role-
Ask them to tell you which time
sampling method is being employed
in each of the following examples:
o An observer is interested in a cli-
ent’s interactions with his/her
peers. They observe him/her
across a 10-minute period; at the
end of each 10-second interval,
they record the behavior as being
present if the client has had any
interaction with his/her peers at
all during the interval. (Answer =
Partial-interval recording).
o An observer is examining a cli-
ent’s on-task behavior in class.
They observe him/her for a 60-
minute period and divide the
hour up into 5-minute intervals. If
the client is on-task at the end of
the 5-minute interval, on-task be-
havior is scored as having been
observed. (Answer = Momen-
tary time sampling).
o A client’s humming behavior is
being observed; the observer di-
vides a 15-minute observation
time up into 30-second intervals.
If humming was observed
throughout the entire 30-second
interval, the behavior is scored as
having occurred in that interval.
(Answer = Whole-interval re-
Relevant Literature:
Daboul-Meany, M. G., Roscoe, E. M., Bour-
ret, J. C., Ahearn, W. H. (2007). A com-
parison of momentary time sampling
and partial-interval recording for evalu-
ating functional relations. Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis, 40 (3), 501-514.
Powell, J., Martindale, A., & KuIp, S. (1975).
An evaluation of time-sample measures
of behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 8, 463-469.
Suen, H. K., Ary, D., & Covalt, W. (1991). Re-
appraisal of momentary time sampling
and partial-interval recording. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 803-804.
Related Lessons:
A-12: Design and implement continuous
measurement procedures (e.g., event record-
H-01: Select a measurement system to obtain
representative data given the dimensions of
the behavior and the logistics of observing
and recording
I-01: Define the behavior in observable and
measurable terms
FK-47: Identify the measurable dimensions of
behavior (e.g., rate, duration, latency, interre-
sponse time)
FK-48: State the advantages and disad-
vantages of using continuous measurement
procedures and discontinuous measurement
procedures (e.g., partial- and whole-interval
recording, momentary time sampling)
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 51
A-14 Design and implement choice
Types of Choice Measures
Stimulus preference assessment a
variety of procedures used to deter-
mine the stimuli that a person pre-
fers, the relative preference values
(high versus low) of those stimuli,
the conditions under which those
preference values remain in effect,
and their presumed value as rein-
forcers” (Cooper, Heron, &
Heward, 2007, p. 705).
Single-stimulus preference assess-
ment also called a “successive
choice” method. A stimulus is pre-
sented one at a time. Approaches to
the items are recorded. Preference is
based on whether or not individual
approached item. (Pace, Ivancic, Ed-
wards, Iwata, & Page, 1985)
Paired choice preference assessment
also called a “forced choice”
method. Consists of the simultane-
ous presentation of two stimuli. The
observer records which of the two
stimuli the learner chooses. Presen-
tations continue until all stimuli are
paired with each other stimulus. A
hierarchy can then be formed using
the choices. (Fisher, Piazza, Bow-
man, Hagopian, Owens, & Slevin,
Multiple stimulus assessment an
extension of the paired-stimulus
procedure developed by Fisher and
colleagues (1992). The person
chooses a preferred stimulus from
an array of three or more stimuli.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007)
Multiple stimulus without replace-
ment assessment an extension of
the procedures described by Wind-
sor and colleagues (1994). Once an
item was selected, DeLeon and
Iwata (1996) did not replace previ-
ously chosen stimuli. Each choice
was among the remaining stimuli.
Free-operant assessment Devel-
oped by Roane and colleagues
(1998), participants had free and
continuous access to the entire array
of stimuli for 5 minutes. Duration of
item manipulation is recorded.
Response restriction assessment
Developed by Hanley and colleagues
(2003), a free operant arrangement
was used to measure preference.
Stimuli with high interaction relative
to the other stimuli during a session
were restricted for the remaining
Duration assessment Developed
by Hagopian and colleagues (2001),
items were presented one at a time.
Duration of engagement was meas-
ured for each item.
Concurrent-chain assessment (Con-
current-chain schedules) concur-
rent schedules in which the reinforc-
ers are themselves schedules that op-
erate separately and in the presence
of different stimuli” (Catania, 2013,
p. 433). Completion of the initial link
schedule of reinforcement gives ac-
cess to the terminal link schedule of
reinforcement. Preference for par-
ticular schedules of reinforcement,
or other environmental arrange-
ments can be measured by respond-
ing in the initial links (Hanley, Iwata,
& Lindberg, 1999).
Ask your Supervisee to identify the
pros and cons of each type of pref-
erence assessment.
Have Supervisee memorize the au-
thors and years for the publications
of each type of preference assess-
ment. Use flashcards to learn to flu-
Have Supervisee demonstrate the
use of at least 5 types of preference
52 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
assessments on the job (or in a role
Relevant Literature:
Catania, A. C. (2013). Learning (5th ed.). Corn-
wall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis. Up-
per Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Educa-
Fisher, W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G.,
Hagopian, L. P., Owens, J. C., & Slevin,
I. (1992). A comparison of two ap-
proaches for identifying reinforcers for
persons with severe and profound disa-
bilities. Journal of applied Behavior analy-
sis, 25(2), 491-498.
Hagopian, L. P., Rush, K. S., Lewin, A. B., &
Long, E. S. (2001). Evaluating the pre-
dictive validity of a single stimulus en-
gagement preference assessment.Journal
of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34(4), 475-
Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., Lindberg, J. S., &
Conners, J. (2003). Response-restriction
analysis: I. Assessment of activity pref-
erences. Journal of Applied Behavior Analy-
sis, 36(1), 47-58.
Hanley, G. P., Iwata, B. A., & Lindberg, J. S.
(1999). Analysis of activity preferences
as a function of differential conse-
quences. Journal of Applied Behavior Anal-
ysis, 32(4), 419-435.
DeLeon, I. G., & Iwata, B. A. (1996). Evalua-
tion of a multiplestimulus presentation
format for assessing reinforcer prefer-
ences. Journal of Applied Behavior Analy-
sis, 29(4), 519-533.
Pace, G. M., Ivancic, M. T., Edwards, G. L.,
Iwata, B. A., & Page, T. J. (1985). As-
sessment of stimulus preference and re-
inforcer value with profoundly retarded
individuals. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 18(3), 249-255.
Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E.,
& Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a
brief stimulus preference assess-
ment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analy-
sis, 31(4), 605-620.
Smith, R. G., Iwata, B. A., & Shore, B. A.
(1995). Effects of subject-versus experi-
menter-selected reinforcers on the be-
havior of individuals with profound de-
velopmental disabilities. Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis, 28(1), 61-71.
Windsor, J., Piché, L. M., & Locke, P. A.
(1994). Preference testing: A compari-
son of two presentation methods. Re-
search in Developmental Disabilities, 15(6),
Related Lessons:
I-07: Design and conduct preference assess-
ments to identify putative reinforcers.
J-04: Select intervention strategies based on
client preferences.
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 53
B-01 Use the dimensions of Applied Be-
havior Analysis (Baer, Wolf,
& Risley, 1968) to evaluate whether inter-
ventions are behavior analytic in nature
“Baer, Wolf, and Risley (1968) recommended
that applied behavior analysis should be ap-
plied, behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptually
systematic, effective, and capable of appropriately
generalized outcomes….” In 1987 Baer and col-
leagues reported that the “seven self-con-
scious guides to behavior analytic conduct”
they had offered 20 years earlier “remain func-
tional; they still connote the current dimen-
sions of the work usually called applied behav-
ior analysis” (Baer, et al., cited in Cooper et al.,
2007, p. 16).
1. Applied - The applied dimension re-
lates to choosing target behaviors to
change that are socially significant.
2. Behavioral - The behavioral dimen-
sion refers to the target behavior be-
ing systematically chosen for inter-
vention based on its significance and
this behavior must be measurable.
Baer et al. (1968, p. 93) summarized
this point by stating, “Since the be-
havior of an individual is composed
of physical events, its scientific study
requires their precise measure.
3. Analytic - The analytic dimension
refers to “… a functional relation
between the manipulated events and
a reliable change in some measurable
dimension of the targeted behavior
(Cooper et al. 2007, p. 17). Baer et al.
(1968, p. 94) stated that, “An exper-
imenter has achieved an analysis of
behavior when he can exercise con-
trol over it.”
4. Technological - “A study in ap-
plied behavior analysis is technolog-
ical when all of its operative proce-
dures are identified and described
with sufficient detail and clarity
(Cooper et al., 2007, p. 17).
5. Conceptually systematic - Con-
ceptual systems refer to the applica-
tion of behavior analytic principles
to create behavior change. “The field
of applied behavior analysis will
probably advance best if the pub-
lished descriptions of its procedures
are not only precisely technological,
but also strive for relevance to prin-
ciple” (Baer et. al. 1968, p. 96).
6. Effective - An effective application
of behavioral techniques must im-
prove the behavior under investiga-
tion to a practical degree” (Cooper et
al., 2007, p. 17).
7. Generality - The final dimension of
applied behavior analysis outlined by
Baer et al. (1968) was generality. “A
behavior change has generality if it
lasts over time, appears in environ-
ments other than the one in which
the intervention that initially pro-
duced it was implemented, and/or
spreads to other behaviors not di-
rectly treated by the intervention.”
(Cooper et al., 2007, p. 18).
Tim was evaluating the effectiveness
of an intervention to decrease inap-
propriate comments for a first grade
student on his case load. The data in-
dicated that the behavior had de-
creased across all settings including
when the child was home, displaying
generalization of the intervention.
He also noticed that the intervention
was analytic because the data indi-
cated that on days there was a sub-
stitute who was not thoroughly
trained on the intervention there was
a significant increase in rates of inap-
propriate commenting. Finally, Tim
deemed the behavior of inappropri-
ately commenting to be socially sig-
nificant because it impeded the stu-
dent from effectively accessing the
classroom curriculum.
54 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Students learning the 7 dimensions
of ABA often use the acronyms
GET-A-CAB or BAT-CAGE to re-
member them.
Have supervisee create SAFMEDs
cards for each of the dimensions of
Have supervisee identify, define, and
give examples of each of the 7 di-
mensions of Applied Behavior Anal-
ysis mentioned in the Baer, Wolf, &
Risley (1968) article.
In reference to the “applied” dimen-
sion of ABA, have supervisee list 5
types of behavior that they feel are
social significant in their life. Have
him/her describe why these are so-
cially significant types of behavior.
Have supervisee identify types of so-
cially significant behavior they target
with clients.
Relevant Literature:
Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1968).
Some Current Dimensions of Applied
Behavior Analysis. Journal of Applied Be-
havior Analysis, 1, 1, 91-97.
Baer, D.M., Wolf, M.M., & Risley, T.R. (1987).
Some Still Current Dimensions of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Ap-
plied Behavior Analysis, 20, 4, 313-327.
Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E. & Heward W.L.
(2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd
Ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson
Prentice Hall. 16-18, 235, 247-252.
Stokes, T.F. & Baer, D.M. (1977). An Implicit
Technology of Generalization. Journal of
Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 2, 349-367.
Wolf, M.M. (1978). Social Validity: The Case
for Subjective Measurement or How
Applied Behavior Analysis Is Finding its
Heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,
11, 2, 203-214.
Related Lessons:
B-04: Use withdrawal/reversal designs
B-05: Use alternating treatments (i.e., multi-el-
ement) designs
B-06: Use changing criterion designs
B-07: Use multiple baseline designs
B-09: Conduct a component analysis to deter-
mine the effective components of an interven-
tion package
B-11: Conduct a parametric analysis to deter-
mine the effective values of an independent
H-04: Evaluate changes in level, trend, and
I-01: Define behavior in observable and meas-
urable terms.
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 55
B-02 Review and interpret articles from
the behavior-analytic literature
Applied behavior analysis is an applied science
that develops its technology via the discovery
of environmental variables that produce so-
cially significant behavior change. The process
of putting the science into practice begins
with basic researchers discovering the princi-
ples of behavior that are then tested on so-
cially significant behavior by applied research-
ers and then ultimately implemented by prac-
titioners (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007).
Whether a behavior analyst is solely a practi-
tioner or a practitioner and a researcher, it is
important that they maintain close contact
with the scientific literature and its possible
applications by regularly reviewing and criti-
cally interpreting articles from the behavior
analytic literature.
When engaging in a review of the literature
it is useful to consider the criteria that define
applied behavior analysis which are outlined
by Baer, Wolf, & Risley (1987). These criteria
referred to as the seven dimensions (applied,
behavioral, analytic, technological, conceptu-
ally systematic, effective and generality) can
not only assist in determining if an interven-
tion meets the standards of applied behavior
analysis but it can also conclude whether a re-
search intervention is prepared to translate
into practice or if further investigation is nec-
essary prior to effective clinical implementa-
Cooper, Heron and Heward (2007, p. 5),
assert that “scientific knowledge is built on
above all, empiricism - the practice of objec-
tive observations of the phenomena of inter-
est.” Therefore, a behavior analyst should also
remain objective when reviewing and inter-
preting articles. For example, when reviewing
an article it is important to make an unbiased
interpretation regarding whether or not exper-
imental control (internal validity) was estab-
lished by acknowledging possible subject, set-
ting, measurement and/or independent varia-
ble confounds (Cooper, Heron, & Heward,
2007). Furthermore, it is important to remain
objective when conducting visual analyses of
the data to determine the extent that a func-
tional relation is demonstrated. To assist in
this process, Johnston and Pennypacker
(2009) suggest that a behavior analyst have ex-
tensive experience with graphical analyses
both as a designer and a reader. They also
note that the first step to analyzing behavioral
data is to ask whether the data presentation is
straightforward and productive toward the re-
search question by orienting to the graph’s
scale, axes and legend. Next, one should con-
duct a visual analysis by acknowledging the
number of data points, variability, level and
trend for each experimental condition fol-
lowed by a visual analysis across conditions
and then across participants to draw compar-
isons and begin to establish conclusions
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007).
In summary, a behavior analyst’s ability to
critically and empirically analyze the literature
requires a thorough understanding of the sci-
ence and acknowledgment of the bidirectional
relationship between research and practice.
Provide the supervisee with an arti-
cle and ask them to outline and pos-
sible threats to internal validity in the
Provide the supervisee with an arti-
cle that has the results and discus-
sion removed. Ask Supervisee to
give a precise summary of the results
based upon the figures and tables.
Afterward, provide the results and
the discussion to compare and facil-
itate further supervisory discussion.
Ask supervisee to determine if there
is a function relation based on the
data presented in an article and pro-
vide a rationale to their assertion.
Ask the supervisee to evaluate an ar-
ticle to determine if it includes the
seven dimensions of applied behav-
ior analysis
56 TrainABA Supervision Curriculum: BCBA Reference Manual
Throughout the course of supervi-
sion, ask the supervisee to determine
whether a literature review or re-
search article (considering past re-
search cited) is applied, basic or both
and whether there is adequate sup-
port to use the intervention in clini-
cal practice.
Relevant Literature:
Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R.
(1968). Some current dimensions of ap-
plied behavior
analysis. Journal of applied behavior analy-
sis, 1(1), 91-97.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L.
(2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Johnston, J. M. (2009). Pennypacker Jr. Strat-
egies and tactics of behavioral research.
Related Lessons:
B-01 Use the dimensions of applied behavior
analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968) to evalu-
ate whether interventions are behavior ana-
lytic in nature.
H-04 Evaluate changes in level, trend, and
I-05 Organize, analyze and interpret observed
FK-04 Empiricism
FK-09 Distinguish between the conceptual
analysis of behavior, experimental analysis of
behavior, applied behavior analysis, and be-
havioral service delivery.
FK-33 functional relations
Annotated 4th Edition Task List 57
B-03 Systematically arrange independent
variables to demonstrate their effects on
dependent variables
Independent Variable - “The variable that is
systematically manipulated by the researcher
in an experiment to see whether changes in
the independent variable produce reliable
changes in the dependent variable. In applied
behavior analysis, it is usually an environmen-
tal event or condition antecedent or conse-
quent to the dependent variable. Sometimes
called the intervention or treatment variable
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 697).
Dependent Variable - “The variable in an
experiment measured to determine if it
changes as a result of the manipulations of the
independent variable; in applied behavior
analysis, i<