Riverbed Technology XR620 802.11ac 2x2 AP User Manual xirrus PDF

Xirrus, Inc. 802.11ac 2x2 AP xirrus PDF

User manual 2

Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 229
Figure 128. Access Control List
Procedure for Configuring Access Control Lists
1. Access Control List Type: Select Disabled to disable use of the Access
Control List, or select the ACL typeeither Allow List or Deny List.
Allow List: Only allows the listed MAC addresses to associate to
the Array. All others are denied.
Deny List: Denies the listed MAC addresses permission to
associate to the Array. All others are allowed.
2. MAC Address: If you want to add a MAC address to the ACL, enter the
new MAC address here, then click on the Add button. The MAC address
is added to the ACL. You may use a wildcard (*) for one or more digits to
match a range of addresses. You may create up to 1000 entries.
3. Delete: You can delete selected MAC addresses from this list by clicking
their Delete buttons.
4. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
In addition to these lists, other authentication methods (for
example, RADIUS) are still enforced for users.
Wireless Array
230 Configuring the Wireless Array
See Also
External Radius
Global Settings (IAP)
Internal Radius
Management Control
Security
Station Status Windows (list of stations that have been detected by the Array)
Global Settings
This window allows you to establish the security parameters for your wireless
network, including WEP, WPA, WPA2 and RADIUS authentication. When
finished, click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
For additional information about wireless network security, refer to “Security
Planning” on page 47 and “Understanding Security” on page 209.
Figure 129. Global Settings (Security)
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 231
Procedure for Configuring Network Security
1. RADIUS Server Mode: Choose the RADIUS server mode you want to
use, either Internal or External. Parameters for these modes are
configured in “External Radius” on page 234 and “Internal Radius” on
page 238.
WPA Settings
These settings are used if the WPA or WPA2 encryption type is selected on the
SSIDs >SSID Management window or the Express Setup window (on this
window, encryption type is set in the SSID Settings: Wireless Security field).
2. TKIP Enabled: Choose Yes to enable TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity
Protocol), or choose No to disable TKIP.
3. AES Enabled: Choose Yes to enable AES (Advanced Encryption
Standard), or choose No to disable AES. If both AES and TKIP are
enabled, the station determines which will be used.
4. WPA Group Rekey Time (seconds): Enter a value to specify the group
rekey time (in seconds). The default is Never.
5. WPA Preshared Key / Verify Key: If you enabled PSK, enter a passphrase
here, then re-enter the passphrase to verify that you typed it correctly.
TKIP encryption does not support high throughput rates (see Improved
MAC Throughput), per the IEEE 802.11n specification.
TKIP should never be used for WDS links on XR Arrays.
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232 Configuring the Wireless Array
WEP Settings
These settings are used if the WEP encryption type is selected on the SSIDs >
SSID Management window or the Express Setup window (on this window,
encryption type is set in the SSID Settings: Wireless Security field).
Click the Show Cleartext button to make the text that you type in to the Key
fields visible.
6. Encryption Key 1 / Verify Key 1:
Key Size: Key length is automatically computed based on the Encryption
Key that you enter
5 ASCII characters (10 hex) for 40 bits (WEP-64)
13 ASCII characters for (26 hex) 104 bits (WEP-128)
Encryption Key 1 / Verify Key 1: Enter an encryption key in ASCII or
hexadecimal. The ASCII and translated hexadecimal values will appear
to the right if you selected the Show Cleartext button.
Re-enter the key to verify that you typed it correctly. You may include
special ASCII characters, except for the double quote symbol (“).
7. Encryption Key 2 to 4/ Verify Key 2 to 4/ Key Mode/Length (optional): If
desired, enter up to four encryption keys, in the same way that you
entered the first key.
8. Default Key: Choose which key you want to assign as the default key.
Make your selection from the pull-down list.
WEP encryption does not support high throughput rates or features like
frame aggregation or block acknowledgments (see Improved MAC
Throughput), per the IEEE 802.11n specification.
WEP should never be used for WDS links on Arrays.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 233
9. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Admin Management
External Radius
Internal Radius
Access Control List
Management Control
Security
Security Planning
SSID Management
After configuring network security, the configuration must be
applied to an SSID for the new functionality to take effect.
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234 Configuring the Wireless Array
External Radius
This window allows you to define the parameters of an external RADIUS server
for user authentication. To set up an external RADIUS server, you must choose
External as the RADIUS server mode in Global Settings. Refer to “Global
Settings” on page 230.
Figure 130. External RADIUS Server
If you want to include user group membership in the RADIUS account
information for users, see “Understanding Groups” on page 269. User groups
allow you to easily apply a uniform configuration to a user on the Array.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 235
About Creating User Accounts on the RADIUS Server
A number of attributes of user (wireless client) accounts are controlled by
RADIUS Vendor Specific Attributes (VSAs) defined by Xirrus. For example, you
would use the VSA named Xirrus-User-VLAN if you wish to set the VLAN for a
user account in RADIUS. For more information about the RADIUS VSAs used by
Xirrus, see “RADIUS Vendor Specific Attribute (VSA) for Xirrus” on page 491.
Procedure for Configuring an External RADIUS Server
1. Primary Server: This is the external RADIUS server that you intend to
use as your primary server.
a. Host Name / IP Address: Enter the IP address or domain name of this
external RADIUS server.
b. Port Number: Enter the port number of this external RADIUS server.
The default is 1812.
c. Shared Secret / Verify Secret: Enter the shared secret that this
external RADIUS server will be using, then re-enter the shared secret
to verify that you typed it correctly.
2. Secondary Server (optional): If desired, enter an alternative external
RADIUS server. If the primary RADIUS server becomes unreachable, the
Array will “failover” to the secondary RADIUS server (defined here).
a. Host Name / IP Address: Enter the IP address or domain name of this
external RADIUS server.
b. Port Number: Enter the port number of this external RADIUS server.
The default is 1812.
c. Shared Secret / Verify Secret: Enter the shared secret that this
external RADIUS server will be using, then re-enter the shared secret
to verify that you typed it correctly.
The shared secret that you define must match the secret used by the
external RADIUS server.
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236 Configuring the Wireless Array
3. Settings (RADIUS Dynamic Authorization): Some RADIUS servers
have the ability to contact the Array (referred to as an NAS, see below) to
terminate a user with a Disconnect Message (DM). Or RADIUS may send
a Change-of-Authorization (CoA) Message to the Array to change a
user’s privileges due to changing session authorizations. This
implements RFC 5176—Dynamic Authorization Extensions to RADIUS.
a. Timeout (seconds): Define the maximum idle time before the
RADIUS server’s session times out. The default is 600 seconds.
b. DAS Port: RADIUS will use the DAS port on the Array for Dynamic
Authorization Extensions to RADIUS. The default port is 3799.
c. DAS Event-Timestamp: The Event-Timestamp Attribute provides a
form of protection against replay attacks. If you select Required, both
the RADIUS server and the Array will use the Event-Timestamp
Attribute and check that it is current within the DAS Time Window.
If the Event-Timestamp is not current, then the DM or CoA Message
will be silently discarded.
d. DAS Time Window: This is the time window used with the DAS
Event-Timestamp, above.
e. NAS Identifier: From the point of view of a RADIUS server, the
Array is a client, also called a Network Access Server (NAS). Enter
the NAS Identifier (IP address) that the RADIUS servers expect the
Array to use normally the IP address of the Array’s Gigabit1 port.
4. RADIUS Attribute Formatting Settings: Some RADIUS servers,
especially older versions, expect information to be sent to them in a
legacy format. These settings are provided for the unusual situation that
requires special formatting of specific types of information sent to the
RADIUS server. Most users will not need to change these settings.
a. Called-Station-Id Attribute Format: Define the format of the Called-
Station-Id RADIUS attribute sent from the Array—BSSID:SSID
(default) or BSSID.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 237
b. Station MAC Format: Define the format of the Station MAC
RADIUS attribute sent from the Array—lower-case or upper-case,
hyphenated or not. The default is lower-case, not hyphenated.
5. Accounting Settings:
Note that RADIUS accounting start packets sent by the Array will include
the client station's Framed-IP-Address attribute.
a. Accounting Interval (seconds): Specify how often Interim records are
to be sent to the server. The default is 300 seconds.
b. Primary Server Host Name / IP Address: Enter the IP address or
domain name of the primary RADIUS accounting server that you
intend to use.
c. Primary Port Number: Enter the port number of the primary
RADIUS accounting server. The default is 1813.
d. Primary Shared Secret / Verify Secret: Enter the shared secret that
the primary RADIUS accounting server will be using, then re-enter
the shared secret to verify that you typed it correctly.
e. Secondary Server Host Name / IP Address (optional): If desired,
enter an IP address or domain name for an alternative RADIUS
accounting server. If the primary server becomes unreachable, the
Array will “failover” to this secondary server (defined here).
f. Secondary Port Number: If using a secondary accounting server,
enter its port number. The default is 1813.
g. Secondary Shared Secret / Verify Secret: If using a secondary
accounting server, enter the shared secret that it will be using, then re-
enter the shared secret to verify that you typed it correctly.
6. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Admin Management
Wireless Array
238 Configuring the Wireless Array
Global Settings (IAP)
Internal Radius
Access Control List
Management Control
Security
Understanding Groups
Internal Radius
This window allows you to define the parameters for the Array’s internal
RADIUS server for user authentication. However, the internal RADIUS server
will only authenticate wireless clients that want to associate to the Array. This can
be useful if an external RADIUS server is not available. To set up the internal
RADIUS server, you must choose Internal as the RADIUS server mode in Global
Settings. Refer to “Global Settings” on page 230.
Figure 131. Internal RADIUS Server
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 239
Procedure for Creating a New User
1. User Name: Enter the name of the user that you want to authenticate to
the internal RADIUS server. You may enter up to 1000 users (up to 250 on
the XR-500 Series or up to 500 on the XR-1000 Series).
2. SSID Restriction: (Optional) If you want to restrict this user to
associating to a particular SSID, choose an SSID from the pull-down list.
3. User Group: (Optional) If you want to make this user a member of a
previously defined user group, choose a group from the pull-down list.
This will apply all of the user group’s settings to the user. See
“Understanding Groups” on page 269.
4. Password: (Optional) Enter a password for the user.
5. Verify: (Optional) Retype the user password to verify that you typed it
correctly.
6. Click on the Create button to add the new user to the list.
Procedure for Managing Existing Users
1. SSID Restriction: (Optional) If you want to restrict a user to associating
to a particular SSID, choose an SSID from its pull-down list.
2. User Group: (Optional) If you want to change the user’s group, choose a
group from the pull-down list. This will apply all of the user group’s
settings to the user. See “Understanding Groups” on page 269.
3. Password: (Optional) Enter a new password for the selected user.
Clients using PEAP may have difficulty authenticating to the Array using
the Internal RADIUS server due to invalid security certificate errors. To
prevent this problem, the user may disable the Validate Server Certificate
option on the station. Do this by displaying the station’s wireless devices and
then displaying the properties of the desired wireless interface. In the
security properties, disable Validate server certificate. In some systems,
this may be found by setting the authentication method to PEAP and
changing the associated settings.
Wireless Array
240 Configuring the Wireless Array
4. Verify Password: (Optional) Retype the user password to verify that you
typed it correctly.
5. If you want to delete one or more users, click their Delete buttons.
6. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Admin Management
External Radius
Global Settings (IAP)
Access Control List
Management Control
Security
Understanding Groups
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 241
Rogue Control List
This window allows you to set up a control list for rogue APs, based on a type
that you define. You may classify rogue APs as blocked, so that the Array will
take steps to prevent stations from associating with the blocked AP. See “About
Blocking Rogue APs” on page 337. The Array can keep up to 5000 entries in this
list.
Figure 132. Rogue Control List
Procedure for Establishing Rogue AP Control
1. Rogue BSSID/SSID: Enter the BSSID, SSID, or manufacturer string to
match for the new rogue control entry. The Match Only radio buttons
specify what to match (e.g., the MAC address, SSID, or manufacturer).
You may use the “*” character as a wildcard to match any string at this
position. For example, 00:0f:7d:* matches any string that starts with
00:0f:7d:. Xirrus Arrays start with 00:0f:7d: or 50:60:28:. By default, the
The RF Monitor > Intrusion Detection window provides an alternate
method for classifying rogues. You can list all Unknown stations and select
all the rogues that you’d like to set to Known or Approved, rather than
entering the SSID/BSSID as described below. See “Intrusion Detection”
on page 116.
Wireless Array
242 Configuring the Wireless Array
Rogue Control List contains two entries that match 00:0f:7d:* and
50:60:28:* and apply the classification Known to all Xirrus Arrays.
2. Rogue Control Classification: Enter the classification for the specified
rogue AP(s), either Blocked, Known or Approved.
3. Match Only: Select the match criterion to compare the Rogue BSSID/
SSID string against: BSSID, Manufacturer, or SSID. The BSSID field
contains the MAC address.
4. Click Create to add this rogue AP to the Rogue Control List.
5. Rogue Control List: If you want to edit the control type for a rogue AP,
just click the radio button for the new type for the entry: Blocked, Known
or Approved.
6. To delete rogue APs from the list, click their Delete buttons.
7. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Network Map
Intrusion Detection
SSIDs
SSID Management
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 243
OAuth 2.0 Management
This window displays a list of tokens granted by the Array for access to its
RESTful API (see “API Documentation” on page 387 for a description of the
features available in the API). OAuth 2.0 is used to provide the tokens. The list
will be blank until tokens have been issued as described below. You may revoke
(delete) existing tokens from the list, if desired.
Xirrus Arrays use the OAuth 2.0 standard’s client credential grant model. This
allows you to use administrator account credentials to obtain a token to access
RESTful API on an individual Array. Please note that the Array will issue only
one token on behalf on of any administrator account at any given time. If you
have a need for multiple tokens, then the Array will need multiple administrator
accounts.
Follow the steps below to obtain a token and use the RESTful API.
Figure 133. OAuth 2.0 Management - Token List
Procedure for Obtaining a Token and Accessing RESTful API on the Array
1. Present User Credentials for a Permanent Token
A user-developed application must register by presenting the following
information to the URL below:
Wireless Array
244 Configuring the Wireless Array
https://[Array hostname or IP address]/oauth/authorize
grant_type: password
username: username of an administrator account on the Array.
client_id: username of an administrator account on the Array
(username and client_id must match).
password: password for the same administrator account on the Array
The OAuth Authorization API provides a permanent token that the
application may use to access the RESTful API. This token remains valid
until the administrator revokes the token on the OAuth 2.0 Management
page, unless the token file somehow becomes corrupted or is removed
from the Array’s file system.
The token will be removed if the original account associated with it is
deleted.
2. Access the RESTful API
Once registration is completed and a permanent token has been
provided, your application may access the API using the client_id and
the token at the following URL:
https://[Array hostname or IP address]/api/v1/[api-name]
Please see “API Documentation” on page 387 for a description of the
features available in the API.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 245
SSIDs
This status-only window allows you to review SSID (Service Set IDentifier)
assignments. It includes the SSID name, whether or not an SSID is visible on the
network, any security and QoS parameters defined for each SSID, associated
VLAN IDs, radio availability, and DHCP pools defined per SSID. Click on an
SSID’s name to jump to the edit page for the SSID. There are no configuration
options available on this page, but if you are experiencing problems or reviewing
SSID management parameters, you may want to print this page for your records.
Figure 134. SSIDs
The read-only Limits section of the SSIDs window allows you to review any
limitations associated with your defined SSIDs. For example, this window shows
the current state of an SSID (enabled or not), how much SSID and station traffic is
allowed, time on and time off, days on and off, and whether each SSID is
currently active or inactive.
For information to help you understand SSIDs and how multiple SSIDs are
managed by the Wireless Array, go to “Understanding SSIDs” on page 246 and
the Multiple SSIDs section of “Frequently Asked Questions” on page 480. For a
description of how QoS operates on the Array, see “Understanding QoS Priority
on the Wireless Array” on page 247.
For a complete discussion of implementing Voice over Wi-Fi on the Array,
see the Xirrus Voice over Wireless Application Note in the Xirrus
Resource Center.
Wireless Array
246 Configuring the Wireless Array
SSIDs are managed with the following windows:
“SSID Management” on page 253
“Active IAPs” on page 266
“Per-SSID Access Control List” on page 267
SSIDs are discussed in the following topics:
“Understanding SSIDs” on page 246
“Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array” on page 247
“High Density 2.4G Enhancement—Honeypot SSID” on page 252
Understanding SSIDs
The SSID (Service Set Identifier) is a unique identifier that wireless networking
devices use to establish and maintain wireless connectivity. Multiple access points
on a network or sub-network can use the same SSIDs. SSIDs are case-sensitive
and can contain up to 32 alphanumeric characters (do not include spaces when
defining SSIDs).
Multiple SSIDs
A BSSID (Basic SSID) refers to an individual access point radio and its associated
clients. The identifier is the MAC address of the access point radio that forms the
BSS. A group of BSSs can be formed to allow stations in one BSS to communicate
to stations in another BSS via a backbone that interconnects each access point.
The Extended Service Set (ESS) refers to the group of BSSIDs that are grouped
together to form one ESS. The ESSID (often referred to as SSID or “wireless
network name”) identifies the Extended Service Set. Clients must associate to a
single ESS at any given time. Clients ignore traffic from other Extended Service
Sets that do not have the same SSID.
Legacy access points typically support one SSID per access point. Wireless Arrays
support the ability to define and use multiple SSIDs simultaneously.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 247
Using SSIDs
The creation of different wireless network names allows system administrators to
separate types of users with different requirements. The following policies can be
tied to an SSID:
The wireless security mode needed to join this SSID.
The wireless Quality of Service (QoS) desired for this SSID.
The wired VLAN associated with this SSID.
As an example, one SSID named accounting might require the highest level of
security, while another named guests might have low security requirements.
Another example may define an SSID named voice that supports voice over
Wireless LAN phones with the highest Quality of Service (QoS) definition. This
SSID might also forward traffic to specific VLANs on the wired network.
See Also
SSID Management
SSIDs
Understanding SSIDs
Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array
For a complete discussion of implementing Voice over Wi-Fi on the Array,
see the Xirrus Voice over Wireless Application Note in the Xirrus
Resource Center.
Wireless Array
248 Configuring the Wireless Array
Figure 135. Four Traffic Classes
The Wireless Array’s Quality of Service Priority feature (QoS) allows traffic to be
prioritized according to your requirements. For example, you typically assign the
highest priority to voice traffic, since this type of traffic requires delay to be under
10 ms. The Array has four separate queues for handling wireless traffic at
different priorities, and thus it supports four traffic classes (QoS levels).
Figure 136. Priority Level—IEEE 802.1p (Layer 2)
IEEE802.1p uses three bits in an Ethernet frame header to define eight priority
levels at the MAC level (Layer 2) for wired networks. Each data packet may be
tagged with a priority level, i.e., a user priority tag. Since there are eight possible
Mapping to
Traffic Class
Four Transmit
Queues
Per queue
channel access
Application Data
Voice
Data Video
Data Background
Data Best Effort
Data
IAP (Transmit)
Highest
Priority Lowest
Priority
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 249
user priority levels and the Array implements four wireless QoS levels, user
priorities are mapped to QoS as described below.
Figure 137. Priority Level—DSCP (DiffServ - Layer 3)
DSCP (Differentiated Services Code Point or DiffServ) uses 6 bits in the IPv4 or
IPv6 packet header, defined in RFC2474 and RFC2475. The DSCP value classifies
a Layer 3 packet to determine the Quality of Service (QoS) required. DSCP
replaces the outdated Type of Service (TOS) field.
The description below describes how both of these priority levels are mapped to
the Array’s four traffic classes.
End-to-End QoS Handling
Wired QoS - Ethernet Port:
Ingress: Incoming wired packets are assigned QoS priority based on their
SSID and 802.1p tag (if any), as shown in the table below. This table
follows the mapping recommended by IEEE802.11e.
FROM
Priority Tag
802.1p (Wired)
TO
Array QoS
(Wireless) Typical Use
0 0 (Lowest
priority) Best Effort
1 1 Background — explicitly designated as
low-priority and non-delay sensitive
Wireless Array
250 Configuring the Wireless Array
Egress: Outgoing wired packets are IEEE 802.1p tagged at the Ethernet
port for upstream traffic, thus enabling QoS at the edge of the network.
Wireless QoS - Radios:
Each SSID can be assigned a separate QoS priority (i.e., traffic class) from
0 to 3, where 3 is highest priority and 2 is the default. See “SSID
Management” on page 253. If multiple SSIDs are used, packets from the
SSID with higher priority are transmitted first.
The Array supports IEEE802.11e Wireless QoS for downstream traffic.
Higher priority packets wait a shorter time before gaining access to the
air and contend less with all other 802.11 devices on a channel.
21Spare
3 0 Excellent Effort
42Controlled Load
52Video
6 3 Voice - requires delay <10ms
7 (Highest
priority) 3 (Highest
priority) Network control
FROM
Array QoS (Wireless) TO
Priority Tag 802.1p (Wired)
1 (Lowest priority) 1
00
2 (Default) 5
3 (Highest priority) 6
FROM
Priority Tag
802.1p (Wired)
TO
Array QoS
(Wireless) Typical Use
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 251
How QoS is set for a packet in case of conflicting values:
a. If an SSID has a QoS setting, and an incoming wired packet’s user
priority tag is mapped to a higher QoS value, then the higher QoS
value is used.
b. If a group or filter has a QoS setting, this overrides the QoS value
above. See “Groups” on page 269, and “Filters” on page 351.
c. Voice packets have the highest priority (see Voice Support, below).
d. If DSCP to QoS Mapping Mode is enabled, the IP packet is mapped
to QoS level 0 to 3 as specified in the DSCP Mappings table. This
value overrides any of the settings in cases a to c above.
In particular, by default:
DSCP 8 is set to QoS level 1.
DSCP 40 is typically used for video traffic and is set to QoS
level 2.
DSCP 48 is typically used for voice traffic and is set to QoS
level 3—the highest level
All other DSCP values are set to QoS level 0 (the lowest level—
Best Effort).
Packet Filtering QoS classification
Filter rules can be used to redefine the QoS priority level to override
defaults. See “Filter Management” on page 354. This allows the QoS
priority level to be assigned based on protocol, source, or destination.
Voice Support
The QoS priority implementation on the Array give voice packets the
highest priority to support voice applications.
Wireless Array
252 Configuring the Wireless Array
High Density 2.4G Enhancement—Honeypot SSID
Some situations pose problems for all wireless APs. For example, iPhones will
remember every SSID and flood the airwaves with probes, even when the user
doesn’t request or desire this behavior. In very high density deployments, these
probes can consume a significant amount of the available wireless bandwidth.
The Array offers a feature targeting this problem—a “honeypot” SSID. Simply
create an SSID named honeypot (lower-case) on the Array, with no encryption or
authentication (select None/Open). Once this SSID is created and enabled, it will
respond to any station probe looking for a named open SSID (unencrypted and
unauthenticated) that is not configured on the Array. It will make the station go
through its natural authentication and association process.
The following SSIDs are excluded from being honeypotted:
Explicitly whitelisted SSIDs. See Step 23 on page 259.
SSIDs that are encrypted and/or authenticated.
SSIDs that are configured on this Array, whether or not they are enabled.
Traffic for a station connected to the honeypot SSID may be handled in various
ways using other Array features:
it may be directed to WPR to display a splash page or offer the user the
opportunity to sign in to your service (see “Web Page Redirect
Configuration Settings” on page 260);
it may be filtered (see “Filters” on page 351);
or it may be dead-ended by defining a specific dead-end VLAN on the
honeypot SSID to “trap” stations (see “VLANs” on page 199).
Use the honeypot feature carefully as it could interfere with legitimate SSIDs and
prevent clients from associating to another available network. You may define a
whitelist of allowed SSIDs which are not to be honeypotted. See Step 23 on
page 259.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 253
SSID Management
This window allows you to manage SSIDs (create, edit and delete), assign security
parameters and VLANs on a per SSID basis, and configure the Web Page Redirect
functionality.
Figure 138. SSID Management
Create new SSID
Configure parameters Set traffic limits / usage schedule
Configure encryption/authentication
Configure RADIUS server
Wireless Array
254 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Managing SSIDs
1. New SSID Name: To create a new SSID, enter a new SSID name to the left
of the Create button (Figure 138), then click Create. SSID names are case
sensitive and may only consist of the characters A-Z, a-z, 0-9, dash, and
underscore. You may create up to 16 SSIDs (up to 8 on the XR-500 Series).
You may create a special SSID named honeypot (lower-case) to reduce
the amount of unnecessary traffic caused by stations probing for open
SSID names that they have learned in the past—see “High Density 2.4G
Enhancement—Honeypot SSID” on page 252. In this case, a Honeypot
Service Whitelist Configuration section will appear below (see Step 23
on page 259).
SSID List (top of page)
2. SSID: Shows all currently assigned SSIDs. When you create a new SSID,
the SSID name appears in this table. Click any SSID in this list to select it.
3. On: Check this box to activate this SSID or clear it to deactivate it.
4. Brdcast: Check this box to make the selected SSID visible to all clients on
the network. Although the Wireless Array will not broadcast SSIDs that
are hidden, clients can still associate to a hidden SSID if they know the
SSID name to connect to it. Clear this box if you do not want this SSID to
be visible on the network.
5. Band: Choose which wireless band the SSID will be beaconed on. Select
either 5 GHz — 802.11an, 2.4 GHz — 802.11bgn or Both.
6. VLAN ID / Number: From the pull-down list, select a VLAN that you
want this traffic to be forwarded to on the wired network. Select numeric
to enter the number of a previously defined VLAN in the Number field
(see “VLANs” on page 199). This step is optional.
7. QoS: (Optional) Select a value in this field for QoS (Quality of Service)
priority filtering. The QoS value must be one of the following:
0 The lowest QoS priority setting, where QoS makes its best effort
at filtering and prioritizing data, video and voice traffic without
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Configuring the Wireless Array 255
compromising the performance of the network. Use this setting in
environments where traffic prioritization is not a concern.
1 Medium, with QoS prioritization aggregated across all traffic
types.
2 High, normally used to give priority to video traffic.
3 The highest QoS priority setting, normally used to give priority to
voice traffic.
The QoS setting you define here will prioritize wireless traffic for this
SSID over other SSID traffic, as described in “Understanding QoS Priority
on the Wireless Array” on page 247. The default value for this field is 2.
8. DHCP Pool: If you want to associate an internal DHCP pool to this SSID,
choose the pool from the pull--down list. An internal DHCP pool must be
created before it can be assigned. To create an internal DHCP pool, go to
“DHCP Server” on page 196.
9. Filter List: If you wish to apply a set a filters to this SSID’s traffic, select
the desired Filter List. See “Filters” on page 351.
10. Authentication: The following authentication options are available:
Open: This option provides no authentication and is not
recommended.
RADIUS MAC: Uses an external RADIUS server to authenticate
stations onto the wireless network, based on the user’s MAC address.
Accounting for these stations is performed according to the
accounting options that you have configured specifically for this SSID
or globally (see Step 12 below).
802.1x: Authenticates stations onto the wireless network via a
RADIUS server using 802.1x with EAP. The RADIUS server can be
internal (provided by the Wireless Array) or external.
If this SSID is on a VLAN, the VLAN must have management turned on in
order to pass CHAP authentication challenges from the client station to the
RADIUS server.
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256 Configuring the Wireless Array
11. Encryption: From the pull-down list, choose the encryption that will be
required specific to this SSID either None, WEP, WPA, WPA2 or
WPA-Both. The None option provides no security and is not
recommended; WPA2 provides the best practice Wi-Fi security.
Each SSID supports only one encryption type at a time (except that WPA
and WPA2 are both supported on an SSID if you select WPA-Both). If you
need to support other encryption types, you must define additional
SSIDs. The encryption standard used with WPA or WPA2 is selected in
the Security>Global Settings window (page 230). For an overview of the
security options, see “Security Planning” on page 47 and “Understanding
Security” on page 209.
12. Global: Check this box if you want this SSID to use the security settings
established at the global level (see “Global Settings” on page 230). Clear
this box if you want the settings established here to take precedence.
.
Figure 139. SSID Management—Encryption, Authentication, Accounting
Additional sections will be displayed to allow you to configure
encryption, RADIUS, and RADIUS accounting settings. The WPA
Set Encryption
Configure Radius, Accounting
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Configuring the Wireless Array 257
Configuration encryption settings have the same parameters as those
described in “Procedure for Configuring Network Security” on page 231.
The external RADIUS and accounting settings are configured in the same
way as for an external RADIUS server (see “Procedure for Configuring an
External RADIUS Server” on page 235). Note that external RADIUS
servers may be specified using IP addresses or domain names.
13. Roaming: For this SSID, select whether to enable fast roaming between
IAPs or Arrays at L2&L3 (Layer 2 and Layer 3), at L2 (Layer 2 only), or
disable roaming (Off). You may only select fast roaming at Layers 2 and 3
if this has been selected in Global Settings (IAP). See “Understanding Fast
Roaming” on page 278.
14. WPR (Web Page Redirect): Check the checkbox to enable the Web Page
Redirect functionality, or clear it to disable this option. If enabled, WPR
configuration fields will be displayed under the SSID Limits section. This
feature may be used to provide an alternate mode of authentication, or to
simply display a splash screen when a user first associates to the wireless
network. After that, it can (optionally) redirect the user to an alternate
URL. For example, some wireless devices and users may not have a
correctly configured 802.1x (RADIUS) supplicant. Utilizing WPR’s Web-
based login, users may be authenticated without using an 802.1x
supplicant. See “Web Page Redirect Configuration Settings” on page 260
for details of WPR usage and configuration.
You may specify “Whitelist” entries—a list of web sites to which users
have unrestricted access, without needing to be redirected to the WPR
page first. See “Whitelist Configuration for Web Page Redirect” on
page 264 for details.
15. Fallback: Network Assurance checks network connectivity for the Array.
When Network Assurance detects a failure, perhaps due to a bad link or
WDS failure, if Fallback is set to Disable the Array will automatically
disable this SSID. This will disassociate current clients, and prevent new
When using WPR, it is particularly important to adhere to the SSID
naming restrictions detailed in Step 1.
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258 Configuring the Wireless Array
clients from associating. Since the Array’s network connectivity has
failed, this gives clients a chance to connect to other, operational parts of
the wireless network. No changes are made to WDS configuration. See
Step a on page 225 for more information on Network Assurance.
16. Mobile Device Management (MDM): If you are an AirWatch customer
and wish to have AirWatch manage mobile device access to the wireless
network on this SSID, select AirWatch from the drop-down list. Before
selecting this option, you must configure your AirWatch settings. See
“AirWatch” on page 366.
The lower part of the window contains a few sections of additional settings to
configure for the currently selected SSID, depending on the values chosen for the
settings described above.
“SSID Limits” on page 258
“Web Page Redirect Configuration Settings” on page 260
“WPA Configuration Settings” on page 265
“RADIUS Configuration Settings” on page 265
SSID Limits
See “Group Limits” on page 274 for a discussion of the interaction of SSID limits
and group limits. To eliminate confusion, we recommend that you configure one
set of limits or the other, but not both.
17. Stations: Enter the maximum number of stations allowed on this SSID.
This step is optional. Note that the IAPs - Global Settings window also
has a station limit option Max Station Association per IAP, and the
windows for Global Settings .11an and Global Settings .11bgn also have
Max Stations settings. If multiple station limits are set, all will be
enforced. As soon as any limit is reached, no new stations can associate
until some other station has terminated its association.
Note that you cannot use MDM and WPR on the same SSID.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 259
18. Overall Traffic: Choose Unlimited if you do not want to place a
restriction on the traffic for this SSID, or enter a value in the Packets/Sec
field to force a traffic restriction.
19. Traffic per Station: Choose Unlimited if you do not want to place a
restriction on the traffic per station for this SSID, or enter a value in the
Packets/Sec field or the Kbps field to force a traffic restriction. If you set
both values, the Array will enforce the limit it reaches first.
20. Days Active: Choose Everyday if you want this SSID to be active every
day of the week, or select only the specific days that you want this SSID to
be active. Days that are not checked are considered to be the inactive
days.
21. Time Active: Choose Always if you want this SSID active without
interruption, or enter values in the Time On and Time Off fields to limit
the time that this SSID is active.
22. Web Page Redirect Configuration: see “Web Page Redirect
Configuration Settings” on page 260.
23. Honeypot Service Whitelist Configuration: This section only appears if
you have created an SSID named honeypot. You may define a whitelist of
allowed SSIDs which are not to be honeypotted, as described in “High
Density 2.4G Enhancement—Honeypot SSID” on page 252. Type in each
SSID name, and click Create to add it to the whitelist. Up to 50 SSIDs may
be listed. The SSID names entered in this list are not case-sensitive.
You may use the “*” character as a wildcard to match any string at this
position. For example, xir* matches any string that starts with XIR or xir.
You may use a ? as a wildcard to match a single character by surrounding
the SSID name in quotes. For example, “xirru?” will match any six-
character long string that starts with xirru (again, the match is not case-
sensitive). If you do not use a wildcard, then the SSID name entered must
be matched exactly in order to be whitelisted (except that case is not
considered).
Use the honeypot feature carefully as it could interfere with legitimate SSIDs.
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260 Configuring the Wireless Array
24. To delete SSIDs, click their Delete buttons.
25. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
Web Page Redirect Configuration Settings
If you enable WPR, the SSID Management window displays additional fields that
must be configured. For example configurations and complete examples, please
see the Xirrus Web Page Redirect Application Note in the Xirrus Resource Center.
If enabled, WPR displays a splash or login page when a user associates to the
wireless network and opens a browser to any URL (provided the URL does not
point to a resource directly on the user’s machine). The user-requested URL is
captured, the user’s browser is redirected to the splash or login page, and then the
browser is redirected either to your specified landing page, if any, or else back to
the captured URL. The landing page may be specified for a user group as well.
See “Group Management” on page 271. Note that if you change the management
HTTPS port, WPR uses that port, too. See “HTTPS” on page 224.
Figure 140. WPR Internal Splash Page Fields (SSID Management)
Note that when users roam between Arrays, their WPR Authentication will
follow them so that re-authentication is not required.
You may select among five different modes for use of the Web Page Redirect
feature, each displaying a different set of parameters that must be entered:
Internal Login page
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Configuring the Wireless Array 261
This option displays a login page (residing on the Array) instead of the
first user-requested URL. There is an upload function that allows you to
replace the default login page, if you wish. Please see “Web Page
Redirect” on page 382 for more information.
To set up internal login, set Server to Internal Login. Set HTTPS to On
for a secure login, or select Off to use HTTP. You may also customize the
login page with logo and background images and header and footer text.
See “Customizing an Internal Login or Splash page” on page 263.
The user name and password are obtained by the login page, and
authentication occurs according to your configured authentication
information (starting with Step 10 on page 255 above). These
authentication parameters are configured as described in “Procedure for
Configuring Network Security” on page 231.
After authentication, the browser is redirected back to the captured URL.
If you want the user redirected to a specific landing page instead, enter its
address in Landing Page URL.
Internal Splash page
This option displays a splash page instead of the first user-requested
URL. The splash page files reside on the Array. Note that there is an
upload function that allows you to replace the default splash page, if you
wish. Please see “Web Page Redirect” on page 382 for more information.
You may also customize the splash page with logo and background
images and header and footer text. See “Customizing an Internal Login or
Splash page” on page 263.
To use an internal splash page, set Server to Internal Splash. Enter a
value in the Timeout field to define how many seconds the splash screen
is displayed before timing out, or select Never to prevent the page from
timing out automatically. After the splash page, the user is redirected to
Both the Internal Login and External Login options of WPR perform
authentication using your configured RADIUS servers.
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262 Configuring the Wireless Array
the captured URL. If you want the user redirected to a specific landing
page instead, enter its address in Landing Page URL.
External Login page
This option redirects the user to a login page on an external web server
for authentication, instead of the first user-requested URL. Login
information (user name and password) must be obtained by that page,
and returned to the Array for authentication.
Authentication occurs according to your configured RADIUS
information. These parameters are configured as described in Procedure
for Configuring Network Security” on page 231, except that the RADIUS
Authentication Type is selected here, as described below. After
authentication, the browser is redirected back to the captured URL. If you
want the user redirected to a specific landing page instead, enter its
address in Landing Page URL.
To set up external login page usage, set Server to External Login. Enter
the URL of the external web server in Redirect URL, and enter that
server’s shared secret in Redirect Secret.
Select the RADIUS Authentication Type. This is the protocol used for
authentication of users, CHAP or PAP (the default).
PAP (Password Authentication Protocol), is a simple protocol. PAP
transmits ASCII passwords over the network “in the clear”
(unencrypted) and is therefore considered insecure.
CHAP (Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol) is a more
secure Protocol. The login request is sent using a one-way hash
function.
External Splash page
This option displays a splash page instead of the first user-requested
URL. The splash page files reside on an external web server.
To set up external splash page usage, set Server to External Splash. Enter
the URL of the external web server in Redirect URL, and enter that
server’s shared secret in Redirect Secret.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 263
After the splash page, the user is redirected to the captured URL. If you
want the user redirected to a specific landing page instead, enter its
address in Landing Page URL.
Landing Page Only
This option redirects the user to a specific landing page. If you select this
option, enter the desired address in Landing Page URL.
Customizing an Internal Login or Splash page
You may customize these pages with a logo and/or background image, and
header and/or footer text, as shown below in Figure 141.
Figure 141. Customizing an Internal Login or Splash Page
Background Image specify an optional jpg, gif, or png file to display in
the background of the page. Other customizations (logo, header, footer)
will overlay the background, so that it will not be visible in those areas.
Logo
Internal
Login Page
Background
Footer
Header
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264 Configuring the Wireless Array
Logo Image specify an optional jpg, gif, or png file to display at the top
of the page.
Header Text File specify an optional .txt file to display at the top of the
page (beneath the logo, if any).
Footer Text File specify an optional .txt file to display at the bottom of
the page.
Whitelist Configuration for Web Page Redirect
On a per-SSID basis, the whitelist allows you to specify Internet destinations that
stations can access without first having to pass the WPR login/splash page. Note
that a whitelist may be specified for a user group as well. See “Group
Management” on page 271.
Figure 142. Whitelist Configuration for WPR
To add a web site to the whitelist for this SSID, enter it in the provided field, then
click Create. You may enter an IP address or a domain name. Up to 32 entries may
be created.
Example whitelist entries:
Hostname: www.yahoo.com (but not www.yahoo.com/abc/def.html)
Wildcards are supported: *.yahoo.com
IP address: 121.122.123.124
Some typical applications for this feature are:
to add allowed links to the WPR page
to add a link to terms of use that may be hosted on another site
to allow embedded video on WPR page
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Configuring the Wireless Array 265
Note the following details of the operation of this feature:
The list is configured on a per-SSID basis. You must have WPR enabled
for the SSID to see this section of the SSID Management page.
When a station that has not yet passed the WPR login/splash page
attempts to access one of the white-listed addresses, it will be allowed
access to that site as many times as requested.
The station will still be required to pass through the configured WPR flow
for all other Internet addresses.
The whitelist will work against all traffic -- not just http or https
Indirect access to other web sites is not permitted. For example, if you
add www.yahoo.com to the whitelist, you can see that page, but not all
the ads that it attempts to display.
The whitelist feature does not cause traffic to be redirected to the whitelist
addresses.
WPA Configuration Settings
If you set Encryption for this SSID to one of the WPA selections (Step 11 on
page 256) and you did not check the Global checkbox (Step 12), this section will
be displayed. The WPA Configuration encryption settings have the same
parameters as those described in “Procedure for Configuring Network Security”
on page 231
RADIUS Configuration Settings
The RADIUS settings section will be displayed if you set Authentication (Step 10
on page 255) to RADIUS MAC and you did not check the Global checkbox (Step
12). This means that you wish to set up a RADIUS server to be used for this
particular SSID. If Global is checked, then the security settings (including the
RADIUS server, if any) established at the global level are used instead (see
“Global Settings” on page 230).
The RADIUS and accounting settings are configured in the same way as for an
external RADIUS server (see “Procedure for Configuring an External RADIUS
Server” on page 235).
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266 Configuring the Wireless Array
See Also
DHCP Server
External Radius
Global Settings (IAP)
Internal Radius
Security Planning
SSIDs
Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array
AirWatch
Active IAPs
By default, when a new SSID is created, that SSID is active on all IAPs. This
window allows you to specify which IAPs will offer that SSID. Put differently,
you can specify which SSIDs are active on each IAP.
This feature is useful in conjunction with WDS. You may use this window to
configure the WDS link IAPs so that only the WDS link SSIDs are active on them.
Figure 143. Setting Active IAPs per SSID
Procedure for Specifying Active IAPs
1. SSID: For a given SSID row, check off the IAPs on which that SSID is to
be active. Uncheck any IAPs which should not offer that SSID.
2. All IAPs: This button, in the last column, may be used to deny this SSID
on all IAPs. Click again to activate the SSID on all IAPs.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 267
3. All SSIDs: This button, in the bottom row, may be used to activate all
SSIDs on this IAP. Click again to deny all SSIDs on this IAP.
4. Toggle All: This button, on the lower left, may be used to deny all SSIDs
on all IAPs. Click again to activate all SSIDs on all IAPs.
5. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
Per-SSID Access Control List
This window allows you to enable or disable the use of the per-SSID Access
Control List (ACL), which controls whether a station with a particular MAC
address may associate to this SSID. You may create access control list entries and
delete existing entries, and control the type of list.
There is one ACL per SSID, and you may select whether its type is an Allow List
or a Deny List, or whether use of this list is disabled. You may create up to 1000
entries per SSID.
There is also a global ACL (see “Access Control List” on page 228). If the same
MAC address is listed in both the global ACL and in an SSID’s ACL, and if either
ACL would deny that station access to that SSID, then access will be denied.
Figure 144. Per-SSID Access Control List
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268 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Configuring Access Control Lists
1. SSID: Select the SSID whose ACL you wish to manage.
2. Access Control List Type: Select Disabled to disable use of the Access
Control List for this SSID, or select the ACL type either Allow List or
Deny List.
Allow List: Only allows the listed MAC addresses to associate to
the Array. All others are denied.
Deny List: Denies the listed MAC addresses permission to
associate to the Array. All others are allowed.
3. MAC Address: If you want to add a MAC address to the ACL, enter the
new MAC address here, then click the Add button. The MAC address is
added to the ACL. You may use a wildcard (*) for one or more digits to
match a range of addresses. Delete: You may delete selected MAC
addresses from this list by clicking their Delete buttons.
4. Delete All: This button, on the upper left, may be used to delete all the
MAC entries in an ACL.
5. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
In addition to these lists, other authentication methods (for
example, RADIUS) are still enforced for users.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 269
Groups
This is a status-only window that allows you to review user (i.e., wireless client)
Group assignments. It includes the group name, Radius ID, Device ID, VLAN IDs
and QoS parameters and roaming layer defined for each group, and DHCP pools
and web page redirect information defined for the group. You may click on a
groups name to jump to the edit page for the group. There are no configuration
options available on this page, but if you are experiencing problems or reviewing
group management parameters, you may want to print this page for your records.
The Limits section of this window shows any limitations configured for your
defined groups. For example, this window shows the current state of a group
(enabled or disabled), how much group and per-station traffic is allowed, time on
and time off, and days on and off.
For information to help you understand groups, see Understanding Groups
below. For an in-depth discussion, please see the Xirrus User Groups Application
Note in the Xirrus Resource Center.
Figure 145. Groups
Understanding Groups
User groups allow administrators to assign specific network parameters to users
(wireless clients) through RADIUS privileges rather than having to map users to
an SSID tailored for that set of privileges. Groups provide flexible control over
user privileges without the need to create large numbers of SSIDs.
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270 Configuring the Wireless Array
A group allows you to define a set of parameter values to be applied to selected
users. For example, you might define the user group Students, and set its VLAN,
security parameters, web page redirect (WPR), and traffic limits. When a new user
is created, you can apply all of these settings just by making the user a member of
the group. The group allows you to apply a uniform configuration to a set of users
in one step.
In addition, you can restrict the group so that it only applies its settings to group
members who are connecting using a specific device type, such as iPad or phone.
Thus, you could define a group named Student-Phone with Device ID set to
Phone, and set the group’s VLAN Number to 100. This group’s settings will only
be applied to group members who connect using a phone, and they will all use
VLAN 100. Note that settings for the group in the RADIUS server will override
any settings on this WMI page.
Almost all of the parameters that can be set for a group are the same as SSID
parameters. This allows you to configure features at the user group level, rather
than for an entire SSID. If you set parameter values for an SSID, and then enter
different values for the same parameters for a user group, the user group values
have priority (i.e., group settings will override SSID settings).
Group names are case-sensitive and can contain up to 32 alphanumeric characters
(do not include spaces when defining Groups).
Using Groups
User accounts are used to authenticate wireless clients that want to associate to
the Array. These accounts are established in one of two ways, using the Security>
Internal Radius window or the Security> External Radius window. In either
case, you may select a user group for the user, and that user group’s settings will
apply to the user:
Internal Radius when you add or modify a user entry, select a user
group to which the user will belong.
External Radius when you add or modify a user account, specify the
Radius ID for the user group to which the user will belong. This must be
the same Radius ID that was entered in the Group Management window.
When the user is authenticated, the external Radius server will send the
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Configuring the Wireless Array 271
Radius ID to the Array. This will allow the Array to identify the group to
which the user belongs.
See Also
External Radius
Internal Radius
SSIDs
Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array
Web Page Redirect Configuration Settings
Understanding Fast Roaming
Group Management
This window allows you to manage groups (create, edit and delete), assign usage
limits and other parameters on a per group basis, and configure the Web Page
Redirect functionality.
Figure 146. Group Management
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272 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Managing Groups
1. New Group Name: To create a new group, enter a new group name next
to the Create button, then click Create. You may create up to 16 groups
(up to 8 on the XR-500 Series).
To configure and enable this group, proceed with the following steps.
2. Group: This column lists currently defined groups. When you create a
new group, the group name appears in this list. Click on any group to
select it, and then proceed to modify it as desired.
3. Enabled: Check this box to enable this group or leave it blank to disable
it. When a group is disabled, users that are members of the group will
behave as if the group did not exist. In other words, the options
configured for the SSID will apply to the users, rather than the options
configured for the group.
4. Fallback: Network Assurance checks network connectivity for the Array.
When Network Assurance detects a failure, perhaps due to a bad link or
WDS failure, if Fallback is set to Disable the Array will automatically
disable users in this group. This will disassociate current clients, and
prevent them from re-associating. Since the Array’s network connectivity
has failed, this gives clients a chance to connect to other, operational parts
of the wireless network. See Step a on page 225 for more information on
Network Assurance.
5. Radius ID: Enter a unique Radius ID for the group, to be used on an
external Radius server. When adding a user account to the external
server, this Radius ID value should be entered for the user. When the user
is authenticated, Radius sends this value to the Array. This tells the Array
that the user is a member of the group having this Radius ID.
6. Device ID: You may select a device type from this drop-down list, for
example, Notebook, phone, iPhone, or Android. This allows you to
apply the group settings only if a station authenticates as a user that is a
member of the group and the station’s device type matches Device ID.
Select none if you do not want to consider the device type. If you have a
Radius ID you should not enter a Device ID.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 273
7. VLAN ID: (Optional) From the pull-down list, select a VLAN for this
user’s traffic to use. Select numeric and enter the number of a previously
defined VLAN (see “VLANs” on page 199). This user groups VLAN
settings supersede Dynamic VLAN settings (which are passed to the
Array by the Radius server). To avoid confusion, we recommend that you
avoid specifying the VLAN for a user in two places.
8. QoS Priority: (Optional) Select a value in this field for QoS (Quality of
Service) priority filtering. The QoS value must be one of the following:
0 The lowest QoS priority setting, where QoS makes its best effort
at filtering and prioritizing data, video and voice traffic without
compromising the performance of the network. Use this setting in
environments where traffic prioritization is not a concern.
1 Medium; QoS prioritization is aggregated across all traffic types.
2 High, normally used to give priority to video traffic.
3 The highest QoS priority setting, normally used to give priority to
voice traffic.
The QoS setting you define here will prioritize wireless traffic for this
group versus other traffic, as described in “Understanding QoS Priority
on the Wireless Array” on page 247. The default value for this field is 2.
9. DHCP Pool: (Optional) To associate an internal DHCP pool to this group,
select it from the pull--down list. Only one pool may be assigned. An
internal DHCP pool must be created before it can be assigned. To create a
DHCP pool, go to “DHCP Server” on page 196.
10. Filter List: (Optional) If you wish to apply a set of filters to this user
group’s traffic, select the desired Filter List. See “Filters” on page 351.
11. Xirrus Roaming: (Optional) For this group, select roaming behavior.
Select L2&L3 to enable fast roaming between IAPs or Arrays at Layer 2
and Layer 3. If you select L2, then roaming uses Layer 2 only. You may
only select fast roaming at Layers 2 and 3 if this has been selected in
Global Settings (IAP). You may select Off to disable fast roaming. See
“Understanding Fast Roaming” on page 278.
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274 Configuring the Wireless Array
12. WPR (Web Page Redirect): (Optional) Check this box if you wish to
enable the Web Page Redirect functionality. This will open a Web Page
Redirect details section in the window, where your WPR parameters may
be entered. This feature may be used to display a splash screen when a
user first associates to the wireless network. After that, it can (optionally)
redirect the user to an alternate URL. See “Web Page Redirect
Configuration Settings” on page 260 for details of WPR configuration.
Note that the Group Management window only allows you to set up an
Internal Splash page and a Landing Page URL. The authentication
options that are offered on the SSID Management page are not offered
here. Since the group membership of a user is provided to the Array by a
Radius server, this means the user has already been authenticated.
You may create a WPR Whitelist on a per-group basis if you wish. See
“Whitelist Configuration for Web Page Redirect” on page 264 for details
of WPR Whitelist usage and configuration.
Group Limits
The Limits section allows you to limit the traffic or connection times allowed for
this user group. Note that the IAPs Global Settings window and the SSID
management windows also have options to limit the number of stations, limit
traffic, and/or limit connection times. If limits are set in more than one place, all
limits will be enforced:
As soon as any station limit is reached, no new stations can associate until
some other station has terminated its association.
As soon as any traffic limit is reached, it is enforced.
If any connection date/time restriction applies, it is enforced.
You can picture this as a logical AND of all restrictions. For example, suppose that
a station’s SSID is available MTWTF between 8:00am and 5:00pm, and the User
Group is available MWF between 6:00am and 8:00pm, then the station will be
allowed on MWF between 8:00am and 5:00pm.
To eliminate confusion, we recommend that you configure one set of limits or the
other, but not both.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 275
13. Stations: Enter the maximum number of stations allowed on this group.
The default is 1536.
14. Overall Traffic: Check the Unlimited checkbox if you do not want to
place a restriction on the traffic for this group, or enter a value in the
Packets/Sec field and make sure that the Unlimited box is unchecked to
force a traffic restriction.
15. Traffic per Station: Check the Unlimited checkbox if you do not want to
place a restriction on the traffic per station for this group, or enter a value
in the Packets/Sec or Kbps field and make sure that the Unlimited box is
unchecked to force a traffic restriction.
16. Days Active: Choose Everyday if you want this group to be active every
day of the week, or select only the specific days that you want this group
to be active. Days that are not checked are considered to be the inactive
days.
17. Time Active: Choose Always if you want this group active without
interruption, or enter values in the Time On and Time Off fields to limit
the time that group members may associate.
18. To delete an entry, click its Delete button.
19. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
DHCP Server
External Radius
Internal Radius
Security Planning
SSIDs
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276 Configuring the Wireless Array
IAPs
This status-only window summarizes the status of the Integrated Access Points
(radios). For each IAP, it shows whether it is up or down, the channel and wireless
mode, the antenna that it is currently using, its cell size and transmit and receive
power, how many users (stations) are currently associated to it, whether it is part
of a WDS link, and its MAC address.
Figure 147. IAPs
The Channel column displays some status information that is not found
elsewhere: the source of a channel setting. (Figure 148) If you set a channel
manually (via IAP Settings), it will be labeled as manual next to the channel
number (Figure 148). If an autochannel operation changed a channel, then it is
labeled as auto. If the channel is set to the current factory default setting, the
source will be default. This column also shows whether the channel selection is
locked, or whether the IAP was automatically switched to this channel because
the Array detected the signature of radar in operation on a conflicting channel
(see also, Step 8 on page 287).
There are no configuration options in this window, but if you are experiencing
problems or simply reviewing the IAP assignments, you may print this window
for your records. Click any IAP name to open the associated configuration page.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 277
Figure 148. Source of Channel Setting
Arrays have a fast roaming feature, allowing them to maintain sessions for
applications such as voice, even while users cross boundaries between Arrays.
Fast roaming is set up in the Global Settings (IAP) window and is discussed in:
“Understanding Fast Roaming” on page 278
IAPs are configured using the following windows:
“IAP Settings” on page 279
“Global Settings (IAP)” on page 285
“Global Settings .11an” on page 298
“Global Settings .11bgn” on page 303
“Global Settings .11n” on page 309
“Global Settings .11u” on page 314
“Global Settings .11ac” on page 312
“Advanced RF Settings” on page 320
“Hotspot 2.0” on page 329
“NAI Realms” on page 331
“NAI EAP” on page 332
“Intrusion Detection” on page 334
“LED Settings” on page 340
“DSCP Mappings” on page 341
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278 Configuring the Wireless Array
“Roaming Assist” on page 342
See Also
IAP Statistics Summary
Understanding Fast Roaming
To maintain sessions for real-time data traffic, such as voice and video, users must
be able to maintain the same IP address through the entire session. With
traditional networks, if a user crosses VLAN or subnet boundaries (i.e., roaming
between domains), a new IP address must be obtained.
Mobile wireless users are likely to cross multiple roaming domains during a
single session (especially wireless users of VoIP phones). Layer 3 roaming allows
a user to maintain the same IP address through an entire real-time data session.
The user may be associated to any of the VLANs defined on the Array. The Layer
3 session is maintained by establishing a tunnel back to the originating Array. You
should decide whether or not to use Layer 3 roaming based on your wired
network design. Layer 3 roaming incurs extra overhead and may result in
additional traffic delays.
Fast Roaming is configured on two pages. To enable the fast roaming options that
you want to make available on your Array, see Step 28 to Step 30 in “Global
Settings (IAP)” on page 285. To choose which of the enabled options are used by
an SSID or Group, see Procedure for Managing SSIDs on page 254 (Step 13) or
“Procedure for Managing Groups” on page 272.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 279
IAP Settings
This window allows you to enable/disable IAPs, define the wireless mode for
each IAP, specify the channel to be used and the cell size for each IAP, lock the
channel selection, establish transmit/receive parameters, select antennas, and
reset channels. Buttons at the bottom of the list allow you to Reset Channels,
Enable All IAPs, or Disable All IAPs. When finished, click Save changes to flash
if you wish to make your changes permanent.
Figure 149. IAP Settings
You may also access this window by clicking on the Array image at the lower left
of the WMI window click the orange Xirrus logo in the center of the Array. See
“User Interface” on page 84.
Procedure for Auto Configuring IAPs
You can auto-configure channel and cell size of radios by clicking on the Auto
Configure buttons on the relevant WMI page (auto configuration only applies to
enabled radios):
For all radios, go to “Advanced RF Settings” on page 320.
For all 802.11a settings, go to “Global Settings .11an” on page 298.
For all 802.11bg settings, go to “Global Settings .11bgn” on page 303.
For all 802.11n settings, go to Global Settings .11n” on page 309.
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280 Configuring the Wireless Array
For all 802.11ac settings, go to “Global Settings .11ac” on page 312.
Procedure for Manually Configuring IAPs
1. In the Enabled column, check the box for an IAP to enable it, or uncheck
the box if you want to disable the IAP.
2. In the Band column, select the wireless band for this IAP from the choices
available in the pull-down menu, either 2.4GHz or 5 GHz. Choosing the
5GHz band will automatically select an adjacent channel for bonding. If
the band displayed is auto, the Band is about to be changed based on a
new Channel selection that you made that requires the change.
One of the IAPs must be set to monitor mode if you wish to support
Spectrum Analyzer, Radio Assurance (loopback testing), and Intrusion
Detection features. Monitoring has a Timeshare mode option, which is
especially useful for small Arrays with two IAPs, such as the XR-500 and
XR-600 Series, allowing one IAP to be shared between monitoring the
airwaves for problems and providing services to stations. See RF Monitor
Mode in “Advanced RF Settings” on page 320 to set this option.
3. In the WiFi Mode column, select the IEEE 802.11 wireless mode (or
combination) that you want to allow on this IAP. The drop-down list will
only display the appropriate choices for the selected Band. For example,
the 5 GHz band allows you to select ac-only, anac, an, a-only, or n-only,
while 2.4GHz includes 802.11b and 802.11g choices. When you select a
WiFi Mode for an IAP, your selection in the Channel column will be
checked to ensure that it is a valid choice for that WiFi Mode.
By selecting appropriate WiFi Modes for the radios on your Arrays, you
can greatly improve wireless network performance. For example, if you
have 802.11n and 802.11ac stations using the same IAP, throughput on
that radio is reduced greatly for the 802.11ac stations. By supporting
For XR-520 Series Arrays only:
iap1 may be set to either band or to monitor (also see the Timeshare
option in “RF Monitor” on page 321).
iap2 is permanently set to 5 GHz.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 281
802.11n stations only on selected radios in your network, the rest of your
802.11ac IAPs will have greatly improved performance. Take care to
ensure that your network provides adequate coverage for the types of
stations that you need to support.
4. In the Channel column, select the channel you want this IAP to use from
the channels available in the pull-down list. The list shows the channels
available for the IAP selected (depending on which band the IAP is
using). Channels that are shown in color indicate conditions that you
need to keep in mind:
RED Usage is not recommended, for example, because of overlap
with neighboring radios.
YELLOW The channel has less than optimum separation (some
degree of overlap with neighboring radios).
GRAY The channel is already in use.
The channels that are available for assignment to an IAP will differ,
depending on the country of operation. If Country is set to United States
in the Global Settings (IAP) window, then 21 channels are available to
802.11an radios.
5. The Bond column works together with the channel bonding options
selected on the Global Settings .11n page. Also see the discussion in
“Channel Bonding” on page 40. Bonding is available on all Arrays,
including two-radio models. For 802.11n, two 20MHz channels may be
bonded to create one 40 MHz channel with double the data rate. 802.11ac
offers an additional option to bond four 20MHz channels to create one
80MHz channel with four times the data rate.
As mandated by FCC/IC law, Arrays continually scan for signatures of
radar. If such a signature is detected, the Array will switch operation from
conflicting channels to new ones. The Array will switch back to the original
channel after 30 minutes if the channel is clear. If a radio was turned off
because there were no available channels not affected by radar, the Array will
now bring that radio back up after 30 minutes if that channel is clear. The 30
minute time frame complies with FCC/IC regulations.
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282 Configuring the Wireless Array
Channel number If a channel number appears, then this channel is
already bonded to the listed channel.
Off Do not bond his channel to another channel.
On Bond this channel to an adjacent channel. The bonded channel
is selected automatically by the Array based on the Channel (Step 4).
The choice of banded channel is static — fixed once the selection is
made.
+1 Bond this channel to the next higher channel number. Auto
Channel bonding does not apply. This option is only available for
some of the channels, and only for 40MHz.
-1 Bond this channel to the next lower channel number. Auto
Channel bonding does not apply. This option is only available for
some of the channels, and only for 40MHz.
6. Click the Lock check box if you want to lock in your channel selection so
that an autochannel operation (see Advanced RF Settings) can’t change it.
7. In the Cell Size column, select auto to allow the optimal cell size to be
automatically computed (see also, “RF Power & Sensitivity” on page 323).
To set the cell size yourself, choose either small, medium, large, or max to
use the desired pre-configured cell size, or choose manual to define the
wireless cell size manually. If you choose Manual, you must specify the
transmit and receive power — in dB — in the Tx dBm (transmit) and Rx
dBm (receive) fields. The default is max. If you select a value other than
auto, the cell size will not be affected by cell size auto configuration. Note
that ultra low power Tx dBm settings are possible. Values from -15dB to
5dB are provided specifically to help in high density 2.4 GHz
environments.
When other Arrays are within listening range of this one, setting cell sizes
to Auto allows the Array to change cell sizes so that coverage between
cells is maintained. Each cell size is optimized to limit interference
between sectors of other Arrays on the same channel. This eliminates the
need for a network administrator to manually tune the size of each cell
when installing multiple Arrays. In the event that an Array or a radio
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Configuring the Wireless Array 283
goes offline, an adjacent Array can increase its cell size to help
compensate.
The number of users and their applications are major drivers of
bandwidth requirements. The network architect must account for the
number of users within the Array’s cell diameter. In a large office, or if
multiple Arrays are in use, you may choose Small cells to achieve a
higher data rate, since walls and other objects will not define the cells
naturally.
For additional information about cell sizes, go to “Coverage and Capacity
Planning” on page 30.
8. If you are using WDS to provide backhaul over an extended distance, use
WDS Dist. (Miles) to prevent timeout problems associated with long
transmission times. Set the approximate distance in miles between this
IAP and the connected Array in this column. This increases the wait time
for frame transmission accordingly.
9. In the Antenna Select column, choose the antenna you want this radio to
use from the pull-down list. The list of available antennas will be different
(or no choice will be allowed), depending on the Array model and on the
wireless mode you selected for the IAP. In some cases the antenna type
may be fixed—for example, the XR-500 Series only offers internal, omni-
directional antennas.
10. If desired, enter a description for this IAP in the Description field.
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284 Configuring the Wireless Array
11. You may reset all of the enabled IAPs by clicking the Reset Channels
button at the bottom of the list. A message will inform you that all
enabled radios have been taken down and brought back up.
12. Buttons at the bottom of the list allow you to Enable All IAPs or Disable
All IAPs.
13. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Global Settings (IAP)
Global Settings .11an
Global Settings .11bgn
Global Settings .11n
IAPs
IAP Statistics Summary
LED Settings
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Configuring the Wireless Array 285
Global Settings (IAP)
Figure 150. Global Settings (IAPs)
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286 Configuring the Wireless Array
This window allows you to establish global IAP settings. Global IAP settings
include enabling or disabling all IAPs (regardless of their operating mode), and
changing settings for beacons, station management, and advanced traffic
optimization including multicast processing, load balancing, and roaming.
Changes you make on this page are applied to all IAPs, without exception.
Procedure for Configuring Global IAP Settings
1. Country: This is a display-only value. Once a country has been set, it may
not be changed.
The channels that are available for assignment to an IAP will differ,
depending on the country of operation. If Country is set to United States,
then 21 channels are available for 802.11a/n.
If no country is displayed, the channel set defaults to channels and power
levels that are legal worldwide this set only includes the lower eight 5
GHz channels.
2. IAP Control: Click on the Enable All IAPs button to enable all IAPs for
this Array, or click on the Disable All IAPs button to disable all IAPs.
3. Short Retries: This sets the maximum number of transmission attempts
for a frame, the length of which is less than or equal to the RTS Threshold,
before a failure condition is indicated. The default value is 7. Enter a new
value (1 to 128) in the Short Retry Limit field if you want to increase or
decrease this attribute.
4. Long Retries: This sets the maximum number of transmission attempts
for a frame, the length of which is greater than the RTS Threshold, before
a failure condition is indicated. The default value is 4. Enter a new value
(1 to 128) in the Long Retry Limit field if you want to increase or decrease
this attribute.
5. Wi-Fi Alliance Mode: Set this On if you need Array behavior to conform
completely to Wi-Fi Alliance standards. This mode is normally set to Off.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 287
Beacon Configuration
6. Beacon Interval: When the Array sends a beacon, it includes with it a
beacon interval, which specifies the period of time before it will send the
beacon again. Enter the desired value in the Beacon Interval field,
between 20 and 1000 Kusecs. A Kusec is 1000 microseconds =
1 millisecond. The value you enter here is applied to all IAPs.
7. DTIM Period: A DTIM (Delivery Traffic Indication Message) is a signal
sent as part of a beacon by the Array to a client device in sleep mode,
alerting the device to broadcast traffic awaiting delivery. The DTIM
Period is a multiple of the Beacon Interval, and it determines how often
DTIMs are sent out. By default, the DTIM period is 1, which means that it
is the same as the beacon interval. Enter the desired multiple, between 1
and 255. The value you enter here is applied to all IAPs.
8. 802.11h Beacon Support: This option enables beacons on all of the
Array’s radios to conform to 802.11h requirements, supporting dynamic
frequency selection (DFS) and transmit power control (TPC) to satisfy
regulatory requirements for operation in Europe.
9. 802.11k Beacon Support: 802.11k offers faster and more efficient roaming.
When enabled, each beacon lists the channels that nearby APs offer. This
supports improved channel scanning, resulting in faster roam times and
increased battery life due to shorter scan times since the station knows
where to look for nearby APs. The Array will also respond to requests
from stations for an 802.11K Neighbor Report with additional
information about nearby APs. This setting is disabled by default.
10. WMM Power Save: Click On to enable Wireless Multimedia Power Save
support, as defined in IEEE802.11e. This option saves power and
increases battery life by allowing the client device to doze between
packets to save power, while the Array buffers downlink frames. The
default setting is On.
11. WMM ACM Video: Click On to enable Wireless Multimedia Admission
Control for video traffic. When admission control for video is enabled, the
Array evaluates a video request from a client device against the network
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288 Configuring the Wireless Array
load and channel conditions. If the network is not congested, it accepts
the request and grants the client the medium time for its traffic stream.
Otherwise, it rejects the request. This enables the Array to maintain QoS
when the WLAN becomes congested after a connection has already been
established. Some clients contain sufficient intelligence to decide to either
delay the traffic stream, associate with a different AP, or establish a best-
effort traffic stream outside the operation of WMM-Admission Control.
The default setting is Off. Note that the QoS priority of traffic queues is
voice, video, best effort, background—this gives the highest priority to
voice transmissions.
12. WMM ACM Voice: Click On to enable Wireless Multimedia Admission
Control for voice calls. As for WMM ACM Video above, when admission
control for voice is enabled, the Array evaluates a voice request from a
client device against the network load and channel conditions. If the
network is not congested, it accepts the request and grants the client the
medium time for its call. Otherwise, it rejects the request. Some clients
contain sufficient intelligence to decide to either delay the traffic stream,
associate with a different AP, or establish a best-effort traffic stream
outside the operation of WMM-Admission Control. The default setting is
Off.
Station Management
13. Station Re-Authentication Period: This specifies an interval (in seconds)
for station reauthentications. This is the minimum time period between
station authentication attempts, enforced by the Array. This feature is part
of the Xirrus Advanced RF Security Manager (RSM).
14. Station Timeout Period: Specify a time (in seconds) in this field to define
the timeout period for station associations.
15. Max Station Association per Array: This option allows you to define
how many station associations are allowed per Array, or enter unlimited.
Note that the Max Station Association per IAP limit (below) may not be
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Configuring the Wireless Array 289
exceeded, so entering unlimited, in practice, will stop at the per-IAP
limit. If you have an unlicensed Array, this value is set to 1, which simply
allows you to test the ability to connect to the Array.
16. Max Station Association per IAP: This defines how many station
associations are allowed per IAP. The maximum is 240 (up to 120 on the
XR-500 Series). Note that the SSIDs > SSID Management window also has
a station limit option Station Limit, and the windows for Global
Settings .11an and Global Settings .11bgn also have Max Stations settings.
If multiple station limits are set, all will be enforced. As soon as any limit
is reached, no new stations can associate until some other station has
terminated its association.
17. Block Inter-Station Traffic: This option allows you to block or allow
traffic between wireless clients that are associated to the Array. Choose
either Yes (to block traffic) or No (to allow traffic).
18. Allow Over Air Management: Choose Yes to enable management of the
Array via the IAPs, or choose No (recommended) to disable this feature.
Advanced Traffic Optimization
19. Multicast Processing: This sets how multicast traffic is handled.
Multicast traffic can be received by a number of subscribing stations at
the same time, thus saving a great deal of bandwidth. In some of the
options below, the Array uses IGMP snooping to determine the stations
that are subscribed to the multicast traffic. IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol) is used to establish and manage the membership
of multicast groups.
Multicast handling options are only applicable to traffic transmitted from
the Array to wireless stations. Select one of the following options:
Send multicasts unmodified. This is useful when multicast is not
needed because no video or audio streaming is required or when it is
used only for discovering services in the network. Some situations
where you might use this option are:
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290 Configuring the Wireless Array
for compatibility with ordinary operation, i.e., there is no
optimization or modification of multicast traffic.
if you have an application where many subscribers need to see
the multicast—a large enough number that it would be less
efficient to convert to unicast and better just to send out multicast
even though it must be sent out at the speed of the slowest
connected station.
An example of a situation that might benefit from the use of this
mode is ghosting all the laptops in a classroom using multicast. One
multicast stream at, say, 6 Mbps is probably more efficient than thirty
unicast streams.
The next three options convert multicast to unicast. Packets are sent
directly to the stations at the best possible data rates. This approach
significantly improves the quality of the voice and video multicast
streams.
Convert to unicast and send unicast packets to all stations. This
may be useful in link-local multicast situations.
Convert to unicast, snoop IGMP, and only send to stations
subscribed (send as multicast if no subscription). This option is
useful when you need to stream voice or video multicast traffic to all
stations, but some stations are capable of subscribing to multicast
groups while other stations are not. The stations that do not subscribe
will not benefit from conversion to unicast; their video or voice
quality may be compromised.
Convert to unicast, snoop IGMP, and only send to stations
subscribed (don't send packet if no subscription). This option is
useful in well controlled environments when you need to stream
voice or video multicast traffic only to stations that are capable of
subscribing to multicast groups and there is no need for the rest of the
stations to receive the data stream.
20. Multicast Exclude: This is a list of multicast IP addresses that will not be
subject to multicast-to-unicast conversion. This list is useful on networks
where applications such as those using multicast Domain Name System
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Configuring the Wireless Array 291
(mDNS) are in use. For example, Apple Bonjour finds local network
devices such as printers or other computers using mDNS. By default, the
list contains the IPv4 multicast address for Apple Bonjour mDNS:
224.0.0.251.
To add a new IP address to the list, type it in the top field and click the
Add button to its right. You may only enter IP addresses—host names are
not allowed. This is because mDNS is a link local multicast address, and
does not require IGMP to the gateway.
To remove an entry, select it in the list and click Delete. To remove all
entries from the list, click Reset.
21. Multicast Forwarding
Multicast Forwarding is a Xirrus feature that forwards selected multicast
traffic between wired VLANs and wireless SSIDs. For example, Apple
devices use mDNS to advertise and find services, using local network
multicasts that are not routed. This creates an issue when you are using
Apple devices on the Wireless LAN, and have other devices that provide
services connected on the wired infrastructure in a different VLAN, for
example, printers and AppleTV devices. One way to address this issue is
to set up multicast forwarding between the wireless SSID and the wired
VLAN. This requires the wired VLAN to be trunked to the Array. Once
configured correctly, mDNS traffic will be forwarded from the specified
wireless network(s) to the specified wired VLANs and vice-versa, subject
to any mDNS service filtering defined (Step 23).
Use multicast forwarding together with multicast VLAN forwarding
(Step 22) and mDNS filtering (Step 23) to make services available across
VLANs as follows:
In Multicast Forwarding Addresses, enter a list of multicast
addresses that you want forwarded, for example, 224.0.0.251 (the
multicast address for Bonjour).
In Multicast VLAN Forwarding, enter a list of VLANs that
participate in the multicast forwarding.
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292 Configuring the Wireless Array
In MDNS Filter, specify the mDNS service types that are allowed to
be forwarded.
If you leave this field blank, then there is no filter, and mDNS
packets for all service types are passed.
If you enter service types, then this acts as an allow filter, and
mDNS packets are passed only for the listed service types.
Note that mDNS filtering may be used to filter the mDNS packet
types that are forwarded within the same VLAN. Also, in conjunction
with multicast forwarding, it may be used to filter the mDNS packet
types that are forwarded across configured VLANs.
After you have entered these settings, when multicast packets arrive from
the wired network from one of the Multicast Forwarding Addresses on
any VLAN specified in Multicast VLAN Forwarding, they are forwarded
to the corresponding wireless SSID for that VLAN.
Multicast packets coming in from the wireless network on an SSID tied to
one of the specified VLANs and matching one of the Multicast
Forwarding Addresses are forwarded to the specified VLANs on the
wired network.
No modifications are made to the forwarded packets – they are just
forwarded between specified VLANs and associated SSIDs.
To specify Multicast Forwarding Addresses: enter each IP address in the
top field and click the Add button to its right. You may only enter IPv4
multicast addresses - host names are not allowed. To remove an entry,
Xirrus strongly recommends the use of MDNS Filters (Step 23) when using
multicast forwarding. Only allow required services to be forwarded.
Carefully monitor results, as forwarding may flood your network with
multicast traffic. Experience has shown Bonjour devices to be very chatty.
Also note that since this is link local multicast traffic, it will be sent to every
wired port in the VLAN, as IGMP snooping does not work with link local
multicast addresses.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 293
select it in the list and click Delete. To remove all entries from the list,
click Reset.
22. Multicast VLAN Forwarding: This is a list of VLANs that participate in
the multicast forwarding. Please see the description of multicast
forwarding in Step 21 above.
To add a new VLAN to the list, enter its number or name in the top field
and click the Add button to its right. You may enter multiple VLANs at
once, separated by a space. To remove an entry, select it in the list and
click Delete. To remove all entries from the list, click Reset.
These VLANs must be trunked to the Array from the LAN switch, and be
defined on the Array. See “VLAN Management” on page 201 and “SSID
Management” on page 253.
The VLANs you enter must be explicitly defined (see “VLANs” on
page 199) in order to participate in multicast forwarding. In fact, the Array
discards packets from undefined VLANs.
Note that Multicast Forwarding and mDNS Filtering capabilities also work
if both devices are wireless. For example, let’s say that AppleTV is using
wireless to connect to an SSID that is associated with VLAN 56, and the
wireless client is on an SSID that is associated with VLAN 58. Normally the
wireless client would not be able to use Bonjour to discover the AppleTV
because they are on separate VLANs. But if you add 224.0.0.251 to the
Multicast Forwarding Addresses, then add VLANs 56 and 58 to the
Multicast VLAN Forwarding list, then the wireless client will be able to
discover the AppleTV. In this same scenario you could add AppleTV to the
MDNS Filter list so that only MDNS packets for the AppleTV service type
would be forwarded between VLANs 56 and 58.
Note that all the VLANs that you add to this list do not have to be associated
with SSIDs. As an example, say that AppleTV is on the wired network on
VLAN 56, while the wireless device is connected to an SSID that is
associated to VLAN 58. In this case, VLAN 56 and 58 need to be defined on
the Array but only VLAN 58 needs to be associated to a SSID.
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294 Configuring the Wireless Array
23. MDNS Filter: There are many different types of services that may be
specified in multicast query and response packets. The mDNS filters let
you restrict forwarding, so that multicast packets are forwarded only for
the services that you explicitly specify. This list may be used to restrict the
amount of Apple Bonjour multicast traffic forwarding. For example, you
may restrict forwarding to just AppleTV and printing services. Please see
the description of multicast forwarding in Step 21 above.
The MDNS Filter operates as follows:
If you leave this field blank, then there is no filter, and mDNS
packets for all service types are passed.
If you enter service types, then this acts as an allow filter, and
mDNS packets are passed only for the listed service types.
To add an mDNS packet type to the list of packets that may be forwarded,
select it from the drop-down list in the top field and click the Add button
to its right. The drop-down list offers packet types such as AirTunes,
Apple-TV, iChat, iPhoto, iTunes, iTunes-Home-Sharing, Internet-
Printing, Mobile-Device-Sync, and Secure-Telnet.
For example, to allow mirroring of an iPad on an Apple-TV, select Apple-
TV.
You may define your own type if you do not see the service you want in
the drop-down list. Simply enter the mDNS service name that you would
like to allow through. Custom mDNS packet types must be prefixed with
an underscore, e.g., _airvideoserver.
To remove an entry, select it in the list and click Delete. To remove all
entries from the list, click Reset.
24. Broadcast Rates: This changes the rates of broadcast traffic sent by the
Array (including beacons). When set to Optimized, each broadcast or
multicast packet that is transmitted on each radio is sent at the lowest
transmit rate used by any client associated to that radio at that time. This
results in each IAP broadcasting at the highest Array TX data rate that can
be heard by all associated stations, improving system performance. The
rate is determined dynamically to ensure the best broadcast/multicast
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 295
performance possible. The benefit is dramatic. Consider a properly
designed network (having -70db or better everywhere), where virtually
every client should have a 54Mbps connection. In this case, broadcasts
and multicasts will all go out at 54Mbps vs. the standard rate. Thus, with
broadcast rate optimization on, broadcasts and multicasts use between
2% and 10% of the bandwidth that they would in Standard mode.
When set to Standard (the default), broadcasts are sent out at the lowest
basic rate only 6 Mbps for 5GHz clients, or 1 Mbps for 2.4GHz clients.
The option you select here is applied to all IAPs.
25. Load Balancing: The Xirrus Wireless Array supports an automatic load
balancing feature designed to distribute wireless stations across multiple
radios rather than having stations associate to the closest radios with the
strongest signal strength, as they normally would. In wireless networks,
the station decides to which radio it will associate. The Array cannot
actually force load balancing, however the Array can “encourage”
stations to associate in a more uniform fashion across all of the radios of
the Array. This option enables or disables active load balancing between
the Array IAPs. For an in-depth discussion, see the Xirrus Station Load
Balancing Application Note in the Xirrus Resource Center.
If you select On and an IAP is overloaded, that IAP will send an “AP
Full” message in response to Probe, Association, or Authentication
requests. This prevents determined clients from forcing their way onto
overloaded IAPs. Note that some clients are so determined to associate to
a particular IAP that they will not try to associate to another IAP, and thus
they never get on the network.
Choose Off to disable load balancing.
26. ARP Filtering: Address Resolution Protocol finds the MAC address of a
device with a given IP address by sending out a broadcast message
requesting this information. ARP filtering allows you to reduce the
proliferation of ARP messages by restricting how they are forwarded
across the network.
You may select from the following options for handling ARP requests:
Wireless Array
296 Configuring the Wireless Array
Off: ARP filtering is disabled. ARP requests are broadcast to radios
that have stations associated to them.
Pass-thru: The Array forwards the ARP request. It passes along only
ARP messages that target the stations that are associated to it. This is
the default value.
Proxy: The Array replies on behalf of the stations that are associated
to it. The ARP request is not broadcast to the stations.
Note that the Array has a broadcast optimization feature that is always on
(it is not configurable). Broadcast optimization restricts all broadcast
packets (not just ARP broadcasts) to only those radios that need to
forward them. For instance, if a broadcast comes in from VLAN 10, and
there are no VLAN 10 users on a radio, then that radio will not send out
that broadcast. This increases available air time for other traffic.
27. IPv6 Filtering: this setting allows blocking of IPv6 traffic which may be a
concern for IT managers. The Xirrus Array currently bridges IPv6 traffic.
Set IPv6 filtering On if you wish to prevent the forwarding of IPv6
packets through the Array in both directions—wired network to wireless
and wireless network to wired. The default is Off.
28. Xirrus Roaming Layer: Select whether to enable roaming capabilities
between IAPs or Arrays at Layer 2 and 3, or at Layer 2 only. Depending
on your wired network, you may wish to allow fast roaming at Layer 3.
This may result in delayed traffic.
29. Xirrus Roaming Mode: This feature utilizes the Xirrus Roaming Protocol
(XRP) ensuring fast and seamless roaming capabilities between IAPs or
Arrays at Layer 2 and Layer 3 (as specified in Step 30), while maintaining
security. Fast roaming eliminates long delays for re-authentication, thus
supporting time-sensitive applications such as Voice over Wi-Fi (see
“Understanding Fast Roaming” on page 278 for a discussion of this
feature). XRP uses a discovery process to identify other Xirrus Arrays as
fast roaming targets. This process has two modes:
Broadcast the Array uses a broadcast technique to discover other
Arrays that may be targets for fast roaming.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 297
Tunneled in this Layer 3 technique, fast roaming target Arrays
must be explicitly specified.
To enable fast roaming, choose Broadcast or Tu n n e l ed , and set additional
fast roaming attributes (Step 30). To disable fast roaming, choose Off. If
you enable Fast Roaming, the following ports cannot be blocked:
Port 22610 reserved for Layer 2 roaming using UDP to share PMK
information between Arrays.
Ports 15000 to 17999 reserved for Layer 3 roaming (tunneling
between subnets).
30. Share Roaming Info With: Three options allow your Array to share
roaming information with all Arrays; just with those that are within
range; or with specifically targeted Arrays. Choose either All, In Range
or Target O nly, respectively.
a. Xirrus Roaming Targets: If you chose Targ et On l y, use this option to
add target MAC addresses. Enter the MAC address of each target
Array, then click on Add (add as many targets as you like). To find a
target’s MAC address, open the Array Info window on the target
Array and look for IAP MAC Range, then use the starting address of
this range.
To delete a target, select it from the list, then click Delete.
See Also
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Global Settings .11an
Global Settings .11bgn
Global Settings .11n
Advanced RF Settings
IAPs
IAP Statistics Summary
LED Settings
IAP Settings
Wireless Array
298 Configuring the Wireless Array
Global Settings .11an
This window allows you to establish global 802.11a IAP settings. These settings
include defining which 802.11a data rates are supported, enabling or disabling all
802.11an IAPs, auto-configuration of channel allocations for all 802.11an IAPs,
and specifying the fragmentation and RTS thresholds for all 802.11an IAPs.
Figure 151. Global Settings .11an
Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11an IAP Settings
1. 802.11a Data Rates: The Array allows you to define which data rates are
supported for all 802.11an radios. Select (or deselect) data rates by
clicking in the corresponding Supported and Basic data rate check boxes.
Basic Rate a wireless station (client) must support this rate in order
to associate.
Supported Rate data rates that can be used to transmit to clients.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 299
2. Data Rate Presets: The Wireless Array can optimize your 802.11a data
rates automatically, based on range or throughput. Click Optimize Range
to optimize data rates based on range, or click Optimize Throughput to
optimize data rates based on throughput. The Restore Defaults button
will take you back to the factory default rate settings.
3. 802.11a IAP Control: Click Enable 802.11a IAPs to enable all 802.11an
IAPs for this Array, or click Disable 802.11a IAPs to disable all 802.11an
IAPs.
4. Channel Configuration: Click Auto Configure to instruct the Array to
determine the best channel allocation settings for each 802.11an IAP and
select the channel automatically, based on changes in the environment.
This is the recommended method for 802.11a channel allocation (see “RF
Spectrum Management” on page 324).
Click Factory Defaults if you wish to instruct the Array to return all IAPs
to their factory preset channels. As of release 6.3, Arrays no longer all use
the same factory preset values for channel assignments. Instead, if the
Array has been deployed for a while and already has data from the
spectrum analyzer and Xirrus Roaming Protocol about channel usage on
neighboring Arrays, it performs a quick auto channel using that
information (without doing a full RF scan) to make an intelligent choice
of channel assignments. If the Array has been rebooted and has no saved
configuration or is just being deployed for the first time, it has no prior
data about its RF environment. In this case, it will pick a set of compatible
channel assignments at random.
The following options may be selected for auto configuration:
On the XR-500 and XR-1000 Series Arrays, the Factory Defaults button
will not restore iap1 to monitor mode. You will need to restore this setting
manually. Also, you may need to set Timeshare Mode again - see “RF
Monitor” on page 321.
Wireless Array
300 Configuring the Wireless Array
Non-Radar: give preference to channels that are not required to use
dynamic frequency selection (DFS) to avoid communicating in the
same frequency range as some radar (also see Step 8 on page 287).
Negotiate: negotiate air-time with other Arrays before performing a
full scan.
Full Scan: perform a full traffic scan on all channels on all IAPs to
determine the best channel allocation.
Include WDS: automatically assign 5GHz to WDS client links.
5. Set Cell Size: Cell Size may be set globally for all 802.11an IAPs to Auto,
Large, Medium, Small, or Max using the buttons.
Channels Required to Use DFS Radar Avoidance in USA
36+40 Non-radar 116+120 DFS required
44+48 Non-radar 124+128 DFS required
52+56 DFS required 132+136 DFS required
60+64 DFS required 149+153 Non-radar
100+104 DFS required 157+161 Non-radar
108+112 DFS required
To use the Auto Cell Size feature, the following additional settings are
required:
RF Monitor Mode must be turned On. See “RF Monitor” on page 321
One of the radios must be in monitor mode with the default RxdBm setting
of -95, and all other IAPs that will use Auto Cell must have Cell Size set to
auto. See “Procedure for Manually Configuring IAPs” on page 280.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 301
For an overview of RF power and cell size settings, please see “RF Power
& Sensitivity” on page 323, “Capacity and Cell Sizes” on page 32, and
“Fine Tuning Cell Sizes” on page 33.
6. Auto Cell Period (seconds): You may set up auto-configuration to run
periodically, readjusting optimal cell sizes for the current conditions.
Enter a number of seconds to specify how often auto-configuration will
run. If you select None, then auto-configuration of cell sizing will not be
run periodically. You do not need to run Auto Cell often unless there are a
lot of changes in the environment. If the RF environment is changing
often, running Auto Cell every twenty-four hours (86400 seconds) should
be sufficient). The default value is None.
7. Auto Cell Size Overlap (%): Enter the percentage of cell overlap that will
be allowed when the Array is determining automatic cell sizes. For 100%
overlap, the power is adjusted such that neighboring Arrays that hear
each other best will hear each other at -70dB. For 0% overlap, that number
is -90dB. The default value is 50%.
8. Auto Cell Min Cell Size: Use this setting if you wish to set the minimum
cell size that Auto Cell may assign. The values are Default, Large,
Medium, or Small.
9. Auto Cell Min Tx Power (dBm): Enter the minimum transmit power that
the Array can assign to a radio when adjusting automatic cell sizes. The
default value is 10.
10. Auto Cell Configuration: Click this button to instruct the Array to
determine and set the best cell size for each 802.11an IAP whose Cell Size
is auto on the IAP Settings window, based on changes in the
environment. This is the recommended method for setting cell size. You
may look at the Tx and Rx values on the IAP Settings window to view the
cell size settings that were applied.
11. Fragmentation Threshold: This is the maximum size for directed data
packets transmitted over the 802.11an radio. Larger frames fragment into
several packets, their maximum size defined by the value you enter here.
Wireless Array
302 Configuring the Wireless Array
Smaller fragmentation numbers can help to “squeeze” packets through in
noisy environments. Enter the desired Fragmentation Threshold value in
this field, between 256 and 2346.
12. RTS Threshold: The RTS (Request To Send) Threshold specifies the
packet size. Packets larger than the RTS threshold will use CTS/RTS prior
to transmitting the packet useful for larger packets to help ensure the
success of their transmission. Enter a value between 1 and 2347.
13. Max Stations: This defines how many station associations are allowed
per 802.11an IAP. Note that the IAPs > Global Settings window and
SSIDs SSID Management window also have station limit settings
Max Station Association per IAP (page 289) and Station Limit
(page 258), respectively. If multiple station limits are set, all will be
enforced. As soon as any limit is reached, no new stations can associate
until some other station has terminated its association.
See Also
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Global Settings (IAP)
Global Settings .11bgn
Global Settings .11n
IAPs
IAP Statistics Summary
Advanced RF Settings
IAP Settings
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 303
Global Settings .11bgn
This window allows you to establish global 802.11b/g IAP settings. These settings
include defining which 802.11b and 802.11g data rates are supported, enabling or
disabling all 802.11b/g IAPs, auto-configuring 802.11b/g IAP channel allocations,
and specifying the fragmentation and RTS thresholds for all 802.11b/g IAPs.
Figure 152. Global Settings .11bgn
Wireless Array
304 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11b/g IAP Settings
1. 802.11g Data Rates: The Array allows you to define which data rates are
supported for all 802.11g radios. Select (or deselect) 11g data rates by
clicking in the corresponding Supported and Basic data rate check boxes.
Basic Rate a wireless station (client) must support this rate in
order to associate.
Supported Rate data rates that can be used to transmit to
clients.
2. 802.11b Data Rates: This task is similar to Step 1, but these data rates
apply only to 802.11b IAPs.
3. Data Rate Presets: The Wireless Array can optimize your 802.11b/g data
rates automatically, based on range or throughput. Click Optimize Range
button to optimize data rates based on range, or click on the Optimize
Throughput to optimize data rates based on throughput. Restore
Defaults will take you back to the factory default rate settings.
4. 802.11b/g IAP Control: Click Enable All 802.11b/g IAPs to enable all
802.11b/g IAPs for this Array, or click Disable All 802.11b/g IAPs to
disable them.
5. Channel Configuration: Click Auto Configure to instruct the Array to
determine the best channel allocation settings for each 802.11b/g IAP and
select the channel automatically, based on changes in the environment.
This is the recommended method for channel allocation (see “RF
Spectrum Management” on page 324).
Click Factory Defaults if you wish to instruct the Array to return all IAPs
to their factory preset channels. As of release 6.3, Arrays no longer all use
the same factory preset values for channel assignments. Instead, if the
Array has been deployed for a while and already has data from the
spectrum analyzer and Xirrus Roaming Protocol about channel usage on
neighboring Arrays, it performs a quick auto channel using that
information (without doing a full RF scan) to make an intelligent choice
of channel assignments. If the Array has been rebooted and has no saved
configuration or is just being deployed for the first time, it has no prior
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 305
data about its RF environment. In this case, it will pick a set of compatible
channel assignments at random.
The following options may be selected for auto configuration:
Negotiate: negotiate air-time with other Arrays before performing a
full scan.
Full Scan: perform a full traffic scan on all channels on all IAPs to
determine the best channel allocation.
Non-Radar: give preference to channels without radar-detect. See
table in “Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11an IAP Settings” on
page 298.
Include WDS: automatically assign 5GHz to WDS client links.
6. Set Cell Size/ Autoconfigure: Cell Size may be set globally for all
802.11b/g IAPs to auto, large, medium, small, or max using the drop
down menu.
For an overview of RF power and cell size settings, please see “RF Power
& Sensitivity” on page 323, “Capacity and Cell Sizes” on page 32, and
“Fine Tuning Cell Sizes” on page 33.
On the XR-500 and XR-1000 Series Arrays, the Factory Defaults button
will not restore iap1 to monitor mode. You will need to restore this setting
manually. Also, you may need to set Timeshare Mode again - see “RF
Monitor” on page 321.
To use the Auto Cell Size feature, the following additional settings are
required:
RF Monitor Mode must be turned On. See “RF Monitor” on page 321
One of the radios must be in monitor mode with the default RxdBm setting
of -95, and all other IAPs that will use Auto Cell must have Cell Size set to
auto. See “Procedure for Manually Configuring IAPs” on page 280.
Wireless Array
306 Configuring the Wireless Array
7. Auto Cell Period (seconds): You may set up auto-configuration to run
periodically, readjusting optimal cell sizes for the current conditions.
Enter a number of seconds to specify how often auto-configuration will
run. If you select None, then auto-configuration of cell sizing will not be
run periodically. You do not need to run Auto Cell often unless there are a
lot of changes in the environment. If the RF environment is changing
often, running Auto Cell every twenty-four hours (86400 seconds) should
be sufficient). The default value is None.
8. Auto Cell Size Overlap (%): Enter the percentage of cell overlap that will
be allowed when the Array is determining automatic cell sizes. For 100%
overlap, the power is adjusted such that neighboring Arrays that hear
each other best will hear each other at -70dB. For 0% overlap, that number
is -90dB. The default value is 50%.
9. Auto Cell Min Cell Size: Use this setting if you wish to set the minimum
cell size that Auto Cell may assign. The values are Default, Large,
Medium, or Small.
10. Auto Cell Min Tx Power (dBm): Enter the minimum transmit power that
the Array can assign to a radio when adjusting automatic cell sizes. The
default value is 10.
11. Auto Cell Configuration: Click Auto Configure to instruct the Array to
determine and set the best cell size for each enabled 802.11b/g IAP whose
Cell Size is auto on the IAP Settings window, based on changes in the
environment. This is the recommended method for setting cell size. You
may look at the Tx and Rx values on the IAP Settings window to view the
cell size settings that were applied.
12. 802.11g Only: Choose On to restrict use to 802.11g mode only. In this
mode, no 802.11b rates are transmitted. Stations that only support 802.11b
will not be able to associate.
13. 802.11g Protection: You should select Auto CTS or Auto RTS to provide
automatic protection for all 802.11g radios in mixed networks (802.11
b and g). You may select Off to disable this feature, but this is not
recommended. Protection allows 802.11g stations to share an IAP with
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 307
older, slower 802.11b stations. Protection avoids collisions by preventing
802.11b and 802.11g stations from transmitting simultaneously. When
Auto CTS or Auto RTS is enabled and any 802.11b station is associated to
the IAP, additional frames are sent to gain access to the wireless network.
Auto CTS requires 802.11g stations to send a slow Clear To Send
frame that locks out other stations. Automatic protection reduces
802.11g throughput when 802.11b stations are present Auto CTS
adds less overhead than Auto RTS. The default value is Auto CTS.
With Auto RTS, 802.11g stations reserve the wireless media using a
Request To Send/Clear To Send cycle. This mode is useful when you
have dispersed nodes. It was originally used in 802.11b only
networks to avoid collisions from “hidden nodes” nodes that are so
widely dispersed that they can hear the Array, but not each other.
When there are no 11b stations associated and an auto-protection mode is
enabled, the Array will not send the extra frames, thus avoiding
unnecessary overhead.
14. 802.11g Slot: Choose Auto to instruct the Array to manage the 802.11g
slot times automatically, or choose Short Only. Xirrus recommends using
Auto for this setting, especially if 802.11b devices are present.
15. 802.11b Preamble: The preamble contains information that the Array and
client devices need when sending and receiving packets. All compliant
802.11b systems have to support the long preamble. A short preamble
improves the efficiency of a network's throughput when transmitting
special data, such as voice, VoIP (Voice-over IP) and streaming video.
Select Auto to instruct the Array to manage the preamble (long and short)
automatically, or choose Long Only.
16. Fragmentation Threshold: This is the maximum size for directed data
packets transmitted over the 802.11b/g IAP. Larger frames fragment into
several packets, their maximum size defined by the value you enter here.
Enter the desired Fragmentation Threshold value, between 256 and 2346.
Wireless Array
308 Configuring the Wireless Array
17. RTS Threshold: The RTS (Request To Send) Threshold specifies the
packet size. Packets larger than the RTS threshold will use CTS/RTS prior
to transmitting the packet useful for larger packets to help ensure the
success of their transmission. Enter a value between 1 and 2347.
18. Max Stations: This defines how many station associations are allowed
per 802.11bgn IAP. Note that the IAPs > Global Settings window and
SSIDs > SSID Management window also have station limit settings
Max Station Association per IAP (page 289) and Station Limit
(page 258), respectively. If multiple station limits are set, all will be
enforced. As soon as any limit is reached, no new stations can associate
until some other station has terminated its association.
See Also
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Global Settings (IAP)
Global Settings .11an
Global Settings .11n
Advanced RF Settings
LED Settings
IAP Settings
IAP Statistics Summary
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 309
Global Settings .11n
This window allows you to establish global 802.11n IAP settings. These settings
include enabling or disabling 802.11n mode for the entire Array, specifying the
number of transmit and receive chains (data stream) used for spatial
multiplexing, setting a short or standard guard interval, auto-configuring channel
bonding, and specifying whether auto-configured channel bonding will be static
or dynamic.
Before changing your settings for 802.11n, please read the discussion in “IEEE
802.11n Deployment Considerations” on page 37.
Figure 153. Global Settings .11n
Wireless Array
310 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11n IAP Settings
1. 802.11n Data Rates: The Array allows you to define which data rates are
supported for all 802.11n radios. Select (or deselect) 11n data rates by
clicking in the corresponding Supported and Basic data rate check boxes.
Basic Rate a wireless station (client) must support this rate in
order to associate.
Supported Rate data rates that can be used to transmit to
clients.
2. 802.11n Mode: Select Enabled to allow the Array to operate in 802.11n
mode.
If you select Disabled, then 802.11n operation is disabled on the Array.
3. TX Chains: Select the number of separate data streams transmitted by the
antennas of each IAP. The maximum number of chains is determined by
whether the XR Series Array has 2x2 or 3x3 radios. The default value is
always the maximum supported by the radio type. See Multiple Data
Streams — Spatial Multiplexing” on page 39.
4. RX Chains: Select the number of separate data streams received by the
antennas of each IAP. This number should be greater than or equal to TX
Chains. The maximum number of chains is determined by whether the
XR Series Array has 2x2 or 3x3 radios. The default value is always the
maximum supported by the radio type. See “Multiple Data Streams
Spatial Multiplexing” on page 39.
5. Guard interval: Select Short to increase the data transmission rate by
decreasing wait intervals in signal transmission. Select Long to use the
standard interval. The default is Short. See “Short Guard Interval” on
page 41.
6. Auto bond 5 GHz channels: Select Enabled to use Channel Bonding on
5 GHz channels and automatically select the best channels for bonding.
The default is Enabled. See “Channel Bonding” on page 40.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 311
7. 5 GHz channel bonding: Select Dynamic to have auto-configuration for
bonded 5 GHz channels be automatically updated as conditions change.
For example, if there are too many clients to be supported by a bonded
channel, dynamic mode will automatically break the bonded channel into
two channels. Select Static to have the bonded channels remain the same
once they are selected. The Dynamic option is only available when Auto
bond 5 GHz channels is enabled. The default is Dynamic. See “Channel
Bonding” on page 40.
8. 2.4 GHz channel bonding: Select Dynamic to have auto-configuration
for bonded 2.4 GHz channels be automatically updated as conditions
change. Select Static to have the bonded channels remain the same once
they are selected. The default is Dynamic. See “Channel Bonding” on
page 40.
9. Global channel bonding: These buttons allow you to turn channel
bonding on or off for all IAPs in one step. The effect of using one of these
buttons will be shown if you go to the IAP Settings window and look at
the Bond column. Clicking Enable bonding on all IAPs causes all IAPs
to be bonded to their auto-bonding channel immediately, if appropriate.
For example, an IAP will not be bonded if it is set to monitor mode, and
2.4 GHz radios will not be bonded. Click Disable bonding on all IAPs to
turn off bonding on all IAPs immediately. See “Channel Bonding” on
page 40. Settings in Step 7 and Step 8 are independent of global channel
bonding.
Wireless Array
312 Configuring the Wireless Array
Global Settings .11ac
This window allows you to establish global 802.11ac IAP settings. These settings
include enabling or disabling 802.11ac mode for the entire Array, specifying the
number of data streams used in spatial multiplexing, and setting a short or long
guard interval.
Before changing your settings for 802.11ac, please read the discussion in “IEEE
802.11n Deployment Considerations” on page 37.
Figure 154. Global Settings .11ac
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 313
Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11n IAP Settings
1. 802.11ac Mode: Select Enabled to allow the Array to operate in 802.11ac
mode. If you select Disabled, then 802.11ac operation is disabled on the
Array.
2. 80 MHz Guard interval: This is the length of the interval between
transmission of symbols (the smallest unit of data transfer) when you are
using 80MHz bonded channels. (See “Channel Bonding” on page 40 and
“Short Guard Interval” on page 41) Select Short to increase the data
transmission rate by decreasing wait intervals in signal transmission.
Select Long to use the standard interval. The default is Short. See “Short
Guard Interval” on page 41.
3. Max MCS: Select the highest Modulation and Coding Scheme level that
may be used with 1, 2, or 3 Spatial Streams. This setting may be used to
limit the highest level of modulation to 64-QAM, or allow 256-QAM with
its higher data rate. It also determines the coding scheme used for error
correction. Higher MCS levels allocate fewer bits to error correction, and
thus a higher proportion is used for data transfer. The default Max MCS
value is MCS9.
The higher the MCS values, the higher the data rate, as shown in 802.11ac
Supported Rates, below. Higher MCS levels require higher signal-to-
noise ratios (i.e., a less noisy environment) and shorter transmission
distances.
The maximum number of separate data streams that may be transmitted
by the antennas of each IAP is determined by whether the XR Series
Array has 2x2 or 3x3 radios. For a device that has 2x2 radios, such as the
XR-620, the settings for three spatial streams are not shown.See “Multiple
Data Streams Spatial Multiplexing” on page 39.
4. 802.11ac Supported Rates: This list shows the optimum data rates that
can be expected, based on the number of spatial streams that a station can
handle, and on your settings for Max MCS, Guard Interval, and the use of
bonded channels, up to 80MHz wide.
Wireless Array
314 Configuring the Wireless Array
Global Settings .11u
Understanding 802.11u
As the number of access points available in public venues increases, mobile
devices users have a harder time distinguishing usable SSIDs from the tens, if not
hundreds of access points visible. Using the 802.11u protocol, access points may
broadcast information about the services and access that they offer and to respond
to queries for additional information related to the facilities that the downstream
service network provides.
The type of information broadcast or available from 802.11u-compliant access
points includes:
Access Network Type. Indicates the type of network available. For
example: public or private, free or charged, etc.
Internet Connectivity. Indicates whether the network provides Internet
connectivity.
Authentication. Indicates whether additional authentication steps will be
required to use the network as well as the network authentication types
that are in use.
Venue Information. The type and name of the location where the access
point is found.
Identification. A globally unique identification for the access point.
IPv4/IPv6 Addressing. Indicate the type of IP addressing (IPv4 and/or
IPv6) and NATing that is performed by the network.
Roaming Consortium. The service network may be connected to one or
more roaming providers, called consortia, that allow access points from
multiple service providers to be used transparently through a single paid
service. The access point may advertise multiple consortia to mobile
devices.
Domain Names. A list of domain names to which the mobile user may
end up belonging based on authentication credentials used.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 315
Cellular Networks. The service network may have arrangements with
one or more cellular service providers who can transparently provide
wireless and Internet connectivity.
Figure 155. 802.11u Global Settings
Procedure for Configuring 802.11u Settings
Use this window to establish the 802.11u configuration.
1. 802.11u Internetworking. Click On to enable 802.11u protocol operation.
2. Access Network Type: This indicates the type of network supported by
the access point. The choices are:
Wireless Array
316 Configuring the Wireless Array
a. Chargeable public network
b. Emergency services only network
c. Free public network
d. Personal device network
e. Private network with guest access
f. Test or experimental network
g. Wildcard—all of the networks above are supported.
3. Internet Connectivity. Click Provided if Internet connectivity is available
through the access point from the back end provider to which the mobile
user ends up belonging. Click Unspecified otherwise—for example,
depending on the SLAs (service level agreements) of the mobile user,
Internet access may or may not be provided.
4. Additional Step Required for Access. Click Disabled if no additional
authentication steps will be required to complete the connection and
Enabled otherwise. The available authentication techniques are described
in the Network Authentication Types field (Step 13).
5. Venue Group. Select the general type of venue that the access point is
located in. Various choices are available, including Business, Residential,
and Outdoor. For each Venu e Gr oup , a further set of sub-choices are
available in the Venu e Ty pe field below. The particular name of the venue
is specified in the Venue Nam es field (Step 14).
6. Venue Type. For each of the Venue Group choices, a further set of sub-
choices are available. For example, if you set Venue Group to Assembly,
the choices include Amphitheater, Area, Library, and Theatre.
7. HESSID. Enter the globally unique homogeneous ESS ID. This SSID is
marked as being HotSpot 2.0 capable. This SSID attribute is global—if
802.11u is enabled and HotSpot 2.0 is enabled, then all SSIDs will have
HotSpot 2.0 capability.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 317
8. IPv4 Availability. Select the type of IPv4 addressing that will be assigned
by the network upon connection. NATed addresses are IP addresses that
have been changed by mapping the IP address and port number to IP
addresses and new port numbers routable by other networks. Double
NATed addresses go through two levels of NATing. Port restricted IPv4
addresses refer to specific UDP and TCP port numbers associated with
standard Internet services; for example, port 80 for web pages. The
choices for this field are:
a. Double NATed private IPv4 address available
b. IPv4 address not available
c. IPv4 address availability not known
d. Port-restricted IPv4 address available
e. Port-restricted IPv4 address and double NATed IPv4 address
available
f. Port-restricted IPv4 address and single NATed IPv4 address
available
g. Public IPv4 address available
h. Single NATed private IPv4 address available
9. IPv6 Availability. Select the type of IPv6 addressing that is available from
the network upon connection.
a. IPv6 address not available
b. IPv6 address availability not known
c. IPv6 address available
10. Roaming Consortium. Each of the roaming consortia has an
organizational identifier (OI) obtained from IEEE that unique identifies
the organization. This is similar to the OUI part of a MAC address. Use
this control to build up a list of OIs for the consortia available. Enter the
OI as a hexadecimal string of between 6 and 30 characters in the Add field
Wireless Array
318 Configuring the Wireless Array
and click Add. The OI will appear in the list. An OI may be deleted by
selecting it in the list and clicking Delete. All OIs may be deleted by
clicking Reset.
11. Domain Names. Use this control to build up a list of domain names.
Enter the name in the Add field and click Add, and it will appear in the
list. A name may be deleted by selecting it in the list and clicking Delete.
All names may be deleted by clicking Reset.
12. Cell Network. Each of the cell networks is identified by a mobile country
code (MCC) and mobile network code (MNC). Use this control to build
up a list of cell networks. Enter the MCC as a three digit number and the
MNC as a two or three digit number and click Add. The cell network will
appear in the list. A cell network may be deleted by selecting it in the list
and clicking Delete. All networks may be deleted by clicking Reset.
13. Network Authentication Types. Each network authentication that is in
use on the network should be specified in this list. The choices are:
a. Acceptance of terms and conditions. This choice displays a web page
asking for the user’s acceptance of terms and conditions of use. The
URL should be specified in the URL field before clicking Add.
b. DNS redirection. Rather than use the DNS server on the network, the
redirection points to a different server.
c. HTTP/HTTPS redirection. This choice causes the user’s first web
page reference to be redirected to a different URL for login or other
information. The URL should be specified in the URL field before
clicking Add.
d. On-line enrollment supported. This choice indicates that the user
may sign up for network access as part of the authentication process.
When Add is clicked the authentication type and optional URL will
appear in the list. An authentication type may be deleted by selecting it in
the list and clicking Delete. All authentication types may be deleted by
clicking Reset.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 319
14. Venue Names. The list of names associated with the venue are specified
here. A venue name may be added to the list in English or Chinese. Enter
the name in the appropriate field and click Add. The name will appear in
the list. A name may be deleted by selecting it in the list and clicking
Delete. All names may be deleted by clicking Reset.
Wireless Array
320 Configuring the Wireless Array
Advanced RF Settings
This window allows you to establish RF settings, including automatically
configuring channel allocation and cell size, and configuring radio assurance and
standby modes. Changes you make on this page are applied to all IAPs, without
exception.
Figure 156. Advanced RF Settings
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 321
About Standby Mode
Standby Mode supports the Array-to-Array fail-over capability. When you enable
Standby Mode, the Array functions as a backup unit, and it enables its radios if it
detects that its designated target Array has failed. The use of redundant Arrays to
provide this fail-over capability allows Arrays to be used in mission-critical
applications. In Standby Mode, an Array monitors beacons from the target Array.
When the target has not been heard from for 40 seconds, the standby Array
enables its radios until it detects that the target Array has come back online.
Standby Mode is off by default. Note that you must ensure that the configuration
of the standby Array is correct. This window allows you to enable or disable
Standby Mode and specify the primary Array that is the target of the backup unit.
See also, “Failover Planning” on page 43.
Procedure for Configuring Advanced RF Settings
RF Monitor
1. RF Monitor Mode: RF monitoring permits the operation of features like
intrusion detection. The monitor may operate in Dedicated mode, or in
Timeshare mode which allows the radio to divide its time between
monitoring and acting as a standard radio that allows stations to associate
to it. Timeshare mode is especially useful for small Arrays with two IAPs,
such as the XR-500 and XR-1000 Series, allowing one IAP to be shared
between monitoring the airwaves for problems and providing services to
stations. Settings allow you to give priority to monitoring or wireless
services, depending on your needs. The default value is Off.
If Timeshare mode is selected, you may adjust the following settings:
Timeshare Scanning Interval (6-600): number of seconds between
monitor (off-channel) scans.
Timeshare Station Threshold (0-240): when the number of stations
associated to the monitor radio exceeds this threshold, scanning is
halted.
Timeshare Traffic Threshold (0-50000): when the number of packets
per second handled by the monitor radio exceeds this threshold,
scanning is halted.
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322 Configuring the Wireless Array
RF Resilience
2. Radio Assurance Mode: When this mode is enabled, the monitor radio
performs loopback tests on the Array. This mode requires RF Monitor
Mode to be enabled (Step 1) to enable self-monitoring functions. It also
requires a radio to be set to monitoring mode (see “Enabling Monitoring
on the Array” on page 488).
Operation of Radio Assurance mode is described in detail in “Array
Monitor and Radio Assurance Capabilities” on page 488.
The Radio Assurance mode scans and sends out probe requests on each
channel, in turn. It listens for all probe responses and beacons. These tests
are performed continuously (24/7). If no beacons or probe responses are
observed from a radio for a predetermined period, Radio Assurance
mode will take action according to the preference that you have specified:
Failure alerts only The Array will issue alerts in the Syslog, but
will not initiate repairs or reboots.
Failure alerts & repairs, but no reboots — The Array will issue alerts
and perform resets of one or all of the radios if needed.
Failure alerts & repairs & reboots if needed The Array will issue
alerts, perform resets, and schedule reboots if needed.
Disabled — Disable IAP radio assurance tests (no self-monitoring
occurs). Loopback tests are disabled by default.
3. Enable Standby Mode: Choose Yes to enable this Array to function as a
backup unit for the target Array, or choose No to disable this feature. See
“About Standby Mode” on page 321.
4. Standby Target Address: If you enabled the Standby Mode, enter the
MAC address of the target Array (i.e., the address of the primary Array
that is being monitored and backed up by this Array). To find this MAC
address, open the Array Info window on the target Array, and use the
Gigabit1 MAC Address.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 323
RF Power & Sensitivity
For an overview of RF power and cell size settings, please see “Capacity and Cell
Sizes” on page 32 and “Fine Tuning Cell Sizes” on page 33.
5. Set Cell Size: Cell Size may be set globally for all enabled IAPs to Auto,
Large, Medium, Small, or Max using the buttons.
6. Auto Cell Period (seconds): You may set up auto-configuration to run
periodically, readjusting optimal cell sizes for the current conditions.
Enter a number of seconds to specify how often auto-configuration will
run. If you select None, then auto-configuration of cell sizing will not be
run periodically. You do not need to run Auto Cell often unless there are a
lot of changes in the environment. If the RF environment is changing
often, running Auto Cell every twenty-four hours (86400 seconds) should
be sufficient). The default value is None.
7. Auto Cell Size Overlap (%): Enter the percentage of cell overlap that will
be allowed when the Array is determining automatic cell sizes. For 100%
overlap, the power is adjusted such that neighboring Arrays that hear
each other best will hear each other at -70dB. For 0% overlap, that number
is -90dB. The default value is 50%.
8. Auto Cell Min Cell Size: Use this setting if you wish to set the minimum
cell size that Auto Cell may assign. The values are Default, Large,
Medium, or Small.
9. Auto Cell Min Tx Power (dBm): Enter the minimum transmit power that
the Array can assign to a radio when adjusting automatic cell sizes. The
default value is 10.
To use the Auto Cell Size feature, the following additional settings are
required:
RF Monitor Mode must be turned On. See “RF Monitor” on page 321.
One of the radios must be in monitor mode, and all other IAPs that will use
Auto Cell must have Cell Size set to auto. See “Procedure for Manually
Configuring IAPs” on page 280.
Wireless Array
324 Configuring the Wireless Array
10. Auto Cell Configuration: Click this button to instruct the Array to
determine and set the best cell size for each enabled IAP whose Cell Size
is auto on the IAP Settings window, based on changes in the
environment. This is the recommended method for setting cell size. You
may look at the Tx and Rx values on the IAP Settings window to view the
cell size settings that were applied.
11. Sharp Cell: This feature reduces interference between neighboring
Arrays or other Access Points by limiting to a defined boundary (cell size)
the trailing edge bleed of RF energy. Choose On to enable the Sharp Cell
functionality, or choose Off to disable this feature. See also, “Fine Tuning
Cell Sizes” on page 33. This feature is available on all Arrays.
The Sharp Cell feature only works when the cell size is Small, Medium, or
Large (or Auto) but not Max. If an IAP cell size is set to Max, the Sharp
Cell feature will be disabled for that radio.
RF Spectrum Management
12. Configuration Status: Shows the status of auto channel configuration. If
an operation is in progress, the approximate time remaining until
completion is displayed; otherwise Idle is displayed.
13. Band Configuration: Automatic band configuration is the recommended
method for assigning bands to the abgn IAPs. It runs only on command,
assigning IAPs to the 2.4GHz or 5GHz band when you click the Auto
Configure button. The Array uses its radios to listen for other APs on the
same channel, and it assigns bands based on where it finds the least
interference.
Auto band assigns as many IAPs to the 5 GHz band as possible when
there are other Arrays within earshot. It does this by determining how
many Arrays are in range and then picking the number of radios to place
in the 2.4 GHz band. Note that for another Array to be considered to be in
range, the other Array must be visible via both the wireless and wired
networks—the Array must be listed in the Network Map table, its entry
must have In Range set to Yes, and it must have at least one active IAP
with an SSID that has broadcast enabled.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 325
Auto band runs separately from auto channel configuration. If the band is
changed for an IAP, associated stations will be disconnected and will then
reconnect.
14. Channel Configuration: Automatic channel configuration is the
recommended method for channel allocation. When the Array performs
auto channel configuration, you may optionally instruct it to first
negotiate with any other nearby Arrays that have been detected, to
determine whether to stagger the start time for the procedure slightly.
Thus, nearby Arrays will not run auto channel at the same time. This
prevents Arrays from interfering with each other’s channel assignments.
The Configuration Status field displays whether an Auto Configure
cycle is currently running on this Array or not.
Click Auto Configure to instruct the Array to determine the best channel
allocation settings for each enabled IAP and select the channel
automatically, based on changes in the environment. This is the
recommended method for channel allocation (see “RF Spectrum
Management” on page 324). The following options may be selected for
auto configuration:
Negotiate: negotiate air-time with other Arrays before performing a
full scan. Negotiating is slower, but if multiple Arrays are configuring
channels at the same time the Negotiate option ensures that multiple
Arrays don't select the same channels. Turning off the Negotiate
option allows the Auto Configure button to manually perform auto
channel without waiting, and may be used when you know that no
other nearby Arrays are configuring their channels.
Full Scan: perform a full traffic scan on all channels on all IAPs to
determine the best channel allocation.
Non-Radar: give preference to channels without radar-detect. See
table in “Procedure for Configuring Global 802.11an IAP Settings” on
page 298.
Include WDS: automatically assign 5GHz to WDS client links.
Wireless Array
326 Configuring the Wireless Array
Click Factory Defaults if you wish to instruct the Array to return all IAPs
to their factory preset channels. As of release 6.3, Arrays no longer all use
the same factory preset values for channel assignments. Instead, if the
Array has been deployed for a while and already has data from the
spectrum analyzer and Xirrus Roaming Protocol about channel usage on
neighboring Arrays, it performs a quick auto channel using that
information (without doing a full RF scan) to make an intelligent choice
of channel assignments. If the Array has been rebooted and has no saved
configuration or is just being deployed for the first time, it has no prior
data about its RF environment. In this case, it will pick a set of compatible
channel assignments at random.
15. Auto Channel Configuration Mode: This option allows you to instruct
the Array to auto-configure channel selection for each enabled IAP when
the Array is powered up. Choose On Array PowerUp to enable this
feature, or choose Disabled to disable this feature.
16. Auto Channel Configure on Time: This option allows you to instruct the
Array to auto-configure channel selection for each enabled IAP at a time
you specify here. Leave this field blank unless you want to specify a time
at which the auto-configuration utility is initiated. Time is specified in
hours and minutes, using the format: [day]hh:mm [am|pm]. If you omit
the optional day specification, channel configuration will run daily at the
specified time. If you do not specify am or pm, time is interpreted in 24-
hour military time. For example, Sat 11:00 pm and Saturday 23:00 are
both acceptable and specify the same time.
17. Channel List Selection: This list selects which channels are available to
the auto channel algorithm. Channels that are not checked are left out of
the auto channel selection process. Note that channels that have been
locked by the user are also not available to the auto channel algorithm.
On XR-500 and XR-1000 Series Arrays, the Factory Defaults button will
not restore iap1 to monitor mode. You will need to restore this setting
manually. Also, you may need to set RF Monitor Mode to Timeshare
Mode again - see “RF Monitor” on page 321.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 327
18. Auto Channel List: Use All Channels selects all available channels (this
does not include locked channels). Use Defaults sets the auto channel list
back to the defaults. This omits newer channels (100-140) many
wireless NICs don’t support these channels.
Station Assurance
Station assurance monitors the quality of the connections that users are
experiencing on the wireless network. You can quickly detect stations that are
having problems and take steps to correct them. Use these settings to establish
threshold values for errors and other problems. Station assurance is enabled by
default, with a set of useful default thresholds that you may adjust as desired.
When a connection is experiencing problems and reaches one of these thresholds
in the specified period of time, the Array responds with several actions: an event
is triggered, a trap is generated, and a Syslog message is logged. For example, if a
client falls below the threshold for Min Average Associated Time, this
“bouncing” behavior might indicate roaming problems with the network’s RF
design, causing the client to bounce between multiple Arrays and not stay
connected longer than the time to re-associate and then jump again. This can be
corrected with RF adjustments. Station assurance alerts you to the fact that this
station is encountering problems.
Figure 157. Station Assurance (Advanced RF Settings)
19. Enable Station Assurance: This is enabled by default. Click No if you
wish to disable it, and click Yes to re-enable it. When station assurance is
enabled, the Array will monitor connection quality indicators listed
Wireless Array
328 Configuring the Wireless Array
below and will display associated information on the Station Assurance
Status page. When a threshold is reached, an event is triggered, a trap is
generated, and a Syslog message is logged.
20. Period: In seconds, the period of time for a threshold to be reached. For
example, the Array will check whether Max Authentication Failures has
been reached in this number of seconds.
21. Min Average Associated Time: (seconds) Station assurance detects
whether the average length of station associations falls below this
threshold during a period.
22. Max Authentication Failures: Station assurance detects whether the
number of failed login attempts reaches this threshold during a period.
23. Max Packet Error Rate: (%) Station assurance detects whether the packet
error rate percentage reaches this threshold during a period.
24. Max Packet Retry Rate: (%) Station assurance detects whether the packet
retry rate percentage reaches this threshold during a period.
25. Min Packet Data Rate: (Mbps) Station assurance detects whether the
packet data rate falls below this threshold during a period.
26. Min Received Signal Strength: (dB) Station assurance detects whether
the strength of the signal received from the station falls below this
threshold during a period.
27. Min Signal to Noise Ratio: (dB) Station assurance detects whether the
ratio of signal to noise received from the station falls below this threshold
during a period.
28. Max Distance from Array: Min Received Signal Strength: (feet) Station
assurance detects whether the distance of the station from the Array
reaches this threshold during a period.
See Also
Coverage and Capacity Planning
Global Settings .11an
Global Settings .11bgn
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 329
Global Settings .11n
IAPs
IAP Settings
Radio Assurance
Hotspot 2.0
Understanding Hotspot 2.0
Hotspot 2.0 is a part of the Wi-Fi Alliance’s Passpoint certification program. It
specifies additional information above and beyond that found in 802.11u, which
allows mobile clients to automatically discover, select, and connect to networks
based on preferences and network optimization. Mobile clients that support
Hotspot 2.0 are informed of an access point’s support via its beacon message.
Hotspot 2.0 messages forward several types of information to clients, including:
Uplink and Downlink Speeds
Link Status
Friendly Name
Connection Capabilities The access point will restrict the protocols that
can be used by a specification of protocol and port numbers.
Procedure for Hotspot 2.0 Settings
Use this window to establish the Hotspot 2.0 configuration.
1. Hotspot 2.0. Click Enabled to enable Hotspot 2.0 operation.
2. Downstream Group-addressed Forwarding. Click Enabled to allow the
access point to forward group-addressed traffic (broadcast and multicast)
to all connected devices. Click Disabled to cause the access point to
convert group-addressed traffic to unicast messages.
3. WAN Downlink Speed. Enter the WAN downlink speed in kbps into the
field.
4. WAN Uplink Speed. Enter the WAN uplink speed in kbps into the field.
Wireless Array
330 Configuring the Wireless Array
Figure 158. Hotspot 2.0 Settings
5. English/Chinese Operator Friendly Name. Enter an English or Chinese
name into one of the fields. An incorrectly entered name can be deleted
by clicking the corresponding Delete.
6. Connection Capabilities. A Hotspot 2.0 access point limits the particular
protocols that clients may use. The set of default protocols is shown
initially. This table specifies the protocols in terms of:
a. A common Name, such as FTP or HTTP.
b. A Protocol number. For example 1 for ICMP, 6 for TCP, 17 for UDP,
and 50 for Encapsulated Security Protocol in IPsec VPN connections.
c. Port number for UDP/TCP connection.
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 331
d. Status: one of open, closed or unknown.
Any of the entries may be deleted by clicking the corresponding Delete
button. New entries may be created by entering the name of the protocol
in the box beside the Create button, and then clicking Create. The new
protocol will be added to the list with zeros in the protocol fields and
unknown for the status. Enter the appropriate Protocol and Port values
before setting the Status field to open.
NAI Realms
Understanding NAI Realm Authentication
A network access identifier (NAI) is a specification of a particular user. A NAI
takes the general form of e-mail addresses. Examples of NAIs are:
joe@example.com
fred@foo-9.example.com
jack@3rd.depts.example.com
fred.smith@example.com
Figure 159. NAI Realms
The NAI Realm is the part of the NAI following the @ sign. In the examples
above, the realms are: example.com, 3rd.depts.example.com, and
foo-9.example.com. Use the NAI Realms page, in conjunction with the NAI EAP
page, to specify the authentication techniques to be used to access that realm with
appropriate parameters.
Procedure for NAI Realms Settings
Use this window to establish the names of the supported realms.
Wireless Array
332 Configuring the Wireless Array
1. Enter the realm name. Enter the name of a realm in the box to the left of
the Create button and click Create. The realm will be added to the NAI
Realms list. Any of the realms may be deleted by clicking the
corresponding Delete button.
2. Enter Authentication Information. The NAI EAP page is used to specify
authentication for a realm. Click on the name of a realm to go to the NAI
EAP page for that realm. See “NAI EAP” on page 332.
NAI EAP
This window allows specification of the authentication techniques for a realm.
Figure 160. NAI EAP
Procedure for NAI Realms Settings
1. Select the realm to be configured in the NAI Realm drop down.
2. Select EAP Methods. Each realm may support up to five EAP
authentication methods. Beside each of the five numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
select the method from the drop down. The choices are:
EAP-AKA
EAP-AKA’ (EAP-AKA prime)
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Configuring the Wireless Array 333
EAP-FAST
EAP-MSCHAP-V2
EAP-SIM
EAP-TLS
EAP-TTLS
GTC
MD5-Challenge
None
PEAP
3. Specify Authentication Parameters. Each of the authentication methods
may specify up to five authentication parameters. To specify the
parameters click on the number corresponding to the authentication
method; i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. This displays the EAP n Auth Parameter
Configuration below the list of EAP Methods. For up to five of the
parameters, select the Type and Value or Vendor ID / Type. The choices
for the Type are:
Credential Type
Expanded EAP Method
Expanded Inner EAP Method
Inner Authentication EAP Method Type
Non-EAP Inner Authentication Type
None
Tunneled EAP Method Credential Type
For each type, a value or a vendor ID and type must be specified, as
applicable.
Wireless Array
334 Configuring the Wireless Array
Intrusion Detection
The Xirrus Array employs a number of IDS/IPS (Intrusion Detection System/
Intrusion Prevention System) strategies to detect and prevent malicious attacks on
the wireless network. Use this window to adjust intrusion detection settings.
Figure 161. Intrusion Detection Settings
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 335
The Array provides a suite of intrusion detection and prevention options to
improve network security. You can separately enable detection of the following
types of problems:
Rogue Access Point Detection and Blocking
Unknown APs are detected, and may be automatically blocked based on
a number of criteria. See “About Blocking Rogue APs” on page 337.
Denial of Service (DoS) or Availability Attack Detection
A DoS attack attempts to flood an Array with communications requests
so that it cannot respond to legitimate traffic, or responds so slowly that it
becomes effectively unavailable. The Array can detect a number of types
of DoS attacks, as described in the table below. When an attack is
detected, the Array logs a Syslog message at the Alert level.
Impersonation Detection
These malicious attacks use various techniques to impersonate a
legitimate AP or station, often in order to eavesdrop on wireless
communications. The Array detects a number of types of impersonation
attacks, as described in the table below. When an attack is detected, the
Array logs a Syslog message at the Alert level.
Type of Attack Description
DoS Attacks
Beacon Flood Generating thousands of counterfeit 802.11 beacons to
make it hard for stations to find a legitimate AP.
Probe Request
Flood Generating thousands of counterfeit 802.11 probe requests
to overburden the Array.
Authentication
Flood Sending forged Authenticates from random MAC
addresses to fill the Array's association table.
Association
Flood Sending forged Associates from random MAC addresses
to fill the Array's association table.
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336 Configuring the Wireless Array
Disassociation
Flood Flooding the Array with forged Disassociation packets.
Deauthentication
Flood Flooding the Array with forged Deauthenticates.
EAP Handshake
Flood Flooding an AP with EAP-Start messages to consume
resources or crash the target.
Null Probe
Response Answering a station probe-request frame with a null SSID.
Many types of popular NIC cards cannot handle this
situation, and will freeze up.
MIC Error Attack Generating invalid TKIP data to exceed the Array's MIC
error threshold, suspending WLAN service.
Disassociation
Attack (Omerta) Sending forged disassociation frames to all stations on a
channel in response to data frames.
Deauthentication
Attack Sending forged deauthentication frames to all stations on
a channel in response to data frames.
Duration Attack
(Duration Field
Spoofing)
Injecting packets into the WLAN with huge duration
values. This forces the other nodes in the WLAN to keep
quiet, since they cannot send any packet until this value
counts down to zero. If the attacker sends such frames
continuously it silences other nodes in the WLAN for long
periods, thereby disrupting the entire wireless service.
Impersonation Attacks
AP
impersonation Reconfiguring an attacker's MAC address to pose as an
authorized AP. Administrators should take immediate
steps to prevent the attacker from entering the WLAN.
Station
impersonation Reconfiguring an attacker's MAC address to pose as an
authorized station. Administrators should take immediate
steps to prevent the attacker from entering the WLAN.
Evil twin attack Masquerading as an authorized AP by beaconing the
WLAN's service set identifier (SSID) to lure users.
Type of Attack Description
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Configuring the Wireless Array 337
About Blocking Rogue APs
If you classify a rogue AP as blocked (see “Rogue Control List” on page 241), then
the Array will take measures to prevent stations from staying associated to the
rogue. When the monitor radio is scanning, any time it hears a beacon from a
blocked rogue it sends out a broadcast “deauth” signal using the rogue's BSSID
and source address. This has the effect of disconnecting all of a rogue AP’s clients
approximately every 5 to 10 seconds, which is enough to make the rogue
frustratingly unusable.
The Advanced RF Settings window allows you to set up Auto Block parameters
so that unknown APs get the same treatment as explicitly blocked APs. This is
basically a “shoot first and ask questions later” mode. By default, auto blocking is
turned off. Auto blocking provides two parameters for qualifying blocking so that
APs must meet certain criteria before being blocked. This keeps the Array from
blocking every AP that it detects. You may:
Set a minimum RSSI value for the AP for example, if an AP has an RSSI
value of -90, it is probably a harmless AP belonging to a neighbor and not
in your building.
Block based on encryption level.
Block based on whether the AP is part of an ad hoc network or
infrastructure network.
Specify channels to be whitelisted. Rogues discovered on these channels
are excluded from auto blocking. This allows specified channels to be
freely used by customer or guests for their APs.
Sequence
number anomaly A sender may use an Add Block Address request (ADDBA
- part of the Block ACK mechanism) to specify a sequence
number range for packets that the receiver can accept.
An attacker spoofs an ADDBA request, asking the receiver
to reset its sequence number window to a new range. This
causes the receiver to drop legitimate frames, since their
sequence numbers will not fall in that range.
Type of Attack Description
Wireless Array
338 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Configuring Intrusion Detection
RF Intrusion Detection and Auto Block Mode
1. Intrusion Detection Mode: This option allows you to choose the
Standard intrusion detection method, or you can choose Off to disable
this feature. See “Array Monitor and Radio Assurance Capabilities” on
page 488 for more information.
Standard enables the monitor radio to collect Rogue AP
information.
Off — intrusion detection is disabled.
2. Auto Block Unknown Rogue APs: Enable or disable auto blocking (see
“About Blocking Rogue APs” on page 337). Note that in order to set Auto
Block RSSI and Auto Block Level, you must set Auto Block Unknown
Rogue APs to On. Then the remaining Auto Block fields will be active.
3. Auto Block RSSI: Set the minimum RSSI for rogue APs to be blocked.
APs with lower RSSI values will not be blocked. They are assumed to be
farther away, and probably belonging to neighbors and posing a minimal
threat.
4. Auto Block Level: Select rogue APs to block based on the level of
encryption that they are using. The choices are:
Automatically block unknown rogue APs regardless of encryption.
Automatically block unknown rogue APs with no encryption.
Automatically block unknown rogue APs with WEP or no
encryption.
5. Auto Block Network Types: Select rogues to automatically block by
applying the criteria above only to networks of the type specified below.
The choices are:
All the unknown rogues may be part of any wireless network.
IBSS/AD Hoc only only consider auto blocking rogues if they
belong to an ad hoc wireless network (a network of client devices
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 339
without a controlling Access Point, also called an Independent Basic
Service Set IBSS).
ESS/Infrastructure only only consider auto blocking rogue APs if
they are in infrastructure mode rather than ad hoc mode.
6. Auto Block Whitelist: Use this list to specify channels to be excluded
from automatic blocking. If you have enabled Auto Block, it will not be
applied to rogues detected on the whitelisted channels. Use the Add
Channel drop-down to add entries to the Channels list, one at a time.
You can delete entries from the list by selecting them from the Remove
Channel drop-down list.
DoS Attack Detection Settings
7. Attack/Event: The types of DoS attack that you may detect are described
in the Type of Attack Table on page 335. Detection of each attack type
may be separately enabled or disabled. For each attack, a default
Threshold and Period (seconds) are specified. If the number of
occurrences of the type of packet being detected exceeds the threshold in
the specified number of seconds, then the Array declares that an attack
has been detected. You may modify the Threshold and Period.
For the Flood attack settings, you also have a choice of Auto or Manual.
Manual mode threshold and period settings are used to detect a
flood. Packets received are simply counted for the specified time
period and compared against the flood threshold. The default for all
of the floods is Manual mode.
Auto mode the Array analyzes current traffic for packets of a given
type versus traffic over the past hour to determine whether a packet
flood should be detected. In this mode, threshold and period settings
are ignored. This mode is useful for floods like beacon or probe
floods, where the numbers of such packets detected in the air can
vary greatly from installation to installation.
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340 Configuring the Wireless Array
8. Duration Attack NAV (ms): For the duration attack, you may also modify
the default duration value that is used to determine whether a packet
may be part of an attack. If the number of packets having at least this
duration value exceeds the Threshold number in the specified Period, an
attack is detected.
Impersonation Detection Settings
9. Attack/Event: The types of impersonation attack that you may detect are
described in Impersonation Attacks on page 336. Detection of each attack
type may be turned On or Off separately. For AP or Station
Impersonation attacks, a default Threshold and Period (seconds) are
specified. If the number of occurrences of the type of packet being
detected exceeds the threshold in the specified number of seconds, then
the Array declares that an attack has been detected. You may modify the
Threshold and Period.
10. Sequence number anomaly: You may specify whether to detect this type
of attack in Data traffic or in Management traffic, or turn Off this type of
detection.
LED Settings
This window assigns behavior preferences for the Array’s IAP LEDs.
Figure 162. LED Settings
Procedure for Configuring the IAP LEDs
1. LED State: This option determines which event triggers the LEDs, either
when an IAP is enabled or when an IAP first associates with the network.
Choose On Radio Enabled or On First Association, as desired. You may
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Configuring the Wireless Array 341
also choose Disabled to keep the LEDs from being lit. The LEDs will still
light during the boot sequence, then turn off.
2. LED Blink Behavior: This option allows you to select when the IAP LEDs
blink, based on the activities you check here. From the choices available,
select one or more activities to trigger when the LEDs blink. For default
behavior, see “Array LED Operating Sequences” on page 65.
3. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Global Settings (IAP)
Global Settings .11an
Global Settings .11bgn
IAPs
LED Boot Sequence
DSCP Mappings
DSCP is the 6-bit Differentiated Services Code Point (DiffServ) field in the IPv4 or
IPv6 packet header, defined in RFC2474 and RFC2475. The DSCP value classifies
the packet to determine the Quality of Service (QoS) required. DSCP replaces the
outdated Type of Service (TOS) field.
The DSCP Mappings page shows the default mapping of each of the 64 DSCP
values to one of the Array’s four QoS levels, and allows you to change these
mappings.
For a detailed discussion of the operation of QoS and DSCP mappings on the
Array, please see “Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array” on
page 247.
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342 Configuring the Wireless Array
Figure 163. DSCP Mappings
Procedure for Configuring DSCP Mappings
1. DSCP to QoS Mapping Mode: Use the On and Off buttons to enable or
disable the use of the DSCP mapping table to determine the QoS level
applied to each packet.
2. DSCP to QoS Mapping: The radio buttons in this table show all DSCP
values (0 to 63), and the QoS level to which each is mapped. To change the
QoS level applied to a DSCP value, click the desired QoS level (0 to 3)
underneath it.
Roaming Assist
Roaming assist is a Xirrus feature that helps clients roam to Arrays that will give
them high quality connections. Some smart phones and tablets will stay
connected to a radio with poor signal quality, even when there’s a radio with
better signal strength within range. When roaming assist is enabled, the Array
“assists” the device by deauthenticating it when certain parameters are met. This
encourages a client with a high roaming threshold (i.e., a device that may not
roam until signal quality has seriously dropped) to move to an Array that gives it
a better signal. The deauthentication is meant to cause the client to choose a
different radio. You can specify the device types that will be assisted in roaming.
The roaming threshold is the difference in signal strength between radios that will
trigger a deauthentication. If the client’s signal is lower than the sum of the
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 343
threshold and the stronger neighbor radio’s RSSI, then we “assist” the client. For
example:
Threshold = -5
RSSI of neighbor Array = -65
RSSI of client = -75
-75 < (-5 + -65) : Client will roam
Another example:
Threshold = -15
RSSI of neighbor Array = -60
RSSI of station = -70
-70 > (-15 + -60) : Client will not roam
Procedure for Configuring Roaming Assist
1. Enable Roaming Assist: Use the Yes and No buttons to enable or disable
this feature.
2. Backoff Period: After deauthenticating a station, it may re-associate to
the same radio. To prevent the Array from repeatedly deauthenticating
the station when it comes back, there is a backoff period. This is the
number of seconds the station is allowed to stay connected before another
deauthentication.
3. Roaming Threshold: This is the difference in signal strength between
radios that will trigger a deauthentication, as described in the discussion
above. In most cases, this will be a negative number.
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344 Configuring the Wireless Array
Figure 164. Roaming Assist
4. Minimum Data Rate: If the station’s data rate (either Tx or Rx) falls
below this rate, it will trigger a deauthentication.
5. Device Classes and Device Types: You can configure the device classes
or types that will be assisted in roaming. Many small, embedded devices
(such as the default device types: phones, tablets, music players) are
sticky—they have high roaming thresholds that tend to keep them
attached to the same radio despite the presence of radios with better
signal strength. You may check off one or more entries, but use care since
roaming assist may cause poor results in some cases.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 345
WDS
This is a status-only window that provides an overview of all WDS links that have
been defined. WDS (Wireless Distribution System) is a system that enables the
interconnection of access points wirelessly, allowing your wireless network to be
expanded using multiple access points without the need for a wired backbone to
link them. The Summary of WDS Client Links shows the WDS links that you
have defined on this Array and identifies the target Array for each by its base
MAC address. The Summary of WDS Host Links shows the WDS links that have
been established on this Array as a result of client Arrays associating to this Array
(i.e., the client Arrays have this Array as their target). The summary identifies the
source (client) Array for each link. Both summaries identify the IAPs that are part
of the link and whether the connection for each is up or down. See “WDS
Planning” on page 54 for an overview.
Figure 165. WDS
About Configuring WDS Links
A WDS link connects a client Array and a host Array (see Figure 166 on page 346).
The host must be the Array that has a wired connection to the LAN. Client links
from one or more Arrays may be connected to the host, and the host may also
have client links. See “WDS Planning” on page 54 for more illustrations.
The configuration for WDS is performed on the client Array only, as described in
“WDS Client Links” on page 347. No WDS configuration is performed on the host
Array. First you will set up a client link, defining the target (host) Array and SSID,
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346 Configuring the Wireless Array
and the maximum number of IAPs in the link. Then you will select the IAPs to be
used in the link. When the client link is created, each member IAP will associate to
an IAP on the host Array.
You may wish to consider configuring the WDS link IAPs so that only the WDS
link SSIDs are active on them. See “Active IAPs” on page 266.
Figure 166. Configuring a WDS Link
Once an IAP has been selected to act as a WDS client link, you will not be
allowed to use auto-configured cell sizing on that IAP (since the cell must
extend all the way to the other Array).
When configuring WDS, if you use WPA-PSK (Pre-Shared Key) as a
security mechanism, ensure that EAP is disabled. Communication between
two Arrays in WDS mode will not succeed if the client Array has both PSK
and EAP enabled on the SSID used by WDS. See SSID Management.
TKIP encryption does not support high throughput rates, per IEEE 802.11n.
TKIP should never be used for WDS links on XR Arrays.
WDS is available on all Xirrus Arrays, including XR-500 and XR-1000
Series Arrays with two radios (WDS will operate on either of the radios).
a2(52)
a3(149)
a4(40)
a10(52)
a9(149)
a8(40)
CLIENT HOST
Wired LAN
Client
Link
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Configuring the Wireless Array 347
Long Distance Links
If you are using WDS to provide backhaul over an extended distance, use the
WDS Dist. (Miles) setting to prevent timeout problems associated with long
transmission times. (See “IAP Settings” on page 279) Set the approximate distance
in miles between this IAP and the connected Array in the WDS Dist. (Miles)
column. This will increase the wait time for frame transmission accordingly.
See Also
SSID Management
Active IAPs
WDS Client Link IAP Assignments:
WDS Client Links
WDS Statistics
WDS Client Links
This window allows you to set up a maximum of four WDS client links.
Figure 167. WDS Client Links
Wireless Array
348 Configuring the Wireless Array
Procedure for Setting Up WDS Client Links
WDS Client Link Settings:
1. Host Link Stations: Check the Allow checkbox to instruct the Array to
allow stations to associate to IAPs on a host Array that participates in a
WDS link. The WDS host IAP will send beacons announcing its
availability to wireless clients. This is disabled by default.
2. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): Check the Enable checkbox to instruct the
Array to enforce the Spanning Tree Protocol on all WDS links. This is
enabled by default. Use of STP is strongly recommended in most
situations. However, in situations like the one in the next step, where
WDS is used by an Array mounted on a high speed train, STP can add
significant delay (often on the order of 30 to 60 seconds) while initially
analyzing network topology. In such a situation, it may be desirable to
disable STP.
3. Roaming RSSI Threshold: If an Array is deployed on a mobile site (on a
train, for example), you can use WDS to implement a wireless backhaul
that will roam between Arrays at fixed locations. When another
candidate Array for WDS host target is found, the client link will roam to
the new Array if its RSSI is stronger than the RSSI of the current host
connection by at least the Roaming RSSI Threshold. The default is 6 dB.
4. Roaming RSSI Averaging Weight: This weight changes how much the
latest RSSI reading influences the cumulative weighted RSSI value
utilized in checking the threshold (above) to make a roaming decision.
Once an IAP has been selected to act as a WDS client link, no other
association will be allowed on that IAP. However, wireless associations will
be allowed on the WDS host side of the WDS session.
Caution: If STP is disabled and a network connection is made on the WDS
Client Array’s Gigabit link that can reach the WDS Host Array, broadcast
and multicast packets will not be blocked. A broadcast storm may cause a
network outage.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 349
The higher the weight, the lower the influence of a new RSSI reading.
This is not exactly a percentage, but a factor in the formula for computing
the current RSSI value based on new readings:
StoredRSSI = (StoredRSSI * RoamingAvgWeight
+ NewRSSIReading * (100 - RoamingAvgWeight)) / 100
This prevents erroneous or out-of-line RSSI readings from causing the
WDS link to jump to a new Array. Such readings can result from
temporary obstructions, external interference, etc.
5. Click Save changes to flash after you are finished making changes on this
page if you wish to make your changes permanent.
WDS Client Link IAP Setting:
6. Enable/Disable/Reset All Links: Click the appropriate button to:
Enable All Links—this command activates all WDS links configured
on the Array.
Disable All Links—this command deactivates all WDS links
configured on the Array. It leaves all your settings unchanged, ready
to re-enable.
Reset All Links—this command tears down all links configured on
the Array and sets them back to their factory defaults, effective
immediately.
7. Client Link: Shows the ID (1 to 4) of each of the four possible WDS links.
8. Enabled: Check this box if you want to enable this WDS link, or uncheck
the box to disable the link.
9. Max IAPs Allowed (1-3): Enter the maximum number of IAPs for this
link, between 1 and 3.
10. Target Array Base MAC Address: Enter the base MAC address of the
target Array (the host Array at the other side of this link). To find this
MAC address, open the WDS window on the target Array, and use This
Array Address located on the right under the Summary of WDS Host
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350 Configuring the Wireless Array
Links. To allow any Xirrus Array to be accepted as a WDS target, enter the
Xirrus OUI: 00:0f:7d:00:00:00 or 50:60:28:00:00:00 (this is useful for
roaming in a mobile deployment, as described in Step 3 on page 348).
11. Target SSID: Enter the SSID that the target Array is using.
12. Username: Enter a username for this WDS link. A username and
password is required if the SSID is using PEAP for WDS authentication
from the internal RADIUS server.
13. Password: Enter a password for this WDS link.
14. Clear Settings: Click on the Clear button to reset all of the fields on this
line.
WDS Client Link IAP Assignments:
15. For each desired client link, select the IAPs that are part of that link. The
IAP channel assignments are shown in the column headers.
16. IAP Channel Assignment: Click Auto Configure to instruct the Array to
automatically determine the best channel allocation settings for each IAP
that participates in a WDS link, based on changes in the environment.
These changes are executed immediately, and are automatically applied.
See Also
SSID Management
WDS Planning
WDS
WDS Statistics
Wireless Array
Configuring the Wireless Array 351
Filters
The Wireless Array’s integrated firewall uses stateful inspection to speed the
decision of whether to allow or deny traffic. Filters are used to define the rules
used for blocking or passing traffic. Filters can also set the VLAN and QoS level
for selected traffic.
Filters may be used based on your experience with Application Control Windows
to eliminate or cap the amount of traffic allowed for less desirable applications.
Figure 168. Filters
User connections managed by the firewall are maintained statefully once a user
flow is established through the Array, it is recognized and passed through
without application of all defined filtering rules. Stateful inspection runs
automatically on the Array. The rest of this section describes how to view and
manage filters.
The air cleaner feature offers a number of predetermined filter rules that
eliminate a great deal of unnecessary wireless traffic. See “Air Cleaner” on
page 426.
Orange arrow
expands/collapses display
Wireless Array
352 Configuring the Wireless Array
Filters are organized in groups, called Filter Lists. A filter list allows you to apply
a uniform set of filters to SSIDs or Groups very easily.
The read-only Filters window provides you with an overview of all filter lists that
have been defined for this Array, and the filters that have been created in each list.
Filters are listed in the left side column by name under the filter list to which they
belong. Each filter entry is a link that takes you to its Filter Management entry,
and the list includes information about the type of filter, the protocol it is filtering,
which port it applies to, source and destination addresses, and QoS and VLAN
assignments.
Filter Lists
This window allows you to create filter lists. The Array comes with one
predefined list, named Global, which cannot be deleted. Filter lists (including
Global) may be applied to SSIDs or to Groups. Only one filter list at a time may be
applied to a group or SSID (although the filter list may contain a number of
filters). All filters are created within filter lists.
Figure 169. Filter Lists
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Configuring the Wireless Array 353
Procedure for Managing Filter Lists
1. Stateful Filtering: Stateful operation of the integrated firewall can be
Enabled or Disabled. If you have a large number of filters and you don’t
want to apply them in a stateful manner, you may use this option to turn
the firewall off.
2. Application Control: Operation of the Application Control feature may
be Enabled or Disabled. See “Application Control Windows” on
page 147.
3. New Filter List Name: Enter a name for the new filter list in this field,
then click on the Create button to create the list. All new filters are
disabled when they are created. The new filter list is added to the Filter
List table in the window. Click on the filter list name, and you will be
taken to the Filter Management window for that filter list. You may create
up to 16 filter lists (up to 8 on the XR-500 Series).
4. On: Check this box to enable this filter list, or leave it blank to disable the
list. If the list is disabled, you may still add filters to it or modify it, but
none of the filters will be applied to data traffic.
5. Filters: This read-only field displays the number of filters that belong to
this filter list.
6. SSIDs: This read-only field lists the SSIDs that use this filter list.
7. User Groups: This read-only field lists the Groups that use this filter list.
8. Delete: Click this button to delete this filter list. The Global filter list may
not be deleted.
9. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
The Application Control feature is only available if the Array license
includes Application Control. If a setting is unavailable (grayed out), then
your license does not support the feature. See “About Licensing and
Upgrades” on page 373.
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354 Configuring the Wireless Array
10. Click a filter list to go to the Filter Management window to create and
manage the filters that belong to this list.
Filter Management
This window allows you to create and manage filters that belong to a selected
filter list, based on the filter criteria you specify. Filters are an especially powerful
feature when combined with the intelligence provided by the “Application
Control Windows” on page 147.
Figure 170. Filter Management
Based on Application Control’s analysis of your wireless traffic, you can create
filters to enhance wireless usage for your business needs:
Usage of non-productive and risky applications like BitTorrent can be
restricted.
Filters are applied in order, from top to bottom.
Click here to change the order.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 355
Traffic for mission-critical applications like VoIP and WebEx may be given
higher priority (QoS).
Non- critical traffic from applications like YouTube may be given lower
priority (QoS) or bandwidth allowed may be capped per station or for all
stations.
Traffic flows for specific applications may be controlled by sending them
into VLANs that are designated for that type of traffic.
Filters may be applied at specified times—for example, no games allowed
from 8 AM to 6 PM.
Note that filtering is secondary to the stateful inspection performed by the
integrated firewall. Traffic for established connections is passed through without
the application of these filtering rules.
Procedure for Managing Filters
1. Filter List: Select the filter list to display and manage on this window. All
of the filters already defined for this list are shown, and you may create
additional filters for this list. You may create up to 50 filters per list (up to
25 per list on the XR-500 Series).
2. Add Preset Filter: A number of predefined “Air Cleaner” filters are
available using these buttons. You can use these rules to eliminate a great
deal of unnecessary wireless traffic, resulting in improved performance.
For more information, please see “Air Cleaner” on page 426.
3. New Filter Name: To add a new filter, enter its name in the field next to
the Create button at the bottom of the list, then click Create. All new
filters are added to the table of filters in the window. The filter name must
be unique within the list, but it may have the same name as a filter in a
different filter list. Two filters with the same name in different filter lists
will be completely unrelated to each other they may be defined with
different parameter values.
Viewing or modifying existing filter entries:
4. Filter: Select a filter entry if you wish to modify it. Source and destination
details are displayed below the bottom of the list.
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356 Configuring the Wireless Array
5. On: Use this field to enable or disable this filter.
6. Log: Log usage of this filter to Syslog.
7. Type: Choose whether this filter will be an Allow filter or a Deny filter. If
you define the filter as an Allow filter, then any associations that meet the
filter criteria will be allowed. If you define the filter as a Deny filter, any
associations that meet the filter criteria will be denied.
8. Layer: Select network layer 2 or 3 for operation of this filter.
9. Protocol/Number: Choose a specific filter protocol from the pull-down
list, or choose numeric and enter a Number, or choose any to instruct the
Array to use the best filter. This is a match criterion.
10. Application: Shows an application to filter, based on settings from Step
22 and Step 23. If an application has been selected, you should not enter
Protocol or Port—application filters have intelligence built into them, and
perform filtering that you cannot accomplish with just port and protocol.
See “Application Control Windows” on page 147.
11. Port/Number: This is a match criterion. From the pull-down list, choose
the target port type for this filter. Choose any to instruct the Array to
apply the filter to any port, or choose 1-65534 and enter a Number.
To enter a Range of port numbers,
separate the start and end numbers with
a colon as shown: Start # : End #.
12. DSCP: (Differentiated Services Code Point or DiffServ—Optional) Set
packets ingressing from the wireless network that match the filter criteria
to this DSCP level (0 to 63) before sending them out on the wired
network. Select the level from the pull-down list. Level 0 has the lowest
priority; level 63 has the highest priority. By default, this field is blank
and the filter does not modify DSCP level. See “Understanding QoS
Priority on the Wireless Array” on page 247.
13. QoS: (Optional) Set packets ingressing from the wired network that
match the filter criteria to this QoS level (0 to 3) before sending them out
on the wireless network. Select the level from the pull-down list. Level 0
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Configuring the Wireless Array 357
has the lowest priority; level 3 has the highest priority. By default, this
field is blank and the filter does not modify QoS level. See
“Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array” on page 247.
14. VLAN/Number: (Optional) Set packets that match the filter criteria to
this VLAN. Select a VLAN from the pull-down list, or select numeric and
enter the number of a previously defined VLAN (see “VLANs” on
page 199).
15. Traffic Limit: Instead of prohibiting or allowing the specified traffic type,
you may cap the amount of traffic allowed that matches this filter. First
choose the units for the limit: kbps for all stations in total or per station, or
packets per second (pps) for all stations in total or per station. Then enter
the numeric limit in the field to the left.
16. Scheduled Time: shows the times at which this filter is active, if you have
established a schedule in Step 19.
17. Move Up/Down: The filters are applied in the order in which they are
displayed in the list, with filters on the top applied first. To change an
entry’s position in the list, just click its Up or Down button.
18. To delete a filter, click its Delete button.
Select an existing filter entry in the list to view or modify Scheduling or Address
Configuration, shown below the list of filters:
19. Scheduling: Use these fields if you wish to specify a scheduled time for
this filter to be active. Check the checkboxes for the days that the filter is
to be active. By default, the filter is active all day on each selected day.
You may also specify a time of day for the filter to be active by entering a
Start and Stop time in 24:00 hour format (i.e., 6:30 PM is 18:30). To use
this feature, you must enter both a Start and a Stop time.
You cannot apply one filter for two or more scheduled periods, but you
can create two filters to achieve that. For example, one filter could deny
the category Games from 9:00 to 12:00, and another could deny them
from 13:00 to 18:00. Similarly, you might create two rules for different
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358 Configuring the Wireless Array
days—one to deny Games Mon-Fri 8:00 to 18:00, and another to deny
them on Sat. from 8:00 to 12:00.
20. Source Address: Define a source address to match as a filter criterion.
Click the radio button for the desired type of address (or other attribute)
to match. Then specify the value to match in the field to the right of the
button. Choose Any to use any source address. Check Not to match any
address except for the specified address.
21. Destination Address: Define a destination address to match as a filter
criterion. Click the radio button for the desired type of address (or other
attribute) to match. Then specify the value to match in the field to the
right of the button. Choose any to use any source address. Check Not to
match any address except for the specified address.
Below the Source and Destination Addresses, you may enter a Category or an
Application to be matched by the filter:
22. Category: If you wish this filter to apply to a particular category of
application, such as File-Transfer or Database, select it from the listed
options.
Figure 171. Filter Category or Application
23. Applications: If you wish this filter to apply to a specific application,
such as WebEx, click the letter or number that it starts with. Then select
the desired application. You may select a Category or an Application, but
not both.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 359
24. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
See Also
Filters
Filter Statistics
Understanding QoS Priority on the Wireless Array
VLANs
Wireless Array
360 Configuring the Wireless Array
Clusters
Clusters allow you to configure multiple Arrays at the same time. Using WMI (or
CLI), you may define a set of Arrays that are members of the cluster. Then you
may enter Cluster mode for a selected cluster, which sends all successive
configuration commands issued via CLI or WMI to all of the member Arrays.
When you exit cluster mode, configuration commands revert to applying only to
the Array to which you are connected.
The read-only Clusters window provides you with an overview of all clusters that
have been defined for this Array, and the Arrays that have been added to each.
Arrays are listed in the left hand column by name under the cluster to which they
belong. Each Array entry displays its IP Address, Username, and Password.
Figure 172. Clusters
Clusters are discussed in the following topics:
Cluster Definition
Cluster Management
Cluster Operation
An XR-500 or XR-1000 Series Array cannot act as the Cluster controller. It
will operate correctly as a member of a cluster.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 361
Cluster Definition
This window allows you to create clusters. All existing clusters are shown, along
with the number of Arrays currently in each. Up to 16 clusters may be created,
with up to 50 Arrays in each.
Figure 173. Cluster Definition
Procedure for Managing Cluster Definition
1. New Cluster Name: Enter a name for the new cluster in the field to the
left of the Create button, then click Create to add this entry. The new
cluster is added to the list in the window. Click on the cluster name, and
you will be taken to the Cluster Management window for that cluster.
2. Delete: To delete a cluster, click its Delete button.
3. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
4. Click a cluster to go to the Cluster Management window to add or
remove Arrays in the cluster.
An XR-500 or XR-1000 Series Array cannot act as the Cluster controller. It
will operate correctly as a member of a cluster.
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362 Configuring the Wireless Array
Cluster Management
This window allows you to add Arrays to or delete them from a selected cluster.
A cluster may include a maximum of 50 Arrays.
Note that the Array on which you are currently running WMI is not automatically
a member of the cluster. If you would like it to be a member, you must add it
explicitly.
Figure 174. Cluster Management
Procedure for Managing Clusters
1. Edit Cluster: Select the cluster to display and manage on this window. All
of the Arrays already defined for this cluster are shown, and you may
add additional Arrays to this list.
2. Array: Enter the hostname or IP address of the Array that you wish to
add to this cluster.
3. Username/Password: In these columns, enter the administrator name
and password for access to the Array.
4. Click the Add Array button to enter the Array.
5. To delete an Array, click its Delete button.
6. Click Save changes to flash if you wish to make your changes
permanent.
An XR-500 or XR-1000 Series Array cannot act as the Cluster controller. It
will operate correctly as a member of a cluster.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 363
Cluster Operation
This window puts WMI into Cluster Mode. In this mode, all configuration
operations that you execute in WMI or CLI are performed on the members of the
cluster. They are not performed on the Array where you are running WMI, unless
it is a member of the cluster.
You must use the Save changes to flash button at the top of configuration
windows to permanently save your changes in Cluster Mode, just as you would
in normal operation. When you are done configuring Arrays in the cluster, return
to this window and click the Exit button to leave Cluster Mode.
Figure 175. Cluster Mode Operation
Procedure for Operating in Cluster Mode
1. Operate: Click the Operate button to the right of the desired cluster. A
message informs you that you are operating in cluster mode. Click OK.
The Operate button is replaced with an Exit button.
Figure 176. Cluster Mode Activation
2. Select a WMI window for settings that you wish to configure for the
cluster, and proceed to make the desired changes.
An XR-500 or XR-1000 Series Array cannot act as the Cluster controller. It
will operate correctly as a member of a cluster.
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364 Configuring the Wireless Array
3. Proceed to any additional pages where you wish to make changes.
4. Some Status and Statistics windows will present information for all
Arrays in the cluster.
5. Click the Save button when done if you wish to save changes on the
cluster member Arrays.
6. Exit: Click the Exit button to the right of the operating cluster to terminate
Cluster Mode. The WMI returns to normal operation managing only
the Array to which it is connected.
Status and Statistics Windows in Cluster Mode
In Cluster Mode, many of the Status and Statistics windows will display
information for all of the members of the cluster. You can tell whether a window
displays cluster information if so, it will display the Cluster Name near the top,
as shown in Figure 177.
Figure 177. Viewing Statistics in Cluster Mode
Cluster Name
Specify Grouping
Exit Cluster Mode
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Configuring the Wireless Array 365
You have the option to show aggregate information for the cluster members, or
click the Group by Array check box to separate it out for each Array.
You may terminate cluster mode operation by clicking the Exit button to the right
of the Group by Array check box.
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366 Configuring the Wireless Array
Mobile
Mobile Device Management (MDM) servers enable you to manage large-scale
deployments of mobile devices. They may include capabilities to handle tasks
such as enrolling devices in your environment, configuring and updating device
settings over-the-air, enforcing security policies and compliance, securing mobile
access to your resources, and remotely locking and wiping managed devices.
Xirrus Arrays/APs support the AirWatch MDM, using an AirWatch API call to
determine the status of a user’s device and allow access to the wireless network
only if the device is enrolled and compliant with the policies of the service.
AirWatch
Individual SSIDs may be configured to require AirWatch enrollment and
compliance before a mobile device such as a smartphone or tablet is admitted to
the wireless network. The Array uses the AirWatch API with the settings below to
request that AirWatch check whether the mobile device is enrolled and compliant
with your wireless policies.
Figure 178. AirWatch Settings
Before configuring AirWatch settings on the Array, you must have an AirWatch
account, already set up with your organization’s compliance policies and other
configuration as required by AirWatch.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 367
The Array settings entered on this page are mostly taken from AirWatch. Once
you have entered these settings, your users will be constrained to follow a set of
steps to access the wireless network, as described in “User Procedure for Wireless
Access” on page 368.
Procedure for Managing AirWatch
If you have configured the Mobile Device Management setting on one or more
SSIDs to use AirWatch, then the API specified below will be used to determine
the admissibility of a mobile device requesting a connection to the wireless
network.
1. API URL: Obtain this from your AirWatch servers System / Advanced /
Site URLs page. Copy the REST API URL string into this field. This
specifies the AirWatch API that the Array will call to determine the
enrollment and compliance status of a mobile device attempting to
connect to the Array. The steps that the user will need to take are
described in “User Procedure for Wireless Access” on page 368.
2. API Key: Obtain this from your AirWatch server. Go to the System /
Advanced / API / REST page, General tab, and copy the API Key string
into this field. The key is required for access to the API.
3. API Username: Enter the user name for your account on the AirWatch
server.
4. API Password: Enter the password for your account on the AirWatch
server.
5. API Timeout: (seconds) If AirWatch does not respond within this many
seconds, the request fails.
6. API Polling Period: (seconds) Mobile device enrollment and compliance
status will be checked via polling at this interval. Note that there may
thus be a delay before the mobile device will be admitted.
7. API Access Error: Specify whether or not to allow access if AirWatch fails
to respond. The default is to Block access.
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368 Configuring the Wireless Array
8. Redirect URL: Obtain this from your AirWatch server. Go to the System /
Advanced / Site URLs page, and copy the Enrollment URL string into
this field. When a mobile device that is not currently enrolled with
AirWatch attempts to connect to the Array, the device displays a page
directing the user to install the AirWatch agent and go to the AirWatch
enrollment page. Note that Android devices will need another form of
network access (i.e. cellular) to download the agent, since un-enrolled
devices will not have access to download it via the Array. See “User
Procedure for Wireless Access” on page 368 for more details.
9. You must configure the Mobile Device Management setting on one or
more SSIDs to use AirWatch, as described in Procedure for Managing
SSIDs (see Step 16 on page 258).
User Procedure for Wireless Access
1. A user attempts to connect a mobile device to an SSID that uses AirWatch.
2. The device will authenticate according to the SSID’s authentication
settings (Open, Radius MAC, 802.1x).
3. The user browses to any destination on the Internet.
The Array asks the user to wait while it checks device enrollment and
compliance status by querying the AirWatch API with the device MAC
address.
4. If AirWatch responds that the device is enrolled and compliant, the
device will be allowed into the network. The device will be considered
compliant if AirWatch finds that the device does not violate any
applicable policies for that device. (If no policies are assigned to the
device in AirWatch, then the device is compliant by default.)
Device enrollment and compliance status will be checked via polling so there
may be a delay before the device will be allowed in. That delay will depend on
the API Polling Period setting.
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Configuring the Wireless Array 369
5. If the device is not enrolled, all user traffic will be blocked, except that
HTTP traffic is redirected to an intermediate page on the Array that tells
the user to download and install the AirWatch agent. The page displays a
link to the AirWatch-provided device enrollment URL. This link is a pass-
though that allows the user to go through the enrollment process. The
user will need to enter your organization’s AirWatch Group ID and
individual account credentials when requested.
Once the agent is installed, the user must start again at Step 1.
6. If the device is enrolled with AirWatch but not compliant with applicable
policies, all traffic will be blocked as in Step 5 above, and the HTTP traffic
will be redirected to an intermediate page on the Array that tells the user
which policies are out of compliance.
This page contains a button for the user to click when the compliance
issues have been corrected. This button causes AirWatch to again check
device compliance. The user's browser is redirected to a “wait” page until
the Array has confirmed compliance with AirWatch. The user’s browser
is then redirected to a page announcing that the device is now allowed
network access.
7. If the Array is unable to access AirWatch to obtain enrollment and
compliance status (for example, due to bad credentials, timeout, etc.),
device access to the network will be granted according to the API Access
Error setting (Allow or Block). If this field is set to Block, traffic will be
blocked as in Step 5 above and HTTP traffic will be redirected to an
informational page that informs the user that AirWatch cannot be
Android devices must go to the PlayStore to install the agent BEFORE they
can go through the enrollment process. This means un-enrolled devices need
another form of network access (i.e., cellular or an unrestricted SSID) to
download this agent, as they are not permitted access to the PlayStore.
Once the agent is installed, the user must start again at Step 1.
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370 Configuring the Wireless Array
contacted at this time and advises the user to contact the network
administrator. If this field is set to Allow, then the device will be allowed
network access.
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 371
Using Tools on the Wireless
Array
These WMI windows allow you to perform administrative tasks on your Array,
such as upgrading software, rebooting, uploading and downloading
configuration files, and other utility tasks. Tools are described in the following
sections:
“System Tools” on page 372
“CLI” on page 385
“API Documentation” on page 387
“Options” on page 392
“Logout” on page 395
Note that the Too ls menu section may be collapsed down to hide the headings
under it by clicking it. Click again to display the headings. (See Figure 41 on
page 85)
This section does not discuss using status or configuration windows. For
information on those windows, please see:
“Viewing Status on the Wireless Array” on page 91
“Configuring the Wireless Array” on page 157
If you are a Cloud XMS customer, then Arrays are managed via the cloud,
and local Array management interfaces are inaccessible.
If the Array is being managed by your own server for XMS Release 6.5 or
above, and if the Array has been assigned to a named network in XMS, you
will be restricted to read-only Array access. See “XMS-Managed Arrays
Restrict Local Management” on page 78.
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372 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
System Tools
Figure 179. System Tools
Status is
shown here
Progress is
shown here
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 373
This window allows you to manage files for software images, configuration, and
Web Page Redirect (WPR), manage the system’s configuration parameters, reboot
the system, and use diagnostic tools.
About Licensing and Upgrades
The Array’s license determines some of the features that are available on the
Array. For example, the Application Control feature is an option that must be
separately licensed. To check the features supported by your license, see “Array
Information” on page 98.
If you are using XMS Cloud, then obtaining Array licenses and upgrading
software images is taken care of for you automatically.
When upgrading the Array for a new major release, the Array needs the new
license key that enables the operation of that release before upgrading. If you do
not obtain the new license first, the Array will display a message and revert to the
previous software image, rather than trying to run new software for which it is
not licensed. Major releases will need a new license key, but minor releases will
not. For example, to upgrade from ArrayOS Release 6.0.5 to Release 6.1, you must
enter a new license key. To upgrade from ArrayOS Release 6.0.1 to Release 6.0.3,
use your existing license key.
If you are not an XMS Cloud customer (licenses are automatically updated) or an
XMS customer who has set up a network wide update, you may use the Auto-
provisioning Start button to get an updated license from Xirrus before
performing an upgrade.
If you will be entering license keys and performing upgrades on many Arrays, the
effort will be streamlined by using the Xirrus Management System (XMS),
especially if you are using XMS Cloud.
Procedure for Configuring System Tools
These tools are broken down into the following sections:
System
Configuration
Diagnostics
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374 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
Diagnostics
Web Page Redirect
Network Tools
Progress and Status Frames
System
1. Save & Reboot or Reboot: Use Save & Reboot to save the current
configuration and then reboot the Array. The LEDs on the Array indicate
the progress of the reboot, as described in “Powering Up the Wireless
Array” on page 64. Alternatively, use the Reboot button to discard any
configuration changes which have not been saved since the last reboot.
You may specify an optional Delay period in seconds to wait before the
reboot starts.
2. Software Upgrade: This feature upgrades the ArrayOS to a newer
version provided by Xirrus. Please note that you typically will need an
updated license key to cover the upgrade’s features before clicking the
Upgrade button. If you are an XMS Cloud customer, your license will be
updated for you automatically. See “About Licensing and Upgrades” on
page 373 for details.
Enter the filename and directory location (or click on the Browse button
to locate the software upgrade file), then click on the Upgrade button to
upload the new file to the Array. Progress of the operation will be
displayed below, in the Progress section. Completion status of the
operation is shown in the Status section.
This operation does not run the new software or change any configured
values. The existing software continues to run on the Array until you
reboot, at which time the uploaded software will be used. An upgrade
will, however, automatically save a copy of the current configuration of
the Array. See Step 8 on page 377.
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 375
3. License Key/Auto-provisioning:
If you need an updated license (for example, if you are upgrading an
Array to a new major release—say, from 6.4 to 6.5, and you are not using
XMS to perform network-wide updates), the best way to obtain one is
through Auto-provisioning. Click the Start button, and the Array will
contact the Xirrus Mobilize server with its serial number and MAC
address to obtain and install its latest license. If the Array is unable to
access the activation server, it will continue to attempt to contact the
server at intervals specified by the Polling Interval (the default value is
one minute). Click the Stop button if you wish to stop contacting the
server.
If you need to enter a new license key manually, use the License Key field
to enter it, then click the Apply button to the right.
A valid license is required for Array operation, and it controls the features
available on the Array. If you upgrade your Array for additional features,
you will be provided with a license key to activate those capabilities.
A license update will automatically save a copy of the current
configuration of the Array. See Step 8 on page 377.
If you attempt to enter an invalid key, you will receive an error message
and the current key will not be replaced.
If you have difficulty upgrading the Array using the WMI, see “Upgrading
the Array via CLI” on page 494 for a lower-level procedure you may use.
Software Upgrade always uploads the file in binary mode. If you transfer
any image file to your computer to have it available for the Software Upgrade
command, it is critical to remember to transfer it (ftp, tftp) in binary mode!
If you are managing your network with XMS Cloud, license updates and
software upgrades are performed for you automatically.
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376 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
Automatic Updates from Remote Image or Configuration File
The Array software image or configuration file can be downloaded from an
external server. In large deployments, all Arrays can be pointed to one TFTP
server instead of explicitly initiating software image uploads to all Arrays. When
the Array boots, the Array will download the software image from the specified
TFTP server. Similarly, if you decide to change a setting in the Arrays, you can
simply modify a single configuration file. After the Arrays are rebooted, they will
automatically download the new configuration file from a single location on the
specified TFTP server.
4. Remote TFTP Server: This field defines the path to a TFTP server to be
used for automated remote update of software image and configuration
files when rebooting. You may specify the server using an IP address or
host name.
5. Remote Boot Image: When the Array boots up, it fetches the software
image file specified here from the TFTP server defined above, and
upgrades to this image before booting. This must be an Array image file
with a .bin extension.
Make sure to place the file on the TFTP server. If you disable the remote
boot image (by blanking out this field) or if the image can't be transferred,
the Array will fall back to booting whatever image is on the compact
flash.
Trial licenses: If you enter a trial license to try new premium features, then
when the trial expires the perpetual license will be restored automatically
without requiring a reboot. When the trial expires, the current Array
configuration will not be lost.
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 377
6. Remote Configuration: When the Array boots up, it fetches the specified
configuration file from the TFTP server defined above, and applies this
configuration after the local configuration is applied. The remote
configuration must be an Array configuration file with a .conf extension.
Make sure to place the file on the TFTP server.
A partial configuration file may be used. For instance, if you wish to use a
single configuration file for all of your Arrays but don't want to have the
same IP address for each Array, you may remove the ipaddr line from the
file. You can then load the file on each Array and the local IP addresses
will not change.
A remote configuration is never saved to the compact flash unless you
issue a Save command.
Configuration
7. Update from Remote File: This field allows you to define the path to a
configuration file (one that you previously saved see Step 9 and Step 10
below). Click on the Browse button if you need to browse for the location
of the file, then click Update to update your configuration settings.
8. Update from Local File: This field updates Array settings from a local
configuration file on the Array. Select one of the following files from the
drop-down list:
factory.conf: The factory default settings.
lastboot.conf: The setting values from just before the last reboot.
saved.conf: The last settings that were explicitly saved using the Save
changes to flash button at the top of each window.
The Remote Boot Image or Remote Configuration update happens every time
that the Array reboots. If you only want to fetch the remote image or
configuration file one time, be sure to turn off the remote option (blank out
the field on the System Tools page) after the initial download. When a remote
boot image is used, the image is transferred directly into memory and is
never written to the compact flash.
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378 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
history/saved-yyyymmdd-pre-update.conf:
history/saved-yyyymmdd-post-update.conf:
Two files are automatically saved for a software upgrade or for a
license change (including the setting values from just before the
upgrade/change was performed, and the initial values afterward.
The filename includes the date.
history/saved-yyyymmdd-auto.conf: Each time you use the Save
changes to flash button, an “auto” file is saved with the settings
current at that time.
history/saved-yyyymmdd-pre-reset.conf:
history/saved-yyyymmdd-post-reset.conf:
Each time you use one of the Reset to Factory Default buttons, two
files are saved: the setting values from just before the reset, and the
initial values afterward. The filename includes the reset date.
history/saved-yyyymmdd-hhmm.conf: The setting values that were
explicitly saved using the Set Restore Point button (see Step 9
below).
Click Update to update your configuration settings by appending to the
current Array configuration. Click Restore to replace the Array
configuration with the configuration file selected.
Note that the History folder allows a maximum of 16 files. The oldest file
is automatically deleted to make room for each new file.
9. Save to Local File: There are a few options for explicitly requesting the
Array to save your current configuration to a file on the Array:
To view the list of configuration files currently on the Array, click the
down arrow to the right of this field. If you wish to replace one of
these files (i.e., save the current configuration under an existing file
name), select the file, then click Save. Note that you cannot save to
the file names factory.conf, lastboot.conf, and saved.conf - these files
are write-protected.
You may enter the desired file name, then click Save.
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 379
Click Set Restore Point to save a copy of the current configuration,
basing the file name on the current date and time. For example:
history/saved-20100318-1842.conf
Note that the configuration is automatically saved to a file in a few
situations, as described in Step 8 above.
10. Download Current Configuration: Click on the link titled
xs_current.conf to download the Array’s current configuration settings to
a file (that you can upload back to the Array at a later date). The system
will prompt you for a destination for the file. The file will contain the
Array’s current configuration values.
11. Reset to Factory Defaults: Click on the Reset/Preserve IP Settings button
to reset the system’s current configuration settings to the factory default
values, except for the Array’s management IP address which is left unchanged.
This function allows you to maintain management connectivity to the
Array even after the reset. This will retain the Gigabit Ethernet port’s IP
address (see “Network Interfaces” on page 167), or if you have
configured management over a VLAN it will maintain the management
VLAN’s IP address (see “VLAN Management” on page 201). All other
previous configuration settings will be lost.
Click Reset to reset all of the system’s current configuration settings to
the factory default values, including the management IP address all
previous configuration settings will be lost. The Array’s Gigabit Ethernet
ports default to using DHCP to obtain an IP address.
Important! When you have initially configured your Array, or have made
significant changes to its configuration, we strongly recommend that you
save the configuration to a file in order to have a safe backup of your working
configuration.
If the IP settings change, the connection to the WMI may be lost.
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380 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
Diagnostics
12. Diagnostic Log: Click the Create button to save a snapshot of Array
information for use by Xirrus Customer Support personnel. The Progress
and Status Frames show the progress of this operation. When the process
is complete, the filename xs_diagnostic.log will be displayed in blue
and provides a link to the newly created log file. Click the link to
download this file. You will be asked to specify the location for saving the
file. (Figure 180)
Figure 180. Saving the Diagnostic Log
This feature is only used at the request of Customer Support. It saves all
of the information regarding your Array, including status, configuration,
statistics, log files, and recently performed actions.
The diagnostic log is always saved as a file named xs_diagnostic.log
on your C:\ drive, so you should immediately rename the file to save it.
This way, it will not be lost the next time you save a diagnostic log. Often,
Customer Support will instruct you to save two diagnostic logs about ten
minutes apart so that they can examine the difference in statistics
between the two snapshots (for example, to see traffic and error statistics
for the interval). Thus, you must rename the first diagnostic log file.
13. Health Log: This file is created automatically, but only if the Array
encounters unexpected and serious problems. Normally this file will not
exist. The Diagnostic Log Create button has no effect on this file
All passwords are stored on the array in an encrypted form and will not be
exposed in the diagnostic log.
Click Create to create log
Then click this link to save
log file to local computer
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 381
whatsoever. When a health log exists, the filename xs_health.log.bz2 is
displayed in blue and provides a link to the log file. Click the link to
download this file or to open it with your choice of application. This file is
normally only used at the request of Customer Support.
Application Control Signature File Management
Application Control recognizes applications using a file containing the
signatures of hundreds of applications. This file may be updated regularly to
keep up as Internet usage evolves over time. The latest signature file is
available from the same location that you use to download the latest ArrayOS
release: Xirrus ArrayOS - XR Platform Latest Release. Note that new ArrayOS
releases will automatically contain the latest signature file available at the
time of the build.
See “Application Control Windows” on page 147 for more information about
using Application Control.
Figure 181. Managing Application Control Signature files
14. Choose File: First, download the latest signature file from the Xirrus
Customer Support site: Xirrus ArrayOS - XR Platform Latest Release to
your file system. Click the Choose File button, then browse to locate the
new signature file. Click the Upload button when it appears. The new file
will be uploaded to the Array and will be used for identifying
applications. You must turn Application Control off and back on again
on the Filter Lists page to make the new signature file take effect. See
“Filter Lists” on page 352. No reboot is required.
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382 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
Web Page Redirect
The Array uses a Perl script and a cascading style sheet to define the default
splash/login Web page that the Array delivers for WPR. You may replace
these files with files for one or more custom pages of your own. See Step 17
below to view the default files. See Step 14 on page 257 for more information
about WPR and how the splash/login page is used.
Each SSID that has WPR enabled may have its own page. Custom files for a
specific SSID must be named based on the SSID name. For example, if the
SSID is named Public, the default wpr.pl and hs.css files should be
modified as desired and renamed to wpr-Public.pl and hs-Public.css
before uploading to the Array. If you modify and upload files named wpr.pl
and hs.css, they will replace the factory default files and will be used for any
SSID that does not have its own custom files, per the naming convention just
described. Be careful not to replace the default files unintentionally.
Figure 182. Managing WPR Splash/Login page files
15. Upload File: Use this to install files for your own custom WPR splash/
login page (as described above) on the Array. Note that uploaded files are
not immediately used - you must reboot the Array first. At that time, the
Array looks for and uses these files, if found.
Enter the filename and directory location (or click Browse to locate the
splash/login page files), then click on the Upload button to upload the
new files to the Array. You must reboot to make your changes take effect.
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 383
16. Remove File: Enter the name of the WPR file you want to remove, then
click on the Delete button. You can use the List Files button to show you
a list of files that have been saved on the Array for WPR. The list is
displayed in the Status section at the bottom of the WMI window. You
must reboot to make your changes take effect.
17. Download Sample Files: Click on a link to access the corresponding
sample WPR files:
wpr.pl — a sample Perl script.
hs.css a sample cascading style sheet.
Network Tools
Figure 183. System Command (Ping)
18. System Command: Choose Trace Route, Ping., or RADIUS Ping. For
Trace Route and Ping, fill in IP Address and Timeout. Then click the
Execute button to run the command.
The RADIUS Ping command is a simple utility that tests connectivity to a
RADIUS server by attempting to log in with the specified Username and
Password. When using a RADIUS server, this command allows you to
verify that the server configuration is correct and whether a particular
Username and Password are set up properly. If a client is having trouble
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384 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
accessing the network, you can quickly determine if there is a basic
RADIUS problem by using the RADIUS Ping tool. For example, in
Figure 184 (A), RADIUS Ping is unable to contact the server. In Figure 184
(B), RADIUS Ping verifies that the host information and secret for a
RADIUS server are correct, but that the user account information is not.
Select RADIUS allows you to select a RADIUS server that you have
already configured. When you make a choice in this field, additional
fields will be displayed. Set Select RADIUS to External Radius, Internal
Radius, or a server specified for a particular SSID, or select Other Server
to specify another server by entering its Host name or IP address, Port,
and shared Secret.
Enter the RADIUS Credentials: Username and Password. Select the
Authentication Type, PAP or CHAP. Click the Execute button to run the
command. The message Testing RADIUS connection appears. Click OK
to proceed.
Figure 184. Radius Ping Output
19. IP Address: For Ping or Trace Route, enter the IP address of the target
device.
20. Timeout: For Ping or Trace Route, enter a value (in seconds) before the
action times out.
A
B
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Using Tools on the Wireless Array 385
21. Execute System Command: Click Execute to start the specified
command. Progress of command execution is displayed in the Progress
frame. Results are displayed in the Status frame.
Progress and Status Frames
The Progress frame displays a progress bar for commands such as Software
Upgrade and Ping. The Status frame presents the output from system
commands (Ping and Trace Route), as well as other information, such as the
results of software upgrade.
22. If you want to save the parameters you established in this window for
future sessions, click on the Save changes to flash button.
CLI
The WMI provides this window to allow you to use the Array’s Command Line
Interface (CLI). You can enter commands to configure the Array, or display
information using show commands. You will not need to log in - you already
logged in to the Array when you started the WMI.
Figure 185. CLI Window
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386 Using Tools on the Wireless Array
To enter a command, simply type it in. The command is echoed and output is
shown in the normal way that is, the same way it would be if you were using
the CLI directly. You may use the extra scroll bar inside the right edge of the
window to scroll through your output. If output runs past the right edge of the
screen, there is also a horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the page.
This window has some minor differences, compared to direct use of the CLI via
the console or an SSH connection:
The CLI starts in config mode. All configuration and show commands are
available in this mode. You can “drill down” the mode further in the
usual way. For example, you can type interface iap to chan