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ii

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

AccessData Forensic Toolkit

LEGAL INFORMATION
AccessData Corp. makes no representations or warranties with respect to the contents
or use of this documentation, and specifically disclaims any express or implied
warranties of merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, AccessData
Corp. reserves the right to revise this publication and to make changes to its content, at
any time, without obligation to notify any person or entity of such revisions or changes.
Further, AccessData Corp. makes no representations or warranties with respect to any
software, and specifically disclaims any express or implied warranties of merchantability
or fitness for any particular purpose. Further, AccessData Corp. reserves the right to
make changes to any and all parts of AccessData software, at any time, without any
obligation to notify any person or entity of such changes.
You may not export or re-export this product in violation of any applicable laws or
regulations including, without limitation, U.S. export regulations or the laws of the
country in which you reside.
© 2008 AccessData Corp. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, photocopied, stored on a retrieval system, or transmitted without the
express written consent of the publisher.
AccessData Corp.
384 South 400 West
Suite 200
Lindon, Utah 84042
U.S.A.
www.accessdata.com

AccessData Forensic Toolkit

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ACCESSDATA TRADEMARKS
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AccessData is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
AccessData Certified Examiner is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
ACE is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
Distributed Network Attack is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
DNA is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
AccessData eDiscovery is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
AccessData Enterprise is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
Forensic Toolkit is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
FTK is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
FTK Imager is a trademark of AccessData Corp.
Known File Filter is a trademark of AccessData Corp.
KFF is a trademark of AccessData Corp.
LicenseManager is a trademark of AccessData Corp.
Password Recovery Toolkit is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
PRTK is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
Registry Viewer is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
Ultimate Toolkit is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.
UTK is a registered trademark of AccessData Corp.

DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS
In AccessData documentation, a greater-than symbol (>) is used to separate actions
within a step.
A trademark symbol (®, ™, etc.) denotes an AccessData trademark. An asterisk (*)
denotes a third-party trademark. All third-party trademarks and copyrights are property
of the trademark and copyright holders. AccessData claims no responsibility for the
function or performance of third-party items.
We value all feedback from our customers. For technical and customer support issues,
please email us at support@accessdata.com. For documentation issues, please email
us at documentation@accessdata.com.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Contents

AccessData Forensic Toolkit...................................................................................................................... i
Legal Information............................................................................................... ......................... i
AccessData Trademarks................................................................................................ ii
Documentation Conventions ........................................................................................... ii
Contents................................................................................................................................................... iii
Chapter 1 Welcome and Overview .......................................................................................................... 1
Audience ............................................................................................................ ........................ 1
Handling Evidence ............................................................................................. ........................ 1
What is a Case? ............................................................................................................ 2
Role of Forensic Toolkit...................................................................................... ........................ 3
Other AccessData Products ................................................................................ ........................ 3
Password Recovery Software ........................................................................................... 3
AccessData Enterprise................................................................................................... 4
AccessData eDiscovery................................................................................................... 4
Product Overview................................................................................................ ........................ 4
Managing a Case................................................................................................ ........................ 5
Defining the Evidence ......................................................................................... ........................ 5
Hashing......................................................................................................................... 5
Searching ....................................................................................................................... 6

Contents

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Known File Filter .......................................................................................................... 6
Presenting Evidence ............................................................................................ ........................ 7
Chapter 2 Installation and Upgrade ....................................................................................................... 9
Installation Options............................................................................................ ........................ 9
System Overview ................................................................................................. ...................... 10
Estimating hard disk space requirements............................................................. ...................... 11
Installation ......................................................................................................... ...................... 11
CodeMeter Stick Installation ....................................................................................... 13
Oracle Installation ....................................................................................................... 13
Single Computer Installation............................................................................... ...................... 18
Installing the FTK PROGRAM........................................................................... 18
Choosing an Evidence Server........................................................................................ 20
Installing the KFF.............................................................................................. ...................... 23
Installing on Separate Computers........................................................................ ...................... 26
Additional Programs .......................................................................................... ...................... 26
Upgrading to FTK 2.1....................................................................................... ...................... 27
Upgrading a Two-Computer Configuration ......................................................... ...................... 32
Chapter 3 Concepts .............................................................................................................................. 33
Starting FTK ..................................................................................................... ...................... 33
Setting Up the Application Administrator ................................................................... 33
Using the CodeMeter Stick .......................................................................................... 34
Using the Case Manager Window................................................................................ 34
The FTK Window ............................................................................................. ...................... 37
Toolbar Components .................................................................................................... 42
File List Pane ............................................................................................................. 43
Properties Pane ............................................................................................................ 45
Hex Interpreter Pane ................................................................................................... 47
File Content................................................................................................................. 49
Using Tabs to Explore and Refine Evidence....................................................... ...................... 52
Explore Tab................................................................................................................ 52
Overview Tab .............................................................................................................. 57

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Email Tab .................................................................................................................. 61
Graphics Tab .............................................................................................................. 62
Bookmarks Tab .......................................................................................................... 64
Search Tabs................................................................................................................. 66
Creating Tabs.............................................................................................................. 67
Chapter 4 Starting a New FTK2.1 Case............................................................................................... 69
Launch FTK2.1 ................................................................................................ ...................... 69
Acquiring and Preserving the Evidence................................................................ ...................... 73
Creating a Case.................................................................................................. ...................... 73
Selecting Evidence Processing Options........................................................................... 74
Selecting Evidence Discovery Options............................................................................ 77
Selecting Evidence Refinement (Advanced) Options ...................................................... 79
Selecting Index Refinement (Advanced) Options ........................................................... 83
Creating the Case......................................................................................................... 87
Adding Evidence ......................................................................................................... 87
Processing Evidence...................................................................................................... 88
Viewing Processed Items .............................................................................................. 88
Backing Up the Case.......................................................................................... ...................... 89
Restoring a Case................................................................................................. ...................... 89
Deleting a Case .................................................................................................. ...................... 90
Storing Case Files............................................................................................... ...................... 90
Chapter 5 Working with Cases............................................................................................................... 91
Opening an Existing Case.................................................................................. ...................... 91
Adding Evidence ................................................................................................ ...................... 91
Selecting a Language........................................................................................... ...................... 94
Additional Analysis........................................................................................... ...................... 95
File Content, Properties, and Hex Interpreter Tabs............................................. ...................... 97
Properties Tab ............................................................................................................. 98
The Hex Interpreter Tab ........................................................................................... 101
Using the Bookmark Information Pane .............................................................. .................... 103
Creating a Bookmark................................................................................................ 104

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Viewing Bookmark Information................................................................................ 106
Adding Evidence to an Existing Bookmark .............................................................. 108
Creating Email or Email Attachment Bookmarks .................................................... 109
Moving a Bookmark ................................................................................................. 113
Removing a Bookmark .............................................................................................. 113
Deleting Files from a Bookmark................................................................................ 114
Verifying Drive Image Integrity .......................................................................... .................... 114
Copying Information from FTK.......................................................................... .................... 115
Export File List Info ................................................................................................ 117
Exporting Files ......................................................................................................... 118
Exporting File List Info............................................................................................ 120
Exporting the Word List........................................................................................... 120
Fuzzy Hashing .................................................................................................. .................... 120
Creating a Fuzzy Hash Library................................................................................ 121
Selecting Fuzzy Hash Options During Initial Processing............................................ 121
Additional Analysis Fuzzy Hashing......................................................................... 123
Comparing Files Using Fuzzy Hashing..................................................................... 124
Viewing Fuzzy Hash Results.................................................................................... 124
Chapter 6 Searching a Case .................................................................................................................. 127
Conducting a Live Search ................................................................................... ....................127
Customizing the Live Search Tab .............................................................................. 129
Conducting a Pattern Search............................................................................... .................... 130
Simple Pattern Searches ............................................................................................. 130
Complex Pattern Searches.......................................................................................... 131
Predefined Regular Expressions ................................................................................. 133
Conducting Hex Searches........................................................................................... 139
Conducting Text Searches .......................................................................................... 139
Conducting an Index Search ............................................................................... .................... 140
Search Terms ............................................................................................................. 141
Search Criteria........................................................................................................... 142
Documenting Search Results ............................................................................... .................... 145
Using Copy Special to Document Search Results ........................................................ 145

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Bookmarking Search Results ..................................................................................... 146
Chapter 7 Data Carv ing ................................................................................................................... 149
Searching for Embedded and Deleted Files (Data Carving)................................. .................... 149
Data Carving Files When Processing a New Case ..................................................... 150
Data Carving Files in an Existing Case.................................................................... 150
Chapter 8 Using Filters ..................................................................................................................... 151
The Filter Toolbar.............................................................................................. .................... 151
Applying an Existing Filter ............................................................................... .................... 152
Creating a Filter................................................................................................. .................... 154
Refining a Filter ........................................................................................................ 155
Deleting a Filter ................................................................................................. .................... 155
Using the Known File Filter ............................................................................... .................... 156
Understanding KFF Hashes ..................................................................................... 156
Importing KFF Hashes............................................................................................. 156
Exporting KFF Hashes............................................................................................ 159
Understanding the KFF Database ............................................................................ 159
Storing Hashes in the KFF Database ....................................................................... 159
Creating Sets and Groups .......................................................................................... 161
Chapter 9 Decrypting Encrypted Files ................................................................................................ 163
Decrypting Files and Folders............................................................................... ....................163
Decrypting Windows EFS FILES ..................................................................... 165
Viewing Decrypted Files..................................................................................... .................... 165
Decrypting Domain Account EFS Files........................................................... .................... 167
Decrypting Credant Files .................................................................................... .................... 169
Using an Offline Key Bundle...................................................................................... 169
Using an Online Key Bundle...................................................................................... 170
Decrypting Safeguard Utimaco Files ................................................................... .................... 172
Decrypting SafeBoot Files .......................................................................................... 173

Contents

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Chapter 10 Working with Reports..................................................................................................... 175
Creating a Report ............................................................................................... .................... 175
Saving Settings........................................................................................................... 176
Entering Basic Case Information................................................................................ 177
Including Bookmarks................................................................................................. 179
Including Graphics..................................................................................................... 181
Selecting a File Path List........................................................................................... 182
Selecting a File Properties List ................................................................................... 183
Registry Selections ...................................................................................................... 184
Running the report.............................................................................................. .................... 185
Selecting the Report Location...................................................................................... 185
Creating the Report.................................................................................................... 186
Viewing a Report ............................................................................................... .................... 187
International Date and Time Stamp Issue.................................................................. 188
Modifying a Report............................................................................................. .................... 189
Printing a Report................................................................................................ .................... 189
Chapter 11 Customizing the Interface................................................................................................. 191
Customizing Overview ........................................................................................ .................... 191
Using the View Menu to Customize the FTK Interface .................................... .................... 191
Customizing the Tab Views....................................................................................... 193
Using the Tab Layout Menu ..................................................................................... 194
Moving View Panes................................................................................................... 195
Creating Custom Tabs............................................................................................... 197
Customizing File List Columns.......................................................................... .................... 197
Creating and Modifying Column Settings ................................................................... 198
Available Columns .................................................................................................... 199
Chapter 12 Other AccessData Applications ......................................................................................213
Accessing Additional Products............................................................................ .................... 213
Capturing Evidence with Imager ......................................................................... .................... 213
Recovering Passwords with PRTK ...................................................... ...............214

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How PRTK Works.................................................................................................. 215
PRTK Features ........................................................................................................ 215
Obtaining Protected Information with Registry Viewer ........................................ .................... 216
Managing Licenses with LicenseManager............................................................ .................... 216
Starting LicenseManager............................................................................................ 217
LicenseManager Interface ........................................................................................... 218
Opening and Saving Security Device Packet Files....................................................... 223
Viewing Product Licenses .......................................................................................... 223
Adding and Removing Product Licenses ..................................................................... 224
Managing Product Licenses on Isolated Machines....................................................... 225
Updating Products ..................................................................................................... 227
Purchasing Product Licenses....................................................................................... 228
Sending a Security Device Packet File to Support ....................................................... 228
Selecting the Application Language..................................................................... .................... 229
Appendix A Recognized File Types ...................................................................................................... 231
Document File Types .......................................................................................... .................... 231
Spreadsheet File Types........................................................................................ .................... 235
Database File Types........................................................................................... .................... 236
Graphic File Types............................................................................................. .................... 237
Email Message Programs ................................................................................... .................... 238
Instant Messaging Programs ............................................................................... .................... 239
Executable File Types ........................................................................................ .................... 239
Archive File Types ............................................................................................. .................... 240
Other Known File Types..................................................................................... ....................241
.......................................................................................................................... .................... 243
Appendix B File Systems and Drive Image Formats........................................................................... 245
File Systems ....................................................................................................... .................... 245
Hard Disk Image Formats ................................................................................ .................... 245
CD and DVD Image Formats.......................................................................... .................... 246
Appendix C Recovering Deleted Material ............................................................................................ 247

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FAT 12, 16, and 32 ...................................................................................... .................... 247
NTFS ...................................................................................... ...............248
ext2 ................................................................................................................... .................... 248
ext3 ................................................................................................................... .................... 248

HFS ......................................................................................... ...............249
Appendix D Program Files .................................................................................................................. 251

Files and Folders for the Application .................................................................. .................... 251
Files and Folders for the Database...................................................................... .................... 252
Changing Registry Options ................................................................................. .................... 252
Changing the Logging Registry Options ...................................................................... 252
Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence ............................................................................... 255
Understanding the Windows Registry.................................................................. .................... 255
Windows 9x Registry Files ........................................................................................ 256
Windows NT and Windows 2000 Registry Files ..................................................... 257
Windows XP Registry Files ...................................................................................... 258
Possible Data Types................................................................................................... 260
Additional Considerations ......................................................................................... 261
Registry Quick Find Chart ............................................................................... .................... 263
System Information .................................................................................................... 264
Networking ............................................................................................................... 266
User Data ................................................................................................................. 266
User Application Data.............................................................................................. 268
.................................................................................................................................. 269
Appendix F Troubleshooting................................................................................................................ 271
Finding Answers ................................................................................................ .................... 271
Troubleshooting Tables ....................................................................................... .................... 272
Diagnostics Tools................................................................................................ .................... 273
Database Diagnostics................................................................................................. 273
Uninstalling Manually ....................................................................................... .................... 275

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Automated Uninstall................................................................................................. 275
Manually Uninstalling the Database ......................................................................... 276
Find and Delete FTK Folders and Keys.................................................................... 277
Handling Oracle Folders and Keys............................................................................. 278
Other Issues........................................................................................................ .................... 279
dtSearch Noise File List............................................................................................ 279
Appendix G Corporate Information..................................................................................................... 281
Contacting AccessData Corporation by Mail ...................................................... .................... 281
Registration ........................................................................................................ .................... 281
Technical Support............................................................................................... .................... 282
Documentation ................................................................................................... .................... 282
FTK Glossary....................................................................................................................................... 283

Contents

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Chapter 1 Welcome and Overview

Welcome to AccessData® Forensic Toolkit® (FTK®). FTK enables law enforcement
and corporate security professionals to perform complete and thorough computer
forensic examinations. FTK features powerful file filtering and search functionality, and
is recognized as a leading forensic tool.

AUDIENCE
The FTK2 User Guide target audience consists of law enforcement and corporate
security professionals with the following competencies:

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Basic knowledge of and training in forensic policies and procedures
Basic knowledge of and experience with personal computers
Familiarity with the fundamentals of collecting digital evidence
Understanding of forensic disk images and how to acquire forensically sound disk
images

• Experience with case studies and reports
• Familiarity with the Microsoft* Windows* environment

HANDLING EVIDENCE
Computer forensics involves the acquisition, preservation, analysis, and presentation of
digital evidence. This type of evidence is fragile and can easily be altered, destroyed, or
rendered inadmissible if improperly obtained, preserved, and analyzed.

Welcome and Overview

1

WHAT IS A CASE?
To build a case involving a computer system, find evidence or supportive evidence of a
civil wrong or a criminal act by the systematic inspection of the computer system and
its contents. Building such a case has come to be known as Computer Forensics.
Since computer forensics must adhere to the standards of evidence that are admissible
in a court of law, it requires specialized expertise and tools that go above and beyond
the normal data collection and preservation techniques available to end-users or system
support personnel. Often, the forensic examiner must render an opinion, based on the
examination of the material that has been recovered, on whether the evidence indicates
criminal activity.
Computer forensics experts investigate data storage devices such as hard drives,
portable data devices (USB drives), external drives, micro drives and many more).
Computer forensics experts perform the following tasks:
1. Identify sources of documentary or other digital evidence.
2. Preserve the evidence.
3. Analyze the evidence.
4. Present the findings.

To preserve the integrity of case evidence, forensic investigators do not work on the
original files. Instead, they create an exact replica of the files, called an image, and work
with the image to ensure that the original files remain intact.
To verify the files on which they are working have not been altered, investigators can
compare a hash of the original files at the time they were seized with a hash of the
imaged files used in the investigation. Hashing provides mathematical validation that a
forensic disk image exactly matches the contents of the original computer disk.
Another important legal element in computer forensics is the “chain of custody.” The
chain of custody is the line of people who have controlled the evidence. Forensic
investigators must be able to account for all that has happened to the evidence between
its point of acquisition and its eventual appearance in court.
Only properly trained computer forensics specialists should obtain and examine digital
evidence. Even the most incriminating digital evidence can be made legally inadmissible
because of reckless or ill-conceived examinations.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

ROLE OF FORENSIC TOOLKIT
To acquire digital evidence, FTK Imager and other imaging software tools can be used
to create a disk image of the source drives or files. A hash of the original disk image can
be created to later use as a benchmark to prove the validity of the gathered case
evidence. FTK Imager verifies that the disk image hash and the drive hash match when
the disk image is created.
After creating the disk image and hash of the data, FTK can then perform a complete
and thorough computer forensic examination, and create a report of the investigatory
findings.

OTHER ACCESSDATA PRODUCTS
In addition to FTK and FTK Imager, AccessData offers other industry-leading
products. These two products are included as part of the FTK package, but are also
available for separate purchase. For other products and services, please refer to our
Web site, www.accessdata.com.

PASSWORD RECOVERY SOFTWARE
AccessData has been the leader in the field of commercial software decryption since
1987. AccessData has multiple tools available for password recovery:
Password Recovery Toolkit® (PRTK®) has a wide variety of individual passwordbreaking modules that can help you recover lost passwords.
For more information about PRTK, see the AccessData Web site (http://
www.accessdata.com/Products.htm).
Distributed Network Attack® (DNA®) provides a new approach to recovering
password-protected files. Rather than using a single machine, DNA uses machines
across the network or across the world to conduct key space and dictionary attacks.
For more information about DNA, see the AccessData Web site (http://
www.accessdata.com/Products.htm).

Welcome and Overview

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ACCESSDATA ENTERPRISE
AccessData Enterprise is a powerful, enterprise-scale investigative solution built on the
forensic technology of FTK. With an integrated Oracle* database on the back-end, true
multi-processor support and robust processing capabilities, Enterprise provides the
most powerful investigative solution on the market. It handles larger data sets than
other investigative solutions and processes data at greater speeds.
Enterprise gives visibility into data and systems across an enterprise network. It enables
proactive or reactive location, preservation, and containment of confidential and
personal data leakage, as well as addresses the most sensitive employee issues.
It optimizes incident response by enabling easy and quick deep analysis to determine
the “who”, “what”, “when”, “where” and “how” of any given event and to zero-in on
all affected machines. With the seamless integration of static and volatile data,
examiners are able to analyze, collect, contain and report on any type of data.
For more information on Enterprise, see the AccessData Web site, http://
www.accessdata.com/Enterprise.html.

ACCESSDATA EDISCOVERY
AccessData eDiscovery is a product designed to gather the data required to investigate
a legal matter. eDiscovery is designed to allow the tracking of multiple legal matters and
the groupings of their data, termed “collections.” Each collection can contain human,
share, or computer “custodians” (or combinations of the three) of data required for the
legal matter. Filters can be designed to exclude or include specific types of files. The
collection can be run across the entire enterprise network of a company.
For more information about eDiscovery, see the AccessData Web site at http://
www.accessdata.com/ediscovery.html.

PRODUCT OVERVIEW
This section provides a synopsis of how FTK can be used to acquire, preserve, analyze,
and present digital evidence. This section also covers how to manage a case with FTK.
For information on acquiring and preserving evidence, and beginning case analysis, see,
“Chapter 4 Starting a New FTK2.1 Case” on page 69.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

MANAGING A CASE
Any forensic digital examination requires these basic steps:
1. Acquire the evidence.
2. Preserve the evidence.
3. Analyze the evidence.
4. Present digital evidence by creating a case report to document the evidence and

investigation results.

DEFINING THE EVIDENCE
To define the evidence, FTK uses hashing, searching, and the Known File Filter (KFF®)
database.

HASHING
Hashing a file or files refers to the process of generating a unique value based on a file’s
contents. Hash values are used to verify file integrity and identify known and duplicate
files. Known files can be standard system files that can be ignored in the investigation,
as well as specific files known to contain illicit or dangerous materials that the program
can alert the investigator to.
Three hash functions are available in FTK: Message Digest 5* (MD5*) and Secure Hash
Algorithms 1 and 256 (SHA-1* and SHA-256*).
The following graphic shows a sample file with a list of MD5 and SHA hashes.

Typically, individual file hashes (each file is hashed as it is indexed and added to a case)
compare the results with a known database of hashes, such as the KFF. However, you
can also hash multiple files or a disk image to verify that the working copy is identical to
the original.

Welcome and Overview

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Hashes can be generated with both FTK Imager and FTK. For information on creating
hashes with FTK, see “Creating a Case” on page 73.

SEARCHING
FTK can conduct live or indexed searches of the acquired images.

A live search is an item-by-item comparison with the search term, and can be very timeconsuming because it searches the entire data set bit-by-bit. Live searches allow you to
search non-alphanumeric characters and perform pattern searches, such as regular
expressions and hex values.
An index search uses an index file containing discrete words or number strings found in
both the allocated and unallocated space in the case evidence. The investigator can
choose to generate an index file during preprocessing, or later, using the tools in the
program.
FTK uses dtSearch*, one of the leading search tools available, in its index search engine.

dtSearch can quickly search gigabytes of text.
For more information on searching, see “Chapter 6 Searching a Case” on page 127.

KNOWN FILE FILTER
The Known File Filter (KFF) is an FTK utility used to compare file hashes in a case
against a database of hashes from files known to be ignorable (such as known system
and program files), or alert status (such as known contraband or illicit material). The
KFF allows quick elimination or pinpointing of these files during an investigation.
Files which contain other files, such as ZIP, CAB, and email files with attachments, are
called container files. When KFF identifies a container file as ignorable or alert; FTK
does not extract its component files.
AccessData’s KFF includes hashes from the National Institutue of Standards and
Technology (NIST) National Software Reference Library (NSRL) hash database, and
from the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) HashKeeper hash database. The
AD KFF is updated periodically and is available for download from
www.accessdata.com webpage. Click the Downloads link, then find and select the link
for downloading the KFF library.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

For more information on the KFF, see “Using the Known File Filter” on page 156.

PRESENTING EVIDENCE
FTK presents digital evidence by creating a case report containing the evidence and
investigation results in a readable, accessible format.

Use the FTK report wizard to create and modify reports. A report can include
bookmarks (information selected during the examination), customized graphic
references, and selected file listings. Selected files, such as bookmarked files and
graphics, can be exported to make them available with the report. The report is
generated in HTML or PDF or can be generated in both formats simultaneously.
For information about creating a report, see “Creating a Report” on page 175.

Welcome and Overview

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Chapter 2 Installation and
Upgrade

This chapter details the steps for the installation of the required components for the
operation of AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) 2.1. The following components are
required to run FTK:

• CodeMeter 3.30a Runtime software for the CodeMeter Stick:
• Oracle 10g Database
• FTK Program
These additional programs are available to aid in processing cases:

• FTK Known File Filter (KFF) Library
• AccessData LanguageSelector
• AccessData LicenseManager

INSTALLATION OPTIONS
FTK can be set up in three different configurations, each with its own benefits and

advantages. The three configurations listed below are represented in the graphic
following:

• Single Machine
• Separate Machines
• Separate Machines with an existing Oracle install
Installation and Upgrade

9

Note: AccessData recommends that you turn off firewalls and anti-virus software during

installation.

Figure 2-1. Three Different Configurations

SYSTEM OVERVIEW
The more powerful the available hardware, the faster FTK can analyze and prepare case
evidence; larger evidence files require more processing time than smaller evidence files.
While the components can be installed on a single workstation, it is recommended to
install them on separate workstations in order to make more hardware resources
available to each.
The ideal configuration uses two workstations connected by a Gigabit ethernet
connection. The Oracle database can be installed on a separate computer, or on the
same computer as the FTK Program. If the KFF is installed, it must be installed on the
same computer as the Oracle database. Ideally, the CodeMeter Runtime 3.30a software,
LanguageSelector, and LicenseManager should be installed on the computer with the
FTK Program.
To further maximize performance, AccessData recommends the following:

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

• For both the single- and separate-workstation configurations, install Oracle to a
large hard disk drive of which Oracle can make exclusive use.

• Do not run other applications that will compete with FTK or the Oracle database
for hardware resources.
The FTK Program can also be installed on one workstation, and connected to an
existing instance of Oracle 10g already running on a separate workstation. This is
displayed in the above figure.

ESTIMATING HARD DISK SPACE REQUIREMENTS
The FTK Program requires a minimum of 500 megabytes of disk space for installation,
although 5 gigabytes is recommended. Oracle, where images are stored, requires a
minimum of 6 gigabytes (5 gigabytes for the basic installation) and additional room for
case processing. Additional space is required for cases and case data.
If disk space depletes while processing a case, the case data is erased.
To estimate the amount of hard drive space needed, apply these suggested factors:

• Data: every 500,000 items require one gigabyte of space in the Oracle storage
location.

• Index: every 100 megabytes of text in the evidence requires 20 megabytes of space
for processing in the case storage folder.

INSTALLATION
To install FTK 2.1, follow these steps:

Installation and Upgrade

11

1. Insert the FTK 2.1 DVD into the drive.

2. Click Install Forensic Toolkit 2.1.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

CODEMETER STICK INSTALLATION
Install the WIBU CodeMeter Runtime 3.30a software for the CodeMeter Stick. Click
Install CodeMeter Software to launch the CodeMeter installation wizard, as displayed in the
following figure.
Figure 2-2. CodeMeter Installation Wizard

Follow the directions for installation, accepting all defaults, and click Finish to complete
the installation.
If the user attemps to install FTK 2 before installing the CodeMeter 3.0a software and
the Wibu* CmStick*, the following error messagewill be displayed.
Figure 2-3. CodeMeter Error

ORACLE INSTALLATION
FTK must link to an Oracle database. If one already exists in the network or domain
(with sufficient space for storage and processing) it can be leveraged for use with FTK.

If no Oracle database exists, it must be installed either on the same computer as the
FTK Program within the same network or domain, or a separate computer.

Installation and Upgrade

13

If the FTK installation is attempted before installation of Oracle, or if an install of
Oracle 10g patched to version 10.2.0.3 resides elsewhere on the network or in the
domain, the FTK installer warns of its dependency on Oracle and prompts the user to
continue with or terminate the install, as displayed in the following figure.
Figure 2-4. Oracle Dependency Warning

At this point the user is prompted to continue or terminate as in the following figure.
Figure 2-5. Continue or Terminate

If the user continues, they will isntall the FTK Program, as detailed in “Installing the
FTK Program” on page 14 of the User Guide.
From the FTK New Install screen, perform the following steps as displayed in the
following figure.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Figure 2-6. Install Oracle Button

1. Launch the installer.

2. Click Next.

Installation and Upgrade

15

3. Read the license argeement, agree to it, and click Next.

4. Wait for the installer to configure the installation.

5. Select the installation drive letter.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

6. Click Next.

7. Agree to the Oracle Admin Password Agreement and click Next.

8. Provide an Oracle System Administrator password.
9. Click Submit.

10. Wait for the installation and configuration to finish.

Installation and Upgrade

17

Note: This step can take up to forty minutes.

11. Click Finish to end the installation process.

SINGLE COMPUTER INSTALLATION
The FTK Program can be installed on the same computer as the installed Oracle
database, as displayed in the following figure.
Figure 2-7. Single Computer Installation

INSTALLING THE FTK PROGRAM
From the FTK New Install screen, perform the steps displayed in the following
figure.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Figure 2-8. Install FTK 2.1 Button

1. Click Install FTK 2.1.

2. Click Next.
3. Read and accept the AccessData license agreement.

4. Click Next.
5. Select the location for the FTK components.

Installation and Upgrade

19

Note: If another directory is desired instead of the default, click Browse to navigate to or create

the file using the Windows Browse functionality.

6. Click Next.

CHOOSING AN EVIDENCE SERVER
After installing the FTK Program, choose the server on which contains the evidence
data. These files can be stored locally or remotely in the same domain as the computer
running FTK or external to the domain. To select an evidence source location, perform
the following steps:
1. Select This computer if evidence files are stored on a volume on the computer running
FTK, or on another computer that is not part of a domain. Some of these extra-

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

domain examples include machines in a Workgroup or a mixed-platform
environment.

2. If the evidence is stored elsewhere on a domain network, set up access to the

evidence storage computer by choosing Another computer on the network.
3. Click Next.

EVIDENCE ON THE SAME DOMAIN
If the computer with the FTK Program resides in the same domain as the computer with
the evidence, perform the following steps to connect the FTK computer to the
evidence storage location.
1. When asked if the evidence computer belongs to the same domain as the FTK

computer, click Yes.

Installation and Upgrade

21

2. Enter the domain name, username, and password into the Worker Account dialog.

If the domain and username is unknown, click Browse to find them. The account
must have administrative access to the computer and evidence repository computer.
The password must be the password of the account selected.

3. Click OK.
4. Enter the correct password.
5. Click Next.
6. Finish the installation and restart the machine.

EVIDENCE EXTERIOR TO A DOMAIN
If the evidence is stored on a computer exterior to a domain or in a mixed-platform
environment, follow these steps to connect FTK to that server.
Note: An identical user with identical privileges must be set up on the evidence server as well as

the FTK Program server. This is called Mirrored Local Accounts.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

1. When asked whether the machines belong to the same domain, click No.

2. Set up identical mirrored user accounts on the FTK computer and on the evidence

machine to access the data on a remote (network) computer outside of the domain.
3. Enter the username and password into the User Account Credentials dialog.

4. Click Next to finish the install.
5. Restart the machine.

INSTALLING THE KFF
The FTK KFF Library can be installed to help shorten the investigation time on the
case. The KFF Library must be installed on the same volume as the Oracle database. To
perform step 4 and install the KFF, perform the following steps from the Install New
FTK window, as displayed in the following figure.

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23

Figure 2-9. Install KFF Button

1. Click Install KFF Library

2. Click Next.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

3. Accept the KFF license agreement.

4. Click Next.
5. Allow installation to progress.

6. Click Finish to end the installation.

Installation and Upgrade

25

INSTALLING ON SEPARATE COMPUTERS
FTK 2.1 can be installed on two separate computers. To do this, change the steps, as
shown again in the following figure, to 2, 4, 1, 3. Perform steps 2 and 4 on the computer
to run Oracle. (The KFF Library installs into the Oracle installation.) Then perform
steps 1 and 3 on the computer designated to run the FTK Program.

Figure 2-10. Install New FTK Screen

INSTALLATION RESULTS
If the default install location was selected, the FTK Program installation puts the
program files in the following folder: C:\Program Files\AccessData\Forensic Toolkit\ 
2.1.0\.

ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS
To change to another supported language other than the default English (United
States) that ships with FTK, LanguageSelector must be installed. For more information
on LanguageSelector, see “Selecting the Application Language” on page 201 of the
User Guide.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

If licenses need to be managed, LicenseManager must be installed. For more
information on LicenseManager, see “Managing Licenses with LicenseManager” on
page 190 of the User Guide.
Also, make sure the current versions of any other programs required for the
investigation are installed, this includes AccessData RegistryViewer, and AccessData
Password Recovery Toolkit, or AccessData Distributed Network Attack.

UPGRADING TO FTK 2.1
The following instructions describe how to upgrade from AccessData® Forensic
Toolkit® (FTK®) version 2.0 to FTK 2.1. For the upgrade, the original FTK 2.0, must
already be installed.
Note: As a best practice, back up all case data (if possible) before upgrading your software.

1. Insert the FTK 2.1 DVD in your computer.

Alternatively, if you downloaded the .zip file from the AccessData Web site, extract
the contents to a folder and double-click the autorun.exe file.
If the installation utility does not launch automatically, browse to the DVD and
double-click the autorun.exe file.

Installation and Upgrade

27

2. Click Upgrade to FTK 2.1 to display the seven steps required to upgrade from FTK 2.0
to FTK 2.1.

3. On Step 1, click Uninstall FTK 2.0.

Important: To avoid losing case files, it is very important that you follow the
instructions in this dialog carefully.
This automatically uninstalls the FTK Package from the computer. Allow the
computer to restart after the unstallation process has completed.
Note: You may need to manually end the FTK Installation program before Windows* can

restart.
4. Run the autorun.exe file again.
5. On Step 2, click Uninstall old CodeMeter Software.

The only entry for CodeMeter* in Add or Remove Programs should be CodeMeter
Runtime Kit v3.30a. If any previous version (containing titles such as “CodeMeter”
or “AccessData CodeMeter”) are installed, they need to be removed.
This process is automatically completed by this step.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

6. On Step 3, click Install new CodeMeter Software.

7. Click Next and follow the wizard installation instructions to install the CodeMeter

Runtime software.
8. When CodeMeter installs successfully, click Finish to return to the FTK Upgrade

Install window.
9. On Step 4, click Transition the Database.

This patch file converts the database schema to the format required by FTK 2.1.
After the batch file runs, it indicates success or failure. If the batch file installed
correctly, close the window and return to the FTK Upgrade Install window. If
running the batch was unsuccessful, contact AccessData Customer Support.

Installation and Upgrade

29

10. On Step 5, click Update Oracle.

This step only updates the current installation of Oracle, it does not reinstall Oracle.
11. Click Next and follow the on-screen instructions.

The Oracle install wizard runs and the following dialog should appear indicating
that Oracle already resides on the computer and that cases created in previous
versions of FTK will be retained.

12. Click Finish at the Install Complete dialog to return to the FTK Upgrade Install

window.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

13. On Step 6, click Install FTK 2.1 and follow the online installation instructions.

14. When FTK 2.1 installs successfully, click Finish to return to the FTK Upgrade Install

window.
15. On Step 7, click Update KFF Library.

16. Click Next and follow the on-screen installation instructions.
17. After the KFF Update installs successfully, click Finish to return to the FTK

Upgrade Install window.
18. Click Back to Main Menu.
FTK 2.0.4 is now upgraded to FTK 2.1.

Installation and Upgrade

31

UPGRADING A TWO-COMPUTER CONFIGURATION
To upgrade a two-computer configuration (FTK Package and associated programs on
one box and Oracle and the KFF on the other machine) follow the directions specified
in the following figure.
Figure 2-11. Seven Uninstall Steps

Case data is preserved through the upgrade, but it is good practice to back up all cases
and perform the upgrade in this order, 1, 2, 3 on the FTK Package box (You uninstall
the FTK Package and install the FTK Program indicating a major difference between
FTK 2.0 and 2.1.) Then 4, 5 on the Oracle box. Then 6 on the FTK Program box. And,
finally, 7 on the Oracle box to update the KFF. This process is illustrated in the table
below:.
TABLE 2-1 What

to do Where

Steps to Perform on FTK Machine

Steps to Perform on Oracle Machine

1. Uninstall FTK 2.0x application

4. Database Transition

2. Uninstall CodeMeter Software

5. Update Oracle database for 2.1.0.

3. Install New CodeMeter Software

7. Update the KFF Library

6. Install FTK 2.1 Program

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Chapter 3 Concepts

Before using AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), a basic knowledge of the FTK
interface is helpful. The FTK interface contains six main tabs, organized like tabbed
pages, each with a specific focus. Most tabs also contain a common toolbar and file list
with customizable columns.

STARTING FTK
After you complete the installation, start FTK by selecting Start > All Programs >
AccessData > Forensic Toolkit > AccessData Forensic Toolkit 2.1, or by selecting the
AccessData Forensic Toolkit 2.1 shortcut on the desktop.

Important: Close any virus scanner program while running FTK and

processing evidence. Virus scanners can slow performance
significantly.

SETTING UP THE APPLICATION ADMINISTRATOR
On first launch a application administrator must be created to manage the database.
The Add New User dialog box opens automatically. The first added user is the case and
database administrator or superuser. The superuser can add new users to the database
to administer (Case Administrator) or review (Case Reviewer) the case as needed by
clicking Database > Add User to open the Add New User dialog. The following figure
displays the Add New User dialog.

Concepts

33

Figure 3-1

Add New User Dialog

Complete the fields to assign a new user a role and a password. Every field is required.
Click OK to save the new user and close the dialog.

USING THE CODEMETER STICK
AccessData provides a USB CodeMeter Stick security license device with FTK. The
WIBU-SYSTEM AG* CodeMeter Stick* is a security compliance license device. Insert
the CodeMeter Stick into the USB port prior to installation. It maintains your FTK
licensing and subscription information and is required by FTK.
You can use the LicenseManager application to monitor your FTK subscription. For
more information, see “Managing Licenses with LicenseManager” on page 216.
Note: FTK.2.0 does not work with the KEYLOK (green) dongle used with previous versions of FTK.

USING THE CASE MANAGER WINDOW
FTK manages cases from a central database. The Case Administrator administers the
case from the Case Manager window. The following figure displays the Case Manager
window.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Figure 3-2

Case Manager Window.

After logging into FTK, the Case Manager window appears with the following menus:

•
•
•
•
•

File
Database
Case
Tools
Help

The following tables shows the available Case Manager menu options.
TABLE 3-1 Case

Manager File Menu

Option

Description

Exit

Exits FTK.

TABLE 3-2 Case

Manager Database Menu

Option

Description

Log In

Opens the authentication dialog for users to log into the database.

Concepts

35

TABLE 3-2 Case

Manager Database Menu

Option

Description

Log Out

Logs the user out of the current case.

Add User

Create a user with either Reviewer or Administrator rights to the
database. This can only be done by the application administrator.

TABLE 3-3 Case

Manager Case Menu

Option

Description

New

Start a new case with the logged-in user as the Administrator.
Case Reviewers cannot start a case.

Open

Opens the highlighted case with its included evidence.

Administer Users

Allows the Administrator to adjust or control the rights of added
users.

Backup

Backs up selectedcases.

Restore

Brings back a selected, saved case.

Delete

Deletes selected cases.

TABLE 3-4 Case

Manager Tools Menu

Option

Description

Tools

Preferences settings:

• Choose temporary file path
• Choose network security device location. Options are:
•Ip Address
•Port

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-5 Case

Manager Help Menu

Option

Description

Diagnostics

View the activity of the databases on which cases are stored, and
of the Worker machines assigned to each case.

User Guide

Opens the FTK User Guide in PDF. The manual is formatted for
two-sided printing.

About

Provides copyright and trademark information about FTK and
other intellectual property of AccessData.

THE FTK WINDOW
When a case is created and assigned a user, the FTK Case window opens with the
following menus:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

File
Edit
View
Evidence
Filter
Tools
Help

The following tables show the available options from the FTK2.1 window menus.
TABLE 3-6 FTK2.1

File Menu

Option

Description

Export

Exports selected files and associated evidence to a designated
folder.

Export to Image

Exports one or more files as AD1 files to a storage desination.

Export File List Info

Exports selected file information to files formatted as the
Column List in .csv, .tsv, and .txt formats.

Export Word List

Exports the index as a text file from which a dictionary for PRTK
can be created.

Concepts

37

TABLE 3-6 FTK2.1

File Menu

Option

Description

Report

Opens the Report Options window for creating a case report.

Close

Closes the FTK Window and returns to the Case Manager
window.

Exit

Closes both the FTK and Case Manager windows.

TABLE 3-7 FTK2.1

Edit Menu

Option

Description

Copy Special

Duplicates information about the object copied as well as the
object itself, and places the copy in the clipboard.

TABLE 3-8 FKTK2.1

View Menu

Option

Description

Refresh

Reloads the current view.

Filter Bar

Inserts the filter toolbar into the current tab. These features are
available also from the Filter menu.

Timezone Display

Opens the Time Zone Display dialog.

Thumbnail Size

Selects the size of the thumbnails displayed from the Graphics
tab. Select from:

• Large-default
• Medium
• Small
• Tiny

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TABLE 3-8 FKTK2.1

View Menu

Option

Description

Tab Layout

Manages tab settings: the user can lock an existing setting, add
and remove settings, save settings one tab at a time or all at once.
The user can also restore previous settings. or reset them to the
default settings. These options are in the following list:

• Lock
• Add
• Remove
• Save
• Save All Layouts
• Restore
• Reset to Default
Explore Tree

Displays the Explore Tree in the upper-left pane.

Graphics Tree

Displays the Graphics Tree in the upper-left pane.

Overview Tree

Displays the Overview Tree in the upper-left pane.

Email Tree

Displays the Email Tree in the upper-left pane.

Bookmark Tree

Displays the Bookmark pane in the upper-left pane.

Indexed Searches

Displays the Index Search Results pane in the upper-left pane.

Live Searches

Displays the Live SearchResults pane in the upper-left pane.

Bookmark Information Inserts the Bookmark Information pane into the current tab.
File List

Inserts the File List pane into the current tab.

File Content

Inserts the File Content pane into the current tab.

Email Attachments

Displays the attachments to email object found in the case.
Available only in the email tab.

Properties

Inserts the Object Properties pane into the current tab view.

Hex Value Interpreter

Displays a pane that provides an interpretation of Hex values
selected from the Hex View pane.

Thumbnails

Displays a pane containing thumbnails of all graphics found in
the case.

Progress Window

Opens the Progress dialog, from which you can monitor tasks
and/or cancel them.

Concepts

39

The tree and search views are exclusive settings, meaning that you can use only one tree
view per pane, and only one search view per pane. For more information on using the
View menu see, .
TABLE 3-9 FTK2.1

Evidence Menu

Option

Description

Add/Remove

Opens the Manage Evidence dialog, used to add and remove
evidence.

Additional Analysis

Opens the Additional Analysis dialog with many of the same
processing options available when the evidence was added.
Allows the user to reprocess using options not selected the
previous time.

TABLE 3-10 FTK2.1

40

Filter Menu

Option

Description

New

Opens the Filter Definition dialog to define a filter. This feature is
also available from the Filter toolbar.

Duplicate

Duplicates a selected filter. This feature is also available from the
Filter toolbar.

Delete

Deletes a selected filter. This feature is also available from the
Filter toolbar.

On

Applies the global filter to the application. The file list changes
color to indicate that the filter is applied. This feature is also
available from the Filter toolbar.

Import

Opens the system file manager allowing the user to import a preexisting filter. This feature is also available from the Filter toolbar.

Export

Opens the system file manager allowing the user to save a filter.
This feature is also available from the Filter toolbar.

Tab Filter

Allows the selection of a filter to apply to a current tab.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-11 FTK2.1

Tools Menu

Option

Description

KFF

Known File Filter (KFF) sets and groups can be managed,
archived, and cleared. The following menu option is available:

• Manage
Fuzzy Hash

Allows you to

• Find Similar Files
• Manage Library
Decrypt Files

Decrypts EFS and Office files passwords that matched those
entered.

Verify Image Integrity

Generates hash values of the disk image file for comparison.

Credant Decryption

Opens the tools for Credant® decryption. Credant is a third party
encryption tool that encrypts files, folders, partitions, or entire
disks. This will be discussed in detail later in this manual.

Disk Viewer

Opens a viewer that allows you to see and search evidence items.

Other Applications

Opens other AccessData tools to complement the investigational
analysis:

• Imager
• PRTK
• Registry Viewer
• LicenseManager
• Language Selector

TABLE 3-12 FTK2.1

Help Menu

Option

Description

User Guide

Provides a link to the FTK 2.1 User Guide.

Diagnostics

Allows the troubleshooting of database connections.

About

Provides information about the current FTK release.

Concepts

41

UNDOCKING
The File List, Properties/Hex Interpreter, and File Content panes can be undocked and
moved around the screen, even outside the FTK window. For information on
undocking moving, and customizing your FTK window view, see “Customizing the
Interface” on page 191.

TOOLBAR COMPONENTS
The FTK interface provides a toolbar for applying QuickPicks and filters to the case.
The following section lists the toolbars and their components.

The following table shows the available components of the toolbar.
TABLE 3-13 Toolbar

Components

Component

Description
Turns the filter on or off. Filtered data is shown in a
colored pane to indicate that it is filtered.

Applies the selected filter. A drop-down menu lists
defined filters.
Opens the filter definition dialogue to define the rules
of the current filter, or allows the creation of a new
one.
Deletes the selected filter

Creates a new filter

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-13 Toolbar

Component

Components
Description
Creates a copy of the selected filter

Imports the selected filter from an XML file

Exports the selected filter to an XML file

Turns the QuickPicks filter on or off. The QuickPicks
filter is used in the Explore tab to populate the file list
with only items the investigator wishes to analyze.
Locks the movable panes in the application, making
them immovable. When the lock is applied, the blue
box turns grey.

FILE LIST PANE
The File List pane lists the files selected from the Evidence Items pane. In this pane the
user can choose which columns to display, as well as the order of those columns, create
bookmarks, create labels, copy or export file lists.
When viewing data in the File List, use the type-down control feature to locate sought
information. When the list is sorted by name, select an item in the list, then type the
first letter of the desired file. FTK will move down the list to the first file beginning with
that letter.
For more information, see “Customizing File List Columns” on page 197.

Concepts

43

FILE LIST TOOLBAR
The File List pane includes a toolbar containing these buttons for managing the File
List::
TABLE 3-14 File

List Toolbar

Component

Description
Checks all of the files in the current list.

Unchecks all of the files in the current list.

Unchecks all of the files in the current case.

Opens Create New Bookmark dialog box.

Opens Manage Labels dialog box.

Opens the Export File List,allowing the user to save
selected files to another folder..

Opens Copy Special dialog box.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-14 File

Component

List Toolbar
Description
Opens the Column Settings dialog box.

Sets the columns to a specific set from the following
list:

• Default
• Email
• File Listing
• Normal (default)
• Reports: File Path Section
• Reports: Standard

PROPERTIES PANE
The Properties pane displays information about a selected file. The following graphic
displays a portion of the information contained in the Properties pane. This
information corresponds to information displayed in the File List.

Concepts

45

Figure 3-3

Properties Pane

The following table highlights the components of the Properties pane:
TABLE 3-15

Option

Properties Pane Components
Description

Name

The filename of the selected file.

Item Number

The arbitrary number assigned to the item during case processing.

File Type

The type of selected file.

Path

The path to the selected file.

General Info

General information about the selected file:

• File Size: lists the physical and logical sizes of the file.
• File Dates: lists the dates and times when the file was created,
last accessed, and last modified on the imaged system.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-15

Properties Pane Components

Option

Description

File Attributes

The attributes of the file:

• General: indicates Actual File status, Start Cluster, Compression status, Start Sector, and whether the document has been
examined for slack and/or carving.

• DOS Attributes: indicates attribute status for Hidden, System, Read Only, Archive, and 8.3 Name.

• NTFS Information: Indicates MFT Record Number, Record
Date, indicatesTrue or False status on whether the file is Resident, Offline, Sparse, or Temporary, and displays the Owner
SID and Group SID.
File Content Info

The content information and verification information of the file:

• Hash Information: lists the file’s MD5 hash, SHA-1 hash, and
SHA-256 hashes.

HEX INTERPRETER PANE
The Hex Interpreter pane interprets hexadecimal values selected in the viewer into
decimal integers and possible time and date values as well as unicode strings. The
following graphic displays the Hex Interpreter Pane:

Concepts

47

Figure 3-4 Hex Interpreter Pane and Corresponding File Content Pane Hex View Tab

To convert hexadecimal values, highlight one to eight adjacent bytes of hexadecimal
code in the File Content Viewer, Hex tab. Select two or more bytes for the Unicode
string, depending on the type of data you wish to interpret and view. Switch to the Hex
Interpreter tab at the bottom of the File Content Viewer, Hex tab, or open it next to
the File Content Hex Tab view, and the possible valid representations, or
interpretations, of the selected code automatically display in the Hex Value Interpreter.
Little-endian and big-endian refer to which bytes are most significant in multi-byte data
types, and describe the order in which a sequence of bytes is stored in a computer’s
memory. Microsoft* Windows* generally runs as Little Endian, because it was
developed on and mostly runs on Intel-based, or Intel-compatible machines.
In a big-endian system, the most significant bit value in the sequence is stored first (at
the lowest storage address). In a little-endian system, the least significant value in the
sequence is stored first. These rules apply when reading from left to right, as we do in
the English language. As a rule, Intel* based computers store data in a little-endian
fashion, where RISC-based systems such as Macintosh*, store data in a big-endian
fashion. This would be fine, except that a) AccessData’s products image and process
data from both types of machines, and b) there are many applications that were

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

developed on one type of system or the other, and are now “ported” to the other
system. You can’t always just apply one rule and automatically know which it is.
FTK2.1 uses Little-endian as the default setting. If you view a data selection in the Hex
Interpreter and it does not seem right, try choosing Big endian to see if the data
displayed makes more sense.
For further information on using the Hex Interpreter pane, see “The Hex Interpreter
Tab” on page 100.

FILE CONTENT
The File Content pane shows you a file’s contents in several different views to help you
see potential evidence.

NATURAL TAB
The Natural tab displays a file’s contents as it would appear normally. The tab includes
Default, Media, and Web viewers, indicated by tabs on the right.

DEFAULT TAB
This viewer uses the Oracle Stellent* INSO* filters for viewing hundreds of file formats
without the native application installed.
Note: Viewing large items in their native applications is often faster than waiting for them to be

rendered in an FTK viewer.

MEDIA TAB
The Media Tab plays embedded audio and video files through an embedded Windows
Media Player.
WEB TAB
The Web view uses Internet Explorer to display the contents of the selected file in a
contained field. The following figure displays an email displayed in a web tab.

Concepts

49

Figure 3-5

Web Tab

In the Web view, the top-left border of the pane holds two toggle buttons for enabling,
or disabling HTML content: Disable CSS Formatting, and Disable External Hyperlinks.
TABLE 3-16

Component

Natural Tab: Web Tab Toggle Buttons
Description
Disable CSS Formatting. This button disables any fonts, colors, and
layout from cascading style sheets. HTML formatting not part of a
cascading style sheet may remain.
Disable External Hyperlinks. This button disables any hyperlinks in
the file.

FTK displays the view (Web, Media, or Default) that is best for the selected file.

FILTERED TAB
The Filtered tab shows the file text created during indexing. The following figure
represents content displayed in the filtered tab.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Figure 3-6

Filtered Tab

The text is taken from an index created for the current FTK session if indexing was not
previously selected.

TEXT TAB
The Text tab displays the file’s context as text from the code page selected from the
drop-down menu. The following figure represents a portion of the drop-down
selection list.
Figure 3-7

Concepts

Text View Drop-Down Menu

51

The FTK File Content pane currently provides many code pages from which to choose.

HEX TAB
The Hex tab displays file contents in hexadecimal format. Use this view with the Hex
Interpreter pane. The following figure shows the Hex tab selected, with a portion of
the code selected and interpreted in the Hex Interpreter pane. For more information
on the Hex Interpreter Pane, see“Hex Interpreter Pane” on page 47.
Figure 3-8

Hex Tab

This feature is most useful if the investigator is familiar with the internal code structure
of different file types, and knows exactly where to look for specific data patterns or for
time and date information.

USING TABS TO EXPLORE AND REFINE EVIDENCE
Changing tabs helps the investigation team to explore and refine evidence. The
following sections look at each of the tabs in more detail.

EXPLORE TAB
The Explore tab displays all the contents of the case evidence files and drives as the
original user would have seen them. The following figure displays the FTK window
with the My Documents folder selected in the Explore Evidence Items tree.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Figure 3-9

Explore Tab

The Explore tab contains the following panes:
TABLE 3-17 Explore

Tab Panes

Pane

Description

Explorer Tree

Lists directory structure of each evidence item, similar to the way
one would view directory structure in Windows Explorer. An
evidence item is a physical drive, a logical drive or partition, or
drive space not included in any partitioned drive, as well as any
file, folder, or image of a drive.

File List

Displays information about a file, such as filename, file path, and
file type.

Concepts

53

TABLE 3-17 Explore

Tab Panes

Pane

Description

File Content Viewer

Displays the contents of the currently selected file from the File
List. The Viewer toolbar allows the choice of different view
formats.

Properties

Displays characteristics and attributes, depending on the column
settings being used, of the file selected in the File List.

Hex Interpreter Pane

Provides possible meanings of a selection of a hexadecimal
selection in the file content Viewer.

QUICKPICKS FILTER
The QuickPicks feature is a type of filter that allows the selection of multiple folders
and files in order to focus analysis on specific content. The following figure represents
the Explore Evidence Items tree with a partially selected set of folders and sub-folders
using the QuickPicks feature.
Figure 3-10

QuickPicks Filter Folder Selection

The QuickPicks filter simultaneously displays open and shut descendent containers of
all selected tree branches in the File List at once. The colors of the compound icons
indicate whether descendents are selected.
The icons are a combination of an arrow, representing the current tree level, and a
folder, representing any descendent.

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The icons’ colors indicate the levels and descendent selected. Green means all are
selected, yellow means some are selected, and white means none are selected.
In the illustration above, the decedent folder 10-1 Graphics is unselected. Its arrow icon
is white.
The folder icons for the folders above item “10-1 Graphics” are yellow to indicate that
not all descendent folders are selected. The top-most level item “Evidence” has a white
arrow icon, indicating that it is not selected, and a yellow folder icon, indicating that
some of its descendent folders are not selected.
The folder icon for “DT Search Stuff ” is green, indicating that all contents of the folder
have been selected.

DATA PROCESSING STATUS DIALOG
The Progress dialog displays an estimation of how tasks are progressing. In the
examples below, the dialog shows the progress of evidence being added to the case,
both while it is in progress, and after successful completion:
Figure 3-11 Data Processing Status: In Progress

Concepts

55

Figure 3-12 Data Processing Status: Successfully Completed

A blue progress bar for each task measures percentage complete by a ratio, or simply by
a moving bar as each task progresses. An hourglass icon at the front of the bar indicates
that the task is in progress, while a checkmark indicates that the task completed. When
the task is complete, the blue progress bar turns green.

• Click and drag the Scroll Bar to view processing jobs that do not display withing the
default viewing area.

• Click Close All Completed to leave the Data Processing Status window open while
any incomplete tasks remain open.

• Click the Close button adjacent to any individual task to remove that task and its
progress bar from the dialog.

• Check Close Progress Bars when completed to automatically close each task bar as its task
completes.

• Click the Close

button to close the Data Processing Status Window. This closes
only the display and does not cancel any current tasks.

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OVERVIEW TAB
The Overview tab provides a general view of a case. The number of items in various
categories, view lists of items, and look at individual files by category, status, and
extension are displayed, as in the following figure.
Figure 3-13

Overview Tab

Evidence categories are represented by trees in the upper-left Case Overview pane of
the application.

FILE ITEMS CONTAINER
The File Items container itemizes files by whether they have been checked and lists in a
tree view the evidence files added to the case.

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57

FILE EXTENSION CONTAINER
The File Extension container itemizes files by their extensions, such as .txt, .mapimail,
and .doc and lists them in a tree view.
The File Extension Container content numbers do not synchronize or match up with
the overall number of case items. This is because case items, such as file folders, do not
have extensions and, therefore, are not listed in the File Extension Container.

FILE CATEGORY CONTAINER
File Category Container itemizes files by function, such as a word processing
document, graphic, email, executable (program file), or folder, and lists them in a tree
view.
The statistics for each category are automatically listed. Expand the category tree view
to see the file list associated with it.
The following table provides more detail for File Categories:
TABLE 3-18

File Categories

Category

Description

Archives

Archive files include Email archive files, Zip, Stuffit
,Thumbs.db thumbnail graphics, and other archive formats.

Databases

A list of MS Access and other types of databases.

Documents

Includes most word processing, HTML, WML, HTML, or text
files.

Email

Includes Email messages from Outlook*, Outlook Express*,
AOL*, Endoscope*, Yahoo*, Rethink*, Udder*, Hotmail*, and
*
MSN .

58

Executables

Includes Win32 executables and DLLs, OS/2, Windows VxD,
Windows NT, JavaScript, and other executable formats.

Folders

Folders or directories that are located in the evidence.

Graphics

Includes the standard graphic formats such as .tif, .gif, .jpeg,
and .bmp.

Internet Chat Files

Lists Microsoft* Internet Explorer* cache and history indexes.

Mobile Phone Data

Lists data acquired from supported mobile phone device(s).

Multimedia

Lists .aif, .wav, .asf, and other audio and video files.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 3-18

File Categories

Category

Description

OS/File System Files

Partitions, file systems, registry files, and so forth.

Other Encryption Files

Found encrypted files, as well as files needed for decryption
such as EFS search strings, SKR files, and so forth.

Other Known Types

A miscellaneous category that includes audio files, help files,
dictionaries, clipboard files, link files, and alternate data stream
files such as those found in Word .doc files, etc.

Presentations

Lists multimedia file types such as MS PowerPoint or Corel
Presentation files.

Slack/Free Space

Files, or fragments of files that are no longer seen by the file
system, but have not been completely overwritten.

Spreadsheets

Includes spreadsheets from Lotus*, Microsoft Excel*,
QuattroPro*, and others.

Unknown Types

File types that AD FTK2.1 cannot identify.

User Types

User-defined file types such as those defined in a custom
File Identification File.

FILE STATUS CONTAINER
File Status covers a number of file categories that can alert the investigator to problem
files or help narrow down a search.
The statistics for each category are automatically listed. Click the category button to see
the file list associated with it. The following table displays the file status categories.
TABLE 3-19 File

Status Categories

Category

Description

Bad Extension

Files with an extension that does not match the file type identified
in the file header, for example, a .gif image renamed as graphic.txt.

Data Carved Files

The results of data carving when the option was chosen for
preprocessing.

Decrypted Files

The files decrypted by applying the option in the Tools menu.

Deleted Files

Complete files or folders recovered from slack or free space that
were deleted by the owner of the image, but not yet written over by
new data.

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59

TABLE 3-19 File

Status Categories

Category
Duplicate Items

Description
Any items that have an identical hash.
Because the filename is not part of the hash, identical files may
actually have different filenames.
The primary item is the first one found by FTK.

Email Attachments

Files attached to the email in the evidence.

Encrypted Files

Files that are encrypted or have a password. This includes files that
have a read-only password; that is, they may be opened and
viewed, but not modified by the reader.
If the files have been decrypted with EFS and you have access to
the user’s login password, you can decrypt these files. See
“Decrypting Files and Folders” on page 163.

Flagged Ignore

Files that are flagged to be ignored are probably not important to
the case.

Flagged Privileged

Files that are flagged as privileged cannot be viewed by the case
reviewer.

From Email

All email related files including email messages, archives, and
attachments.

From Recycle Bin

Files retrieved from the Windows Recycle Bin.

KFF Alert Files

Files identified by the HashKeeper Web site as contraband or illicit
files.

KFF Ignorable

Files identified by the HashKeeper and NIST databases as
common, known files such as program files.

OLE Subitems

Items or pieces of information that are embedded in a file, such as
text, graphics, or an entire file. This includes file summary
information (also known as metadata) included in documents,
spreadsheets, and presentations.

User Decrypted

Files you’ve previously decrypted yourself and added to the case.

BOOKMARK CONTAINER
The Bookmark Container lists bookmarks as they are nested in the Processed and the
user-defined folders. Bookmarks are defined by the investigator as the case is being
investigated and analyzed.

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EMAIL TAB
The Email tab displays email mailboxes and their associated messages and attachments.
The display is a coded HTML format. For the list of the supported email applications,
see “Email Message Programs” on page 238. The following figure represents the email
tab.
Figure 3-14

Email Tab

EMAIL STATUS TREE
The Email Status tree lists information such the sender of th email, and whether an
email has attachments. They are listed according to their inclusions in their groups.

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61

EMAIL TREE
The Email tree lists message counts, DBX counts, PST counts, and other such counts.

GRAPHICS TAB
The Graphics tab displays the case in photo-album style. Each graphic file is shown in a
thumbnail view. A graphic displays when its thumbnail is checked in the File Contents
pane. The following figure displays the Graphics tab with a selected thumbnail graphic.
Figure 3-15

Graphics Tab

Beneath each thumbnail image is a checkbox. When creating a report, choose to
include all of the graphics in the case or only those graphics that are checked. For more
information on selecting graphics, see “Including Graphics” on page 181.

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The Evidence Items pane shows the Overview tree by default. Use the View menu to
change the tree. Only graphic files appear in the File List when the tab filter is applied.
Shut the tab filter off to view additional files.

USING THUMBNAILS
The thumbnail settings allow large amounts of graphic data to be displayed for
evidence investigation. The investigator does not need to see details to pick out
evidence; scan the thumbnails for flesh tones, photographic-type graphics, and perhaps
particular shapes. Once found, the graphics can be inspected more closely in the
Content Viewer.

MOVING THE THUMBNAILS PANE
The thumbnail feature is especially useful when you move the undocked graphics pane
to a second monitor, freeing your first monitor to display the entire data set for the
graphics files being analyzed. Do the following to move the Thumbnails pane to
maximize space usage.
1. Undock the Thumbnails pane, and expand it across the screen.

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63

2. Open the Thumbnails Settings sub-menu, and scale the thumbnails down to fit as

many as possible in the pane.

BOOKMARKS TAB
The Bookmarks tab displays all the items bookmarked as important items in the case.
Add comments on the bookmarks where needed. For more information about
bookmarking, see “Using the Bookmark Information Pane” on page 103.

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Figure 3-16

Bookmarks Tab

The following table describes the features of the Bookmark tab.
TABLE 3-20 Bookmark

Tab

Features

Description

Bookmark Comment

Displays notes included with a bookmark.

Bookmark Name

Displays the name given to the bookmark when it was created.

Clear Changes

Removes comments that have not been saved.

Selections

Remembers the highlighted text in the bookmarked file and
automatically highlights it when the bookmark is retrieved. The
highlighted text also prints in the report.
This can be done for multiple files with multiple selections.

Save Changes

Saves changes to the bookmark.

File Comment

Displays notes included with a file.

Selection Comment

Displays notes included with a selection.

Supplementary Files

Lists additional files attached to the bookmark.

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65

SEARCH TABS
The Search Tabs allow the user to conduct an indexed search or a live search on the
evidence. An indexed search is faster, while a live search is more flexible and powerful.
The results of each search appear as line items in the search results list. Click the plus
icon (+) next to a search line to expand the search results branch. To view a specific
item, select the file in the search results or file lists. All search terms are highlighted in
the file. For information on searching, see “Chapter 6 Searching a Case” on page 127.

LIVE SEARCH TAB
The live search is a process involving an item-by-item comparison with the search term.
The following figure represents a selected Live Search tab.
Figure 3-17

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A live search is flexible because it can find non-alphanumeric character patterns.
Comparatively, an Index search has to stick with the alphanumeric patterns created with
an initial search index when the case is initially processed.

INDEX SEARCH TAB
The indexed search uses the index file generally created in pre-processing or through
additional analysis to find the search term. The following figure represents the Index
Search being performed.
Figure 3-18

Index Search Tab

Evidence items can be indexed when they are first added to the case or at a later time.

CREATING TABS
Create custom tabs by selecting View > Tab Layout > Add to bring up the Create Tab
dialog, as in the following figure.

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67

Figure 3-19

Create Tab Dialog

For more information on tab creation, see “Creating Custom Tabs” on page 197.

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Chapter 4 Starting a New
FTK2.1 Case

After collecting the files or drive images to examine, start a case using AccessData
Forensic Toolkit (FTK2.1).

LAUNCH FTK2.1
FTK harnesses the power of multiple investigators and computer processors to analyze
cases. The application administrator is created when FTK2.1 is launched the firts time,
and the Case Manager window opens. Run FTK2.1 by doing the following:
1. Click Start> All Programs > AccessData > Forensic Toolkit > AccessData Forensic Toolkit

2.1.
Note: Please note that it may take a few moments for FTK2.1 to run. This is because it is
also launching the Oracle* database.
2. Log in using the case-sensitive username and password provided by the application

administrator, as shown in the following figure:

Chapter 4 Starting a New FTK2.1 Case

69

Figure 4-1

A successful login brings up the Case Manager window, as in the following figure:
Figure 4-2 Case Manager Window

The Application Administrator can add additional users from the Case Manager
window. The following steps can be used by the Application Administrator to set up
new users as needed:

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3. Click Database > Add User to open the Add New User dialog.

4. Enter a username.
5. Enter the full name of the user as it is to appear in reports.
6. Assign a role.
7. Enter a password.
8. Verify the password.
9. Click OK to save the new user and close the dialog.

The following table gives information on the fields available in the Add New User
dialog.
TABLE 4-1 Add

New User Information Fields

Field

Description

User Name

Enter the name by which the user is known in program logs and
other system information.

Role

Assign rights to the user name:

• Application Administrator: can perform all types of tasks, including adding and managing users.

• Case Administrator: can process data and change settings to
FTK, although only the application administrator can add new

users.

• Case Reviewer: cannot create cases; can only process cases.
Full Name

Enter the full name of the user as it will appear on case reports.

Password

Enter and verify a password for this user.

After completing the dialog, the log in prompt returns again for a login name and
password for the newly created user to login. The Case Management window shows the

Chapter 4 Starting a New FTK2.1 Case

71

name you just created, indicating that the user can view and modify cases within that
database.

ASSIGNING ROLES
New users require a role, or a set of permissions to perform specific sets of actions. A
user having the Case Administrator role can perform the following tasks which are
made unavailable to a user having the Case Reviewer role:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Create cases
Configure log options
Data Carve
Manually data carve
Use the KFF Alert Editor
Add Hashes to the KFF
Add evidence
Decrypt Files from the Tools menu
Add Passwords from the Tools menu
View items flagged as “ignorable” or “privileged.”
Use FTK Imager
Use Registry Viewer
Use PRTK
Use Find on Disk
Use the Disk Viewer
View file sectors
Access the analysis tools menu
Export files or folders
Define, edit, delete, copy, export, or import filters

CASE ADMINISTRATOR
A user assigned the Case Administrator role can do any of the above, however cannot
create new users.

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ACQUIRING AND PRESERVING THE EVIDENCE
For digital evidence to be valid, it must be preserved in its original form. The disk
image must be forensically sound, or identical in every way to the original.
Two types of tools can do this: hardware acquisition tools and software acquisition
tools.

• Hardware acquisition tools duplicate, or clone, disk drives at the bit level, and allow
read-only mode access to the hard drive.

• Software acquisition tools create a disk image that usually requires a hardware
write-blocker, and makes no changes to the data or information on the hard drive.
Use write-blocking devices when using these tools, because some operating systems,
such as Windows, may make changes to the drive as it is reads the data to be imaged.
FTK Imager is a software acquisition tool. It can quickly preview evidence and, if the
evidence warrants further investigation, create a forensically sound image of the disk. It
makes a bit-by-bit duplicate of the media, rendering a forensic disk image identical in
every way to the original, including file slack and unallocated or free space.

CREATING A CASE
FTK stores each case in an Oracle database, and allows case administration as they are
created. When a Case Administrator creates a case, that user becomes that case’s
administrator. Start a new case from the Case Manager window with the following
steps:
1. Launch FTK 2.1 and login. This opens the Case Manager window
2. Click Case > New.

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73

3. Enter a name for the case in the Case Name field.
4. Enter the specific reference information in the Reference field. This field is not

required to create a case.
5. Enter a short description of the case in the Description field.
6. If you wish to specify a different location for the case, click the browse button
7. Click Detailed Options to choose settings for the case.
7a. Click the Evidence Processing icon in the left pane, and select the processing

options to run on the evidence. For more information, see “Selecting Evidence
Processing Options” on page 74.
7b. Click the Evidence Discovery icon to specify the location of the File Identification

File, is one is to be used. For more information, see Figure , “Selecting
Evidence Discovery Options,” on page 77.
7c. Click the Evidence Refinement (Advanced) icon to select the custom file

identification file to use on this case. For more information, see “Selecting
Evidence Discovery Options” on page 77.
7d. Click the Index Refinement (Advanced) icon to select which types of evidence to

not index. For more information, see “Selecting Evidence Refinement
(Advanced) Options” on page 79.
7e. Click OK.
8. Mark the Open the Case check box to see the case after clicking OK to close the New

Case Options dialog.
9. Click OK.
Note: If the c:\ftk2-data folder is not set as shared, an error occurs during case creation.

SELECTING EVIDENCE PROCESSING OPTIONS
The Evidence Processing options allow selection of processing tasks to perform on the
current evidence. Select only those tasks that are relevant to the evidence being added
to the case. The following figure represents the detailed options dialog. Different
processing options can be selected and un-selected depending on the specific
requirements of the case.
At the bottom of every Detailed Options selection screen you will find five buttons:

• Reset: resets the current settings to the currently defined defaults.
• Save as My Defaults: saves current settings as the default for the current user.
• Reset to Factory Defaults: Resets current settings to the factory defaults.

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• OK: accepts current settings without saving for future use.
• Cancel: cancels the entire Detailed Options dialog without saving settings or
changes, and returns to the New Case Options dialog.
Figure 4-3 Detailed Options Dialog

Another factor that can determine which processes to select is schedule. Time
restraints may not allow for all tasks to be performed initially. If you disable indexing, it
shortens the time needed to process a case. You can return at a later time and index the
case if needed.
The following table outlines the Evidence Processing options:
TABLE 4-2

Process

Description

MD5 Hash

Creates a digital fingerprint based on the contents of the file.
This fingerprint can be used to verify file integrity and to
identify duplicate files. For more information about MD5
hashes, see “Message Digest 5” on page 293.

SHA-1 Hash

Creates a digital fingerprint based on the contents of the file.
This fingerprint can be used to verify file integrity and to
identify duplicate files. For more information about SHA
hashes, see “Secure Hash Algorithm” on page 295.

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TABLE 4-2

Process

Description

SHA-256 Hash

Creates a digital fingerprint based on the contents of the file.
This fingerprint can be used to verify file integrity and to
identify duplicate files. SHA-256 is a hash function computed
with 32-bit words, giving it a longer digest than SHA-1. For
more information about SHA hashes, see “Secure Hash
Algorithm” on page 295.

Fuzzy Hash

Mark this box to enable Fuzzy hash options to make options
and Match fuzzy hash library. Fuzzy hash options allow you
to specify the size of files to hash.

Flag Duplicate Files

Identifies files that are found more than once in the
evidence.

KFF

Using a database of hashes from known files, this option
eliminates ignorable files and alerts to known illicit or
dangerous files.
For more information about Known File Filter (KFF), see
“Using the Known File Filter” on page 156.

Flag Bad Extensions

Identifies files whose types do not match their extensions.

Expand Compound Files

Automatically opens and processes the contents of
compound files such as .zip files.

Entropy Test

Determines if the data in unknown file types is compressed
or encrypted.
The compressed and encrypted files identified in the entropy
test are not indexed.

dtSearch Index

Stores the words from evidence in an index for quick
retrieval. Additional space requirement is approximately 25%
of the space required for all evidence in the case.

Generate Thumbnails for
Graphics

Creates thumbnails for large graphics.

HTML File Listing

Creates an HTML version of the File Listing in the case
folder.

Data Carve

Carves data immediately after pre-processing. Click Carving
Options, then select the file types to carve. Uses file signatures
to identify deleted files contained in the evidence.
For more information on Data Carving, see “Data Carving”
on page 149.

Meta Carve

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Carves deleted directory entries.

SELECTING DATA CARVING OPTIONS
When you choose to carve data select which types of data to carve:
1. Select Data Carve.
2. Click Carving Options.
3. Mark the Exclude KFF Ignorables box to specify not to carve those files.
4. Select the types of files you want carved.

• Click Select All to select all file types to be carved.
• Click Clear All to unselect all file types.
• Select individual file types by marking the checkboxes.
5. Define the limiting factors to be applied to each file.

• Define the minimum byte file size for the selected type.
• Define the minimum pixel height for graphic files.
• Define the minimum pixel width for graphic files
6. Click OK.

INDEXING A CASE
All evidence should be indexed to aid in searches. Index evidence when it is added to
the case by checking the dtSearch Text Index box on the Evidence Processing Options
dialog.

SELECTING EVIDENCE DISCOVERY OPTIONS
The Custom File Identification file is a text file that overrides the file types assigned by
FTK during preprocessing. With this file, FTK can assign custom file types to specific
files.
The Evidence Discovery Options dialog lets you select the Custom File Identification
file to apply to new case. This file is stored elsewhere on the system, and the location is
determined by the user. The following figure represents the Evidence Discovery
Options window in the detailed options dialog. The location can be browsed to, by
clicking Browse, or reset to the root drive folder by clicking Reset.

Chapter 4 Starting a New FTK2.1 Case

77

Figure 4-4 Evidence Discovery Options

CREATING THE CUSTOM FILE IDENTIFICATION FILE
The Custom File Identification file, or Custom Identifier, creates the new branch “File
Category\User Types” on the Overview tab, under which the new file type assignments
appear.
The Custom File Identification file can be created in a text editor or similar utility. Each
line in the file represents a custom file type assignment. The general format is:
name, description, category[, offset:value [| offeset:value]* ] +
For example, the line,
"MyGIF","Tim's GIF","Graphics",0:"47 49 46 38 37"|0:"47 49 46 38 39"
creates a branch called “MyGIF” under “File Category\User Types.” The offset:value
rules in this case look for the string “GIF87” or “GIF89” at offset 0.

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The following table describes the parameters for Custom File Identification files:
TABLE 4-3 Custom

Identification File Parameters

Parameter

Description

name

The type displayed in the Overview tree branch. It also appears in the
Category column.

description

Accompanies the Overview tree branch’s name.

category

The Overview tree branch under which the file would normally
appear relative to “File Category\user types\.”

offset

A decimal representation of the offset into the file (the first byte of
the file is 0).

value

An even number of hex bytes or characters with arbitrary white
space.

Note: The investigator must use at least one offset:value pair (hence the [...]+), and use zero or
more OR-ed offset:value pairs (the [...]*). All of the offset:value conditions in an OR-ed
group are OR-ed together, then all of those groups are AND-ed together.

SELECTING EVIDENCE REFINEMENT (ADVANCED) OPTIONS
The Evidence Refinement (Advanced) Options dialog allows you to specify how the
evidence is sorted and displayed. The Evidence Refinement (Advanced) option allows
you to exclude specific data from an individual evidence item.
Many factors can affect which processint tasks to select. For example, if you have
specific information available, you may not need to perform a full text index. Or, if it is
known that compression or encryption are not used, an entropy test may not be
needed.
After data is excluded from an evidence item, it cannot be added back into the case.
FTK does not allow the user to add the same evidence item more than once. If data that
was previously excluded is found necessary, the user must create a new case.
Consequently, AccessData strongly recommends the use of Include All Items unless
you are absolutely certain that the excluded items are not necessary.
The following steps are for refining case evidence:
1. Click the Evidence Refinement (Advanced) icon in the left pane.

The Evidence Refinement (Advanced) dialog is organized into two tabs:

• Refine Evidence by File Status/Type

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79

• Refine Evidence by File Date/Size
2. Click the corresponding tab to access the desired refinement type.
3. Set the needed refinements for the current evidence item.
4. To reset the menu to the default settings, click Reset.

REFINING EVIDENCE BY FILE STATUS/TYPE
Refining evidence by file status and type allows the user to focus on specific files
needed for a case. The following figure displays the detailed options dialog with
Evidence Refinement selected.
Figure 4-5 Evidence Refinement by File Status/Type

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The following table outlines the options in the Refine Evidence by File Status/Type
dialog:
TABLE 4-4 Refine

Evidence by File Status/Type Options

Options

Description

Include File Slack

Mark to include file slack space in which evidence
may be found.

Include Free Space

Mark to include unallocated space in which
evidence may be found.

Include KFF Ignorable Files

Mark to include files flagged as ignorable in the KFF
for analysis.

Deleted

Specifies the way to treat deleted files for cases
where the scope of the warrant permits.
Options are:

• Ignore Status
• Include Only
• Exclude
Defaults to “ignore status.”
Encrypted

Specifies the way to treat encrypted files for cases
where the scope of the warrant permits.
Options are:

• Ignore Status
• Include Only
• Exclude
Defaults to “ignore status.”
From Email

Specifies the way to treat email files for cases where
the scope of the warrant permits.
Options are:

• Ignore Status
• Include Only
• Exclude
Defaults to “ignore status.”
Include Duplicate Files

Includes duplicate files for analysis.

Include OLE Streams

Includes encrypted files for cases where the scope
of the warrant permits.

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TABLE 4-4 Refine

Evidence by File Status/Type Options

Options

Description

File Types

Specifies types of files to include and exclude.

Match using both File Type and
File Status criteria

Applies both criteria to the refinement.

REFINING EVIDENCE BY FILE DATE/SIZE
Make the addition of evidence items dependent on a date range or file size specified by
the investigator. The following figure represents this type of selection dialog.
Figure 4-6 Evidence Refinement Dialog

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The following table outlines the options in the Refine Evidence by File Date/Size
dialog:
TABLE 4-5 Define

Evidence by File Date/Size Options

Exclusion

Description

Refine
Evidence by
File Date

To refine evidence by file date:

Refine
Evidence by
File Size

To refine evidence by file size:

1. Select Created, Last Modified, or Last Accessed.
2. In the two date fields, enter beginning and ending dates.
1. In the two size fields, enter the At Least and At Most file size values.
2. In the drop-down list, select Bytes, KB, or MB.

SELECTING INDEX REFINEMENT (ADVANCED) OPTIONS
The Index Refinement (Advanced) feature allows you to specify types of data that do
not need to be indexed. Data can be excluded to save time and resources and to
increase searching efficiency.
Note: AccessData strongly recommends using the default index settings.

To refine an index, in the Detailed Options dialog perform the following steps:
1. Click Index Refinement (Advanced) in the left pane.
2. The Index Refinement (Advanced) dialog is organized into two tabs:

• Refine Index by File Status/Type
• Refine Index by File Date/Size
3. Click the corresponding tab to access the desired refinement type.
4. Set the refinements for the current evidence item.

To reset the menu to the default settings, click Reset.

REFINING AN INDEX BY FILE STATUS/TYPE
Refining an index by file status and type allows the investigator to focus attention on
specific files needed for a case through a refined index defined in a dialog as contained
in the following figure.

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Figure 4-7 Index Refinement Dialog

The following table outlines the options in the Refine Index by File Status/Type dialog:
TABLE 4-6 Refine

Index by File Status/Type Options

Options

Description

Include File Slack

Mark to include unallocated space in which evidence may
be found.

Include Free Space

Mark to include unallocated space in which evidence may
be found.

Include KFF Ignorable Files

Mark to include files flagged as ignorable in the KFF for
analysis.

Deleted

Specifies the way to treat deleted files for cases where the
scope of the warrant permits. Options are:

• Ignore status
• Include only
• Exclude

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TABLE 4-6 Refine

Index by File Status/Type Options

Options

Description

Encrypted

Specifies the way to treat encrypted files for cases where
the scope of the warrant permits. Options are:

• Ignore status
• Include only
• Exclude
From Email

Specifies the way to treat email files for cases where the
scope of the warrant permits. Options are:

• Ignore status
• Include only
• Exclude
Include Duplicate Files

Mark to include duplicate files for analysis.

Include OLE Streams

Mark to include encrypted files for cases where the scope
of the warrant permits.

File Types

Specifies types of files to include and exclude.

Match using both File Type
and File Status criteria

Applies both criteria to the refinement.

REFINING AN INDEX BY FILE DATE/SIZE
Refine index items dependent on a date range or file size specified by the user as
displayed in the following figure.

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Figure 4-8 Index Refinement by File Date/Size

The following table outlines the options in the Refine Index by File Date/Size dialog:
TABLE 4-7 Refine

Index by File Date/Size Options

Exclusion

Description

Refine Index by File Date

To refine evidence by file date:
1. Select Created, Last Modified, or Last Accessed.
In the date fields, enter beginning and ending dates.

Refine Index by File Size

To refine evidence by file size:
1. In the two size fields, enter minimum and maximum
file sizes.
2. In the drop-down lists, select whether the specified
minimum and maximum file sizes refer to Bytes, KB, or
MB.

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CREATING THE CASE
When you have finished selecting all the processing options needed for the current
case, click OK >OK to begin case creation. FTK indicates that it is creating the case and
asks you to please wait.

ADDING EVIDENCE
When case creation is complete, the Manage Evidence dialog appears. Evidence items
added here will be processed using the options you selected in pre-processing.
To add evidence to a case, do the following:
1. Click Add. The Select Evidence Type dialog appears.
2. Select the type of evidence item(s) to add to the case at this time.
3. Click OK.
4. Browse to the evidence item(s) to add. Select the item(s). Click Open.
5. Complete the Manage Evidence dialog as indicated in the following table:
TABLE 4-8

Option

Description

Display Name

The filename of the evidence being added.

Path

The fill pathname of the evidence file.

ID/Name

The optional ID/Name of the evidence being added.

Description

The options description of the evidence being added. This can be
the source of the data, or other description that may prove helpful
later.

Time Zone

The time zone of the original evidence. Select a time zone from
the drop-down list.

Language Setting

Select the code page for the language to view the case in. The
Language Selection dialog contains a drop-down list of available
code pages. Select a code page and click OK.

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TABLE 4-8

Option

Description

Case KFF Options

Displays the KFF Admin dialog. Here you can view, create, edit,
or delete Defined Groups and view, edit or delete Defined Sets.
You can also choose to import or export groups or sets. Click
done when you are finished using the KFF Admin dialog.

Refinement Options

Displays the Refinement Options for Evidence Processing. This
dialog has limited options compared to the Refinement Options
selectable prior to case creation. For example, here you cannot
choose Flag Duplicate Files, and you cannot create an HTML file
listing. You cannot select Save as My Dafaults, and you cannot
Reset to Factory Defaults. Select the options to apply to the
evidence being added, then click OK to close the dialog.
6. When you are satisfied with the evidence options selected, click OK.

PROCESSING EVIDENCE
FTK shows a progress bar like the following figure.

Figure 4-9 Data Processing Status Progress Bar

Note: The count displayed in the progress bar is not equal to the number of items in the case.

VIEWING PROCESSED ITEMS
It is not necessary to wait for the program to finish processing the case to start
analyzing data. The metadata—the information about the evidence—can be viewed in

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several modes before the evidence processing is complete. When processing completes
you can view all the evidence from the various tabs.

BACKING UP THE CASE
Backup your case from the Case Manager window.
When backing up a case, FTK copies case information and database files (but not
evidence) to a chosen folder. Keep copies of your drive images and other evidence
independent of the backed-up case. Individual files and folders processed into the case
are converted to an .AD1 (custom content) image and stored in the case folder.
Case administrators backup cases and must maintain the library of backups against
unauthorized restoration, because the user that restores an archive becomes the case
administrator.
Note: FTK does not compress the backup file. A backed up case requires the same amount of
space as does the database plus the case folder.

To back up a case perform the following steps:
1. In the Case Manager window, click Case > Backup.

2. Select an archive folder location.
3. Click Save.

RESTORING A CASE
If a case is prematurely or accidentally deleted, or becomes corrupted it can be restored
from the backup.
To restore a case:
1. In the Case Manager window, click Case > Restore.

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2. Browse to and select the archive folder to be restored.
3. Click OK.

DELETING A CASE
To delete a case from the database:
1. In the Case Manager window, highlight the case to delete from the database.
2. Click Case > Delete.
3. Click Yes to confirm deletion.

STORING CASE FILES
Storing case files and evidence on the same drive substantially taxes the processors’
throughput. The system slows as it saves and reads huge files. For desktop systems in
laboratories, increase the processors’ speed by saving evidence files to a separate server
For more information, see Figure , “Choosing an Evidence Server,” on page 20.
If taking the case off-site, you can choose to compromise some processor speed for the
convenience of having your evidence and case on the same drive.

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Chapter 5 Working with Cases

After creating a case in AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) Case Manager, open the
case. Investigate the case by bookmarking and exporting relevant files, verifying the
drive image integrity, defining the evidence, and performing other tasks.

OPENING AN EXISTING CASE
Open an existing case from the FTK Case Manager. To open an existing case perform
the following steps:
1. Log on to FTK2.1.
2. Double-click on the case you want to open, or highlight the case and click Case >

Open.

ADDING EVIDENCE
After setting up a case, evidence must be added to it for processing. Additional
evidence files and images can be added and processed later, if needed, as evidence in
the case.
If a new case is being created, click OK on the New Case Options dialog to open the
Manage Evidence dialog as represented in the following figure. If evidence is being
added to an existing case, select Evidence > Add/Remove from the menu bar and
continue as shown below.
Note: Use universal naming convention (UNC) syntax in your evidence path for best results.

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Figure 5-1 Managing Evidence

To add new evidence to the case perform the following steps.
1. Click Add to choose the type of evidence items to insert into a new case.

Note: Evidence taken from any physical source that is removable, whether it is a “live” drive or
an image, will become inaccessible to the case if the drive letters change or the evidencebearing source is moved. Instead create a disk image of this drive, save it locally, or to the
drive you specified during installation, then add the disk image to the case. Otherwise, be
sure the drive will be available whenever working on the case.
2. Mark the type of evidence to add, then click OK.
3. Browse to and select the evidence item from the stored location.
4. Click OK.
Note: Folders and files not contained in an image when added to the case will be imaged in the
AD1 format and stored in the case folder.

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4a. (Optional) Click the ellipsis button

at the end of the Path field to browse

to another path.
5. Fill in the ID/Name field with any specific ID or Name data applied to this evidence

for this case.
6. Use the Description field to enter a description of the evidence being added.
7. Select the Time Zone of the evidence where it was seized in the Time Zone field.

This is required to save the added evidence.
After selecting an Evidence Type, and browsing to and selecting the evidence item,
the selected evidence displays under Display Name. The Status column shows a plus
(+) symbol to indicate that the file is being added to the case.
8. Click Refinement Options to open the Refinement Options dialog with a set similar to

the Refinement Options set at case creation.

The sections available are:

• Evidence Processing
• Evidence Refinement (Advanced)
• Index Refinement (Advanced)
For more information on Evidence Processing options, see “Selecting Evidence
Processing Options” on page 74.

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For more information on Evidence Refinement (Advanced) options, see “Selecting
Evidence Refinement (Advanced) Options” on page 79.
For more information on Index Refinement (Advanced), see “Selecting Index
Refinement (Advanced) Options” on page 83.
9. Click OK to accept the settings and to exit the Manage Evicence dialog.
10. Select the KFF Options button to display the KFF Admin dialog.

See “Using the Known File Filter” on page 156 for detailed information about the KFF.
11. Click Done to accept settings and return to the Manage Evidence dialog.
12. Click Language Settings to change the codepage for the language to view the

evidence in.
13. Click OK to add and process the evidence.

SELECTING A LANGUAGE
If you are working with a case including evidence in another language, or you are
working with a different language OS, click Language Settings from the Manage Evidence
dialog.

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Figure 5-2

The Language Setting dialog appears, allowing you to select a code page from a dropdown list. When the setting is made, click OK.

ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS
To further analyze selected evidence, click Evidence > Additional Analysis. The following
figure represents the Additional Analysis dialog.
Figure 5-3 Additional Analysis Dialog

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Most of the tasks available during the initial evidence processing remain available with
Additional Analysis. Specific items can also targeted. Multiple processing tasks can be
performed at the same time.
Make your selections based on the information in the table below. Click OK when you
are ready to continue.
TABLE 5-1 Additional

Analysis Options

Field

Description

File Hashes

These options create file hashes for the evidence.

• MD5 Hash
• SHA-1
• SHA-256
• Fuzzy Hash
• Flag Duplicates
Choosing one of these hash options creates a digital fingerprint based
on the contents of the file. This fingerprint can be used to verify file
integrity and to identify duplicate files. To flag the identified duplicate
files select Flag Duplicates.
Flag Duplicates is only available if selected during case creation.
For more information about MD5 hashes, see “Message Digest 5” on
page 293. For more information about SHA hashes, see “Secure Hash
Algorithm” on page 295.For more information about Fuzzy Hashing,
see, “Fuzzy Hashing” on page 120.
Target Items

Select the items on which to perform the additional analysis. Checked
items will be unavailable if no items are checked. The following list
shows the available options:

• Highlighted Items: Performs the additional analysis on the items
highlighted in the File List pane when you select Additional Analysis.

• Checked Items: Performs the additional analysis on the checked
evidence items in the File List pane when you select Additional
Analysis.

• Currently Listed Items: Performs the additional analysis on the
evidence items in the File List pane when you selected Additional
Analysis.

• All Items: Performs the additional analysis on all evidence items in
the case.

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TABLE 5-1 Additional

Analysis Options

Field

Description

Search Indexes

Choose dtSearch® Index to create a dtSearch index that allows index
searches.
Select Entropy Test to exclude compressed or encrypted items from the
index.

KFF

Select KFF Lookup to filter targeted files in the KFF. When KFF is
selected, the user can select to Recheck previously processed items when
searching for new information.

Carving

Click Carving Options, to select the file types to carve.
Select to either

• Data Carve
• Meta Carve
Carving uses file signatures to identify deleted files contained in the
evidence.
For further information on these selections see “Selecting Evidence
Processing Options” on page 74.
For more information on Data Carving, see “Data Carving” on
page 149.
Miscellany

These miscellaneous options apply when performing the additional
analysis:

• Expand Compound Files: Opens compound files such as ZIP
and indexes the contained files.

• Generate Thumbnails for Graphics: Generates thumbnail
graphics of the analyzed graphics.

• Flag Bad Extensions: Lists file extensions where the extension
does not match the data type from the selected and analyzed files.

• Generate File Listing (HTML): Generates a list of processed files
to an HTML file stored in C:\ftk2‐data\caseID. This option is
unavailable if this option was not selected during case generation..
For further information on using the EFS, see “Decrypting Files and
Folders” on page 163.

FILE CONTENT, PROPERTIES, AND HEX INTERPRETER TABS
The File Content, Properties, and Hex Interpreter tabbed panes default to the bottom
left of the File Content pane in any tab where it is used. Click any of these tabs to switch

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between them. The information displayed applies to the currently selected file in the
File List pane.

PROPERTIES TAB
The Properties pane is organized into the following sections:

• General Info
• File Attributes
• File Content Info
The following figure shows the File Properties pane:
Figure 5-4 Properties Tab Pane

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PROPERTIES INFO
The Properties pane contains the following file information:
TABLE 5-2

Properties File Information

Property

Description

Name

The name of the file.

Item Number

The unique number assigned to the item.

File Type

The file type, such as an HTML file or a Microsoft Word 98 document.
FTK uses the file header to identify each item’s file type.

GENERAL INFO
The General Info section displays the following information:
TABLE 5-3 Properties

Property

General Information

Description

File Size
Physical Size

The physical file size. This value includes file slack.

Logical Size

The logical file size. This value excludes file slack.

File Dates
Date Created

The date that the file was created, shown in UTC time format.

Date Accessed

The date that the file was last accessed, shown in UTC time format.

Date Modified

The date that the file was last modified, shown inUTC time format.

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FILE ATTRIBUTES
This section lists the characteristics of the item selected in the File List pane. The
attributes correspond with the columns in the File List pane, but are not editable. The
following table provides more detail:
TABLE 5-4 General

File Attributes

Property

Description

Actual

True if an actual file. False if derived from an actual file.

Start Cluster

The start cluster of the file on the disk.

Compressed

True if compressed. False otherwise.

Start Sector

The start sector of the file on the disk.

File has been examined for slack. True if the file has been examined for slack. False
otherwise.

TABLE 5-5 DOS

File Attributes

Property

Description

Hidden

True if Hidden attribute was set on file. False otherwise.

System

True if file is a DOS system file. False Otherwise

Read Only

True if Read Only attribute was set on file. False otherwise

Archive

True if Archive bit was set on file. False otherwise

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File Attributes

Property

Description

MFT Record Number

Number of the file in the MFT record.

Record Date

UTC date and time record was created.

Resident

True if the item was Resident, meaning it was stored in
the MFT and the entire file fit in the available space. False
otherwise. (If false, the file would be stored FAT fashion,
and its record would be in the $I30 file in the folder
where it was saved.)

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TABLE 5-6 NTFS

File Attributes

Property

Description

Offline

True or False value

Sparse

True or False value

Temporary

True if the item was a temporary file. False otherwise.

Owner SID

The Windows-assigned security identifier of the owner of
the object.

Group SID

The Windows-assigned security identifier of the group
that the owner of the object belongs to.

FILE CONTENT INFO
The File Content Info section displays the following information:
TABLE 5-7 File

Content Information

Property

Description

KFF Status

Indicates if the file is identified by the KFF as an illicit or contraband file,
or ignorable file.

MD5 Hash

The MD5 (16 bytes) hash of the file (default).

SHA-1 Hash

The SHA-1 (20 bytes) hash of the file (default).

SHA-256 Hash

The SHA-256 (32 bytes) hash of the file (default).

The information displayed in the Properties tab is file-type-dependent, so the selected
file determines what displays. Additional information, if available and depending on file
type, also displays.

THE HEX INTERPRETER TAB
The Hex Value Interpreter tab converts hexadecimal values selected in the File Content
View from the Hex tab into decimal integers and possible time and date values, as well
as Unicode strings. This feature is most useful if you are familiar with the internal code
structure of different file types and know where to look for specific data patterns or
time and date information.
Note: The bar symbol indicates that the character font is not available, or that an unassigned
space is not filled.

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To use the interpreter, complete the following procedure:
1. Switch the File Content pane to Hex view.
2. Select one to eight (more with the Unicode string) couplets.

A variety of possible values of the selected code display in the interpreter. Select Bigendian or Little-endian to change the byte order view,

3. Right-click the Hex view to see a context menu with more options.

The following table lists the available options and their descriptions:
TABLE 5-8 File

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Content Hex View Right-click Menu Options

• Select all

• Show decimal offsets

• Copy text

• Show text only

• Copy hex

• Fit to windows

• Copy Unicode

• Save current settings

• Copy raw data

• Got to offset

• Save Selection

• Save selection as carved file

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4. Click Save selection as carved file to manually carve data from files, and the Go to Offset
dialog to specify offset amounts and origins. Click OK to close Go To Offset dialog.

USING THE BOOKMARK INFORMATION PANE
A bookmark contains a group of files that you want to reference in your case. These are
selected and the list is stored for use in the report output.
Bookmarks help organize the case evidence by grouping related or similar files. For
example, you can create a bookmark of graphics that contain similar drive images. The
bookmark information pane is highlighted in the following figure.

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Figure 5-5 Bookmark Information Pane

The Bookmarks tab lists all bookmarks that have been created in the current case

CREATING A BOOKMARK
Files can be bookmarked from any tab in FTK. To create a bookmark follow these
steps:

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1. Right-click the files or thumbnails you want to bookmark, and click Create Bookmark

or click the Bookmark button on the File List Toolbar to open the Create New
Bookmark dialog.

2. Enter a name for the bookmark in the Bookmark Name field.
3. (Optional) In the Bookmark Comment field, type comments about the bookmark or

its contents.
4. Click one of the following options to specify which items to add to the bookmark:

• All Highlighted: Highlighted items from the current file list. Items remain
highlighted only as long as the same tab is displayed.

• All Checked: All items checked in the case.
• All Listed: Bookmarks the contents of the File List.
5. (Optional)Type a description for each file in the File Comment field.
6. Click Attach to add files external to the case that should be referenced from this

bookmark. The files appear in the Supplementary Files pane, and are copied to the
case folder.

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7. For FTK to remember the highlighted text in a file and automatically highlight it

when the bookmark is re-opened, check Bookmark Selection in File. The highlighted
text also prints in the report.
8. Select the parent bookmark under which you would like to save the bookmark.
FTK provides a processed tree for bookmarks available to all investigators, and a

bookmark tree specific to the case owner.
If the bookmark is related to an older bookmark it can be added with the older
bookmark as the parent.
9. Click OK.

VIEWING BOOKMARK INFORMATION
The Bookmark Information pane displays information about the selected bookmark
and the selected bookmark file. The data in this pane is editable by anyone with
sufficient rights.
Select a bookmark in the Bookmarks view of the Bookmarks tab, or in the Bookmarks
node in the tree of the Overview tab to view information about a bookmark. The
Overview tab view provides limited information about the bookmarks in the case. The
Bookmark tab provides all information about all bookmarks in the case. In the
Bookmark tab, the Bookmark Information pane displays the Bookmark Name, Creator
Name, Bookmark Comment, and Supplementary files. When selected, a list of files
contained in the bookmark displays in the File List. If you select a file from the File List
the comment and selection information pertaining to that file display in the Bookmark
Information pane.
The Bookmark Information pane contains these fields:
TABLE 5-9 Bookmark

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Information Pane Information

Field

Description

Bookmark Name

The name of the bookmark, click Save Changes to store any
changes made to this field.

Bookmark Comment

The investigator can assign a text comment to the bookmark.
Click Save Changes to store any changes made to this field at
any time.

Creator Name

The FTK2 user who created the bookmark.

Supplementary Files

Displays a list of external, supplementary files associated with
the bookmark.

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TABLE 5-9 Bookmark

Information Pane Information

Field

Description

File Comment

The investigator can assign a different comment to each file
in the bookmark. Click Save Changes to store any changes
made to this field.

Attach File

Allows the investigator to add external supplementary files to
the bookmark, these files are copied to a subdirectory within
the case folder and referenced from there.

Remove File

Removes a selected supplementary file from the bookmark.

Selection(s)

Displays a list of stored selections within the selected file.

Add Selection

Stores the cursor position, selection boundaries, and tab
selection of the swept text in the File Content pane. This
button does not store selection information for the Media or
Web tabs.

Remove Selection

Remove the highlighted selection from the Selections list.

Selection Comment

Each file within the bookmark may contain an unlimited
number of selections, each of which the investigator may
assign a comment. Click Save Changes to store any changes
made to this field. These notes can be edited.

Save Changes

Stores the changes made to the bookmark information.

Clear Changes

Clears any unsaved changes made to the bookmark
information.

Change any of the information displayed from this pane. Changes are automatically
saved when you change the bookmark selection, but you must manually save your
changes if you plan on closing FTK before selecting a different bookmark.

BOOKMARKING SELECTED TEXT
Bookmarked selections are independent of the view in which they were made. Select
hex data in the Hex view of a bookmarked file and save it; bookmark different text in
the Filtered view of the same file and save that selection as well.
To add selected text in a bookmark perform the following steps:
1. Open the file containing the text you want to select.
2. From the Natural, Text, Filtered or Hex views, make your selection.
Note: If the file is a graphic file, you will not see, nor be able to make selections in the Text
or the Natural views.

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3. Click Create Bookmark in the File List toolbar to open the Create New Bookmark

dialog.
4. When creating your bookmark, check Bookmark Selection in File.

The selection remains in the bookmark.

ADDING EVIDENCE TO AN EXISTING BOOKMARK
Sometimes additional evidence is desired in a bookmark. To add the evidence, follow
these steps:
1. Right-click the new file.

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2. Click Add to Bookmark.

3. Select the parent bookmark.
4. Select the child bookmark to add the file to.
5. Click OK.

CREATING EMAIL OR EMAIL ATTACHMENT BOOKMARKS
When bookmarking an email FTK allows the addition of any attachments. FTK also
allows the inclusion of a parent email when bookmarking attachments to an email.
To create a bookmark for an email, follow the steps for creating a bookmark. Select the
email to include in the bookmark. Right-click and choose Create Bookmark. Note that
the Email Attachments box is active, but unmarked. If only the parent email is needed
the Email Attachments box can remain unselected. The following figure displays the
Create New Bookmark dialog for an email with the Email Attachments checkbox
selected.

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Figure 5-6 Create New Bookmark with Email Attachments

If you need to bookmark only an attachment of the email, select and right-click on the
attachment. Choose Create Bookmark. (For more information on creating bookmarks,
see, “Creating a Bookmark” on page 104.) Note that the Parent Email box is
automatically active, allowing you to include the parent email. If the Parent Email box is
checked, the Email Attachments box becomes active, allowing you to also include all
attachments to the parent email. To add only the originally selected attachment to the
bookmark, do not check the Parent Email box. The following figure displays the Create
New Bookmark dialog with the Parent Email checkbox selected.

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Figure 5-7 Create New Bookmark with Parent Email Selected

ADDING EMAIL AND EMAIL ATTACHMENTS TO BOOKMARKS
To add an email to a bookmark, select the email to add, then right-click on the email
and choose Add To Bookmark. (For more information see, “Adding Evidence to an
Existing Bookmark” on page 108). Note that the Email Attachments box is active, but
not marked. If only the parent email is needed the Email Attachments box can remain
unselected. To include the attachment’s parent email, mark the box. The following
figure displays the Add Files to Bookmark dialog with the Email Attachments
checkbox selected.

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Figure 5-8 Add Files to Bookmark with Email Attachments Selected

If only an attachment of an email is needed to be added to the bookmark, select the
attachment and follow the instructions for adding to a bookmark. (For more
information on adding to bookmarks, see, “Adding Evidence to an Existing
Bookmark” on page 108.) Note that the Parent Email box is automatically active, but
not selected, giving the opportunity to select the parent email if you wish to include it
with the attachment to the bookmark.The following figure displays the Add Files to
Bookmark dialog with the Parent Email checkbox selected.

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Figure 5-9 Add Files to Bookmark with Parent Email Selected

MOVING A BOOKMARK
The following steps detail how to move a bookmark:
1. From either the Bookmark or Overview tab, select the bookmark you want to move.
2. Using the left or right mouse button, drag the bookmark to the desired location and

release the mouse button.

REMOVING A BOOKMARK
Use the following steps to remove a bookmark:
1. In the Bookmark tab, expand the bookmark list and highlight the bookmark to be

removed.
2. Press the Delete key.

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DELETING FILES FROM A BOOKMARK
Use the following steps to delete files from bookmarks:
1. Right-click the file in the Bookmark File List.
2. Select Remove from Bookmark.

VERIFYING DRIVE IMAGE INTEGRITY
A drive image can be altered or corrupted due to bad media, bad connectivity during
image creation, or by deliberate tampering. To validate the integrity of your case
evidence, FTK allows you to determine if a drive image has changed from the original
evidence drive, or the original image. This feature works with file types that store the
hash within the drive image itself, such as EnCase* and SMART* images.
To verify a drive image’s integrity, FTK generates a hash of the current file and
compares that to the hash of the originally acquired drive image.
To verify that a drive image has not changed do the following steps:
1. Select Tools > Verify Image Integrity to open the Verify Image Integrity dialog.

In case the image file does not contain a stored hash, FTK can calculate one. The
Verify Image Integrity dialog provides the following information:
TABLE 5-10 Verify

114

Image Integrity

Column

Description

Image Name

Displays the filename of the drive image to be verified.

Path

Displays the path to the location of the drive image file.

Command

Click Verify to begin hashing the drive image file.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

2. Click either Calculate, or Verify according to what displays in the Command column,

to begin hashing the evidence file.

The Progress Dialog appears and displays the status of the verification. If the image file
has a stored hash, when the verification is complete, the dialog shows and compares
both hashes. Completing the processes may take some time, depending on the size of
the evidence, the processor type, and the amount of available RAM.

COPYING INFORMATION FROM FTK
The Copy Special dialog allows you to copy information about the files in your case to
the clipboard. The file information can include any column item, such as filename, file
path, file category and so forth. The data is copied in a tab-delimited format.
To copy file information perform the following steps:
1. In the file list on any tab, select the files that you want to copy information about.

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2. Select Edit > Copy Special, click the Copy Special button on the file list pane, or right-

click the file in the file list and click Copy Special.

3. In the Copy Special dialog, select from the following:
TABLE 5-11 Copy

Item
Choose Columns

Special Dialog Options
Description
From the drop-down, select the column template to use, or click
Column Settings to create a custom template.

Include header row Mark box to include a header row that uses the column headings you
selected. Leave box empty to export the data with no header row.
All Highlighted

All items highlighted in the current file list. Items remain highlighted
only as long as the same tab is displayed.

All Checked

All items checked in all file lists. The user can check files in multiple
lists. Checked items remain checked until user unchecks them.

Currently Listed

All items in the current file list.

All

All items in the case.

4. In the Choose Columns drop-down list, select the column template that contains the

file information that you want to copy.
5. To define a new column settings template click Column Settings to open the Column

Settings manager.
5a. Create the column settings template you need.
5b. Click Save to save the changes.

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5c. Close the Column Settings manager.
5d. Select the new columns setting template from the drop-down list.

For more information about Column Settings, see “Creating and Modifying Column
Settings” on page 198.
6. Click OK to initiate the Copy Special task.

EXPORT FILE LIST INFO
The Export File List Info dialog, as displayed in the following figure, provides the copy
special options with the ability to save the information to a file. This file can be saved in
.tsv, .txt, or .csv format. Text files of this sort are .tsv files that displayed in a text editor
program like Notepad*. Files saved in .tsv or .csv display in the default spreadsheet
program.
Figure 5-10 Export File List Info Dialog

Select the Save As options, All Highlighted, All Checked, All Listed, or All, and choose
whether to include a Header Row for the exported file. Select the file type for the
exported data. The default filename is FileList; change it if you choose. The location for
the file is the case folder. Choose the data set to use from the Choose Columns drop-

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down, or click Column Settings to define your own columns template. For information
on Copy Special, see “Copying Information from FTK” on page 115.

EXPORTING FILES
FTK allows the export of files used in the investigation. Files can be exported for

additional processing or distribution to other parties. For example, encrypted files can
be exported to decrypt using Password Recovery Toolkit (PRTK). Similarly, registry files
can be exported to analyze them using the Registry Viewer. (Neither PRTK or Registry
Viewer can read files within a drive image.) The following figure represents the Export
Files dialog.
Figure 5-11 Export Files Dialog

Note: Bookmarked files and graphics can be automatically exported with reports. For more
information about exporting files with a report, see “Creating a Bookmark” on page 104.

To export files do the following:
1. Click File > Export, or right click on a file in the File List pane and choose Export.

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2. Select the export options you want from the Export dialog based on the table below.
TABLE 5-12

Option

Description

Append Item number to Filename

Appends the FTK unique File ID to a filename.

Append extension to filename if
bad/absent

Adds the extension to a filename if it is bad or missing,
based on the file’s header information.

Expand containers (email archives,
email attachments, etc.)

Expands container-type files and exports their
contents.

Save HTML view (if available)

If a file can be exported and saved in HTML format, it
will be done.

Export directory as file

Creates a file containing the binary data of the directory
being exported.

Export children

Exports all child files of a parent folder.

Include original path

Includes the full path from the root to the file;
maintains folder structure for exported files.

Export slack space as files

Exports slack space from files and saves it as files for
easier viewing.

3. Select the Items to Include..
TABLE 5-13 Export

Files Selection Options

Target Item

Description

All Highlighted Files

All items highlighted in the current file list. Items remain
highlighted only as long as the same tab is displayed.

All Checked Files

All items checked in all file lists. You can check files in multiple
lists.

All Currently Listed Files

All items in the current file list.

All Files in Case

All items in the case.

Each item displays its filename and path.
4. In the Destination Path field, browse to and select the export the file location.

The default path is C:\case_folder\Report\Export\.
5. Click OK to begin the export.

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EXPORTING FILE LIST INFO
To export a list containing column headings and other information from the File List
perform the following steps:
1. Select File > Export File List Info, or click Export File List on the File List pane, or

right-click on a file in the File List pane and select Export File List Info.
2. Select the File List Items to Export
3. Choose whether to include a header row in the exported file
4. Select column information
5. Specify the filename for the exported information.
6. Browse to and select the destination folder for the exported file.
7. Click Save.

EXPORTING THE WORD LIST
The contents of the case index can be exported to use as the basis for a custom
dictionary in the password recovery process. You must have indexed the case to export
the word list. If you have not done so, click Evidence > Additional Analysis. In the
Additional Analysis dialog, under Search Indexes, mark the dtSearch Index check box,
then click OK. When the index is complete, you can export the word list by doing the
following:
1. Select File > Export Word List.
2. Select the file and location to which you want to write the word list.

The default filename is Ftk2WordList.txt. If you intend to use the wordlist as the
basis for a custom dictionary in DNA or PRTK, it is a good idea to name the
wordlist by the casename. For example, FTK2PreciousWordList.txt
3. Click Save.

FUZZY HASHING
Fuzzy hashing is a tool which provides the ability to compare two distinctly different
files and determine a fundamental level of similarity. This similarity is expressed as
score from 1-100. The higher the score reported the more similar the two pieces of
data. A score of 100 would indicate that the files are close to identical. Alternatively a
score of 0 would indicate no meaningful sequence of data between the two files.

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Traditional forensic hashes (MD5, SHA1, SHA256, etc) are useful to quickly identify
known data and to ensure that files have been forensically preserved. However, these
types of hashes cannot indicate how closely two non-identical files match. This is when
fuzzy hashing is useful.
In AccessData applications fuzzy hashes are organized into a library. This library is
very similar in concept to the AccessData KFF library. The fuzzy hash library contains
of a set of hashes for known files that can be compared to evidence files in order to
determine if there are any files which may be relevant to a case. Fuzzy hash libraries are
organized into groups. Each group contains a set of hashes and a threshold. The group
threshold is a number the investigator chooses to indicate how closely an evidence item
must match a hash in the group to be considered a match and to be included as
evidence.

CREATING A FUZZY HASH LIBRARY
There are two ways to create a fuzzy hash library. The first way is to drag and drop a
file, or files, from a disk into the Fuzzy Hash Library screen. The second way is to right
click on the file and select, ‘Add to Fuzzy Hash Library ’. To get to the Fuzzy Hash
Library screen go to Tools>Fuzzy Hash>Manage Library.

SELECTING FUZZY HASH OPTIONS DURING INITIAL PROCESSING
Follow these steps to initialize fuzzy hashing during initial processing or when adding
additional evidence to a case:

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1. After choosing to create a new case, click Detailed Options.

2. Select Fuzzy Hash.
2a. (Optional) If FTK already refers to a fuzzy hash library, you can select to match

the new evidence against the existing library by selecting Match Fuzzy Hash
Library.
2b. Click Fuzzy Hash Options to set additional options for fuzzy hashing.

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2c. Set the size of files to hash. The size defaults to 20 MB, 0 indicates no limit.
2d. Click OK to set the value.
3. Select OK to close the detailed options dialog.

ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS FUZZY HASHING
Fuzzy hashing can also be initialized on the current data by the following steps:
1. Click Evidence > Additional Analysis.

2. Select Fuzzy Hash.
2a. (Optional) Select if the evidence needs to matched against the fuzzy hash

library.
2b. (Optional) If performing this additional analysis after adding new information,

the fuzzy hashing can be done again against previously processed items.

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2c. (Optional) Click Fuzzy Hash Options to open the Fuzzy Hash Options dialog.

2d. Set the file size limit on the files to be hashed.
2e. Click OK.
3. Click OK to close the Additional Analysis dialog and begin the fuzzy hashing.

COMPARING FILES USING FUZZY HASHING
To compare a file to another file or group of files go to Tools>Fuzzy Hash>Find Similar
Files. This option allows you to select a file hash to compare against. You can specify
the minimum match similarity that you want in this screen. This screen can also be
accessed by right clicking on a file and selecting Find Similar Files.

VIEWING FUZZY HASH RESULTS
To view the fuzzy hash results in FTK, several pre-defined column settings can be
selected in the Column Settings field under the Common Features category. Those
settings are: Fuzzy Hash, Fuzzy Hash blocksize, Fuzzy Hash library group, Fuzzy Hash
library score, and Fuzzy Hash library status.

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The following table shows the column settings and the description of each:
TABLE 5-14 Fuzzy

Hash Column Settings

Column Setting

Description

Fuzzy Hash blocksize

Dictates which fuzzy hash values can be used to
compare against a file. Fuzzy hashes can only be
compared to another fuzzy hash value which is half
the fuzzy hash value, the actual fuzzy hash value, or
two times the fuzzy hash value.

Fuzzy Hash Library Group The highest matching group value for a file. To find all
of the library groups which have been used to
compare a file against, double click on the value in
column settings.
Fuzzy Hash

is the actual fuzzy hash value given to a file.

Fuzzy Hash Library Score

The value of the highest group score a file has been
compared against. To find all of the library scores,
double click on the value in the column settings.

Fuzzy Hash Library Status

Set to either alert or ignore, which is similar to the KFF alert
or ignore settings.

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Chapter 6 Searching a Case

Searching evidence for information pertaining to a case can be one of the most crucial
steps in the examination. AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) provides three different
live search modes: hexadecimal, pattern (or “regular expression”), and text. Search
results, or “hits,” appear highlighted in the File Content view.

CONDUCTING A LIVE SEARCH
The live search is a time-consuming process involving an item-by-item comparison
with the search term. A live search is flexible because it can find patterns of nonalphanumeric characters.
Live search also supports pattern searches. Pattern searches, also called regular
expression searches, are searches for mathematical statements that describe a data
pattern such as a credit card or social security number. Pattern searches allow the
discovery of data items that conform to the pattern described by the expression. For
more information about regular expressions and syntax, see “Conducting a Pattern
Search” on page 130.
AccessData recommends live searching for items an index search cannot find.
To perform a live search do the following steps:
1. In the Live Search tab, click the Text, Pattern, or Hex tab.

In the Text or Pattern tabs, check the character sets to include in the search. If
Unicode is selected, you To include sets other than ANSI and Unicode, check Other
Code Pages, then click Select.

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Note: You must select at least one of the CodePage choices. If you try to unselect all of the
choices on the CodePage selection bar, the next available option is automatically marked.

2. Click to select the needed sets.
3. Click to include EBCDIC, Mac, and Multibyte as needed.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
5. Click to mark Case Sensitive if you want to search specifically uppercase or
lowercase letters. FTK ignores case if this box is not checked.
6. Enter the term in the Search Term field.
7. Click Add to add the term to the Search Terms window.
8. Click Clear to remove all search terms.
9. In the Max Hits Per File field, enter the maximum number of times you want a
search hit to be listed per file. The default is 200.
10. (Optional) Apply a filter from the drop-down list. Applying a filter speeds searching

by eliminating items that do not match the filter.
11. Click Search.
Note: Click Cancel in the Data Processing Status dialog to halt the search.

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12. Select the results to see from the Live Search Results pane. Click the plus icon (+)

next to a search line to expand the branch. Individual search results are listed in the
Live Search Results pane, and the corresponding files are listed in the File List. To
view a specific item, select the file in the search results. All search results are
highlighted in the Hex View tab.
Right-click on a search result in the Live Searhc Results pane to display more
options. The available right-click options are as follows:
TABLE 6-1 Right-Click

Options in Live Search Results Pane

Option

Description

Create Bookmark

Opens the Create New Bookmark dialog.

Copy to Clipboard

Opens a new context-sensitive menu. Options are:

• All Hits In Case
• All Hist In Search
• All File Stats In Case
• All File Stats In Search
Export to File

Opens a new context-sensitive menu. Options are:

• All Hits In Case
• All Hist In Search
• All File Stats In Case
• All File Stats In Search
Set Context Data Width

Opens the Data Export Options window. Allows you to set
a context width from 32 to 2000 characters within which to
fine the search hit.

Delete All Search Results

Deletes all search results from the Live Search Results pane.

Delete this Line

Deletes only the highlighted search results line from the Live
Search Results pane.

Important: Searching before the case has finished processing will return
incomplete results. Wait to search until the case has finished processing
and the entire body of data is available.

CUSTOMIZING THE LIVE SEARCH TAB
Change the order of the Live Search tabs by dragging and dropping them into the
desired order. The following figure shows the live search tabs.

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Figure 6-1 Live Search Tabs

For more information on customizing the FTK user interface, see “Customizing the
Interface” on page 191.

CONDUCTING A PATTERN SEARCH
Pattern searching, also known as regular expression searching, allows forensics analysts
to search through large quantities of text information for repeating formats of data
such as:

•
•
•
•

Telephone Numbers
Social Security Numbers
Computer IP Addresses
Credit Card Numbers

Pattern searches are similar to arithmetic expressions that have operands, operators,
sub-expressions, and a value. For example, the following table identifies the
mathematical components in the arithmetic expression, 5/((1+2)*3):
TABLE 6-2 Mathematical

Components of Arithmetic Expressions

Component

Example

Operands

5, 1, 2, 3

Operators

/ , ( ), + , *

Sub-Expressions

(1+2), ((1+2)*3)

Value

Approximately 0.556

Note: Unlike arithmetic expressions, which can only have numeric operands, operands in
pattern searches can be any characters that can be typed on a keyboard, such as
alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic characters.

SIMPLE PATTERN SEARCHES
A simple pattern search can be made up entirely of operands. For example, the pattern
search dress causes the search engine to return a list of all files that contain the sequence

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of characters d r e s s. The pattern search dress corresponds to a very specific and
restricted pattern of text, that is, sequences of text that contain the sub-string dress. Files
containing the words “dress,” “address,” “dressing,” and “dresser,” are returned in a
search for the pattern search dress.
The search engine searches left to right. So in searching the pattern search dress, the
search engine opens each file and scans its contents line by line, looking for a d,
followed by an r, followed by an e, and so on.

COMPLEX PATTERN SEARCHES
Operators allow regular expressions to search patterns of data rather than specific
values. For example, the operators in the following expression enables the FTK search
engine to find all Visa and MasterCard credit card numbers in case evidence files:
\<((\d\d\d\d)[\– ]){3}\d\d\d\d\>

Without the use of operators, the search engine could look for only one credit card
number at a time.
The following table identifies the components in the Visa and MasterCard regular
expression:
TABLE 6-3 Visa

and MasterCard Regular Expressions

Component

Example

Operands

\–, spacebar space

Operators

\, <, ( ), [ ], {3}, \>

Sub-expressions

(\d\d\d\d), ((\d\d\d\d)[\– ])

Value

Any sequence of sixteen decimal digits that is delimited by three
hyphens and bound on both sides by non-word characters (xxxx–
xxxx–xxxx–xxxx).

As the pattern search engine evaluates an expression in left-to-right order, the first
operand it encounters is the backslash less-than combination (\<). This combination is
also known as the begin-a-word operator. This operator tells the search engine that the
first character in any search hit immediately follows a non-word character such as white
space or other word delimiter.

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Note: A precise definition of non-word characters and constituent-word characters in regular
expressions is difficult to find. Consequently, experimentation by FTK users may be the
best way to determine if the forward slash less-than (\<) and forward slash greater-than
(\>) operators help find the data patterns relevant to a specific searching task. The
hyphen and the period are examples of valid delimiters or non-word characters.

The begin-a-word operator illustrates one of two uses of the backslash or escape
character ( \ ), used for the modification of operands and operators. On its own, the
left angle bracket (<) would be evaluated as an operand, requiring the search engine to
look next for a left angle bracket character. However, when the escape character
immediately precedes the (<), the two characters are interpreted together as the begina-word operator by the search engine. When an escape character precedes a hyphen (-)
character, which is normally considered to be an operator, the two characters (\ -)
require the search engine to look next for a hyphen character and not apply the hyphen
operator (the meaning of the hyphen operator is discussed below).
The parentheses operator ( ) group together a sub-expression, that is, a sequence of
characters that must be treated as a group and not as individual operands.
The \d operator, which is another instance of an operand being modified by the escape
character, is interpreted by the search engine to mean that the next character in search
hits found may be any decimal digit character from 0-9.
The square brackets ([ ]) indicate that the next character in the sequence must be one of
the characters listed between the brackets or escaped characters. In the case of the
credit card expression, the backslash-hyphen-spacebar space ([\-spacebar space]) means
that the four decimal digits must be followed by a hyphen or a spacebar space.
The {3} means that the preceding sub-expression must repeat three times, back to
back. The number in the curly brackets ({ }) can be any positive number.
Finally, the back slash greater-than combination (\ >), also know as the end-a-word
operator, means that the preceding expression must be followed by a non-word
character.
Sometimes there are ways to search for the same data using different expressions. It
should be noted that there is no one-to-one correspondence between the expression
and the pattern it is supposed to find. Thus the preceding credit card pattern search is
not the only way to search for Visa or MasterCard credit card numbers. Because some
pattern search operators have related meanings, there is more than one way to compose

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a pattern search to find a specific pattern of text. For instance, the following pattern
search has the same meaning as the preceding credit card expression:
\<((\d\d\d\d)(\–| )){3}\d\d\d\d\>

The difference here is the use of the pipe ( | ) or union operator. The union operator
means that the next character to match is either the left operand (the hyphen) or the
right operand (the spacebar space). The similar meaning of the pipe ( | ) and square
bracket ([ ]) operators give both expressions equivalent functions.
In addition to the previous two examples, the credit card pattern search could be
composed as follows:
\<\d\d\d\d(\–| )\d\d\d\d(\–| )\d\d\d\d(\–| )\d\d\d\d\>

This expression explicitly states each element of the data pattern, whereas the {3}
operator in the first two examples provides a type of mathematical shorthand for more
succinct regular expressions.

PREDEFINED REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
FTK provides the following predefined regular expressions to be used in pattern
searches, such as items on the following list:

•
•
•
•
•

U.S. Social Security Numbers
U.S. Phone Numbers
U.K. Phone Numbers
IP Addresses
Visa and MasterCard Numbers

Select regular expressions from drop-down lists under the arrows:

• Click the black arrow

to see a list, as displayed in the following figure, of the
basic components for regular expressions. You can create your own pattern by
combing these components into a longer expression.

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Figure 6-2 Regular Expressions Components

• Click the white arrow

to see a list of predefined expressions, as displayed in

the following table:
TABLE 6-4 Predefined

134

Pattern Searches

MAC Address

URL {http, https, ftp, ftps}

Mailto:

... .com

... .edu

... .info

... .net

... .org

... .gov

... .museum

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 6-4 Predefined

Pattern Searches

... .tv

... .

...@... .com

...@... .edu

...@... .gov

...@... .net

...@... .org

...@... . email address

AMEX

Visa

Mastercard 1

Discover

Credit Card Standard

Web Credit Card Transaction Receipt
with X or #

Kazaa DAT file

Kazaa DBB

Limewire DAT

Link File Parser (fast) - (Run on
Unallocated)

Info2 Files FAST All Years

INFO2-Expanded (Run on
Unallocated)

MSN Hotmail Beginning

MSN Hotmail End

HTML Search Engine Return - Google
Search

INDEX.dat entries and Search Engine
Return - Google Search

HTML Search Engine Return Ebay.com, search.aol.com, mamma.com

THTML Search Engine - Ask Jeeves

Orphaned Index.dat Files (with date)

Orphaned Index.dat Files (Without
Date)

Orphaned Histore Index.dat Files

Orphaned Index.dat Cookie Files

IP Address

US Phone Number

UK Phone Number

Social Security Number

Edit Expressions

The Social Security Number, U.S. Phone Number, and IP Address expressions are
discussed in the following sections.

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SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER
The pattern search for Social Security numbers follows a relatively simple model:
\<\d\d\d[\– ]\d\d[\– ]\d\d\d\d\>

This expression reads as follows: find a sequence of text that begins with three decimal
digits, followed by a hyphen or spacebar space. This sequence is followed by two more
decimal digits and a hyphen or spacebar space, followed by four more decimal digits.
This entire sequence must be bounded on both ends by non-word characters.

U.S. PHONE NUMBER
The pattern search for U.S. phone numbers is more complex:
((\<1[\–\. ])?(\(|\<)\d\d\d[\)\.\–/ ] ?)?\<\d\d\d[\.\– ]\d\d\d\d\>

The first part of the above expression, ((\<1[\–\. ])?(\(|\<)\d\d\d[\)\.\–/ ] ?)?, means
that an area code may or may not precede the seven digit phone number. This meaning
is achieved through the use of the question mark (?) operator. This operator requires
that the sub-expression immediately to its left appear exactly zero or one times in any
search hits. The U.S. Phone Number expression finds telephone numbers with or
without area codes.
This expression also indicates that if an area code is present, a number one (1) may or
may not precede the area code. This meaning is achieved through the sub-expression
(\<1[\–\. ])?, which says that if there is a “1” before the area code, it will follow a nonword character and be separated from the area code by a delimiter (period, hyphen, or
spacebar space).
The next sub-expression, (\(|\<)\d\d\d[\)\.\–/ ] ?, specifies how the area code must
appear in any search hits. The \(|\<) requires that the area code begin with a left
parenthesis or other delimiter. The left parenthesis is, of necessity, escaped. The initial
delimiter is followed by three decimal digits, then another delimiter, a right parenthesis,
a period, a hyphen, a forward slash, or a spacebar space. Lastly, the question mark (?)
means that there may or may not be one spacebar space after the final delimiter.
The latter portion of this expression, \<\d\d\d[\.\– ]\d\d\d\d\>, requests a seven-digit
phone number with a delimiter (period, hyphen, or spacebar space) between the third
and fourth decimal digit characters. Note that typically, the period is an operator. It
means that the next character in the pattern can be any valid character. To specify an

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actual period (.), the character must be escaped ( \ .). The backslash period combination
is included in the expression to catch phone numbers delimited by a period character.

IP ADDRESS
An IP address is a 32-bit value that uniquely identifies a computer on a TCP/IP network,
including the Internet. Currently, all IP addresses are represented by a numeric
sequence of four fields separated by the period character. Each field can contain any
number from 0 to 255. The following pattern search locates IP addresses:
\<[1-2]?[0-9]?[0-9]\.[1-2]?[0-9]?[0-9]\.[1-2]?[0-9]?[0-9]\.[1-2]?[0-9]?[0-9]\>

The IP Address expression requires the search engine to find a sequence of data with
four fields separated by periods (.). The data sequence must also be bound on both
sides by non-word characters.
Note that the square brackets ([ ]) still behave as a set operator, meaning that the next
character in the sequence can be any one of the values specified in the square brackets
([ ]). Also note that the hyphen (-) is not escaped; it is an operator that expresses ranges
of characters.
Each field in an IP address can contain up to three characters. Reading the expression
left to right, the first character, if present, must be a 1 or a 2. The second character, if
present, can be any value 0–9. The square brackets ([ ]) indicate the possible range of
characters and the question mark (?) indicates that the value is optional; that is, it may
or may not be present. The third character is required; therefore, there is no question
mark. However, the value can still be any number 0–9.
You can begin building your own regular expressions by experimenting with the default
expressions in FTK. You can modify the default expressions to fine-tune your data
searches or to create your own expressions.

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COMMON OPERATORS
The following is a list of common operators:
TABLE 6-5 Common

Regular Expressions Operators

Operators

Description

+

Matches the preceding sub-expression one or more times. For example,
“ba+” will find all instances of “ba,” “baa,” “baaa,” and so forth; but it will
not find “b.”

$

Matches the end of a line.

*

Matches the preceding sub-expression zero or more times. For example,
“ba*” will find all instances of “b,” “ba,” “baa,” “baaa,” and so forth.

?

Matches the preceding sub-expression zero or one times.

[]

Matches any single value within the square brackets. For example, “ab[xyz]”
will find “abx,” “aby,” and “abz.”
A hyphen (-) specifies ranges of characters with the brackets. For example,
“ab[0-3]” will find “ab0,” “ab1,” “ab2,” and “ab3.” You can also specify case
specific ranges such as [a-r], or [B-M].

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‘

(Back quote) Starts the search at the beginning of a file.

‘

(Single quote) Starts the search at the end of a file.

\<

Matches the beginning of a word. In other words, the next character in any
search hit must immediately follow a non-word character.

\>

Matches the end of a word.

|

Matches either the sub-expression on the left or the right. For example, A|u
requires that the next character in a search hit be “A” or “u.”

\b

Positions the cursor between characters and spaces.

\B

Matches anything not at a word boundary. For example, will find Bob in the
name Bobby.

\d

Matches any decimal digit.

\l

Matches any lowercase letter.

\n

Matches a new line.

\r

Matches a return.

\s

Matches any white space character such as a space or a tab.

\t

Matches a tab.

\u

Matches any uppercase letter.

\w

Matches any whole character [a-z A-Z 0-9].

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TABLE 6-5 Common

Regular Expressions Operators

Operators

Description

^

Matches the start of a line.

[[:alpha:]]

Matches any alpha character (short for the [a-z A-Z] operator).

[[:alnum:]]

Matches any alpha numerical character (short for the [a-z A-Z 0-9] operator).

[[:blank:]]

Matches any whitespace, except for line separators.

{n,m}

Matches the preceding sub-expression at least n times, but no more than m
times.

CONDUCTING HEX SEARCHES
Click the Hex (Hexadecimal) Search tab, to enter a term by typing it directly into the
search field, or by clicking the Hexadecimal character buttons provided, as displayed in
the following figure.
Figure 6-3 Hex Search Tab

The instructions for conducting a live search on the hex tab are similar to conducting
searches on the Pattern tab. For more information on conducting a Pattern search, see
the beginning of this section, “Conducting a Pattern Search” on page 130.

CONDUCTING TEXT SEARCHES
The difference between a Pattern search and a Text search is that a text search searches
for the exact typed text, there are no operands so the results return exactly as typed.
Also, there are no arrows to click for operand selection as displayed in the following
graphic.

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Figure 6-4 Live Search: Text Search Tab

Otherwise apply the instructions for the pattern search to this search. For more
information on conducting a pattern search see “Conducting a Pattern Search” on
page 130.

CONDUCTING AN INDEX SEARCH
The index search uses index files to find the search term. Evidence items may be
indexed when they are first added to the case or at a later time. AccessData
recommends always indexing a case before beginning analysis.
For more information about indexing an evidence item, see “Indexing a Case” on
page 77. The following figure displays the FTK window with the Index Seach tab
selected.

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Figure 6-5 Index Search Tab

The index files contain all discrete words or number strings found in both the allocated
and unallocated space in the case evidence. FTK2 does not index spaces or symbols,
including the following:
.,:;"’~!#$%^& =+.

In addition to performing searches within the case, you can also use the index as a
dictionary for password recovery processes in the Password Recovery Toolkit (PRTK).
You can export the index by selecting File > Export Word List.

SEARCH TERMS
Type the term or its dialog in the Search Term field. The term and terms like it appear
in the Indexed Words column displaying the number of times that particular term was
found in the data. Click Add to place the term to the Search Terms list, or double-click
a term from the indexed words column to add it to the Search Terms list.

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SEARCH CRITERIA
Refine a search even more by using the Boolean operators AND and OR. You can
specify the terms to use in an indexed search by selecting specific entries, or by
searching against all entries. Click Clear to clear these search criteria. If any items are
selected, clicking Clear will clear the selected item(s) only. If no items, or all items, are
selected, clicking Clear will clear all items from the list.

Important: When creating your search criteria, try to focus your search to
bring up the smallest number of meaningful hits per search.
Click Export to save a set of search terms, then save the file.
Click Import to apply a set of search terms then select the file you previously saved.

INDEX SEARCH OPTIONS
To conduct an index search, select the Options button to refine the search by opening
the Indexed Search Options dialog, as in the following figure.
Figure 6-6 Index Search Options Dialog

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The following tables review the individual search and result options:
TABLE 6-6 Individual

Search and Result Options

Option

Result

Stemming

Words that contain the same root, such as raise and raising.

Phonic

Words that sound the same, such as raise and raze.

Synonym

Words that have similar meanings, such as raise and lift.

Fuzzy

Words that have similar spellings, such as raise and raize.
Click the arrows to increase or decrease the number of letters in a
word that can be different from the original search term.

TABLE 6-7 Max

Files to List and Max Hits per File

Option

Result

Max Files to List

Maximum number of files with hits that are listed in the results.
You can change the maximum number in the field. The default is
200, if no entry is made. Searches limited in this way will be
indicated by an asterisk (*) and the text “(files may be limited by
“Max files to list” option)” which may be cut off if the file name
exceeds the allowed line length.

Max Hits per File

Maximum number of hits per file. You can change the maximum
number in the field. Searches limited in this way will be indicated
by an asterisk (*) and the text “(files may be limited by “Max hits
per file” option)” which may be cut off if the file name exceeds
the allowed line length.
The maximum number applies separately tofiles with hits from
both Allocated and Unallocated disk space. Reducing the number
of hits to display per file reduces the time it takes to display all
items.

Important: When running the search, limit the number of files with hits (200
is default) to list at one time, and try to have only one tree node in the
Index Search Results list expanded at a time for either Allocated or
Unallocated space hits. Having too many tree items expanded (to display

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3,000 or more files with hits) can cause long delays in viewing selected
hits..
TABLE 6-8 Search

by Date and Time

Option

Description

All Files

Search all the files in the case.

File Name Pattern

Limits the search to files that match the filename pattern.
The pattern can include "?" to match a single character or "*" to
match zero or more characters. Operator characters can be used
to fill in for unknown characters. The asterisk (*) and questionmark (?) operators are the only allowed characters in the search.
The "*" means any or no unknown characters and the "?" means
any one unknown character.
For example, if you set the filename pattern to "d?ugl*", the
search could return results from files named "douglas",
"douglass", or "druglord."
To enter a filename pattern:
Check the box.
In the field, enter the filename pattern.

Files Saved Between

Beginning and ending dates for the last time a file was saved. Do
the following to set these parameters:
1. Check the box.
2. In the date fields, enter the beginning and ending dates to
search.

Files Created Between

Beginning and ending dates for the creation of a file. Do the
following to set these parameters:
1. Check the box.
2. In the date fields, enter the beginning and ending dates that
you want to search.

File Size Between

Minimum and maximum file sizes, specified in bytes.
Check the box.
In the size fields, enter the minimum and maximum size in bytes
of the files that you want to search.

Save as Default

Check this box to make you settings apply to all index searches.

When search criteria are prepared and you are ready to perform the search, click Search
Now.

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DOCUMENTING SEARCH RESULTS
Right-click an item in the Search Results list to open the quick menu with the following
options:

• Copy to Clipboard: Copies the selected data to the clipboard where it can be
copied to another Windows application, such as an Excel spreadsheet
Note: 10,000 is the maximum number of evidence items that can be copied in a single copy
operation.

• Export to File: Copies information to a file. Select the name and location for the
information file.
Copy or export the hits and the statistics of a search result using the options on the
following table:
TABLE 6-9 Result

Copy or Export Options

Option

Description

All Hits in Case

Saves all the search terms found from the entire case.

All Hits in Search

Saves all the search terms found in each search branch.

All File Stats in Case

Creates a CSV file of all file information in the case.

All File Stats in Search

Creates a CSV file of the file information requested in the search.

After the information is copied to the clipboard, it can be pasted into a text editor or
spreadsheet and saved.
Search results can then be added to the case report as supplementary files.

USING COPY SPECIAL TO DOCUMENT SEARCH RESULTS
The Copy Special feature allows the copying of specific information about files to the
clipboard or a file.
To copy information about the files in your search results:
1. In the Index Search Results list, highlight the search hit you want to document.
2. Find that file highlighted in the File List view.
3. Right-click on the desired file.

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4. Select Copy Special.

5. In the Copy Special dialog, under Choose Columns, click the dropdown select the

columns definition to use, or click Column Settings to define a new column template.
5a. Modify the column template in the Column Settings Manager. For more

information on customizing column templates, see “Customizing File List
Columns” on page 197.
6. Mark Include Header Row if you want a header row included in the exported file.
7. Under File List Items to Copy, select from All Highlighted, All Checked, Currently

Listed, or All to specify which files you want the Copy Special to apply to.
8. Click OK.

BOOKMARKING SEARCH RESULTS
To keep track of the files that were returned in a particular search, bookmark the search
results. Bookmarks from the search results in the file list can be created or added to a
bookmark as with any other data.
To create a bookmark from the file list:
1. Select the files you want to include in the bookmark.
2. Right-click the selected files then select Create Bookmark.
3. Complete the Create New Bookmark dialog. For more information, see “Creating a

Bookmark” on page 104.

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4. Click OK.

The bookmark now appears in the Bookmark tab.

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Chapter 7 Data Carving

AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) has the ability to carve data. Data carving is the
ability to locate files that have been deleted or that are embedded in other files.

SEARCHING FOR EMBEDDED AND DELETED FILES (DATA
CARVING)
Because embedded items and deleted files can contain information that may be helpful
in forensic investigations, FTK simplifies the process of recovering these items and
adding them to the case.
The data carving feature allows searching for items, such as graphics, embedded in
other files. It allows the recovery of previously deleted files located in unallocated
space. Users can also carve directory entries to find information about data or
metadata.
To recover embedded or deleted files, FTK searches the case evidence for specific file
headers. Using the data from a file header for a recognized file type, FTK determines
the length of that file, or looks for the file footer, and “carves” the associated data. A
new filename is determined and the file is saved. FTK can find any embedded or
deleted item as long as the file header still exists.
Data carving can be done when adding evidence to a case, or by clicking Evidence >
Additional Analysis > Data Carve from within a case. You can search all items for the
following file types:

• AOL Bag Files
Data Carving

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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

BMP Files

EMF Files
GIF Files
HTML Files
JPEG Files

Link Files
PDF Files
OLE Archive Files (Office Documents)
PDF Files
PNG Files

DATA CARVING FILES WHEN PROCESSING A NEW CASE
Select to data carve when a case is created by selecting Data Carve in the Evidence
Processing dialog. Select Carving Options and the file types to carve.
For more information, see “Selecting Evidence Processing Options” on page 74.

DATA CARVING FILES IN AN EXISTING CASE
Data carving can be performed on previously processed data.
To data carve files in an existing case:
1. From the Evidence > Additional Analysis.
2. Check Data Carve.
3. Click Carving Options.
4. Set the data carving options to use.
5. Click OK to close the Carving Options dialog.
6. Select the target items to carve data from.
7. Click OK.

The carved files are added to the case, and can be searched, bookmarked, and
organized along with the existing files. For more information, see “Chapter 5 Working
with Cases” on page 91.

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Chapter 8 Using Filters

AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) can filter files by their metadata to find specific
evidence. For example, FTK can filter a large number of graphics by creation date to
see only those made during a certain time frame
The interface for the Filter function is intended to work as a handy side-utility. It can be
dragged to any part of the screen and used at any time.

THE FILTER TOOLBAR
The Filter toolbar contains the tools you need to create and manage filters for viewing
your case data.
Figure 8-1 The Filter Toolbar

For an explanation of the filter toolbar and its components, see “Toolbar Components”
on page 42.

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APPLYING AN EXISTING FILTER
FTK contains the following predefined filters:
TABLE 8-1 Pre-defined

Filters

Filter

Description

Archive Files

Shows only archive file items.

Bad Extension Files

Shows only the files with extensions that don’t match the file.

Carved Files

Shows only the items that have been carved.

Checked Files

Shows only the items that you have selected with a checkmark.

Decrypted Files

Shows only the items that have been decrypted by AccessData
tools, or have been decrypted by the user then added to the case.

Deleted Files

Shows only those items that have the deleted status.

Duplicate Files

Shows only items that have duplicates. Displays the primary copy
and all secondary copies of each file that has multiple instances..

Email Attachments

Shows all items sent as attachments to a message, but does not
include the most recent email “container” message.

Email Files

Shows only those items that have the email status.

Email Files and
Attachments

Shows all email items including email messages, related attachments,
and others, such as notes, appointments, and so forth.

Encrypted Files

Shows only those items flagged as EFS files or other encrypted or
compressed files.

Evidence Items

Shows all items from the root-level tree.

Flagged Ignorable

Shows only those items you have identified as Ignorable.

Flagged Privileged

Shows only those items you have identified as Privileged.

Folders

Show only folder items.

From Recycle Bin

Shows only those items taken from the recycle bin.

Graphic Files

Show only those items that have been identified as graphics.

KFF Alert Files

Shows all KFF alert files that are in a case.

Microsoft Office Files Show Word, Access, PowerPoint, and Excel files.

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KFF Ignore Files

Shows KFF ignore files that are in a case.

No Deleted

Shows all but deleted items.

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TABLE 8-1 Pre-defined

Filters

Filter

Description

No Duplicate

Shows all files, but where duplicates are found, includes only the
primary (generally the first instance encountered by the program
during processing) copy, and does not display any secondary (all
subsequent instances of a file whose hash exactly matches another
instance of a file already added to the case) duplicate files.

No KFF Ignore Files

Shows all items but KFF ignore files.

Not Flagged Ignorable Shows all items but those you indicated Ignorable.
No KFF Ignore or OLE Shows all items but KFF ignore files or OLE subitems.
Subitems
No KFF Ignore or OLE Shows all items but KFF ignore files, OLE subitems, or duplicate
Subitems or Duplicate items.
Not Flagged Privileged Shows all items but those you flagged Privileged.
OLE Subitems

Shows only OLE archive items and archive contents.

Reclassified Files

Shows only those item you have changed the classification.

Registry Files

Shows Window 9x and NT registry files.

Thumbs.db Files

Shows Thumbs.db files.

Unchecked Files

Shows only those items that you have not checked.

User-decrypted Files

Shows only those items that you have decrypted and added to the
case.

Web Artifacts

Shows HTML, Index.dat, and empty Index.dat files.

To apply an existing filter, use the Filter drop-down list on the File List toolbar,
displayed in the following figure.

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Figure 8-2 File List Toolbar Filter Dropdown List

CREATING A FILTER
You can create or modify your own filters. These custom filters are saved with the case
in which they are created.
Filters consist of a name, a description, and as many rules as you need. A filter rule
consists of a property, an operator, and one or two criteria. (You might have two criteria
in something like a date range.)
Note: Using filters adds work and time to processing a case. The more filters applied, the more
time needed to process. Shut down the FTK user interface to speed up case processing.
1. Select Unfiltered from the Select a Filter drop-down menu.
2. Click Filter > New, or click Define on the Filter toolbar.
3. Type a name and a short description of the filter.
4. Select a property from the drop-down menu.
5. Select an operator from the Operators drop-down menu.
6. Select the applicable criteria from the Criteria drop-down menu.

Each property has its own set of operators, and each operator has its own set of
criteria. The combinations are vast to allow you to customize filters that fit your
needs.
7. Select the Match Any operator to filter out data that satisfies any one of the filter

rules or the Match All operator to filter out data that satisfies all rules of the filter.
8. Click Save.

Test the filter without having to save it first by selecting the Live Preview checkbox to
test the filter while creating it.

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REFINING A FILTER
As the investigation progresses, investigators become more familiar with patterns and
file types needed in the case, and can adjust the filters to find this specific data. The
following figure displays the Filter Definition dialog used for changing and refining
filters.
Figure 8-3 Filter Definition Dialog

To modify an existing filter:
1. Select the filter you want to modify from the Filter drop-down list.
2. Click Define.
3. To make your filters more precise, click the Plus (+) button to add a rule, or the
Minus (–) button to remove one.
4. When you are satisfied with the filter you have created or modified, click Save, then

Close.

DELETING A FILTER
You can delete a custom filter if you no longer need it. Predefined, or system filters
cannot be deleted.
To delete a custom filter:
1. Select the filter to delete from the Filter drop-down menu list.
2. Click Filter > Delete or click the Delete Filter button on the Filter toolbar

.

3. Confirm the deletion.

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USING THE KNOWN FILE FILTER
The Known File Filter (KFF) uses a collection of hash values of known files to filter the
files found in the evidence. When you add evidence to the case, you can compare all the
files in the case to the hash values contained in the KFF database.
FTK creates and records hashes of the files it discovers in the evidence to demonstrate

that the files have not been modified since acquisition, and to allow for quick
determination if two files have the same contents.

UNDERSTANDING KFF HASHES
FTK includes hashes from two major reporting agencies, The National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST), and Hashkeeper. The toolkit also provides a
mechanism for the addition of hashes from other sources to the KFF database. When
you select a set in FTK the source reporting agency is displayed in a text box. It is good

practice when creating sets to put your own agency in the source field so that other
investigators know where the hashes came from.

IMPORTING KFF HASHES
When using the Import KFF Hashes feature, you can import hashes from several
supported formats.
To import hashes to the KFF database do the following steps:

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1. Click Tools > KFF > Manage to open the KFF Administration dialog.

2. Click Import to open the KFF Hash Import dialog.

3. Click Add File and select one of the following file types:

•
•
•
•

AccessData Hash Database (.hdb)
FTK Imager Hash List (.csv)

Hashkeeper Hash Set (.hke, hke.txt)
Tab Separated Value (.tsv)

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• National Software Reference Library (.nsrl)
• Hash (.hash)
• FTK.0 (.KFF)

3a. If you need to create a source, click Create New to open the KFF Source

Management dialog.

3b. Click New to open the Add New KFF Source dialog.

3c. Type name for the new source.
3d. Click OK.
4. Close the dialogs back to the KFF Administration dialog, and click Import.

The imported hash set is merged into the existing hash set and saved. Duplicate
hashes are overwritten.

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EXPORTING KFF HASHES
To export a KFF hash file, follow these steps:
1. Click Tools > KFF > Manage.
2. Click Export.
3. Select the location to which you want to save the exported KFF file. FTK saves the

file as .kff by default.
4. Click Save.

UNDERSTANDING THE KFF DATABASE
FTK divides hashes into three table: AccessData, Case-specific, and Shared.
TABLE 8-2 KFF

Table
AccessData

Library Groups

Description
These tables contain the hashes, sets and groups which are distributed with
FTK. You can create groups from these sets, but the sets are read-only.

Shared

Create your own sets and groups. You should create non-case specific hash
sets and groups here. Sets or groups in these tables are accessible to anyone
using the same KFF database instance (cases are stored in the same
database). Groups in these tables may include sets from the AccessData or
shared tables but not from the case specific tables.

When setting the status of sets or groups it is important to be mindful of other
investigators or cases which may be using the KFF database. Remember that all cases
will have access to the AccessData and user tables so if you want to adjust statuses for
your case without interfering with other investigations you should create case specific
sets or groups.

STORING HASHES IN THE KFF DATABASE
The KFF database organizes hashes into sets and groups.
A set represents a related collection of evidence files. For example, WordPerfect 5.1,
Quicken 7, or a collection of photographs taken at a suspects home.

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A group represents a collection of related sets. For example, legitimate software,
known child pornography, or known hacker tools.
Sets and groups allow investigators to rapidly specify what kind of files to which they
want to be alerted, to more easily comply with search warrant limitations by rapidly
disregarding files outside the warrant, and make the KFF more manageable and easier
to use.
Each set or group is assigned a status so that FTK can respond when it encounters
hashes that belong to the set or group.
Assign any of the following statuses to a set or group:
TABLE 8-3 KFF

Group Status Options

Status

Description

Alert

Selecting this status indicates to the Forensic Toolkit that you want to be
alerted to the existence of any file in the set or group.

Disregard

This case specific status allows the investigator to avoid violating search
warrant limitations. You can mark a group with the disregard status to treat
any matching files as if they were unknown. The files will still be indexed,
carved, and can be searched but the Forensic Toolkit will not automatically
alert the investigator to their presence in the suspect’s drive image.

Ignore

This status is used to identify files that are without forensic significance
(known software packages or shared DLLs, for example). Utilizing this status
allows the Forensic Toolkit to sift these uninteresting files away from the
investigators view.

The group’s status supersedes the statuses of any of it’s sets without actually changing
the sets’ statuses. You can manually change the status of thousands of sets that don’t
apply to your case, or you can simply organize all of those sets into related groups and
change each group’s status. Any time you dissolve a group, each set in that group
retains the status it had prior to forming the group.
Only groups are analyzed. The two default groups: Alert and Ignore update
dynamically as a user modifies sets. They contain all sets in the KFF and cannot be
modified manually by the user.
If you have included the same set in two different groups, FTK prioritizes the status and
returns the highest priority status:

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1. Disregard
2. Alert
3. Ignore

CREATING SETS AND GROUPS
To create sets and organize them into groups, follow these steps:
1. Select Tools > KFF > Manage.
2. Click New.

3. Name the group.
4. Assign the group a status.
5. Select the sets you want in the group from the Available Sets list and move them to

the Items in Group list by clicking the arrow button.
6. Click Apply to create the group without closing the Create New KFF dialog.
7. Click OK to save the group and close.

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Chapter 9 Decrypting Encrypted
Files

DECRYPTING FILES AND FOLDERS
FTK2.1 is designed to decrypt EFS, Microsoft Office, and Lotus Notes (NSF) files and
folders. To do so, the password must already be known. To find the passwords, export
encrypted files and add them as jobs in PRTK or DNA. When passwords are found,
you are ready to decrypt the encrypted files in FTK2.
Click Tools > Decrypt Files... to begin decryption. The following figure displays the
decryption menu:

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Figure 9-1 Decrypt Files Dialog

To use the decryption menu, do the following:
1. Type a password in the Password box
1a. Confirm the password by typing it again in the Confirm Password box
2. Mark Permanently Mask to display the password in the Saved Passwords list as

asterisks, hiding the actual password.
3. Click Save Password to save the password into the Saved Password List.
4. Mark Attempt Blank Password to decrypt files with no password, or whose password is

blank.
Note: FTK 2.1 will automatically detect encrypted files in the case. Decrypt File Types will
automatically be marked according to the file types found. Unselect any file types you
wish not to decrypt.
5. Click Decrypt to begin the decryption process.
Note: The Decrypt button is disabled until at least one password is entered, or until Attempt
Blank Password is marked.
6. Click Cancel to return to the case.

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DECRYPTING WINDOWS EFS FILES
Windows 2000, XP Professional, 2003, and Vista include the ability to encrypt files and
folders through the Encrypting File System (EFS). AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK)
can break file encryption so that additional evidence can be uncovered.

UNDERSTANDING EFS
EFS is built in to Windows 2000, XP Professional, 2003, and Vista. It is not supported in
Windows XP Home Edition.
EFS can be used to encrypt files or folders. Within Windows, EFS files or folders can be

viewed only by the user who encrypted them or by the user who is the authorized
Recovery Agent. When the user logs in, encrypted files and folders are seamlessly
decrypted and the files are automatically displayed.
There are certain files that cannot be encrypted, including system files, NTFS compressed files,
and files in the C:\Windows_System_Root and its subdirectories.
Note: All EFS decryption requires the user’s or Recovery Agent’s password.

VIEWING DECRYPTED FILES
Find the decrypted files in the Overview tree, under the File Status > Decrypted Files
branch. Click on an individual file in the File List to view the file in the File Content
pane.

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Figure 9-2 Overview Tab Viewing Decrypted Files

Note: Regardless of the encryption type, once decrypted, the files will appear in the File List
Name column as “Decrypted copy of ,” as seen in the following figure:

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Figure 9-3

 

DECRYPTING DOMAIN ACCOUNT EFS FILES
This section deals with decrypting domain account EFS files using FTK. These can be
decrypted from image files, individually, or the whole image may contain the encrypted
files.
To decrypt EFS files from a file image, perform the following steps:
1. Create a new case with no evidence added.

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167

2. From the main menu, click Evidence > Add/Remove.

3. Click Add.
4. Select Individual File(s).
5. Click OK.
6. Navigate to the PFX file (domain recovery key).

Or type the full path and filename into the File Name field of the Open dialog.
7. Click Open.

 
8. Click No when the application asks if you want to create an image of the evidence

you are adding.
9. Select the proper time zone for the PFX file from the Time Zone drop-down list in
the Manage Evidence window, and click OK.

FTK2.1 begins processing the PFX file and the progress dialog appears.
Note:

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DECRYPTING CREDANT FILES
Credant encryption is file-based and works much like EFS. Process drives with Credant
encryption normally. The Credant Decryption option in the tools menu is unavailable
unless the image contains Credant encryption.
Click Tools > Credant Decryption to open the Credent decryption options, as displayed in
the following figure:
Figure 9-4 Credant Decryption Dialog

The Credant integration for FTK allows two options for decryption; offline, and online.
For a key bundle located on the user’s local machine or network, use the offline option
with. For a key bundle located on a remote server use the online option.

USING AN OFFLINE KEY BUNDLE
Offline decryption is a quicker and more convenient option if the key bundle can be
placed on the investigator’s computer. Perform the following steps to decrypt a
Credant encrypted image offline: select the key bundle file and enter the password used
to decrypt it.

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1. Open the Credant decryption options dialog.

2. Select the key bundle file by entering its location or browsing to it.
3. Enter the password.
4. Re-enter the password.
5. Click OK.

USING AN ONLINE KEY BUNDLE
Online decryption can only occur when the machine processing the image can directly
access the Credant server over the network. The following figure displays the online
tab:

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Figure 9-5 Credant Decryption Online Options

Usually FTK auto-populates the Credant Machine ID and Credant Shield ID fields. The
Credant Machine ID can be found on the Credant server as the Unique ID on the Properties
tab. The Credant Shield ID can be found as the "Recovery ID" on the "Shield" tab. It
looks like this: "ZE3HM8WW".
The Server Data group box contains information on how to contact the Credant
server. It includes the Credant Server user name, password, and IP. The port should
be 8081 (and is auto-populated).
The offline decryption requires you to get a key bundle file from the server. You need
to select the key bundle file and enter the password used to decrypt it. You can get the
key bundle file by executing the CFGetBundle.exe file with a command like that looks
like this:
CFGetBundle -Xhttps://10.1.1.131:8081/xapi -asuperadmin -Achangeit dcredantxp1.accessdata.lab -sZE3HM8WW -oKeyBundle.bin -ipassword
-X for the server address
-a for administrator name
-A for the administrator password
-d for the Machine ID

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-s for the Shield ID
-o for the output file
-i for the password used to encrypt the keybundle
Once you have either used the online or offline method, the files will be decrypted
immediately and the decrypted file will become a child of the encrypted file. After
decryption, the files will be processed with the same settings last used to process a file.

DECRYPTING SAFEGUARD UTIMACO FILES
Safeguard* Utimaco* is a full-disk encryption program.
Figure 9-6 Decryption_SafeguardEncryptionCredentials

The Safeguard dialog box appears only when FTK2.1 reads a valid Utimaco-encrypted
image.
The username and password used to create the encrypted image are required for
decryption. Once the credentials have been added, click OK to return to the Manage
Evidence dialog. Select a timezone fromthe Time Zone drop-down, then click OK to
begin processing.

Important: Type the User Name and Password carefully and verify before
clicking OK. If this information is entered incorrectly, FTK2.1 checks the
entire image for matching information before returning with an error
message. Each wrong entry results in a longer wait.

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DECRYPTING SAFEBOOT FILES
SafeBoot is a program that encrypts drives and/or partitions. When FTK2.1 detects a
SafeBoot-encrypted drive or partition, the following dialog is displayed.
Figure 9-7 SafeBoot Encryption Key Entry

The encryption key must be available to enter into the Key field. All recognized
partitions are selected by default, up to a maximum of eight. You can unselect any
partition you wish not to add to the case.
Once the key has been added and the appropriate partitions selected, click OK to return
to the Manage Evidence dialog. Select a timezone fromthe Time Zone drop-down,
then click OK to begin processing.

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Chapter 10 Working with
Reports

Upon completion of the case investigation, AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) can
create a report that summarizes the relevant evidence of the case. The final report is
made available in several formats and is viewable in a standard Web browser.

CREATING A REPORT
You create a report with the Report Wizard, as displayed in the following figure. You
access the Report Wizard by selecting File > Report.

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Figure 10-1 Report Options Dialog

To create a report:
1. Enter basic case information.
2. Select the properties of bookmarks.
3. Decide how to handle graphics.
4. Decide whether to add a file path list.
5. Decide whether to add a file properties list.
6. Select the properties of the file properties list.
7. Add the Registry Viewer sections.

Each step is discussed in detail in the following sections.

SAVING SETTINGS
Report settings are auromatically saved when you finish specifying the report settings,
and click OK to generate the report.
Export report settings at anytime while creating a report, and after you finish specifying
the report settings. Import and reapply those settings to a new report, or a report in a
new case, as desired.
To export report settings do the following:

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1. Click Export. The Export Selections dialog opens.

2. Check the sections to export the settings for.
3. Click OK.
4. Type a name for the setting file. Click OK to save the settings as an .XML file.

To import settings to a new report in another case, perform the following steps:
1. Open a different case.
1. Click File > Report > Import.
2. Browse to and select the settings file you want to import.
3. Click Open to import the settings file to your current case and report.

ENTERING BASIC CASE INFORMATION
The Case Information dialog provides fields for basic case information, such as the
investigator and the organization that analyzed the case. The following figure displays
the Report Options dialog with the basic case information displayed.

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Figure 10-2 Basic Case Information

To include basic case information in the report, check the Case Information box in the
Report Outline on the left side of the screen. In the Default Entries pane, check the
entries to include in the report (all are checked by default). Double-click the Value field
to enter the required information.
Add and remove entries with the Add and Remove buttons below Default Entries. Mark
the Include File Extensions box to ensure that file extensions are included in case
information exported to the report.
To add an entry for case information do the following:
1. Click Add.

A new entry line appears at the bottom of the list.
2. Provide a label and a value for the new entry.

To remove a Case Information entry, do the following:
1. Highlight the entry line to be removed.
2. Click Remove.

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INCLUDING BOOKMARKS
Marking the Bookmarks dialog creates a section in the report that lists the bookmarks
that were created during the case investigation,as displayed in the following figure.
The investigator can also choose to not create a bookmark section by unselecting the
Bookmarks checkbox.
Figure 10-3 Bookmark Report Options

Mark the boxes to include Shared and/or User bookmarks. Choose whether to export
the files and include links to themin the report when it is generated and whether to
include graphic thumbnails that may be part of any bookmarks.

SELECTING SORT OPTIONS
Select the primary sort criterion for the bookmarks by clicking Sort Options. To set the
sort order for the bookmarks in the report, do the following:

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1. Click Sort Options to open the Sort Options dialog.

2. Add a sort line by clicking Plus (+). Remove a sort line by clicking Minus (-).
3. Add sorting criteria by clicking the drop-down list button at the right end of the sort

line.
4. Click OK to close the dialog when you are satisfied with the sort options you have

selected.

SETTING BOOKMARK COLUMNS
The columns can be modified to display specific information about bookmarks
included in the report.
Figure 10-4

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To modify the column setting, click Columns. The Column Settings dialog opens. Select
a pre-defined columns template, or create your own. For more information on setting
columns, see “Customizing File List Columns” on page 197.

INCLUDING GRAPHICS
Mark the Graphics box under Report Outline to include graphics in the report. The
Graphics section in the report displays thumbnail images of the graphics in the case
and can link them to original graphics if desired, as displayed in the following figure.
Figure 10-5 Report Options: Graphics

Select the options as follows:
1. Apply no filter, or one of several filters to your graphics files.
2. If desired, mark the box to Export and link full-size graphics to thumbnails. This

allows the person viewing the report to click on a thumbnail and see the original
graphic that was found in the case.
3. Choose either of the following:

• Include all graphics in the case
• Include checked graphics only
4. Set the number of graphics to display per row.

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5. If you want filenames displayed all together at the end of the report, mark the box

for Group all filenames at end of report. If this box is not marked, each filename
displays with its respective thumbnail.
6. Click Sort Options to access the Sort Options Page.

Figure 10-6 Report Graphics Sort Options

7. Set the desired sort options (note that only two options are available here).
8. Click OK to return to the Bookmark Options page for the report.

SELECTING A FILE PATH LIST
The List by File Path dialog creates a section in the report that lists the file paths of files
in selected categories. The List by File Path section simply displays the files and their
file paths; it does not contain any additional information. The files can be exported and
link to the files in the File Path list by selecting category item checkboxes to be
exported.

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Figure 10-7 File Path Report Options

Drag and drop an item to the Selected Categories window to copy an item and its
parent category. You can then check a category itemto export its contents to the report.
Checking an item automatically selects the files and folders under it.

SELECTING A FILE PROPERTIES LIST
The File Properties options allow the creation a section in the report that lists file
properties for files in selected categories. The options are displayed in the following
figure.

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Figure 10-8 File Properties Report Options

Drag and drop items from the Available Categories box to the Selected Categories box.
Check items in the Selected Categories box items to export them tothe report.
Checking an item automatically selects the files and folders under it.
To modify the Sort Options, click Sort Options. For more information on modifying the
Sort Options, see “Selecting Sort Options” on page 179.
To modify column settings, click Columns. The Column Settings dialog opens. For more
information on setting columns, see “Customizing File List Columns” on page 197.

REGISTRY SELECTIONS
If the evidence drive image contains registry files, they can be included in the report
through the Registry Selections report options.

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Figure 10-9 Registry Selections Report Options

In the Registry File Types window, check the file types for headings to include in the
report. In the right window, check the registry file paths to included in the report.

RUNNING THE REPORT
When all report options have been selected, click OK to display the Report Output
dialog.

SELECTING THE REPORT LOCATION
The Report Output dialog allows the selection of the report location. The investigator
can also recreate the directory structure of exported items.

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Figure 10-10 Report Output Dialog

To select the report location do the following:
1. Type the folder to save the report to, or use the Browse button to find a location.
2. Use the drop-down arrow to select the output language of the report.
3. Indicate the output format to publish the report.
4. Select the optional Export Options for the report:
4a. Use object identification number for filename.
4b. Append extension to filename if bad/absent.
5. When output selections have been made, click OK to being report generation.

CREATING THE REPORT
When the options are selected and you click OK, the Data Processing Status windows
appears. The progress bar dialog indicates the progress of the report.
The report displays when processing is complete. You can process only one report at a
time.
If another report generation is attempted while a report is generating, the investigator is
prompted to wait, as in the following dialog.

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Figure 10-11 Wait Dialog

VIEWING A REPORT
The report contains the information that you selected in the Report Wizard. When
included in the report, files appear in both raw data and in the report format. An
example of the main page of the HTML (index.htm)report is displayed in the following
figure.
Figure 10-12 HTML Case Report

The following figure represents the PDF version of the report as displayed in a viewer.

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Figure 10-13 PDF Report

To view the report without opening it from FTK, browse to the report file and click on
the report file. The report will open in the appropriate program for the report file type
selected. For example:

• Click on index.htm to open an HTML document in a Web browser.
• Click on the file report.pdf to open the report in a PDF viewer.
• Click on the file report.docx to open the report in Microsoft Word 2007.

INTERNATIONAL DATE AND TIME STAMP ISSUE
Be sure, when distributing a report that the date and time stamp are in the format of
the intended recipient of the report. Once dates, as interpreted HTML views of binary
files in FTK, are put into a report, the output is always in the preferred format for the
computer that generated the report. So if the date and time are placed in the report in a
European format of dd/mm/yyyy versus the United States format of mm/dd/yyyy, some
problems can be presented. For example, a situation of 02/01/2003 could be interpreted
as 2 January 2003 (in the European format) or 1 February 2003 (in the United States
format). This interpretation could cause problems with internationally circulated cases
and reports.

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MODIFYING A REPORT
Recreate the report with the added evidence or changed report settings to modify the
report. Change the report settings for each report as needed. All previously distributed
reports should be retracted fromthe recipients to keep all recipients current.

PRINTING A REPORT
Print the report from the program used to view it. The PDF report is designed
specifically for printing hard copies, and will hold its formatting better than the HTML
report.

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Chapter 11 Customizing the
Interface

The AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) interface provides a highly visual user interface
to make evidence more recognizable and easy to process. To help further, adjust the
interface to accommodate the current case and the user’s personal style.

CUSTOMIZING OVERVIEW
Adjust the size of the panes in the tabs by clicking on a border and dragging it to a new
size. The order of the tabs are rearranged by dragging and dropping them in the desired
order.
Users can add or remove panes from the current tab using the View menu. Click View
and click the pane you would like to add to the current view.
To save the new arrangement, Click View > Tab Layout > Save.

USING THE VIEW MENU TO CUSTOMIZE THE FTK INTERFACE
Use the View menu to control the pane views displayed in each tab. Several tabs are
available by default, but tabs can be customized, or new ones created to fit your needs.

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Figure 11-1 FTK View Menu

The View menu contains the following options:

•
•
•
•

Refresh the current view’s data
View the Filter Bar
Select the desired time zone for viewing
Choose the display size for graphic thumbnails. Select from the following:
• Large - default
• Medium
• Small
• Tiny

• Customize the Tab Layout. Options are:
• Lock the tabs to prevent changes.
• Add a new tab.

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• Remove a tab.
• Save an individual tab
• Save all tab Layouts
• Restore to before previous change.
• Reset to factory defaults.

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Explorer Tree
Graphics Tree
Overview Tree
Email Tree
Bookmark Tree
Index Searches
Live searches.
Bookmark Information
File List
File Content
Email Attachments
Properties
Hex Value Interpreter
Thumbnails
Progress Window

CUSTOMIZING THE TAB VIEWS
From the View menu you can add panes to the current tab. Note that the Tree panes,
such as Explorer Tree, or Overview Tree, are “exclusive”, and only one can exist on a
single tab at any time.

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To add other panes to a tab, Click View, then click to checkmark the pane to add.
Options are described in the table below:
TABLE 11-1 View

Panes Available from the View Menu

View Pane

Description

Bookmark Information
File List

Adds the File List Pane to the current tab.

File Content

Adds the File Content Pane to the current tab.

Email Attachments

Adds the Email Attachment Pane to the current tab.

Properties

Adds the Properties Pane to the current tab.

Hex Value Interpreter

Adds the Hex Value Interpreter to the current tab.

Thumbnails.

Adds the Thumbnails Viewer Pane to the current tab.

USING THE TAB LAYOUT MENU
Use the options in the Tab Layout menu to save changes to tabs, restore original
settings, and lock settings to prevent changes.
The following table describes the options in the Tab Layout menu:
TABLE 11-2 Tab

194

Layout Menu Options

Option

Description

Lock

Locks the panes in place so that they cannot be moved.

Add

Adds a blank tab to the FTK window. The new tab will be like the one
selected when this option is used.

Remove

Removes the selected tab from the FTK window.

Save

Saves the changes made to the tab.

Save All Layouts

Saves the changes made to all tabs.

Restore

Restores the FTK window to the settings from the last saved layout.
Custom settings can be restored.

Reset to Default

Resets the FTK window to the setting that came with the program.
Custom settings will be lost.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

MOVING VIEW PANES
Move view panes on the interface by placing the cursor on the title of the pane,
clicking, dragging, and dropping the pane on the location desired. Hover the mouse
over the title bar of the pane until a Move icon (a four-direction arrow) appears. Hold
down the mouse button to undock the pane. Use the guide icons to dock the pane in a
pre-set location. The pane can be moved outside of the interface frame.
Figure 11-2 Pane in Movement

To place the view pane at a specific location on the application:
1. Place the mouse (while dragging a view pane) onto a docking icon. The icon changes

color.
2. Release the mouse button and the pane seats in its new position.

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The following table indicates the docking options available:
TABLE 11-3 Docking

Options

Docking Icon

Description
Docks the view pane to the top half of the tab.

Docks the view pane to the right half of the tab.

Docks the view pane to the left half of the tab

Docks the view pane to the bottom half of the tab

Docks the view pane to the top, right, left, bottom, or center of the
pane. When docked to the center, the new pane overlaps the
original pane, and the both are indicated by tabs on the perimeter
of the pane.

Docks the view pane to the top, right, left, or bottom of the tree
pane. The tree panes cannot be overlapped.

Locks the panes in the application down, making them immovable.
When the lock is applied, the blue box turns grey.

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CREATING CUSTOM TABS
Create a custom tab to specialize an aspect of an investigation, add in desired features,
apply filters as needed, and to accommodate conditions specific to a case.
To create a custom tab, do the following:
1. Click View > Tab Layout > Add.
2. Enter a name for the new tab and click OK. The resulting tab is a copy of the tab

your were on when you created the new one.
3. From the View menu, select the features you need in your new tab.
Note: Features marked with diamonds are mutually exclusive, only one can exist on a tab at a
time. Features with check marks can co-exist in more than one instance on a tab.
4. When satisfied with your new tab’s content, click Save to save the current tab’s

settings, or View > Tab Layout > Save.
5. (Optional) Click View > Tab Layout > Save All to save all changed and added

features.
6. To remove tabs, click View > Tab Layout > Remove.

CUSTOMIZING FILE LIST COLUMNS
The Column Settings dialog allows the modification or creation of new definitions for
the information that displays in the File List, and in what order. Column settings are
also used to define what file information appears in the Bookmark and List File
Properties sections of case reports.
Using custom column settings, as displayed in the following figure, narrows the
information provided in the File List and case reports. Columns display specific
information about the listed files.

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Figure 11-3 Column Options

Custom column settings can be exported as an .XML file, and imported for use in other
cases.
To export column settings to an .xml file, do the following:
1. Click Export.
2. Select a folder and provide a filename for the exported column settings file.
3. Click Save.

To import a column settings file, do the following:
1. From the Column Settings dialog, click Import.
2. Find and select the column settings .xml file.
3. Click Open.

CREATING AND MODIFYING COLUMN SETTINGS
To modify or create column settings:

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1. Right-click a heading in the File List, or click the Column Settings

button to open

the Manage Columns context menu.
2. Click Column Settings. The Column Settings dialog opens.
3. From the Available Columns pane, select a category from which to use a column

heading. Add the entire contents of a category or expand the category to select
individual headings.
Note: Column widths in most view panes can be adjusted by dragging the column borders
wider or narrower.

Click on a column heading in the file list view to sort by that column. Hold down the
Shift key while clicking a column heading to make that column the primary sorted
column while the previously sorted column becomes the secondary sorted column.
To undo a secondary sort, click on a column heading to make it the primary sorted
column.

AVAILABLE COLUMNS
The following tables describe all available columns in the File List. The columns you
actually see depend on what tab and columns category you are in.
Note: When viewing data in the File List, use the type-down control feature to locate the
information you are looking for. Sort the column first, then type the first letter of what
you are searching for. FTK will move down the list to the first file containing that letter.
As you continue to type, the search gets more specific until you have typed the entire
name of the item. You may find exactly what you are looking for with only a few
characters. You can use the scroll button to move up and down the list at any point.
When you find the item in the list, select it.

COMMON FEATURES
The following column headings tend to be most shared among objects.
TABLE 11-4 Common

Column Headings

Column

Description

Accessed Date

The timestamp showing when the object was last accessed.

Accessed Date (FAT)

The date the object was last accessed.

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TABLE 11-4 Common

200

Column Headings

Column

Description

Actual File

Yes (Y) or No (N) value to indicate whether this is an Actual
File which is the file as the user or file system normally sees it,
as opposed to a member of All Files which includes metadata,
document summary info, etc.

Bad Extension

Indicates if the file type does not match its header.

Carved

Indicates whether the object has been carved.

Compressed

Indicates whether the object is compressed. Only set on files.

Compressed File Size

Displays the size of the compressed files. Only set on
compressed files.

Container

Indicates whether the object has child objects.

Created Date

Indicates the date the object was created.

Decrypted

Indicates that the object has been decrypted.

Decrypted by User

Indicates that the object has been decrypted by the user
before having been added to the case.

Deleted

Yes (Y) or No (N) value to indicate whether an item was
deleted.

Duplicate File

The file is a duplicate of another file in the case.

Encrypted

Indicates whether the object is encrypted. Only set on files.

Extension

Displays the object’s extension.

File Class

Matches a branch on the Overview tree.

File Type

An ID reflecting the identified or reclassified type of a file.

Flagged Ignorable

Indicates that the object was marked as ignorable. Not
accessible to a reviewer.

Flagged Privileged

Indicates that the object was marked as privileged. Not
accessible to a reviewer.

From Recycle Bin

Yes (Y) or No (N) value to indicate a Recycle Bin index file, or
a recycled file still in the Recycle Bin folder.

Fuzzy Hash

Opens the Fuzzy Hash dialog where you can specify the
number of words files must have in common to determine
how closely files relate to each other.

Fuzzy hash blocksize

Fuzzy hash blocksize

Fuzzy hash library group

Fuzzy hash library group

Fuzzy hash library score

Fuzzy hash match score

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 11-4 Common

Column Headings

Column

Description

Fuzzy hash libarry status

Fuzzy hash libarry status

Item Number

Displays a unique ID number assigned the object by FTK.

Logical Size

Indicates the logical size of an object.

MD5 Hash

Indicates the MD5 hash of the object’s contents.

Modified Date

Indicates the date the object was last modified.

Name

Indicates the name of the object.

Object Type

The type of the object.

Original File Type

Indicates the original type of an object whose type has been
changed.

Path

Shows the full path of an object.

Physical Size

Indicates the amount of space the object takes up on a disk.

Recycle Bin Original Name

Displays the name of a file in the Recycle Bin folder before
the file was recycled.

SHA-1 Hash

Indicates the SHA-1 hash of the object’s contents.

SHA-256 Hash

Indicates the SHA-256 hash of the object’s contents.

DISK IMAGE FEATURES
The following table displays the stored hashes for the logical image.
TABLE 11-5 Column

Headings for Viewing Hashes

Column

Description

Validate MD5

Indicates the validated MD5 hash of the object. This is the internal
stored hash of an image such as E01 or SMART.

Validate SHA-1 Hash

Indicates the validated SHA-1 hash of the object. This is the internal
stored hash of an image such as E01 or SMART.

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EMAIL FEATURES
These column headings listed in this table are features specific to email in general, to
Microsoft Outlook*/Exchange*, and to Outlook Express.
TABLE 11-6 Common

Email Column Headings

Column

Description

Lotus Notes-specific features

Options include:

• Note ID: The Lotus Notes NOTE_ID (unique to
the NSF file).

• UNID: The Lotus Notes Universal Note ID
(globally unique).
Outlook Express-specific Features

See below, table titled Microsoft Outlook Express
Column Headings

Outlook/Exchange-specific Features See below, table titled Microsoft Outlook/
Exchange Column Headings

202

Attachment

Whether the email contained an attachment

BCC

Indicates addresses in the Blind Carbon Copy field.

CC

Indicates addresses in the Carbon Copy field.

Delivery Time

For outgoing email, it indicates the time the object was
sent; for incoming email, it indicates the time the
object was received.

Email File

True if file is part of email.

From

Lists the addresses in the object’s From field.

From Email

Indicates whether the object came from an email or an
email archive.

Has Attachment

Indicates whether the object has an attachment.

Subject

Lists the text in the object’s Subject field.

To

Lists the addresses in the object’s To field.

Unread

Indicates whether the object is marked as Unread.

Unsent

Indicates whether the object was marked as Sent.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

MICROSOFT OUTLOOK EXPRESS HEADINGS
These email headings are set for Microsoft Outlook Express only:
TABLE 11-7 Microsoft

Outlook Express Column Headings

Column

Description

Account Name

Indicates the name of the account associated with the object.

Account Registry Key

Indicates the registry key associated with the object’s account.

Answered

Indicates whether the object was answered. True if the Email
has been answered, false otherwise.

Answered Message ID

Displays the ID of the email’s answered message.

Digitally Signed

Indicates whether the email was digitally signed.

Email Size

Indicates the size of the email. Only set on emails from
Outlook Express.

Has Attachment
(Outlook Express)

Indicates whether the email has an attachment. True if the
email has at least one attachment, false otherwise. Only set
on emails from Outlook Express.

Hotmail Message ID

Displays the ID of a Hotmail email message.

Marked

Indicates whether the email has been marked. True if the
email has been marked, false othewise. Only set on emails
from Outleook Express.

Message ID

Displays the message ID. Only set for Outlook Express.

Message Offset

Shows the message offset of the email.

News

Indicates whether the email was a news item. True if the
email is a news item, false otherwise. Only set on emails from
Outlook Express.

Priority

Shows the priority assigned the email. Only set for Outleook
Express.

Recipient Address

Lists the addresses in the email’s recipient field. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Recipient Name

Lists the names in the email’s recipient field. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Sender Address

Lists the addresses in the email’s sender field. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Sender Address and Name

Lists the addresses and names in the email’s sender field.
Only set for Outleook Express.

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TABLE 11-7 Microsoft

Outlook Express Column Headings

Column

Description

Sender Name

Lists the name in the email’s sender field. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Server

Lists the server used to send the email. Only set for Outleook
Express.

Server Info

Lists the server information the email. Only set for Outleook
Express.

Subject
(Outlook Express)

Lists the text on the email’s subject field. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Subject Without Prefix

Lists the text without the prefix on the email’s subject field.
Only set for Outleook Express.

Thread Ignored

Indicates whether a thread was marked as Ignore. Only set
for Outleook Express.

Thread Watched

Indicates whether a thread was marked as Watch. Only set for
Outleook Express.

Time Message Saved
(Outlook Express)

Indicates the time an email was Saved. Only set for Outleook
Express.

Time Received
(Outlook Express)

Indicates the time an incoming email was received. Only set
for Outleook Express.

Time Sent
(Outlook Express)

Indicates the time an outgoing email was sent. Only set for
Outleook Express.

MICROSOFT OUTLOOK/EXCHANGE HEADINGS
These email headings are set for Microsoft Outlook/Exchange only:
TABLE 11-8 Microsoft

204

Outlook/Exchange Column Headings

Column

Description

Attachment MIME Tag

Lists the attachment MIME tag of the email.

Client Submit Time

Indicates the time the client submitted the email.

Comment

Lists any comment associated with the email.

Content Count

Indicates the content count of the email.

Content Unread

Indicates whether the email is marked Unread.

Conversation Topic

Indicates the email’s conversation topic.

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TABLE 11-8 Microsoft

Outlook/Exchange Column Headings

Column

Description

Delete After Submit

Indicates whether the email was marked for deletion after it
was submitted.

Display Name

Lists the email’s display name.

From Me

Indicates whether the email was marked From Me.

Importance

Indicates the email’s assigned importance.

Message Class

Indicates the class assigned to the message in the email.

Message Size

Indicates the size of the email.

Originator Delivery Report
Requested

Indicates whether an Originator Delivery Report was
requested.

Provider Submit Time

Indicates the time at which the provider submitted the email.

Read Receipt Requested

Indicates whether the email sent requested confirmation of
the email.

Received By Email Address

Indicates the time at which the addressee received the email.

Received By Name

Lists the name on the addresses that received the email.

Received Representing Email Displays the address of a Representing email recipient.
Address
Reply Recipient Names

Lists the addresses in the Reply To: field.

Resend

Indicates whether the email was marked Resend.

Sender Email Address

Lists the address in the email’s Sender field.

Sensitivity

Indicates the sensitivity assigned the email.

Sent Representing Email
Addresses

Displays the address of a Representing email sender.

Sent Representing Name

Displays the name of the Representing email sender.

Submitted

Indicates whether the email was marked as Submit.

Transport Message Headers

Lists the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) headers.

Unmodified

Indicates whether the email has been marked as Modified.

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ENTROPY STATISTICS
These column headings list information that indicate entropy statistic possibilities such
as encryption and compression.
TABLE 11-9 Entropy

Statistics Column Headings

Column

Description

Arithmetic Mean

The result of summing all the bytes and dividing by the file length.
If random, the value should be about 1.75; if the mean departs
from this value, the values are consistently high or low.

Chi Squared Error
Percent

This distribution is calculated for the stream of bytes in the file and
expressed as an absolute number. This percentage indicates how
frequently a truly random number would exceed the value
calculated.

Entropy

Shows the information density of a file in bits per character.
Amounts close to 8 indicate randomness.

MCPI Error Percent

Monte Carlo algorithm, named after Monte Carlo, Monaco, is a
method involving statistical techniques for finding solutions to
problems.
This heading shows the result of using a Monte Carlo algorithm to
approximate Pi.
Indicates the amount to which each byte in an email relies on the
previous byte. Amounts close to 0 indicate randomness.

Serial Correlation
Coefficient

FILE STATUS FEATURES
The file status columns show hash set names that match the file and their status.
TABLE 11-10 File

206

Status Column Headings

Column

Description

Hash Set

Indicates the set from which the hash came. Lists the sequence
entered into the database, or the program that generated the hash.

KFF Status

Lists the KFF status of the file.

Label

Label associated with an object.

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TABLE 11-10 File

Status Column Headings

Column

Description

Not KFF Ignore or OLE True if the file is not marked KFF Ignore, or the file is not an
Subitem
OLE subitem.
Not KFF Ignore, OLE
Subitem, or Duplicate

True if the file is not marked KFF Ignore or the file is not an
OLE subitem, or the file is not a duplicate of another file.

If a file has matches from more that one set, the status with the height value is used.
For more information, see “Using Filters” on page 151.

FILE SYSTEM FEATURES
These column headings list information specific to a particular file system.
TABLE 11-11 File

Status Column Headings

Column

Description

DOS Features

See below, in the table titled DOS File System Column
Headings.

ext2 Features

See below, in the table titled ext2 File System Column
Headings.

HFS Features

See below, in the table titled HFS File System Column
Headings

NTFS Features

See below, in the table titled NTFS File System Column
Headings

Unix* Security Features See below, in the table titled Unix Security File System Column
Headings
Start Cluster

Indicates the starting cluster of a file on a disk or volume.

Start Sector

Indicates the starting sector of a file on a disk or volume.

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DOS FILE SYSTEMS
These column headings list information specific to DOS.
TABLE 11-12 DOS

EXT2

File System Column Headings

Column

Description

8.3 Name

Lists the 8.3 format name of the object.

Archive

Indicates whether the Archive attribute was set on the object.

Hidden

Indicates whether the Hidden attribute was set on the object.

Read Only

Indicates whether the Read Only attribute was set on the object.

System

Indicates whether the System attribute was set on an object.

FILE SYSTEMS
These column headings list information specific to ext2.
TABLE 11-13 ext2

File System Column Headings

Column

Description

Deleted Date

Lists the date on which the object was deleted. Set on Unix objects only.

inode Number

Lists the inode Number of an object. Set on Unix objects only. Data
structures that contain information about files in Unix file systems that
are created when a file system is created. Each file has an inode and is
identified by an inode number (i-number) in the file system where it
resides. User and group ownership, access mode (read, write, execute
permissions) and type inodes provide important information on files.
There are a set number of inodes, which indicates the maximum
number of files the system can hold.
A file's inode number can be found using the ls -i command, while the
ls -l command will retrieve other inode information.

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HFS FILE SYSTEMS
These column headings list information specific to HFS.
TABLE 11-14 HFS

File System Column Headings

Column

Description

Backup Date

Displays the date on which the object was backed up.

Catalog Node ID

Displays the catalog node ID of the object.

Color (HFS)

Indicates the color of the object.

File Creator (HFS)

Lists the object’s creator.

File Locked (HFS)

Indicates whether the object was locked.

File Type (HFS)

Indicates the object’s file type.

Folder Valence (HFS)

Lists the number of files and folders directly contained in any
given object.

Invisible (HFS)

Indicates whether the object is invisible.

Name Locked (HFS)

Indicates whether the object’s file name is locked.

Put Away Folder ID (HFS)

Lists the ID of the object’s Put Away folder.

NTFS FILE SYSTEMS
These column headings list information specific to NTFS.
TABLE 11-15 NTFS

File System Column Headings

Column

Description

Alternate Date Stream Count The number of alternate data streams contained in the object.
Group Name

Displays the Group Name of the object’s owner.

Group SID

Displays the group SID of the object owner.

MFT Record Number

Displays the object’s Master File Table (MFT) record number,
indicating what metadata is needed to retrieve an object.

Offline

Indicates whether the object’s Offline attribute is set.

Owner Name

Displays the name of the object owner.

Owner SID

Displays the SID of the object owner.

Record Date

Indicates the record date of the object.

Resident?

Indicates whether the Resident attribute is set for the object.

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TABLE 11-15 NTFS

File System Column Headings

Column

Description

Sparse?

Indicates whether the Sparse attribute is set for the object.

Temporary

Indicates whether the Temporary attribute is set for the
object.

UNIX SECURITY FILE SYSTEMS
These column headings list information specific to the Unix security file system.
TABLE 11-16 Unix

Security File System Column Headings

Column

Description

GID

Displays the Group ID of the object.

Group Name (Unix)

Displays the Group Name of the object.

Permissions

Lists the Permission settings for the object.

UID

Displays the User ID of the object.

Username

Displays the Username of the object.

STEGANOGRAPHY
These column hedings list information specific to files where steganography is found:
TABLE 11-17 Steganography

210

Column Headings

Column

Description

Confidence

Level of confidence that this file contains a
steganographic payload

Highest Confidence

Level of highest confidence that this file contains a
steganographic payload among all the candidate
steganography applications.

Stego App

Application used to extract this steganographic payload.

Stego Password

Password used by steganography application to extract
this steganograpyhic payload.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

ZIP-SPECIFIC FEATURES
These column headings list information specific to files zipped (combined) or
compressed into a single file.
TABLE 11-18 Zip-Specific

Column

Column Headings

Description

Checksum

Displays the checksum value of the object.

Compression Method

Displays the compression method of the object.

Extract Version

Displays the extract version of the object.

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Chapter 12 Other AccessData
Applications

In addition to AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK), other AccessData products can be
used to capture and further analyze data.

ACCESSING ADDITIONAL PRODUCTS
Click Tools > Other Applications to access the following choices.

•
•
•
•
•

Imager
PRTK & DNA

Registry Viewer
LicenseManager
Language Selector

For more in formation on these products, see the users’ manuals on the AccessData
Downloads Web page at www.accessdata.com/support.

CAPTURING EVIDENCE WITH IMAGER
FTK Imager is a data preview and imaging tool used to quickly assess electronic
evidence to determine if further analysis with FTK is warranted. Imager creates forensic

images (exact copies) of computer data without making changes to the original

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evidence. The forensic image is identical in every way to the original, including file slack
and unallocated space or and drive free space.
Imager performs the following tasks:

• Preview files and folders on local hard drives, network drives, floppy diskettes, Zip
disks, CDs, DVDs, and USB storage devices.

• Create forensic images of local hard drives, floppy diskettes, Zip disks, CDs, DVDs,
and USB storage devices.

• Preview the contents of forensic images stored on the local computer or on a
network drive.

• Export files and folders from forensic images.
• Generate hash reports for regular files and disk images (including files inside disk
images)

Important: When using Imager to create a forensic image of a hard drive, use
a hardware-based, write-blocking device as well. This ensures that the
operating system does not alter the hard drive data while attached to the
imaging computer.
Create a hash of the original drive image that can be referenced later as a benchmark to
prove the integrity of the case evidence. Imager verifies that the drive image hash and
the drive hash match when the drive image is created. Two hash functions are available
in FTK Imager: Message Digest 5 (MD5) and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1).
After you create a drive image of the data, use FTK to perform a complete and
thorough forensic examination and create a report of your findings.

RECOVERING PASSWORDS WITH PRTK
Password Recovery Toolkit (PRTK) is a software solution that provides tools to recover
passwords and gain access to computer files:

• Passworded and/or encrypted files law enforcement needs access to as part of an
investigation

• Vital personal files protected by a forgotten password
• Password-protected network files
PRTK provides password-breaking modules for manu popular software applications

you encounter.

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HOW PRTK WORKS
PRTK analyzes passworded and encrypted files to determine passwords and decryption

keys using recovery modules for supported applications. Before recovering passwords
for protected files, PRTK creates hash values that can be used to establish that the
content of a file was not changed during the password recovery.
PRTK ships with many default dictionary files and rule sets that it uses in cracking
passwords. PRTK also uses custom dictionaries created from word lists you import,
(often exported from an FTK case), and and rules you define, to attempt every
conceivable password possibility against a file. Whenever a password is successfully
found, that password is added to the Golden dictionary.
After recovering passwords, PRTK lets you verify hashes, print reports, and decrypt/
open recovered files.

PRTK FEATURES
PRTK performs the following functions:

• Hash files: Hashing a file uses a unique algorithm that verifies the identity of a file.
Before recovering the password of a file, PRTK automatically hashes that file. This
is particularly helpful to law enforcement personnel who need to verify that a file
has not been changed while recovering a password.

• Recover passwords: PRTK can recover passwords for files created in most
popular software applications by using a variety of methods, including the
dictionary attack, which recovers a password using different dictionaries and word
combinations. PRTK also recovers multi-lingual passwords.

• Decrypt files: many PRTK modules include a keyspace attack in addition to a
dictionary attack. A keyspace attack attempts to determine the decryption key of a
file where no password has been used.

• Generate reports: Print file information for password recovery jobs.
• Open recovered files: Open recovered files in their native if the applications using
the password or key provided by PRTK.

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OBTAINING PROTECTED INFORMATION WITH REGISTRY
VIEWER
The Windows Registry stores all the information necessary for the Windows operating
system to control hardware, software, user information, and the overall functionality of
the Windows interface. Unlike Windows Registry Editor, which only displays the
registry settings for the currently authenticated user, AccessData Registry Viewer lets
you examine registry files from any user on the computer, or network. Registry Viewer
also provides access to a registry’s protected storage, which contains passwords,
usernames, and other information not accessible in Windows Registry Editor.
Detailed information on Registry Viewer functionality is available in the Registry
Viewer manual.
Integrating Registry Viewer with FTK allows you to view registry files and create
registry reports from within FTK. Any created reports are saved by default in the
current FTK case folder.
Integration also allows you to extract and open registry files on the fly from hard drive
images. FTK automatically creates a temporary registry file from the drive image and
opens it in Registry Viewer. FTK deletes the temporary file when the user finishes with
the temporary file.
For more information, see Appendix E: “Appendix E Securing Windows Registry
Evidence” on page 255.

MANAGING LICENSES WITH LICENSEMANAGER
LicenseManager manages AccessData product licenses on a Keylok dongle or Wibu
CodeMeter Stick security device, or in a security device packet file. LicenseManager and
the CodeMeter Stick installation are no longer integrated with FTK2 installation.
LicenseManager displays license information, allows you to add or remove existing
licenses to a dongle or CmStick. LicenseManager can also be used to export a security
device packet file. Packet files can be saved and reloaded onto the dongle or CmStick,
or sent via email to AccessData support.
In addition, you can use LicenseManager to check for product updates and download
the latest product versions.

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LicenseManager displays CodeMeter Stick information (including packet version and
serial number) and licensing information for AccessData such products as FTK,
eDiscovery, Enterprise, PRTK, DNA, and Registry Viewer. The Purchase Licenses button
connects directly to the AccessData website and allows you to browse the site for
information about products you may wish to purchase. Contact AccessData by phone
to speak with a Sales Representative for answers to product questions, and to purchase
products and renew licenses and subscriptions.
The licensing information provides the following:

•
•
•
•

Names of programs
Versions of programs
Subscription expiration date
Number of licensed clients

STARTING LICENSEMANAGER
LicenseManager.exe is located in C:\Program Files\AccessData\Common 
Files\AccessData LicenseManager\. When starting LicenseManager, License Manager
reads licensing and subscription information from the installed CodeMeter Stick.
From within FTK2, click Tools > Other Applications > LicenseManager,
OR
Click Start > All Programs > AccessData > LicenseManager > LicenseManager,
OR
Click or double-click (depending on your Windows settings) the LicenseManager icon on
your desktop

.

The LicenseManager program opens.
If using a CodeMeter Stick, and LicenseManager either does not open or displays the
message, “Device Not Found”, do the following:

• Make sure the CodeMeter Runtime 3.30a software is installed. It is available at
www.accessdata.com/support. Click Downloads and browse to the product. Click
on the download link. Once the CodeMeter Runtime software is installed and
running, you will see a gray icon in your system tray

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.

217

• Make sure the CodeMeter Stick is connected to the USB port. When the CmStick is
then connected, you will see the icon change to look like this:

.

If the CodeMeter Stick is not connected, LicenseManager still lets you to manage
licenses using a security device packet file if you have exported and saved the file
previously.
To open LicenseManager without a CodeMeter Stick installed:
1. Click Tools > LicenseManager.

LicenseManager displays the message, “Device not Found”.
2. Click OK, then browse for a security device packet file to open.
Note: Although you can run LicenseManager using a packet file, FTK2.1 will not run with a
packet file alone. You must have the CmStick connected to the computer to run FTK2.1.

LICENSEMANAGER INTERFACE
The LicenseManager interface consists of two tabs that organize the options in the
LicenseManager window: the Installed Components tab and the Licenses tab.

THE INSTALLED COMPONENTS TAB
The Installed Components tab lists the AccessData programs installed on the machine.
The Installed Components tab is displayed in the following figure.

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Figure 12-1 Licence Manager Installed Components

The following information is displayed on the Installed Components tab:
TABLE 12-1 LicenseManager

Installed Components Tab Features

Item

Description

Program

Shows a list of AccessData products installed on the host.

Installed Version

Shows the version of each AccessData product installed on the
host.

Newest Version

Shows the latest version available of each AccessData product
installed on the host.

Product Notes

Displays notes and information about the product selected in the
program list.

AccessData Link

Links to the AccessData product page where you can learn more
about AccessData products.

Help

Opens the LicenseManager Help web page.

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TABLE 12-1 LicenseManager

Installed Components Tab Features

Item

Description

Install Newest Button

Installs the newest version of the programs checked in the product
window. You can also get the latest versions from our website
using your Internet browser.

Newest Button

Downloads a list of AccessData’s available products and their
latest versions.

About

Displays the About LicenseManager screen. Provides version,
copyright, and trademark information for LicenseManager.

Done

Closes LicenseManager.

Use the Installed Components tab to manage your AccessData products and stay up to
date on new releases.

THE LICENSES TAB
The Licenses tab displays CodeMeter Stick information for the current security device
packet file and licensing information for AccessData products available to the owner of
the CodeMeter Stick, as displayed in the following figure.

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Figure 12-2 License Manager Licenses Tab

The Licenses tab provides the following information:
TABLE 12-2 LicenseManager

Licenses Tab Features

Column

Description

Program

Shows the owned licenses for AccessData products.

Expiration Date

Shows the date on which your current license expires.

Status

Shows these status of that product’s license:

• None: the product license is not currently owned
• Days Left: displays when less than 31 days remain on the
license.

• Never: the license is permanently owned. This generally applies
to Hash Tables and Portable Office Rainbow Tables.
Name

Shows the name of additional parameters or information a product
requires for its license.

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TABLE 12-2 LicenseManager

Licenses Tab Features

Column

Description

Value

Shows the values of additional parameters or information a product
requires for its license.

Show Unlicensed

When checked, the License window displays all products, whether
licensed or not.

The following license management actions can be performed in the License tab:
TABLE 12-3 License

Management Options

Button

Function

Remove License

Removes a selected license from the Licenses window and from
the CodeMeter Stick or dongle. Opens the AccessData License
Server web page to confirm success.

Refresh Device

Connects to the AccessData License Server. Downloads and
overwrites the info on the CodeMeter Stick or dongle with the
latest information on the server..

Reload from Device

Begins or restarts the service to read the licenses stored on the
CodeMeter Stick or dongle.

Release Device

Click to stop the program reading the dongle attached to your
machine, much like Windows’ Safely Remove Hardware feature.
Click this button before removing a dongle.
This option is disabled for the CodeMeter Stick.

222

Open Packet File

Opens Windows Explorer, allowing you to navigate to a .pkt file
containing your license information.

Save to File

Opens Windows Explorer, allowing you to save a .pkt file
containing your license information. The default location is My
Documents.

Finalize Removal

Finishes the removal of licenses in the unbound state. Licenses
must be unbound from the CmStick or dongle before this button
takes effect.

View Registration Info

Displays an HTML page with your CodeMeter Stick number and
other license information.

Add Existing License

Allows you to bind an existing unbound license to your CodeMeter
Stick, through an internet connection to the AccessData License
Server.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE 12-3 License

Management Options

Button

Function

Purchase License

Brings up the AccessData product page from which you can learn
more about AccessData products.

About

Displays the About LicenseManager screen. Provides version,
copyright, and trademark information for LicenseManager.

Done

Closes LicenseManager.

OPENING AND SAVING SECURITY DEVICE PACKET FILES
Open or save security device packet files using LicenseManager. You must save a packet
file to create it before you can open it.
To save a security device packet file, on the Licenses tab do the following:
1. Click Save to File.
2. The packet file is already named. The default folder is My Documents. Accept, or

specify a different folder location for the .pkt file, then click Save.
Note: When started, LicenseManager attempts to read licensing and subscription information
from the installed CodeMeter Stick. If the CodeMeter Stick is not installed,
LicenseManager opens a browse window to locate a security device packet file.

To open a security device packet file, open the Licenses tab and do the following:
1. Click Open Packet File.
2. Browse for a security device packet file to open, then click Open.

VIEWING PRODUCT LICENSES
LicenseManager lets you view product license information for products registered (or
associated) with your CodeMeter Stick or security device packet file.
To view product licenses that are currently associated with the connected CodeMeter
Stick, click Reload from Device.
To view all available product licenses that are or can be associated with a CodeMeter
Stick (according to Web site database), click View Registration Info.

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223

To synchronize a CodeMeter Stick with the product license information in the
AccessData Web site database, click Refresh Device.

ADDING AND REMOVING PRODUCT LICENSES
On a computer with an Internet connection, LicenseManager adds or removes
available product licenses on a CodeMeter Stick.

ADDING A PRODUCT LICENSE
To add, or “bind” an existing product license follow these steps:
1. Click the Licenses tab
2. Click Add Existing License.
3. On the Web site that comes up, click the box labeled Bind to select the product

license you want to add.
4. Click Submit.
5. The Web site displays a window confirming the license has been associated with the

attached security device.
6. Close the internet browser.

7. Click Yes when the LicenseManager prompts, “Were you able to associate a new

product with this Device?”
8. Click OK on the Packet Update Successful dialog.

REMOVE A PRODUCT LICENSE
The following steps help to remove, or “unbind,” a product license from the current
CodeMeter Stick or dongle in the computer:
1. Open LicenseManager
2. Click the Licenses tab.
3. Select the program licenses to remove.

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4. Click Remove License.

5. Click Yes.
6. Click OK on the Packet Update Successful dialog.
7. Close the Web browser.
Note: The licenses remain under your name and your control. They are simply “unbound”
from the device they were bound to, and remain available to be re-bound to the same
device later, or bound to a different device.

MANAGING PRODUCT LICENSES ON ISOLATED MACHINES
When unable to connect to the Internet, the easiest way to move licenses from one
CodeMeter Stick to another is to physically move the CodeMeter Stick to a computer
with an Internet connection, add or remove product licenses as necessary using
LicenseManager, then physically move the CodeMeter Stick back to the original
computer. However, if the CodeMeter Stick cannot be moved or removed from its
current machine or area and there is no machine available with Internet access or email,
contact your AccessData Sales Representative for special instructions.

ADDING OR REMOVING A PRODUCT LICENSE ON AN ISOLATED MACHINE
To add (associate) a product license do the following:
1. On the computer where the CodeMeter Stick resides do the following:
1a. Click Reload from Device in the Licenses tab to read the CodeMeter Stick license

information.
1b. Save the security device packet file to the local machine.
2. Copy the security device packet file to a computer with an Internet connection.
3. On the computer with an Internet connection:
3a. Open the copied security device packet file in LicenseManager.
3b. Click Add Existing License.

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Ignore the prompt for now; you will answer it inthe next step. Complete the
process to add a product license on the Web site instead. When complete, move
to the next step.
3c. Click Yes when the LicenseManager prompts, “Were you able to associate a new

product with this security device?”
When LicenseManager does not detect a dongle or the serial number of the
security device does not match the serial number in the dongle packet file, it
prompts to save the updated file (an executable).
4. After the update file is downloaded, copy the update file to the computer where the

dongle resides.
5. On the computer where the dongle resides do the following:
5a. Run the update file.
5b. Click Reload From Device in the Licenses tab to verify the product license has

been added to the dongle.
Note: On the computer with an Internet connection, click View > Registration Info in
LicenseManager to see license information for associated and unassociated product
licenses.

REMOVING A PRODUCT LICENSE FROM AN ISOLATED MACHINE
To remove (unbind) a product license:
1. On the computer where the dongle resides do the following:
1a. Click Reload from Device in the Licenses tab to read the dongle license

information.
1b. Save the security device packet file to the local machine.
2. Copy the file to a computer with an Internet connection.
3. On the computer with an Internet connection:
3a. Open the copied security device packet file in LicenseManager.
3b. Select the product license to unbind then click Remove License.
3c. When prompted to remove the selected license from the security device, click

Yes.
When LicenseManager does not detect a dongle or the serial number of the
dongle does not match the serial number in the dongle packet file,
LicenseManager prompts to save the update file.
3d. Save the updated file to the local machine.
4. After the update file is downloaded, copy the update file to the computer where the

dongle resides.

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5. On the computer where the dongle resides:
5a. Double-click to execute the update file.
5b. Click Reload From Device in the Licenses tab to verify the product license is

removed from the dongle.
5c. Save the security device packet file to the local machine.
6. Copy the file to a computer with an Internet connection.
7. On the computer with an Internet connection:
7a. Open the copied security device packet file in LicenseManager.
7b. Click Finalize Removal.
Note: On the computer with an Internet connection, click View > Registration Info in
LicenseManager to see license information for associated and unassociated product
licenses.

UPDATING PRODUCTS
Use LicenseManager to check for product updates and download the latest product
versions.
For more information on the general features of the subscription service, contact your
AccessData Sales Representative.

CHECKING FOR PRODUCT UPDATES
When checking for updates, LicenseManager checks for an updated version of
LicenseManager. If there is one, a prompt appears. When prompted whether to update
LicenseManager, click Yes to download and install the latest product version of
LicenseManager, or click No to update product version information for the products
listed in the LicenseManager window.
To check for product updates, click Newest from the Installed Components tab.
To determine whether you have the latest version of a product, check for updates, then
compare the installed version with the latest version number listed in the Products
window.

DOWNLOADING PRODUCT UPDATES
To download a product update do the following:

Other AccessData Applications

227

1. Ensure that LicenseManager displays the latest product information.
2. Check the programs to download.
3. Click Install Newest.
4. When prompted, click Yes to download the latest install program for that product.
5. Follow the installation wizard to install the product update.
Note: Due to the size and nature of certain of AccessData programs, downloading updates for
those programs is not practical or possible. These programs include FTK2.x, Enterprise,
eDiscovery, and SilentRunner. The FTK2.x installer can be downloaded from the
AccessData Support website, but the others cannot at this time. You will need to contact
your AccessData Sales Representative for updates to Oracle (there are none at this time),
Enterprise, eDiscovery, and SilentRunner, as they become available.

PURCHASING PRODUCT LICENSES
Use LicenseManager to link to the AccessData Web site to purchase products.
To purchase a product, click Purchase Licenses from the Licenses tab.
Note: Once a product has been purchased and appears in the AccessData License Server, add
the product license to a CodeMeter Stick, dongle, or security device packet file by clicking
Refresh Device.

SENDING A SECURITY DEVICE PACKET FILE TO SUPPORT
Send a security device packet file only when specifically directed to do so by AccessData
support.
To send a security device packet file, email a security device packet file to
support@accessdata.com.

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

SELECTING THE APPLICATION LANGUAGE
Use the Language Selector tool to choose the language in which the FTK interface is
displayed. Language Selector is not installed with FTK and must be installed to change
FTK2’s language. Select one of the following languages:
TABLE 12-4 Available

Application Languages

Chinese

German

Dutch

Italian

English (US)

Japanese

French

Spanish

Korean

Portuguese

Hindi

Russina

Swedish

Turkish

Selections take effect with an application.

Other AccessData Applications

229

230

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix A Recognized File
Types

This appendix lists the different file types that are recognized by AccessData (AD)
FTK2. The file type is a string in the document header that identifies the program used
to create the document. AD FTK2 looks at the document headers to identify the file
types.

DOCUMENT FILE TYPES
The following table lists the AD FTK2 recognized document file types:
TABLE A-1 Document

File Types

7-Bit Text

Acrobat Portable Document Format
(PDF)

Ami Pro Document

Ami Pro Snapshot

Ami Professional

AreHangeul

CEO Word

CEO Write

CHTML (Compact HTML)

Cyrillic (Ansi 1251)

Cyrillic (KOI8-R)

DEC DX 3.0 and lower

DEC DX 3.1

DisplayWrite 4

DisplayWrite 5

Enable Word Processor 3.x

Enable Word Processor 4.x

Excel 2000 Save As... HTML

FTDF

Hana

Appendix A Recognized File Types

231

TABLE A-1 Document

File Types

HDML (Handheld Device Markup Language) HTML - Central European

232

HTML - Chinese Big5

HTML - Chinese EUC

HTML - Chinese GB

HTML - CSS

HTML - Cyrillic (KOI8-R)

HTML - Japanese EUC

HTML - Japanese ShiftJIS

HTML - Korean Hangul

HTMLAG

HTMLWCA

Hypertext Document

IBM DCA/RFT

IBM FFT

IBM Writing Assistant

IchiTaro 3

IchiTaro 4

IchiTaro 8

Interchange File Format Text File

Interleaf

Interleaf (Japanese)

JustWrite 1

JustWrite 2

Legacy

Legacy Clip

Lotus Manuscript 1

Lotus Manuscript 2

Lotus screen snapshot

MacWrite II

Mass 11

Mass 11 (Vax)

Matsu 4

Matsu 5

Microsoft Windows Write

Microsoft Word 1 Document

Microsoft Word 2 Document

Microsoft Word 2000 Document

Microsoft Word 3 Document (Mac)

Microsoft Word 4 Document (DOS)

Microsoft Word 4 Document (Mac)

Microsoft Word 5 Document (DOS)

Microsoft Word 5 Document (Japanese)

Microsoft Word 5 Document (Mac)

Microsoft Word 6 Document

Microsoft Word 6 Document (DOS)

Microsoft Word 6 Document (Mac)

Microsoft Word 7 Document

Microsoft Word 8 Document (Mac)

Microsoft Word 97 Document

Microsoft Word Document

Microsoft Works (Windows)

Microsoft Works 1

Microsoft Works 2

Microsoft Works 2 (Mac)

MIFF

MIFF 3

MIFF 3 (Japanese)

MIFF 4

MIFF 4 (Japanese)

MIFF 5

MIFF 5 (Japanese)

MIFF 5.5

MIFF 6

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE A-1 Document

File Types

MIFF 6 Japanese

MS Works/Win 3 (Windows)

MS Works/Win 4

MultiMate 3.6

MultiMate 4

MultiMate Advantage II

MultiMate Note

Navy DIF

OfficeWriter

P1

PC File 5.0 - Letter

PerfectWorks 1

PFS: First Choice 2.0

PFS: First Choice 3.0

PFS: WRITE A

PFS: WRITE B

Pocket Word

PowerPoint 2000 Save As... HTML

Professional Write 1

Professional Write 2

Professional Write PLUS

Professional Write PLUS Clip

Q&A Write

Q&A Write 3

Rainbow

Rich Text Format

Rich Text Format (Japanese)

Samna

Signature

SmartWare II

Sprint

StarOffice Writer 5.2

TotalWord

Unicode Text Document

vCard Electronic Business Card

Volkswriter

Wang

WangIWP

WML - Chinese Big 5

WML - Chinese EUC

WML - Chinese GB

WML - CSS

WML - Cyrillic 1251

WML - Cyrillic KOI8

WML - Japanese EUC

WML - Japanese JIS

WML - Japanese Shift JIS

WML - Korean Hangul

WML - Latin 2

Word 2000 Save As... HTML

WORDMARC

WordPad

WordPerfect 4 Document

WordPerfect 4.2

WordPerfect 5

WordPerfect 5 Asian

WordPerfect 5 Mac

WordPerfect 6.0

WordPerfect 6.0 Asian

WordPerfect 6.0 Asian (Enh)

WordPerfect 6.0 (Enh)

WordPerfect 6.0 Mac

WordPerfect 6.0 Mac (Enh)

WordPerfect 6.1

Appendix A Recognized File Types

233

TABLE A-1 Document

234

File Types

WordPerfect 6.1 Asian

WordPerfect 6.1 Asian (Enh)

WordPerfect 6.1 (Enh)

WordPerfect 6.1 Mac

WordPerfect 6.1 Mac (Enh)

WordPerfect 7

WordPerfect 7 Asian

WordPerfect 7 Asian (Enh)

WordPerfect 7 (Enh)

WordPerfect 7 Mac

WordPerfect 7 Mac (Enh)

WordPerfect 8

WordPerfect 8 Asian

WordPerfect 8 Asian (Enh)

WordPerfect 8 (Enh)

WordPerfect 8 Mac

WordPerfect 8 Mac (Enh)

WordPerfect 9

WordPerfect 9 (Enh)

WordPerfect 9 Mac (Enh)

WordPerfect 9 Mac

WordPerfect Document

Word Pro Document

Word Pro 96 Document

Word Pro 97 Document

WordStar 4 and lower

WordStar 5

WordStar 5.5

WordStar 6

WordStar 7

WordStar 2000

WordStar for Windows

WPF Encrypt

WPF Unknown

WPS Plus

WWrite ChineseBig5

WWrite ChineseGB

WWrite Hangeul

WWrite Shift-JIS

XHTMLB

XML

XyWrite / Nota Bene

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

SPREADSHEET FILE TYPES
TABLE A-2 Spreadsheet

File Types

1-2-3 1.A Document

1-2-3 2.0 Document

1-2-3 2.01 Document

1-2-3 3.0 Document

1-2-3 4.0 Document

1-2-3 97 Document

1-2-3 Document

1-2-3 Japanese Document

1-2-3 Seal Document

CEO Spreadsheet

Enable SpreadSheet

First Choice (Spreadsheet)

Generic WKS format

Lotus 1-2-3 2 (FRM)

Lotus 1-2-3 6

Lotus 1-2-3 9

Lotus 1-2-3 OS/2 2

Lotus 1-2-3 OS/2 Chart

Lotus Symphony 1.0 Document

Mac Works 2 (SS)

Microsoft Excel 2 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel 2000 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel 3 Workbook

Microsoft Excel 3 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel 4 Workbook

Microsoft Excel 4 Workbook (Mac)

Microsoft Excel 4 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel 4 Worksheet (Mac)

Microsoft Excel 5 Worksheet (Mac)

Microsoft Excel 7 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel 97 Worksheet

Microsoft Excel Worksheet

Microsoft Multiplan 4.x

Mosaic Twin

MS Works Spreadsheet

MS Works/Win 3 (SS)

MS Works/Win 4 (SS)

MS Works/Win Spreadsheet

PFS Plan

PlanPerfect File

Quattro Pro 4

Quattro Pro 7.0 Graph

Quattro Pro 9 for Windows

Quattro Pro Notebook

Quattro Pro Notebook 1.0

Quattro Pro Notebook 1.0J

Quattro Pro Notebook 3.0 (DOS)

Quattro Pro Notebook 4.0 (DOS)

Quattro Pro Notebook 5.0

Quattro Pro Notebook 5.5 (DOS)

Quattro Pro Notebook 6.0

Quattro Pro Notebook 7.0

Quattro Pro Notebook 8.0

Smart SpreadSheet

SuperCalc 5

VP Planner

Appendix A Recognized File Types

235

DATABASE FILE TYPES
TABLE A-3 Database

236

File Types

DBase IV/V File

First Choice (Database)

Framework III

Mac Works 2 (DB)

Microsoft Project98

Microsoft Works (DB)

MS Jet 2 Database

MS Jet 3 Database

MS Jet 4 Database

MS Jet Database

MS Money 1 File

MS Money 2 File

MS Money 2000 File

MS Money 3 File File

Paradox 3

MS Money 4 File

MS Money 5 File

MS Money 98 File

MS Money File

MS Works Database

MS Works/Win 3 (DB)

MS Works/Win 4 (DB)

MS Works/Win Database

Organizer 1.1 File

Organizer 2 File

Organizer 3 File

Organizer 4

Paradox 3.5

Paradox 4

Paradox Database File

Paradox Script File

Quicken 5 File

Quicken 6 File

Quicken 98 File

Quicken 99 File

Q&A Database

Quickbooks 2 File

Quickbooks 2000 File

Quickbooks 3.1 File

Quickbooks 5 File

Quickbooks 6 File

Quickbooks 99 File

Quickbooks File

Quicken 2000 File

Quicken 2001 File

Quicken 3 File

Quicken 4 File

Quicken File

RBase 5000

RBase File 1

RBase File 3

RBase V

Reflex 2.0 Database

Smart DataBasez

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

GRAPHIC FILE TYPES
TABLE A-4 Graphics

File Types

Acrobat Portable Document Format (Mac)

Adobe Illustrator

Adobe Photoshop File

Ami Professional Draw

Animated Cursor

Animatic Film File

Animation

AOL Art Files version 3.0

Apple Quicktime File

AutoCAD Drawing Exchange File

AutoCAD Drawing Interchange (DXF-ASCII)

AutoCAD Drawing Interchange (DXF-Binary

AutoCAD DWG 12

AutoCAD DWG 13

AutoCAD Native Drawing Format (DWG)

AutoCAD Native Drawing Format 14 (DWG)

AutoCAD Drawing Exchange Format (DXB)

Autodesk 3D Studio File

Autodesk Animator File

AutoShade (RND)

Bentley Microstation DGN

Bitmap File

CALS Raster File Format

Candy 4

CAS Fax File

CCITT Group 3

Computer Graphic Metafile

ComputerEyes Raw Data FileCorel Draw 2

Harvard Graphics Presentation

Hewlett Packard Graphics Language

HP Gallery

IBM Graphics Data Format (GDF)

IBM Picture Interchange Format

Icon

IGES Drawing

Intel Digital Video File

JNG File (JPEG Network Graphics)

JPEG File Interchange Format

JPEG/JFIF File

Kodak Flash Pix (FPX)

Kodak Photo CD

Lotus PIC

Lotus screen snapshot

Macintosh Picture 1

Macintosh Picture 2

MAC-Paint File

Micrografx Designer (DRW)

Micrografx File

MIFFG

MiNG File (Multiple-image Network Graphics)

Multi-page PCX (DCX)

NEOChrome Animation File

Windows DIB

Windows Icon

Windows Metafile

WordPerfect Graphic (WPG)

WordPerfect Graphic File

WordPerfect MAC SOFT Graphics

Corel Draw 3

Corel Draw 4

Corel Draw 5

Corel Draw 6

Corel Draw 7

Corel Draw 8

Appendix A Recognized File Types

237

TABLE A-4 Graphics

File Types

Acrobat Portable Document Format (Mac)

Adobe Illustrator

Corel Draw 9

Corel Draw Clipart

Cursor

Cyber Paint Sequence File

DrawPerfect File

Dual PowerPoint 95/97

Encapsulated PostScript (EPS)

Enhanced Windows Metafile

Excel 3 Chart

Excel 4 Chart

Excel 5 Chart

Excel Chart

Framemaker

Freelance

Freelance 96

GEM Bitmap (IMG)

GEM IMG File

GEM Metafile

GIF File

Graphic File

Hanako 1

Hanako 2

Harvard Graphics

Harvard Graphics 2.x Chart

Harvard Graphics 3.x Chart

OS/2 PM Metafile

OS/2 Warp Bitmap

Paintshop Pro (PSP)

PCPAINT File

PCX Paintbrush File

PNG File (Portable Network Graphics)

Portable Bitmap (PBM)

Portable Graymap (PGM)

Portable Pixmap (PPM)

PostScript

PowerPoint 2000

PowerPoint 3

PowerPoint 3 (Mac)

PowerPoint 4

PowerPoint 4 (Mac)

PowerPoint 7

PowerPoint 97/98

Progressive JPEG

Sun Raster File

Targa File

TIFF File

Video Clip

Visio 2000

Visio 4

Visio 5

WordPerfect Presentations

WordPerfect Presentations 7

XBM - X-Windows Bitmap

XPM - X-Windows Pixmap

XWD - X-Windows Dump

EMAIL MESSAGE PROGRAMS
AD FTK2 handles email messages differently from other categories. It recognizes the

source of the email messages based on email archives and special headers.

238

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

AD FTK2 includes extended support for AOL including buddy lists, global settings,
user history, URL history, thumbnail extraction, and address book extraction.

The following are supported email applications:
TABLE A-5 Supported

Email Applications

AOL

Earthlink

Eudora

Hotmail

Lotus Notes

MSN Email

Netscape

Outlook

Outlook Express

ThunderBird

Yahoo

INSTANT MESSAGING PROGRAMS
AD FTK2 can recover instant messaging chat logs, if set to save conversations locally,

and additional information such as buddy lists.
The following are supported instant messaging applications:
TABLE A-6 Supported

Instant Messaging Programs

AOL IM

Google Chat

Yahoo Messenger

MSN Messenger

EXECUTABLE FILE TYPES
AD FTK2 recognizes these executable file types:
TABLE A-7 Recognized

Executable File Types

Executable File (EXE)

Executable File (COM)

JavaScript

NT Executable File

OS/2 Executable File

Windows VxD Executable File

Appendix A Recognized File Types

239

ARCHIVE FILE TYPES
AD FTK2 Identifies but does not extract the following file types:
TABLE A-8 Identified

Archive File Types

File Types Identified but not Extracted

File Types Identified and Extracted

ARC Archive
BestCrypt GOST/BLOWFISH
BestCrypt GOST/DES
BestCrypt GOST/GOST
BestCrypt GOST/TWOFISH
BestCrypt GOST/Unknown
BestCrypt SHA/BLOWFISH
BestCrypt SHA/DES
BestCrypt SHA/GOST
BestCrypt SHA/TWOFISH
BestCrypt SHA/Unknown
BestCrypt Unknown Key Generation
CAB Archive
Email Archive
GZIP Archive
Jetico BestCrypt Container
MS Exchange/Outlook
Old Format PGP Secret Key Ring
OLE Archive
OLE Embedded Object
OLE Embedded Storage Container
Outlook Express 5 Archive
Outlook Express Archive

PGP Disk 4.0 File
PGP Disk File
PGP Secret Key Ring
PK Zip Archive

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE A-8 Identified

Archive File Types

File Types Identified but not Extracted

File Types Identified and Extracted
Self-Extracting Zip Archive

Stuffit Archive
Thumbs.db Thumbnail Graphics

UNIX TAR Archive
Zip Archive

OTHER KNOWN FILE TYPES
AD FTK2 identifies and adds the following known file types to a case:
TABLE A-9 Other

Known File Types

8 Bit Sample Voice

Access File

Access System File

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Biographical
Data

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Biographical
Dictionary

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Dictionary

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Hard Drive
Dictionary

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Password Data

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Profile Data

AccessData Recovery 5.0 Status Report

ACT File

Address Book Entry

Appointment

Approach

Audio Clip

Audio Director

Audio Flash

Contact Information

Drive Free Space

Email Folder

Encapsulated PostScript File

Envoy

Envoy 7

Escher

File Slack

File System Slack

Help File

ICF

Internet Cookie File

Internet Explorer Link Files

Journal Entry

LZH Compress

Microsoft Office Binder

MIDI Sequence

MPEG Version 1.0

MPEG Version 2.0

Appendix A Recognized File Types

241

TABLE A-9 Other

242

Known File Types

8 Bit Sample Voice

Access File

MPEG Version 2.5

QuickFinder

Sample Music

Scheduler File

Self-Extracting LZH

Shortcut FileSticky Note

UNIX Compress

Wave Sound

Win95 Screensaver Settings

Windows Clipboard File

Windows Swap File

WordPerfect 4.2 (Vax)

WordPerfect Application Resource Library

WordPerfect Block File

WordPerfect Calculator

WordPerfect Calendar

WordPerfect Character Map

WordPerfect Column Block

WordPerfect Dictionary

WordPerfect Dictionary -- Rules

WordPerfect Display Resource File

WordPerfect Equation Resource

WordPerfect External Spell Code Module

WordPerfect External Spell Dictionary

WordPerfect File Manager

WordPerfect Graphic Driver

WordPerfect Help File

WordPerfect Hyph Lex Module

WordPerfect Hyphenation Code Module

WordPerfect Hyphenation Data Module

WordPerfect InForms 1

WordPerfect Install Options

WordPerfect Keyboard Definition

WordPerfect Macro Editor

WordPerfect Macro File

WordPerfect Macro Resource

WordPerfect Mouse Driver

WordPerfect Notebook

WordPerfect Office

WordPerfect Overlay File

WordPerfect Printer

WordPerfect Printer Q Codes

WordPerfect Printer Resource File

WordPerfect Program Editor

WordPerfect Rectangular Block

WordPerfect Rhymer Pronunciation

WordPerfect Rhymer Word File

WordPerfect Scheduler

WordPerfect Setup File

WordPerfect Shell

WordPerfect Spell Code Module--Rules

WordPerfect Spell Code Module--Word
List

WordPerfect Thesaurus

WordPerfect Unix Setup File

WordPerfect Vax Keyboard Definition

WordPerfect Vax Setup

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix A Recognized File Types

243

244

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix B File Systems and
Drive Image Formats

This appendix lists the file systems and image formats that AD FTK2 analyzes.

FILE SYSTEMS
•
•
•
•
•

FAT 12, FAT 16, FAT 32
NTFS
Ext2, Ext3
HFS, HFS+
ReiserFS 3

HARD DISK IMAGE FORMATS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Encase
SnapBack
Safeback 2.0 and under
Expert Witness
Linux DD
ICS
Ghost (forensic images only)

Appendix B File Systems and Drive Image Formats

245

• SMART
• AccessData Logical Image (AD1)

CD AND DVD IMAGE FORMATS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

246

Alcohol (*.mds)
CloneCD (*.ccd)
ISO
IsoBuster CUE
Nero (*.nrg)
Pinnacle (*.pdi)
PlexTools (*.pxi)
Roxio (*.cif)
Virtual CD (*.vc4)

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix C Recovering Deleted
Material

AD FTK2 finds deleted files on the supported file systems by their file header.

FAT 12, 16, AND 32
When parsing FAT directories, AD FTK2 identifies deleted files by their names. In a
deleted file, the first character of the 8.3 filename is replaced by the hex character 0xE5.
The file's directory entry provides the files's starting cluster (C) and size. From the size
of the file and the starting cluster, AD FTK2 computes the total number of clusters (N)
occupied by the file.
AD FTK2 then examines the File Allocation Table (FAT) and counts the number of
unallocated clusters starting at C (U). It then assigns the recovered file [min (N, U)]
clusters starting at C.

If the deleted file was fragmented, the recovered file is likely to be incorrect and
incomplete because the information that is needed to find subsequent fragments was
wiped from the FAT system when the file was deleted.
AD FTK2 uses the long filename (LFN) entries, if present, to recover the first letter of
the deleted file's short filename. If the LFN entries are incomplete or absent, it uses an

exclamation mark (“!”) as the first letter of the filename.

Appendix C Recovering Deleted Material

247

AD FTK2 meta carves, or searches the volume free space for deleted directories that

have been orphaned. An orphaned directory is a directory whose parent directory or
whose entry in its parent directory has been overwritten.

NTFS
AD FTK2 examines the Master File Table (MFT) to find files that are marked deleted

because the allocation byte in a record header indicates a deleted file or folder. It then
recovers the file’s data using the MFT record’s data attribute extent list if the data is
non-resident.
If the deleted file's parent directory exists, the recovered file is shown in the directory
where it originally existed. Deleted files whose parent directories were deleted are
shown in their proper place as long as their parent directory's MFT entry has not been
recycled.

EXT2
AD FTK2 searches to find inodes that are marked deleted. The link count is zero and
the deletion timestamp is nonzero.

For each deleted inode, AD FTK2 processes the block pointers as it does for a normal
file and adds blocks to the deleted file. However, if an indirect block is marked allocated
or references an invalid block number, the recovered file is truncated at that point
because the block no longer contains a list of blocks for the file that the application is
attempting to recover.
AD FTK2 does not recover the filenames for files deleted on ext2 systems. Instead,

deleted files are identified by inode number because ext2 uses variable-length directory
entries organized in a linked list structure. When a file is deleted, its directory entry is
unlinked from the list, and the space it occupied becomes free to be partially or
completely overwritten by new directory entries. There is no reliable way to identify and
extract completely deleted directory entries.

EXT3
AD FTK2 does not recover deleted files from ext3 volumes because ext3 zeroes out a

file's indirect block pointers when it is deleted.

248

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

HFS
AD FTK2 does not recover deleted files from HFS.

Appendix C Recovering Deleted Material

249

250

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix D Program Files

The following tables list key FTK2 files and folders, their functions, and their locations.

FILES AND FOLDERS FOR THE APPLICATION
These files and folders exist on the computer running FTK.
File or Folder

Location

FTK2-Data (shared)

Root of system drive or partition Contains all case data not stored
in the database.
(C:\ftk2‐data\)

summary_install_log.txt

C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\AccessData 
Forensic Toolkit 2

Points to a set of log files
including a summary installation
log to help Technical Support
with troubleshooting.

KFF Logs

C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\AccessData 
Forensic Toolkit 2

Records whether the Known
File Filter was added to the
schema.

FTK2.exe

C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\AccessData 
Forensic Toolkit 2\Application

Program executable

FTK2_log.txt

C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\AccessData 
Forensic Toolkit 2\Application

Log file recording information
specific to the application.

Appendix D Program Files

Function

251

File or Folder

Location

Function

FTK2crash[timestamp].dmp C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\AccessData 
Forensic Toolkit 2\Application

Dump file with a timestamp
from an FTK crash

FILES AND FOLDERS FOR THE DATABASE
These files and folders exist on the computer running the Oracle database.
File or Folder

Location

Function

ftk2

C:\Oracle

Contains files FTK uses to work with the Oracle
database, such as JRE, libraries, configuration
scripts, etc.

logs

C:\Program 
Files\Oracle\Inventory

Contains installation logs intended to help
Technical Support with installation
troubleshooting.

FTK2_KFF.DBF

C:\Oracle\ftk2\database

Contains the hashes that make up the AccessData
Known File Filter

CHANGING REGISTRY OPTIONS
The following sections cover small changes that can be made to items in the registry to
aid in the functionality and desired efficiency of FTK.

CHANGING THE LOGGING REGISTRY OPTIONS
To make changes in the registry for the available logging options do the following:
1. Click Start > Run.
2. Enter regedit and click OK.
3. Open HKLM\SOFTWARE\AccessData\Shared\Version Manager\sds\
4. Change any of the following values to the desired setting:

• errorlog = controls if LOG_WARN/LOG_ERROR logs to
ftkWorker.errorlog.txt (defaults to 1)

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AccessData FTK2 User Guide

• infolog = controls if LOG_INFO logs to ftkWorker.infolog.txt (defaults to 1)
• userlog = controls if LOG_USER logs to ftkWorker.userlog.txt (defaults to 0)
This is required by ediscovery.

• tracelog = controls LOG_TRACE logs to ftkWorker.tracelog.txt (defaults to 0)
Logs object created/complete messages.

• memlog = controls memory logging to ftkWorker.infolog.txt (defaults to 0)
• timelog = controls time logging to ftkWorker.infolog.txt (defaults to 0)
Note: Log files initialize when ftkworker.exe starts. Registry keys read only during the startup
process.

CHATTY WORKER
In the worker diagnostic page, "Chatty" now controls if the worker LEVEL_* logs to
stdout/stderr (therefore showing up in the text pane).

Appendix D Program Files

253

254

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

Appendix E Securing Windows
Registry Evidence

This appendix contains information about the Windows Registry and what information
can be gathered for evidence.

UNDERSTANDING THE WINDOWS REGISTRY
For forensic work, registry files are particularly useful because they can contain
important information such as the following:

• Usernames and passwords for programs, email, and Internet sites.
• A history of Internet sites accessed, including dates and times.
• A record of Internet queries (i.e., searches performed on Internet search engines
like Google, Yahoo, etc.).

• Lists of recently accessed files (e.g., documents, images, etc.).
• A list of all programs installed on the system.
AccessData Registry Viewer™ allows you to view the contents of Windows operating
system registries. Unlike the standard Windows Registry Editor, which only displays the
current system’s registry, Registry Viewer lets you examine registry files from any
system or user. Registry Viewer also provides access to a registry’s protected storage,
which contains passwords, usernames, and other information not accessible in
Windows Registry Editor.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

255

The files that make up the registry differ depending on the version of Windows. The
tables below list the registry files for each version of Windows, along with their
locations and the information they contain.

WINDOWS 9X REGISTRY FILES
The following table describes each item on the Windows 9x registry files:
TABLE E-1 Windows

9x Registry files

Filename

Location

system.dat

\Windows

Contents

• Protected storage for all users on the
system. Protected Storage is an accessrestricted area of the registry that stores
confidential user information including
usernames and passwords for Internet
Web sites, email passwords for Microsoft
Outlook* or Outlook Express, and a
record of Internet queries (i.e., searches
performed on Internet search engines
like Google, Yahoo, etc.), including the
time and date when they were performed.

• Lists installed programs, their settings,
and any usernames and passwords associated with them.

• Contains the System settings.
user.dat

\Windows
If there are multiple user
accounts on the system,
each user has a user.dat
file located in
\Windows\profiles\user 
account

• MRU (Most Recently Used) list of files.
MRU Lists maintain a list of files so
users can quickly re-access files. Registry Viewer allows you to examine these
lists to see what files have been recently
used and where they are located. Registry Viewer lists each program’s MRU
files in order from most recently
accessed to least recently accessed.

• User preference settings (desktop configuration, etc.).

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WINDOWS NT AND WINDOWS 2000 REGISTRY FILES
The following table describes each item in the Windows NT and Windows 2000 registry
files:
TABLE E-2 Windows NT

and Windows 2000 Registry Files

Filename

Location

NTUSER.DAT

\Documents and 
Settings\user account

Contents

• Protected storage for all users on the
system. Protected Storage is an accessrestricted area of the registry that
stores confidential user information
including usernames and passwords for
Internet Web sites, email passwords for
Microsoft Outlook or Outlook
Express, and a record of Internet queries (i.e., searches performed on Internet search engines like Google, Yahoo,
etc.), including the time and date when
they were performed.

If there are multiple user
accounts on the system,
each user has an ntuser.dat
file.

• All installed programs, their settings, and
any usernames and passwords associated with them

• User preference settings (desktop configuration, etc.)
default

\Winnt\system32\config

System settings

SAM

\Winnt\system32\config

User account management and security
settings

SECURITY

\Winnt\system32\config

Security settings

software

\Winnt\system32\config

All installed programs, their settings, and
any usernames and passwords associated
with them

system

\Winnt\system32\config

System settings

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

257

WINDOWS XP REGISTRY FILES
The following table describes each item in the Windows XP registry files:
TABLE E-3 Windows

XP Registry Files

Filename

Location

NTUSER.DAT

\Documents and 
Settings\user account
If there are multiple user
accounts on the system,
each user has an ntuser.dat
file.

Contents

• Protected storage for all users on the
system. Protected Storage is an accessrestricted area of the registry that
stores confidential user information
including usernames and passwords
for Internet Web sites, email passwords
for Microsoft Outlook or Outlook
Express, and a record of Internet queries (i.e., searches performed on Internet search engines like Google, Yahoo,
etc.), including the time and date when
they were performed.

• All installed programs, their settings,
and any usernames and passwords
associated with them

• User preference settings (desktop configuration, etc.)
default

\Winnt\system32\config

System settings

SAM

\Winnt\system32\config

User account management and security
settings

SECURITY

\Winnt\system32\config

Security settings

software

\Winnt\system32\config

All installed programs, their settings, and
any usernames and passwords associated
with them

system

\Winnt\system32\config

System settings

The logical registry is organized into the following tree structure:
The top level of the tree is divided into hives. A hive is a discrete body of keys, subkeys,
and values that is rooted at the top of the registry hierarchy. On Windows 9x systems,
the registry hives are as follows:

• HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT (HKCR)

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•
•
•
•
•

HKEY_CURRENT_USER (HKU)
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM)
HKEY_USERS (HKCU)
HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG (HKCC)
HKEY_KYN_DATA (HKDD)

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS are the root hives. They contain
information that is used to create the HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT, HKEY_CURRENT_USER,
and HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG hives.
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is generated at startup from the system.dat file and contains
all the configuration information for the local machine. For example, it might have one
configuration if the computer is docked, and another if the computer is not docked.
Based on the computer state at startup, the information in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE is
used to generate HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG and HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT.
HKEY_USERS is generated at startup from the system User.dat files and contains
information for every user on the system.
Based on who logs in to the system, the information in HKEY_USERS is used to
generate HKEY_CURRENT_USER, HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG, and
HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT.
Keys and sub-keys are used to divide the registry tree into logical units off the root.
When you select a key, Registry Editor displays the key’s values; that is, the information
associated with that key. Each value has a name and a data type, followed by a
representation of the value’s data. The data type tells you what kind of data the value
contains as well as how it is represented. For example, values of the REG_BINARY type
contain raw binary data and are displayed in hexadecimal format.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

259

POSSIBLE DATA TYPES
The following table lists the Registry’s possible data types:
TABLE E-4 Possible

260

Data Types

Data Type

Name

Description

REG_BINARY

Binary Value

Raw binary data. Most hardware component
information is stored as binary data and is
displayed in hexadecimal format.

REG_DWORD

DWORD
Value

Data represented by a number that is 4 bytes
long (a 32-bit integer). Many parameters for
device drivers and services are this type and are
displayed in binary, hexadecimal, or decimal
format. Related values are
DWORD_LITTLE_ENDIAN (least
significant byte is at the lowest address) and
REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN (least
significant byte is at the highest address).

REG_EXPAND_SZ

Expandable
String Value

A variable-length data string. This data type
includes variables that are resolved when a
program or service uses the data.

REG_MULTI_SZ

Multi-String
Value

A multiple string. Values that contain lists or
multiple values in a format that people can read
are usually this type. Entries are separated by
spaces, commas, or other marks.

REG_SZ

String Value

A text string of any length.

REG_RESOURCE_LIST

Binary Value

A series of nested arrays designed to store a
resource list used by a hardware device driver or
one of the physical devices it controls. This data
is detected by the system and is displayed in
hexadecimal format as a Binary Value.

REG_RESOURCE_
REQUIREMENTS_LIST

Binary Value

A series of nested arrays designed to store a
device driver's list of possible hardware
resources it or one of the physical devices it
controls can use. This data is detected by the
system and is displayed in hexadecimal format
as a Binary Value.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE E-4 Possible

Data Types

Data Type

Name

Description

REG_FULL_RESOURCE_
DESCRIPTOR

Binary Value

A series of nested arrays deigned to store a
resource list used by a physical hardware device.
This data is displayed in hexadecimal format as
a Binary Value.

REG_NONE

None

Data with no particular type. This data is
written to the registry by the system or
applications and is displayed in hexadecimal
format as a Binary Value.

REG_LINK

Link

A Unicode string naming a symbolic link.

REG_QWORD

QWORD
Value

Data represented by a number that is a 64-bit
integer.

ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
If there are multiple users on a single machine, you must be aware of the following
issues when conducting a forensic investigation:

• If there are individual profiles for each user on the system, you need to locate the
USER.DAT file for the suspect.

• If all the users on the system are using the same profile, everyone’s information is
stored in the same USER.DAT file. Therefore, you will have to find other
corroborating evidence because you cannot associate evidence in the USER.DAT
file with a specific user profile.

• On Windows 9x systems, the USER.DAT file for the default user is used to create
the USER.DAT files for new user profiles. Consequently, the USER.DAT files for new
profiles can inherit a lot of junk.
To access the Windows registry from an image of the suspect’s drive, you can do any of
the following:

• Boot the suspect’s image to view his or her registry in Registry Editor.
• Mount a restored image as a drive, launch Registry Editor at the command line
from your processing machine, export the registry files from the restored image,
then view them in a third-party tool.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

261

Note: The problem with this method is that you can only view the registry as text. Registry
Editor displays everything in ASCII so you can’t see hex or binary values in the
registry.

• Export the registry files from the image and view them in a third-party tool.
• Use Registry Viewer. Registry Viewer integrates seamlessly with AD FTK2 to
display registry files within the image and create reports.

Important: Registry Viewer shows everything you normally see in live systems
using the Windows Registry Editor. However, unlike Registry Editor and
other tools that use the Windows API, Registry Viewer decrypts
protected storage information so it displays values in the Protected
Storage System Provider key (PSSP). Registry Viewer also shows
information that is normally hidden in null-terminated keys.

SEIZING WINDOWS SYSTEMS
Information stored in the registry—Internet Messenger sessions, Microsoft Office
MRU lists, usernames and passwords for Internet Web sites accessed through Internet
Explorer, and so forth—are temporarily stored in HKEY_CURRENT_USER. When the
user closes an application or logs out, the hive’s cached information is pulled out of
memory and written to the user’s corresponding USER.DAT.
Note: Passwords and MRU lists are not saved unless these options are enabled.

Important: Because normal seizure procedures require that there be no
alteration of the suspect’s computer in any way, you must be able to
articulate why you closed any active applications before pulling the plug
on the suspect’s computer. Sometimes it is better to simply pull the plug
on the computer; other times, it makes more sense to image the
computer in place while it is on. It may depend on what is the most
important type of data expected to be found on the computer.
For example, Windows updates some program information in the
registry when the changes are made. Other information is not updated
until a program is closed. The Registry Quick Find Chart gives more
information.

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REGISTRY QUICK FIND CHART
The following charts discuss common locations where you can find data of forensic
interest in the registry.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

263

SYSTEM INFORMATION
TABLE E-5 System

264

Information

Information

File

Location

Description

Registered
Owner

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\
CurrentVersion

This information is entered during
installation, but can be modified
later.

Registered
Organization

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\
CurrentVersion

This information is entered during
installation, but can be modified
later.

Run

Software

Microsoft\Windows\Current
Version\Run

Programs that appear in this key run
automatically when the system
boots.

Logon Banner
Message

Software

Microsoft\Windows\Current
Version\Policies\System\Legal
NoticeText

This is a banner that users must click
through to log on to a system.

Mounted
Devices

System

MountedDevices

Database of current and prior
mounted devices that received a
drive letter.

Current Control
Set

System

Select

Identifies which control set is
current.

Shutdown Time

System

ControlSetXXX\Control\Windows

System shutdown time.

Event Logs

System

ControlSetXXX\Services\Eventlog

Location of Event logs.

Dynamic Disk

System

ControlSetXXX\Services\DMIO\
Boot Info\Primary Disk Group

Identifies the most recent dynamic
disk mounted in the system.

Pagefile

System

ControlSetXXX\Control\
Session Manager\Memory 
Management

Location, size, set to wipe, etc.

Last User
Logged In

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\
CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Last user logged in - can be a local
or domain account.

Product ID

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\
CurrentVersion

O\S Version

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\
CurrentVersion

Logon Banner
Title

Software

Microsoft\Windows\Current
Version\Policies\System\Legal
NoticeCaption

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

User-defined data.

TABLE E-5 System

Information

Logon Banner
Message

Software

Microsoft\Windows\Current
Version\Policies\System\Legal
NoticeCaption

User-defined data.

Time Zone

System

ControlSet001(or002)\Control\
TimeZoneInformation\Standard
Name

This information is entered during
installation, but can be modified
later.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

265

NETWORKING
TABLE E-6 Networking

Information

File

Location

Description

Map Network
Drive MRU

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows
\
CurrentVersion\Explorer\Map 
Network Drive MRU

Most recently used list
of mapped network
drives.

TCP\IP data

System

ControlSetXXX\Services\
TCPIP\Parameters

Domain, hostname
data.

TCP\IP Settings
of a Network
Adapter

System

ControlSetXXX\Services\
adapter\Parameters\TCPIP

IP address, gateway
information.

Default
Printer

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows 
NT\CurrentVersion\Windows

Current default printer.

Default
Printer

NTUSER.DAT

\printers

Current default printer.

Local Users

SAM

Domains\Account\Users\
Names

Local account security
identifiers.

Local Groups

SAM

Domains\Builtin\Aliases\
Names

Local account security
identifiers.

Profile list

Software

Microsoft\Windows NT\ 
CurrentVersion\ProfileList

Contains user security
identifiers (only users
with profile on the
system).

Network Map

NTUSER.DAT

Documents and 
Settings\username

Browser history and
last-viewed lists
attributed to the user.

USER DATA
TABLE E-7 User

266

Data

Information

File

Location

Description

Run

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Run

Programs that appear in this
key run automatically when the
user logs on.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE E-7 User

Data

Media Player
Recent List

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Media
Player\Player\ RecentFileList

This key contains the user's
most recently used list for
Windows Media Player.

O\S Recent
Docs

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Explorer\
RecentDocs

MRU list pointing to shortcuts
located in the recent directory.

Run MRU

NTUSER.DAT

\Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Explorer\RunM
RU

MRU list of commands
entered in the “run” box.

Open And Save
As Dialog
Boxes MRU

NTUSER.DAT

\Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Explorer\
ComDlg32

MRU lists of programs\files
opened with or saved with the
“open” or “save as” dialog
box(es).

Current Theme

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Themes

Desktop theme\wallpaper.

Last Theme

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Themes\Last 
Theme

Desktop theme\wallpaper.

File Extensions\
Program
Association

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Windows\
CurrentVersion\Explorer\
FileExts

Identifies associated programs
with file extensions.

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

267

USER APPLICATION DATA
TABLE E-8 User

268

Application Data

Information

File

Location

Description

Word User Info

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\office\
version\Common\UserInfo

This information is entered
during installation, but can be
modified later.

Word Recent
Docs

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\office\
version\Common\Data

Microsoft word recent
documents.

IE Typed
URLs

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Internet
Explorer\TypedURLs

Data entered into the URL
address bar.

IE AutoComplete
Passwords

NTUSER.DAT

\Software\Microsoft\
Internet Explorer\IntelliForms

Web page auto complete
password-encrypted values.

IE AutoComplete
Web Addresses

NTUSER.DAT

\Software\Microsoft\Protected 
Storage System Provider

Lists Web pages where auto
complete was used.

IE Default
Download
Directory

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\Internet 
Explorer

Default download directory
when utilizing Internet Explorer.

Outlook
Temporary
Attachment
Directory

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\office\
version\Outlook\Security

Location where attachments are
stored when opened from
Outlook.

AIM

NTUSER.DAT

Software\America Online\AOL 
Instant Messenger\
CurrentVersion\Users\username

IM contacts, file transfer
information, etc.

Word User Info

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\office\
version\Common\UserInfo

This information is entered
during installation, but can be
modified later.

ICQ

NTUSER.DAT

\Software\Mirabilis\ICQ\*

IM contacts, file transfer
information, etc.

MSN
Messenger

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Microsoft\MSN
Messenger\ListCache\.NET 
MessngerService\*

IM contacts, file transfer
information, etc.

Kazaa

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Kazaa\*

Configuration, search,
download, IM data, etc.

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

TABLE E-8 User

Application Data

Yahoo

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Yahoo\Pager\ 
Profiles\*

Google Client
History

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Google\NavClient\
1.1\History

Adobe

NTUSER.DAT

Software\Adobe\*

Appendix E Securing Windows Registry Evidence

IM contacts, file transfer
information, etc.

Acrobat, Photo deluxe, etc.

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Appendix F Troubleshooting

FTK2.1 is a complex program and troubleshooting can be challenging. While this
section attempts to present some basic solutions to commonly asked questions, and
directions for using AccessData Forensic Toolkit (FTK) Diagnostics Tools, it would not
be practical to list every possibility here. Thus, this section is limited.

FINDING ANSWERS
The most up-to-date troubleshooting and problem solving information is available on
the AccessData website, in our Knowledgebase.
Here's how to get into the Knowledge Base:
1. Open your Internet browser to http://www.accessdata.com/support.html
2. Click on link to KnowledgeBase
3. Be sure to log in using "Sign In" link located at the upper right hand corner to see

the majority of articles.
4. If you are unable to log in, please contact support at:

support@accessdata.com or 800-658-5199

Appendix F Troubleshooting

271

TROUBLESHOOTING TABLES
The following table provides limited, basic information for troubleshooting FTK 2.1.
TABLE F-1 FTK

2.1 Troubleshooting

Problem

Suggested Resolution

Application GUI cannot connect to
the Oracle database.

Ensure connectivity on port 1521.

The File List pane may not always
seem to correspond with the graphic
selected.

Refresh the File List pane to match up with the
selected graphics. Press F5 or click View > Refresh to
manually update the view.

The installer cannot connect to your
Oracle database.

Check to see if the Oracle host has been changed.

Test connectivity at port 1521.
When you change the name or
Verify that the SYS password is entered correctly.
domain affiliation of the Oracle host,
the Oracle instance on that host will Changing the Host name or Domain affiliation
causes the FTK2.exe connection to Oracle to fail.
not work.
Windows will allow a workgroup or domain change
at any time, and Oracle has no way to know about
that change until you tell it. Since Oracle currently is
using a fully qualified name, it fails when the
domain or workgroup name changes.
Log in to the host running Oracle.
Stop the listener control program by entering
“lsnrctl stop” at a command prompt.
From a text editor, open the file:
c:\Oracle\ftk2\NETWORK\ADMIN\listener.ora.
Edit the line containing the Oracle hostname. For
example, if the Oracle hostname were changed
from “privateeye” to “ciaoperative,” the line should
be changed from (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = 
TCP)(HOST = privateeye)(PORT = 1521)) to:
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 
ciaoperative)(PORT = 1521))
Save the change and exit the text editor.
Restart the listener service by entering “lsnrctl 
start” at a command prompt.

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TABLE F-1 FTK

2.1 Troubleshooting

Problem

Suggested Resolution

The file names listed in my Explorer The characters in the file name are non-ASCII, and
tree have boxes in place of characters. the character set FTK is using does not have a
character to represent the value contained in the file
name.
The user that launched FTK2.1 may not have rights
Even after several minutes, the
progress bar indicates that FTK is not to access the computer on which the data is found.
processing the evidence I just added. Manually change the user’s access to the evidence.
User operates several non-Network
License Service (NLS) applications
but cannot open FTK 2.1 using an
NLS license. Error message reads:
“No more user licenses are available.”

FTK 2.1 is looking on the local CmStick for a
license. To correct the problem, remove the local
CmStick. Launch FTK2.1, reattach the local
CmStick for other applications to access.

DIAGNOSTICS TOOLS
FTK provides a Diagnostics tool to help troubleshoot problems with evidence

processing. It also displays the activity of the databases where cases are stored and a list
of the Worker machines assigned to each case.

DATABASE DIAGNOSTICS
To access the FTK Database Diagnostics tool:

Appendix F Troubleshooting

273

1. Select Help > Diagnostics to open the database in the browser.

2. Click on the database hostname link in the Database box. The FTK Version

Management Diagnostics page opens. The page displays the following information:

•
•
•
•

Host IP address or hostname
Time and date of the host’s connection
Refresh rate
GUI Information
• Host ID
• Version ID
• User ID
• Case ID number for each open case

• Case Information (“Cases”)
• Case Number(s)
• User logged in to work on that case
• Worker Helper Status
• Database Helper Status

• Time and date at which the case was opened, in the following format:
MM/DD/YYYY TimeHoursMinutesDecimalSeconds AM/PM.

• Logging options

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• Log of database activity

UNINSTALLING MANUALLY
If for any reason you need to uninstall FTK, and in particular in the case of a failed
FTK 2.1 install, there are steps you can follow to ensure a successful uninstall. Do not
try to reinstall FTK over the top of a failed installation. In this situation, it is essential to
completely clean off the FTK components as described in this section, and then run the
install again.
This section covers the steps necessary for a successful uninstall of FTK2.1.

AUTOMATED UNINSTALL
Try uninstalling in Add or Remove Programs in the Windows Control Panel. If for any
reason this process fails, move to the instructions for Manually Uninstalling the
Database.

Appendix F Troubleshooting

275

MANUALLY UNINSTALLING THE DATABASE
Carefully read and follow these instructions before attempting to run the installation
again. All previously installed components should be cleared out before attempting to
re-install.
If, for any reason, you are unable to uninstall the Oracle database using Windows Add
or Remove Programs, you need to run the FTK Oracle uninstall .bat file.
1. Open Windows Explorer.
2. Browse to C:\Program Files\AccessData\Oracle\OracleSQL\.

3. Double-click UninstallOracleTroubleshoot.bat.

4. Answer Yes by typing “y.”

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5. Press enter.
6. Reboot (shutdown and restart) your system before continuing.

FIND AND DELETE FTK FOLDERS AND KEYS
The first program folder to delete is the main program folder, C:\Program 
Files\AccessData\Forensic Toolkit.

FIND AND DELETE FTK REGISTRY KEYS
Before continuing, AccessData recommends that you back up your registry. Run the
Registry Editor. Click File > Export. Name the exported registry file. The default folder
is My Documents. You may select a different location. When the name and location are
specified, click Save.
These entries are numerous. Take great care deleting registry entries to avoid
corrupting the OS or disabling another application’s software.
These entries differ from FTK 2.0.2 to FTK 2.1.0 Both registry path sets are listed
below.
1. From the Windows Run prompt, start regedit.
2. If uninstalling FTK 2.0.2, find and delete these keys:

•
•
•
•
•

C:\Program Files\AccessData\Forensic Toolkit\2.0.2
C:\Program Files\AccessData\KFF Library FTK 2.0.2
 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\AccessData\Forensic Toolkit
 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\AccessData\Products\Forensic Toolkit
  HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\AccessData ‐ 
Database Monitor

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\AccessData ‐ 
Worker Monitor

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Un
install\{E6596466‐BD67‐490F‐AC56‐101DA884E90D}

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Un
install\{556A689E‐CA83‐4FF7‐976E‐0F49BA6D048C}
3. If uninstalling FTK 2.1, find and delete these keys:

• C:\Program Files\AccessData\Forensic Toolkit\2.1.0

Appendix F Troubleshooting

277

• C:\Program Files\AccessData\KFF Library FTK 2.1
• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVers
ion\Uninstall\GUID will not be known until final build.

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVers
ion\Uninstall\{6F9DBF75-D45D-4266-8854-ADCD6D74CB64}

HANDLING ORACLE FOLDERS AND KEYS
The following steps are to be used in case of failure of the automated removal of the
Oracle database through the batch file referenced in “Uninstalling Manually” on
page 275.

STOP ORACLE SERVICES
Before deleting the Oracle folders and registry keys stop the affected Oracle services
that may be installed and running. The following lists the Oracle Services associated
with FTK.

•
•
•
•

OracleDBConsoleftk2
Oracleftk2TNSListner
OracleJobSchedulerFTK2
OracleServiceFTK2

DELETE ORACLE FOLDERS
Delete the following Oracle folders and their contents:

• C:\Program Files\Oracle
• C:\Oracle

DELETE THE ORACLE KEYS
These entries are numerous, and you should take great care in deleting registry entries
to avoid corrupting your OS, or disable some other applications software.
1. From the Windows Run prompt, start regedit.
2. Find and delete these registry keys:

• C:\Oracle
• C:\Program Files\AccessData\Oracle

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• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\AccessData\Oracle
• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Oracleftk2TNS
Listener

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\OracleJobSche
dulerFTK2

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\OracleServiceF
TK2

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\OracleDBCons
oleftk2

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Un
install\{25C2FB0D‐7CC4‐4B4E‐B587‐A12C549DF2AC}

--Use for Version 1.2

• HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Un
install\{25C2FB0D‐7CC4‐4B4E‐B587‐A12C549DF2AC} -- Use for Version 1.1
Note: Verify that C:\Oracle\ftk2\bin is not listed in the System Path Environment

Variable.

OTHER ISSUES
The following issues may also be encountered while using FTK.

DTSEARCH

NOISE FILE LIST
The noise file (noise.dat) shipped with FTK contains a list of common words like “is,”
“about,” and “what” that are excluded from the case index when evidence is added.
When these words are included in an index search, dtSearch allows any word to replace
the noise word. If, for example, the string “what about bob” was searched, since the
words “what” and “about” are included in the noise.dat file list, the search returns any
hit with two words followed by the word “bob.”
Some cases require an empty or customized noise.dat file. The following steps are a
way of creating an empty or customized noise.dat file.
1. Open the alerting the investigator toc:\Program Files\AccessData\Forensic 

Toolkit\2.1.0\bin folder.
2. Back up noise.dat by renaming it or copying and pasting it into the same folder.
3. Open noise.dat in a text editor.
4. Select all the words in the list.

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5. Press Delete.
6. Add any words (if any) to the list that you wish to be considered “noise”. If you want

the file to be empty, save it with no content.
7. Save the file as noise.dat.

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Appendix G Corporate
Information

This appendix contains information about AccessData and its products.

CONTACTING ACCESSDATA CORPORATION BY MAIL
Please send correspondence through the US Postal Service to:
AccessData Corp.
384 South 400 West, Suite 200
Lindon, Utah 84042
USA

REGISTRATION
AccessData provides a USB CodeMeter Stick with AD FTK2 as a registration
compliance and security device that is configured as part of the installation process. It
maintains AD FTK2 licensing and subscription information and is required to use AD
FTK2.
In addition, the licensing of the product takes place when the product is purchased, and
the licensing information is stored in our database. If you receive your CodeMeter
Stick and it does not have a license on it, with the CodeMeter Stick connected, run

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281

LicenseManager and refresh the device. If this does not resolve your issue, please
contact Customer Support by phone or by email.
If you have sales questions or questions regarding the CodeMeter Stick and licensing
issues, please contact your Sales Rep at 801-377-5410.

TECHNICAL SUPPORT
AccessData offers free technical support on all of its software from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00
p.m. Mountain Standard Time. When contacting Customer Support by phone, please
have your CodeMeter Stick or dongle serial number ready, and always include it in any
email or fax correspondence. Please do not send a fax unless requested by a Support
Agent.
TABLE G-1 Contacting

AccessData Support

Contact Us By

Using This Information

Phone:

801.377.5410 (Toll)
800.658.5199 (Toll Free)

Fax

800.765.4370; ATTN: Support

Web site

http://www.accessdata.com
Product-specific FAQs that list common questions and their
quick fixes.
Find both the AccessData Forum and the Online Support
Form to submit support requests at http://www.access‐
data.com/support. All support inquiries are typically
answered within 24 hours. If there is an urgent need for support, contact AccessData via phone.

Email

support@accessdata.com

DOCUMENTATION
Please email any problems you find with the documentation to:
documentation@accessdata.com.

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FTK Glossary

AccessData Recovery Session
In PRTK, selecting one or more files and starting the password recovery process is called
an AccessData Recovery (ADR) session. Typically, each case has one session unless you
have a large number of encrypted files.

Address
A location of data, usually in main memory or on a disk. You can think of computer
memory as an array of storage boxes, each of which is one byte in length. Each
computer has an address (a unique number) assigned to it. By specifying a memory
address, programmers can access a particular byte of data. Disks are divided into tracks
and sectors, each of which has a unique address.

Advanced Encryption Standard
A common symmetric encryption system that has replaced Data Encryption Standard
as the encryption standard. It uses a 128, 192, or 256-bit key.

Application Administrator
The first user created in an AccessData FTK2 system. The Application Administrator
has all rights within the application, including adding users and assigning roles.
Application Administrators can assign the role of Application Administrator to new
users as they are created.

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Asymmetric Encryption
A type of encryption in which the encryption and decryption keys are different.
Asymmetric encryption uses a public key (which can be posted on an Internet site or
made “public” through other means) and a private key, which remains secret. In this
system, something that has been encrypted with the private key can be decrypted only
by the public key, and vice versa. Asymmetric algorithms are slower than symmetric
algorithms, but can nonetheless be very useful. They are often used in combination with
symmetric algorithms, as with EFS Encryption.
The number of possible key values refers to the actual number of different key words or
passwords that can exist, based on the particular algorithm used to create the key value
in question. A n-bit key has 2n possible values. For example, a 40-bit key has 240 possible
values, or 1,099,511,627,776 possibilities.
The security of an algorithm should rely on the secrecy of the key only, not the secrecy
of the algorithm.
Do not compare key sizes between symmetric and asymmetric algorithms. For example,
a 128-bit symmetric key is approximately as strong as a 512-bit asymmetric key.

BestCrypt
A common symmetric encryption system that can be used with any of the following
hash functions and encryption algorithms:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

GOST
SHA-1 Hash

Blowfish
IDEA

Twofish
CAST
AES
RC6
3DES encryption

Binary
Pertaining to a number system that has just two unique digits. Computers are based on
the binary numbering system, which consists of just two unique numbers, 0 and 1. All

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operations that are possible in the decimal system (addition, subtraction, multiplication,
and division) are equally possible in the binary system.

BIOS
Acronym for Basic Input/Output System. The BIOS is built-in software that
determines what a computer can do without accessing programs from a disk. On PCs,
the BIOS contains all the code required to control the keyboard, display screen, disk
drives, serial communications, and a number of miscellaneous functions.

Bit-stream Image
See “Forensic Image” on page 290.

Bookmark
A menu entry or icon on a computer that is most often created by the user and that
serves as a shortcut to a previously viewed location (as an Internet address). The term
“bookmark” as used in a Computer Crimes Unit report refers to locating a file, folder
or specific item of interest to the examiner or to the investigator. The location of the
data (file name, file location, relative path, and hardware address) is identified. Other
data can be addressed as well.

Boot
To load the first piece of software that starts a computer. Because the operating system
is essential for running all other programs, it is usually the first piece of software loaded
during the boot process.

Boot Record
All the three types of FAT have a boot record, which is located within an area of
reserved sectors. The DOS format program reserves 1 sector for FAT12 and FAT16 and
usually 32 sectors for FAT32.

Chunk Size
The number of passwords the supervisor machine can process in the amount of time
specified.

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Cluster
Fixed-length blocks that store files on the FAT media. Each cluster is assigned a unique
number by the computer operating system. Only the part of the partition called the
“data area” is divided into clusters. The remainder of the partition are defined as
sectors. Files and directories store their data in these clusters. The size of one cluster is
specified in a structure called the Boot Record, and can range from a single sector to
128 sectors. The operating system assigns a unique number to each cluster and the
keeps track of files according to which cluster they use.

CMOS
Short for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Pronounced SEE-moss, CMOS
is a widely used type of semiconductor. CMOS semiconductors use both NMOS
(negative polarity) and PMOS (positive polarity) circuits. Since only one of the circuit
types is on at any given time, CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one
type of transistor. This makes them particularly attractive for use in battery-powered
devices, such as portable computers. Personal computers also contain a small amount
of battery-powered CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and system setup
parameters.

CRC
Short for Cyclical Redundancy Check. It performs a complex calculation on every byte
in the file, generating a unique number for the file in question. If so much as a single
byte in the file being checked were to change, the cyclical redundancy check value for
that file would also change. If the CRC value is known for a file before it is downloaded,
you can compare it with the CRC value generated by this software after the file has been
downloaded to ascertain whether the file was damaged in transit. The odds of two files
having the same CRC value are even longer than the odds of winning a state-run
lottery—along the lines of one in 4,294,967,296.

Cylinder
A single-track location on all the platters making up a hard disk. For example, if a hard
disk has four platters, each with 600 tracks, then there will be 600 cylinders, and each
cylinder will consist of 8 tracks (assuming that each platter has tracks on both sides).

dd

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(Linux) Makes a copy of a input file (STDIN) using the specified conditions, and sends
the results to the output file (STDOUT).

Data Carving
Data carving is the process of extracting a collection of data from a larger data set. Data
carving techniques frequently occur during a digital investigation when the unallocated
file system space is analyzed to extract files. The files are “carved” from the unallocated
space using file type-specific header and footer values. File system structures are not
used during the process.

Data Encryption Standard
A 56-bit symmetric encryption system that is considered weak by current standards. It
has been broken in a distributed environment.

Device
Any machine or component that attaches to a computer. Examples of devices include
disk drives, printers, mice, and modems. These particular devices fall into the category
of peripheral devices because they are separate from the main computer.
Most devices, whether peripheral or not, require a program called a device driver that
acts as a translator, converting general commands from an application into specific
commands that the device understands.

Disk
A round plate on which data can be encoded. There are two basic types of disks:
magnetic disks and optical disks.

EnScript (also “e script”)
EnScript is a language and API that has been designed to operate within the EnCase
environment. EnScript is compatible with the ANSI C++ standard for expression
evaluation and operator meanings but contains only a small subset of C++ features. In
other words, EnScript uses the same operators and general syntax as C++ but classes
and functions are organized differently.

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Evidence Item
A physical drive, a logical drive or partition, or drive space not included in any
partitioned virtual drive.

File Allocation Table (FAT)
A table that the operating system uses to locate files on a disk. A file may be divided
into many sections that are scattered around the disk. The FAT keeps track of all these
pieces.
There is a field in the Boot Record that specifies the number of FAT copies. With
FAT12 and FAT16, MS-DOS uses only the first copy, but the other copies are
synchronized. FAT32 was enhanced to specify which FAT copy is the active one in a 4bit value part of a Flags field.
Think of the FAT as a singly linked list. Each of the chains in the FAT specify which
parts of the disk belong to a given file or directory.
A file allocation table is a simple array of 12-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit data elements. Usually
there will be two identical copies of the FAT.
FAT12: The oldest type of FAT uses a 12-bit binary number to hold the cluster number.

A volume formatted using FAT12 can hold a maximum of 4,086 clusters, which is 212
minus a few values (to allow for reserved values to be used in the FAT). FAT12 is most
suitable for very small volumes, and is used on floppy disks and hard disk partitions
smaller than about 16 MB (the latter being rare today.)
FAT16: The FAT used for older systems, and for small partitions on modern systems,
uses a 16-bit binary number to hold cluster numbers. When you see someone refer to a
FAT volume generically, they are usually referring to FAT16, because it is the de facto
standard for hard disks, even with FAT32 now more popular than FAT16. A volume

using FAT16 can hold a maximum of 65,526 clusters, which is 216 less a few values (again
for reserved values in the FAT). FAT16 is used for hard disk volumes ranging in size
from 16 MB to 2,048 MB. VFAT is a variant of FAT16.

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FAT32: The newest FAT type, FAT32 is supported by newer versions of Windows,
including Windows 95’s OEM SR2 release, as well as Windows 98, Windows ME, and
Windows 2000. FAT32 uses a 28-bit binary cluster number—not 32 because 4 of the 32
bits are reserved. 28 bits is still enough to permit very large volumes—FAT32 can
theoretically handle volumes with over 268 million clusters, and will theoretically
support drives up to 2 TB in size. To do this, however, the size of the FAT grows very
large.
VFAT features the following key improvements compared to FAT12 and FAT16:

• Long File Name Support: Prior to Windows 95, FAT was limited to the elevencharacter (8.3) file name restriction. VFAT’s most important accomplishment
enabled the use of long file names by the Windows 95 operating system and
applications written for it, while maintaining compatibility with older software
that had been written before VFAT was implemented.

• Improved Performance: The disk access and file system management routines
for VFAT were rewritten using 32-bit protected-mode code to improve
performance. At the same time, 16-bit code was maintained, for use when
required for compatibility.

• Better Management Capabilities: Special support was added for techniques like
disk locking to allow utilities to access a disk in exclusive mode without fear of
other programs using it in the meantime.

File Header
The data at the beginning of a file that identifies the file type: .gif, .doc, .txt, etc.

File Footer
The data at the end of the file signifying the file is complete and allows the file to be
understood by the operating system.

File Item
Any item FTK can parse from the evidence. This includes complete files as well as subelements such as graphics, files, or OLE objects embedded in other files; deleted items
recovered from unallocated space; and so forth.

File Slack

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Unused space. Operating systems store files in fixed-length blocks called clusters.
Because few files are a size that is an exact multiple of the cluster size, there is typically
unused space between the end of the file and the end of the last cluster used by that file.

Forensic Image
A process where all areas of a physical disk are copied, sector by sector, to storage
media. This image may be a raw file, as in the case of the Linux utility DD, or it may be
a forensically correct copy, such as SPADA provides. These images replicate exactly all
sectors on a given storage device. All files, unallocated data areas, and areas not
normally accessible to a user are copied.

Forensically Prepared Media
Digital media (such as a diskette, tape, CD, hard drive) that is sanitized (wiped clean) of
all data. This means computer media that may be sanitized up to the Department of
Defense standards 5220.22-M (National Industrial Security Program Operating Manual
Supplement) using software wipe utilities such as Dan Mares (Maresware) Declassify,
New Technologies Inc (NTI) Disk Scrub or M-Sweep Pro or Symantec (Norton)
WipeInfo to remove all data by overwriting the existing data with random or predefined characters. The Linux OS may also be used to write out a value of zero (0) to a
device.
The media is then examined using tools to determine that no data exists (MD5, SHA-1
or Diskedit). The partition information is removed and the media is sanitized from the
physical address of (cylinder/head/sector) 0/0/1 to the physical (versus logical) end of
the media.
The partition information is removed and the media is sanitized from the physical
address of (cylinder/head/sector) 0/0/1 to the physical (versus logical) end of the
media. This process involves using a program such as I-wipe, Encase, Linux, Drivespy,
SPADA or any program capable of writing multiple passes of a single character over the
entire drive.
Checksum is a form of redundancy check, a very simple measure for protecting the
integrity of data by detecting errors in data. It works by adding up the basic
components of a message, typically the bytes, and storing the resulting value. Later,
anyone can perform the same operation on the data, compare the result to the
authentic checksum and (assuming that the sums match) conclude that the message was
probably not corrupted.

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Redundancy check is extra data added to a message for the purposes of error detection
and error correction.
The value of the checksum of forensically prepared media will be zero (0) provided the
write process is done using zeros.

Graphic Image Files
Computer graphic image files such as photos, drawings, etc. Come in various standard
formats. Some of the most common file types include but are not limited to Joint
Photographic Experts Group (JPEG, JPG), Bitmap (BMP), Graphics Interchange Format
(GIF, JFIF) and AOL image file (ART).

Golden Dictionary
The Golden Dictionary file, ADPasswords.dat, contains all recovered passwords for all
PRTK sessions on the current computer. It is stored in the AccessData program
directory (C:\Program Files\AccessData\Recovery\). Recovered passwords are used as
the first level of attack in all password recovery sessions. Most people use the same
password for different files, so recovering the password for a simple file often opens
the door to more difficult files.

Graphic Interchange Format (GIF)
A common graphics format that can be displayed on almost all Web browsers. GIFs
typically display in 256 colors and have built-in compression. Static or animated GIF
images are the most common form of banner creation.

Hard Disk (Drive)
A magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. The term hard is used to
distinguish it from a soft or floppy disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than
floppy disks. A hard disk, for example, can store anywhere from 10 megabytes to
several gigabytes, whereas most floppies have a maximum storage capacity of 1.4
megabytes.

Hashing

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Generating a unique alphanumeric value based on a file’s contents. The alphanumeric
value can be used to prove that a file copy has not been altered in any way from the
original. It is statistically impossible for an altered file to generate the same hash
number.

Head
The mechanism that reads data from or writes data to a magnetic disk or tape. Hard
disk drives have many heads, usually two for each platter.

Hexadecimal
The base-16 number system, which consists of 16 unique symbols: the numbers zero
through nine and the letters A to F. For example, the decimal number 15 is represented
as F in the hexadecimal numbering system. The hexadecimal system is useful because it
can represent every byte (eight bits) as two consecutive hexadecimal digits. It is easier
for humans to read hexadecimal numbers than binary numbers.

Markov Permutation
The Markov permutation records the times certain words, letters, punctuation, and
spaces occur together in a given amount of text, then generates random output that has
the same distribution of groups.
For example: if you were to scan through the text and create a huge frequency table of
what words come after the words “up the,” you might find “tree,” “ladder,” and
“creek” most often. You would then generate output from the words “up the,” and get
the results “up the tree,” “up the creek,” and “up the ladder” randomly.
If the words “up the” were followed most frequently by the word “creek” in your
sample text, the phrase “up the creek” would occur most frequently in your random
output.
Andrey Andreyevich Markov (June 14, 1856–July 20, 1922) was a Russian
mathematician.

Memory
Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that
comes in the form of chips; the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or

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disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory,
which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data.

Message Digest 5
A 128-bit digital fingerprint based on a file's content. An algorithm created in 1991 by
Professor Ronald Rivest of RSA that is used to create digital signatures, or a 128-bit
digital fingerprint based on a file's content. Message Digest 5 (MD5) takes as input an
arbitrary-length file and outputs a fixed-length number referred to as a hash or digest. It
is intended for use with 32 bit machines and is safer than the MD4 algorithm, which has
been broken. MD5 is a one-way hash function, meaning that it takes a message and
converts it into a fixed string of digits, also called a message digest. When using a oneway hash function, one can compare a calculated message digest against the message
digest that is decrypted with a public key to verify that the message hasn’t been
changed. This comparison is called a hash check. The number is derived from the input
in such a way that it is computationally infeasible to derive any information about the
input from the hash. It is also computationally infeasible to find another file that will
produce the same output.
MD5 hashes are used by the KFF to identify known files.

Metadata
Literally data about data. Metadata describes how, when, and by whom a particular set
of data was collected and how the data is formatted. Metadata is essential for
understanding information stored in data warehouses and has become increasingly
important in XML-based Web applications.

Mount
To make a mass storage device available to the OS, or to a user or user group. In may
also mean to make a device physically accessible. In a Unix environment, the mount
command attaches discs or directories logically rather than physically. The Unix mount
command makes a directory accessible by attaching a root directory of one file system
to another directory, which makes all the file systems usable as if they were
subdirectories of the file system they are attached to. Unix recognizes devices by their
location, while Windows recognizes them by their names (C: drive, for example). Unix
organizes directories in a tree-like structure in which directories are attached by

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mounting them on the branches of the tree. The file system location where the device
is attached is called a mount point. Mounts may be local or remote. A local mount
connects disk drives on one machine so that they behave as one logical system. A
remote mount uses Network File System (NFS) to connect to directories on other
machines so that they can be used as if they were all part of the user’s file system.

NT File System (NTFS)
One of the file systems for the Windows NT operating system (Windows NT also
supports the FAT file system). NTFS has features to improve reliability, such as
transaction logs to help recover from disk failures. To control access to files, you can set
permissions for directories or individual files. NTFS files are not accessible from other
operating systems, such as DOS. For large applications, NTFS supports spanning
volumes, which means files and directories can be spread out across several physical
disks.

Pagefile (.sys)
The paging file is the area on the hard disk that Windows uses as if it were random
access memory (RAM). This is sometimes known as virtual memory. By default,
Windows stores this file on the same partition as the Windows system files.

Pretty Good Privacy
A common symmetric encryption system used for exchanging files and email. It
provides both privacy and authentication.

RC4
RC4, or ARC4, is a variable key-length stream cipher designed by RSA. Stream ciphers
are key-dependent, pseudo-random number generators whose output is XORed with
the data  XOR <random-looking stream> = <random-looking
ciphertext>. Because XOR is symmetric (in other words, [A XOR B] XOR B = A),
XORing the ciphertext with the stream again returns the plaintext. Microsoft Word and
Excel use RC4 and a 40-bit key to encrypt their files. An exhaustive key space attack has
a much better chance at succeeding with a 40-bit key space.

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A sector is a group of bytes within a track and is the smallest group of bytes that can be
addressed on a drive. There are normally tens or hundreds of sectors within each track.
The number of bytes in a sector can vary, but is almost always 512. The maximum
number of sectors in a cluster is 64. CDROMS normally have 2048 bytes per sector.
Sectors are numbered sequentially within a track, starting at 1. The numbering restarts
on every track, so that “track 0, sector 1” and “track 5, sector 1” refer to different
sectors. Modern drives use a system known as Logical Block Addressing (LBA) instead
of CHS to track sectors.
During a low-level format, hard disks are divided into tracks and sectors. The tracks are
concentric circles around the disk and the sectors are segments within each circle. For
example, a formatted disk might have 40 tracks, with each track divided into ten sectors.
Physical sectors are relative to the entire drive. Logical sectors are relative to the
partition.

Secure Hash Algorithm
A 160-bit digital fingerprint based on a file’s content. Designed by the National Institute
of Standards and Technology (NIST), Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) takes as input an
arbitrary-length file and outputs a fixed-length number referred to as a hash or digest.
The number is derived from the input in such a way that it is computationally
impossible to derive any information about the input from the hash. It is also
computationally impossible to find another file that will produce the same output.
SHA-1 hashes are used by the KFF to identify known files.
FTK uses SHA-1 and SHA-256. The KFF library contains some A hashes.

SHA
The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash
functions. The most commonly used function in the family, SHA-1, is employed in a
large variety of popular security applications and protocols, including TLS, SSL, PGP,
SSH, S/MIME, and IPSec. SHA-1 is considered to be the successor to MD5, an earlier,
widely-used hash function. The SHA algorithms were designed by the National Security
Agency (NSA) and published as a US government standard.
The first member of the family, published in 1993, is officially called SHA; however, it is
often called SHA-0 to avoid confusion with its successors. Two years later, SHA-1, the
first successor to SHA, was published. Four more variants have since been issued with

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increased output ranges and a slightly different design: SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384, and
SHA-512—sometimes collectively referred to as SHA-2.
Attacks have been found for both SHA-0 and SHA-1. No attacks have yet been reported
on the SHA-2 variants, but since they are similar to SHA-1, researchers are worried, and
are developing candidates for a new, better hashing standard.

Spool (spooling, print spool)
Acronym for Simultaneous Peripheral Operations On-Line, spooling refers to putting
jobs in a buffer, a special area in memory or on a disk where a device can access them
when it is ready. Spooling is useful because devices access data at different rates. The
buffer provides a waiting station where data can rest while the slower device catches up.
The most common spooling application is print spooling. In print spooling, documents
are loaded into a buffer (usually an area on a disk), and then the printer pulls them off
the buffer at its own rate. Because the documents are in a buffer where they can be
accessed by the printer, you can perform other operations on the computer while
printing takes place in the background. Spooling also lets you place a number of print
jobs on a queue instead of waiting for each one to finish before specifying the next one.

(File and RAM) Slack
Files are created in varying lengths depending on their contents. DOS, Windows and
Windows NT-based computers store files in fixed length blocks of data called clusters.
Rarely do file sizes exactly match the size of one or multiple clusters perfectly. The data
storage space that exists from the end of the file to the end of the last cluster assigned
to the file is called file slack. Cluster sizes vary in length depending on the operating
system involved and, in the case of Windows 95, the size of the logical partition
involved. Larger cluster sizes mean more file slack and also the waste of storage space
when Windows 95 systems are involved.
File slack potentially contains randomly selected bytes of data from computer memory.
This happens because DOS/Windows normally writes in 512 byte blocks called sectors.
Clusters are made up of blocks of sectors. If there is not enough data in the file to fill
the last sector in a file, DOS/Windows makes up the difference by padding the
remaining space with data from the memory buffers of the operating system. This
randomly selected data from memory is called RAM Slack because it comes from the
memory of the computer.

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RAM Slack can contain any information that may have been created, viewed, modified,

downloaded or copied during work sessions that have occurred since the computer was
last booted. Thus, if the computer has not been shut down for several days, the data
stored in file slack can come from work sessions that occurred in the past.
RAM slack pertains only to the last sector of a file. If additional sectors are needed to
round out the block size for the last cluster assigned to the file, then a different type of
slack is created. It is called drive slack and it is stored in the remaining sectors which
might be needed by the operating system to derive the size needed to create the last
cluster assigned to the file. Unlike RAM slack, which comes from memory, drive slack is
padded with what was stored on the storage device before. Such data could contain
remnants of previously deleted files or data from the format pattern associated with
disk storage space that has yet to be used by the computer.

For example, take a file that is created by writing the word “Hello.” Assuming that this
is the only data written in the file and assuming a two sector cluster size for the file, the
data stored to disk and written in file slack could be represented as follows:
________________________________________
Hello+++++++|————(EOC)
RAM Slack is indicated by "+"
Drive Slack is indicated by "–"
________________________________________
File Slack is created at the time a file is saved to disk. When a file is deleted under DOS,
Windows, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT/2000/XP, the data associated
with RAM slack and drive slack remains in the cluster that was previously assigned to the
end of the deleted file. The clusters which made up the deleted file are released by the
operating system and they remain on the disk in the form of unallocated storage space
until the space is overwritten with data from a new file.
File slack potentially contains data dumped randomly from the computer’s memory. It
is possible to identify network login names, passwords, and other sensitive information
associated with computer usage. File slack can also be analyzed to identify prior uses of
the subject computer and such legacy data can help the computer forensics investigator.
File slack is not a trivial item. On large hard disk drives, file slack can involve several
hundred megabytes of data. Fragments of prior email messages and word processing
documents can be found in file slack. From a computer forensic standpoint, file slack is
very important as both a source of digital evidence and security risks

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String Searches
A string search is a data string containing standard text or non-text data. The term may
be a word, phrase or an expression. Keyword searches are designed to aid in the
identification of potentially relevant data on the examined media.

Superuser Administrator
Aperson with unlimited access privileges who can perform any and all operations on
the computer and within the operating system and file system. These privileges do not
necessarily transfer to the applications installed on the computer.

Symmetric Encryption
A type of encryption in which the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Some
common symmetric encryption systems are Data Encryption Standard, Triple-DES,
Pretty Good Privacy, BestCrypt, and Advanced Encryption Standard.

Thumbnail
A smaller-sized version of a graphics image.

Unallocated Space
Also called free space, it consists of all the clusters on a drive that are not currently
assigned to a file. Some of these clusters may still contain data from files that have been
deleted but not yet overwritten by other files.
Until the first file is written to the data storage area of a computer storage device, the
clusters are unallocated by the operating system in the File Allocation Table (FAT). These
unallocated clusters are padded with format pattern characters and the unallocated
clusters are not of interest to the computer forensics specialist until data is written to the
clusters. As the computer user creates files, clusters are allocated in the File Allocation
Table (FAT) to store the data. When the file is deleted by the computer user, the clusters
allocated to the file are released by the operating system so new files and data can be
stored in the clusters when needed. However, the data associated with the deleted file
remains behind. This data storage area is referred to as unallocated storage space and it
is fragile from an evidence preservation standpoint. However, until the unallocated
storage space is reassigned by the operating system, the data remains behind for easy
discovery and extraction by the computer forensics specialist. Unallocated file space

298

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potentially contains intact files, remnants of files and subdirectories and temporary files,
which were transparently created and deleted by computer applications and also the
operating system. All of such files and data fragments can be sources of digital evidence
and also security leakage of sensitive data and information.

URL
Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and
other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address indicates what
protocol to use and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain name where
the resource is located.

Volume
A volume refers to a mounted partition. There may be only one volume on a disk, such
as a floppy disk or a zip disk. There may be several volumes on a disk as on a
partitioned hard drive. A volume is a logical structure, not a physical device. There can
be up to 24 of these logical volumes on a disk and they show up as drive “c,” “d,” or “e”
in DOS.

Volume Boot Sector
Since every partition may contain a different file system, each partition contains a
volume boot sector which is used to describe the type of file system on the partition
and usually contains boot code necessary to mount the file system.

FTK Glossary

299

300

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

A
archiving
see backing up case 93

B
backing up case 93
bookmarks 104
creating 105
export files to report 171
including in report 171
moving 114
tab 68
viewing 107

C
carved files
adding 81
carving
see data carving 145
case 35
adding evidence 95
backing up 93
creating 77
entering information in a report 169
indexing 82
processing of evidence 78
refining evidence 84
Case Manager Window 36
CmStick 36, 207, 209
CodeMeter 36
column headings
common 188
compressed 200
DOS 197
email 190
ext2 197
file status 195
file system 196
HFS 198
NTFS 199
Outlook/Exchange 193
stored hashes 190
Unix 200

301

Creating 71
custom identification file 83
customizing 184
data carving 201
file list columns 186
tab layout 183
view panes 183

D
data carving 145
customizing 201
existing case 146
new case 81, 146
Database File Types 239
decrypted files
locating 80
decrypting 161
viewing decrypted files 163
diagnostics
workers 223
docking
options 184
Document File Types 234
dongle 36, 209
dtSearch 8, 82

E
EFS 161
decrypting files 80
email
file types 243
window 68
evidence
excluding from index 89
processing of 78
refining 84
exporting
bookmarked files to report 171
files 118
index 138
registry files 121

F

302

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

file
exporting 118
file category 60
file content 50
filter tab 52
hex tab 53
natural tab 51
text tab 53
file list columns
customizing 186
file listing database 80
file properties
in report 174
viewing 102
file status 60, 61
file types
email message 243
filter 149
Known File Filter (KFF) 154
toolbar 149
filtering
creating or modifying 152
FTK 2 window 38
FTK Imager 77

G
Graphic File Types 241

H
hardware acquisition tools 76
hashing
databases of 9
overview of 8
sample of 8
HashKeeper database 9
hex interpreter 49
hexadecimal 49
HTML file listing 80

I
index
contents of 138
selecting 78

303

L
License Manager
updating 216

M
MD5
see Message Digest 5 8
Message Digest 5 8
selecting 78

N
NTFS 161, 249
decrypt EFS files 80

O
or 35

P
packet file 212
partition
evidence item 278
NTFS 80, 249
Password Recovery Toolkit 138, 204
features 205
progress dialog 57
Properties Pane 48
PRTK
see Password Recovery Toolkit 204

Q
QuickPicks 45
QuickPicks Filter 56

R
registry files 206
Registry Viewer 206, 257
regular expression 123
reports
entering case information 169
including bookmarks in 171

304

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

including list of file properties in 174
modifying 180
sample of 178
selecting location of 176
viewing 178
roles 75

S
searching 8
regular expressions 129
Secure Hash Algorithim 8
Secure Hash algorithim
selecting 78
security device 212
SHA-1
see Secure Hash Algorithim 8
software acquisition tools 76
Spreadsheet File Types 238
status 158

T
tab
Bookmark 68
Email 63
Explore 54
Graphics 65
Overview 58
Search 69
User-defined 71
Tab Layout menu 183
temporary file folder 200
thumbnails
creating 78
marking 65
see Graphics Tab 66
toolbar 45
file list 47

U
updating
products 216

V

305

View menu 182
view panes
moving 183

W
window
email 68
Windows Registry
file types 258
Windows 9x file types 258
Windows NT and 2000 file types 259
Windows XP file types 260

306

AccessData FTK2 User Guide

</pre><hr>Source Exif Data: <br /><pre>File Type                       : PDF
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