Solution Air Handling Units 200 To 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor S), Engineering Guide, 102.20 QG1 060 Solutions Ahu
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FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) V F D V F D FPC EA DP HF XA FS XA CC XA HC RF MB FE SA RA Split ld08301 FS DI RF XA DP Split VFD VC XA HC RF MB EA FE RA Split ld08302 SOLUTION AIR HANDLING UNITS 2000 TO 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models) FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) TABLE OF CONTENTS GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction ............................................................3 A Proud History of Experience & Qualiﬁcations .....3 Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing ...............3 Computer Selection Programs ...............................4 Innovative Engineering & Design ...........................5 Flexibility of Design ................................................6 Superior Casing Performance ................................6 Pre-engineered Packaged Controls .......................7 Customized Variable Size Openings ......................7 Airﬂow Measurement Performance ........................8 State-of-the-Art Certiﬁcation & Testing ...................8 New Sound Testing Laboratory ..............................8 Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ............9 Multi-Sloped Drain Pans ........................................9 Raceways...............................................................9 Improve Cost Savings ............................................9 A Complete Line of Filters ....................................10 Energy Saving Fan Options .................................10 Energy Consumption............................................11 Sound Attenuation ................................................13 Inertia Base ..........................................................13 Quick Selection ....................................................14 FAN APPLICATION REVIEW Fan Laws .............................................................15 Variable Air Volume ..............................................16 Component Temperature Margins ........................17 Fan Motor Heat ....................................................17 COIL OPTIONS Cooling Coils ........................................................18 Heating Coils ........................................................19 Typical Application of AH Coils .............................20 SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION Segment Listing ...................................................21 Unit & Coil Hand Selection ...................................21 FAN SEGMENTS – FS, FR, FE Fan Applications ...................................................22 Dual Fan Considerations......................................22 Dual Fan Applications ..........................................22 Door and Discharge Locations .............................23 Single Fan DWDI Options ....................................24 Single Fan SWSI Options ....................................25 Dual Fan DWDI Options.......................................26 Dual Fan SWSI Options .......................................27 SWSI vs. DWDI ....................................................28 Fan Motor Control Methods .................................29 COIL SEGMENTS Cooling (CC) ........................................................30 Heating (HC) ........................................................30 Vertical Coil (VC) ..................................................31 2 STAGGERED COIL OPTIONS Angle Wall ............................................................32 Back-to-Back ........................................................32 Multizone (MC) .....................................................33 HEATING SEGMENTS Integral Face & Bypass ........................................34 Indirect Gas-Fired ................................................35 Turndown Examples and Guidelines....................36 Electric Heat Options & Applications ....................37 ENERGY RECOVERY Heat Wheel ..........................................................40 FILTER SEGMENTS Applications & Options Table ...............................41 Mechanical Air Filters ...........................................42 MERV Analysis .....................................................43 MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS Mixing Box /Economizers .....................................44 Mixing Box Optimization Chart .............................46 Typical Economizer Application............................47 Building Pressurization.........................................47 Methods of Pressurization Control .......................48 Economizer Arrangements ...................................48 Face Damper .......................................................49 Inlet Plenum .........................................................49 ACCESSORY SEGMENTS Diffuser Segment .................................................50 Access Segment ..................................................50 Vertical Plenum ...................................................51 Discharge Plenum ................................................51 Sound Attenuator .................................................52 Noise and Vibration ..............................................53 Air Blender - Mixers..............................................54 Face & Bypass Damper Segment ........................55 Turning Segments ................................................56 Humidiﬁer Segment..............................................56 UV Segment .........................................................57 Pipe Chase Enclosure..........................................58 Roof Curb .............................................................58 Special Curb Requests ........................................59 CONTROLS F. P. Controls & Motor Control Centers ................60 Typical FPC Wiring...............................................60 Software Process .................................................61 Field Equipment Controller...................................61 Power Wiring Options ..........................................62 INDUSTRY FORMULAS Miscellaneous Industry Formulas.........................63 GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS WITH TIPS Part 1 - General....................................................64 Part 2 - Products ..................................................67 Part 3 - Execution.................................................81 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION Introduction Assurance of Johnson Controls Backing This Equipment Guide will provide engineers with a summary of Solution air handling information in the most convenient, time-saving manner possible. The guide will direct you to various sources of data and information helpful in solving questions concerning product options, design application, as well as installation and operation. With every Solution system, you get the support and resources that come from dealing with a worldwide manufacturer – JOHNSON CONTROLS. You are not tied to the limitations of a regional supplier. Instead, you get the ﬂexibility being able to design in one part of the country, and buy and install in another location. Johnson Controls Factory Service A Proud History of Experience & Qualifications Johnson Controls combined with YORK heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems and solutions creates the largest global provider of integrated products, systems and services for the $200 billion global building environment industry. Johnson Controls/YORK is: • A global leader in control systems and services for heating, ventilating, air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, security and ﬁre management for nonresidential buildings, facility management and consulting services. • Represented in over 125 countries, including North America, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America and in all markets. ® YORK Solution® air-handling units (AHUs) from Johnson Controls–the only names you need to know for a line that has no limits. Johnson Controls/YORK engineers have developed an AHU line that is so ﬂexible, and able to deliver such high standards of performance, that it can handle virtually any application. Whatever the air-handling challenge–IAQ, acoustics, energy, controls, you name it–Johnson Controls/YORK can build a Solution AHU that will meet your needs. Solution® AHU’s from Johnson Controls comprise a complete AHU line to meet commercial, institutional and industrial indoor and outdoor unit applications. For more than 50 years, YORK air handling units have been installed in every type of facility to handle any type of requirement; manufacturing, education, healthcare, life sciences and process manufacturing. Solution® AHU’s come equipped with industry-leading Metasys® controls that are installed and commissioned at the factory. Factory installation assures superior quality, saves time on the jobsite and delivers accurate performance. Plus, you can count on seamless operation with a Metasys building management system. JOHNSON CONTROLS Turn to the experts at Johnson Controls/YORK. Johnson Controls/York carries the burden of singlesource responsibility since Johnson Controls/YORK packages the total system, including custom air handlers, chillers, controls, and variable air-volume boxes and building automation systems. For added peace of mind, Johnson Controls/YORK offers Inspection Only, Preventive Maintenance and Inspection, or Total Service Contracts to meet your speciﬁc ﬁnancing and management requirements. Johnson Controls service can also provide certiﬁed technicians available locally for factory start-up, drawing from over 700 factorytrained service technicians in 100 strategically-located ofﬁces nationwide – a capability not offered by independent manufacturers. Full Service Support Because JOHNSON CONTROLS factory packaged devices and motor controls are an integral part of the equipment, who better to troubleshoot and service the system than a professional Johnson Controls Service Technician. The Johnson Controls Service technician knows not only the equipment and the hardware, but also has a working knowledge of equipment application and operation. Every unit is backed by this kind of professional support. Development and Preparation of Service Literature Johnson Controls/YORK produces quality product literature to ensure proper installation, operation and maintenance. Installation, Operation and Maintenance manuals must be followed to realize the full capacity and life of the units. In addition, literature supplements of special characteristics and features are distributed as required to support regular product enhancements. 3 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION Computer Selection Programs YORKworks™ software is the primary source for the latest product design and performance data. 1. Includes the latest innovations, updates, and efﬁciencies of YORK® products 2. Includes general functionality used to select equipment factory packaged controls. 3. Sound data for air-handling units 4. All screens are interconnected and are continually updated according to conﬁguration inputs. This powerful software tool brings ﬂexibility and computing power to the desktop of designers. The software allows you and the customer to make product decisions and view performance data in a user-friendly, step-bystep, screen-driven environment. YORKworksCE™ software is a necessity for your customer’s engineering toolbox. YORKworks revolutionizes the way you specify HVAC equipment. Johnson Controls/YORK can optimize the selection of any air handling unit for a speciﬁc job requirement with its computer selection programs. Quick and Easy selection • Save Time – choose components and complete conﬁgurations with a couple of clicks. • Reduce Errors – use pre-programmed rules and guidelines for component selection. Just Click to select and add components Literature Reference — see ‘Sales Guide – YORK works CE’ Form 70.02-SG1 4 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Innovative Engineering & Design 5. Solution’s Variable Aspect Ratio eliminates the need for costly modiﬁcations. Solution Air Handlers are not just ‘fans-in-a-box’! 6. Solution ﬁts the speciﬁcation and the space! 1. Solution is a structure that withstands deﬂection 2. Solution is a sound/noise barrier Innovative Engineering & Design allows you to choose from a limitless variety of conﬁgurations. See conﬁgurations below for some of the popular applications designed to meet your particular need. 3. Solution is a container of clean and conditioned air 4. Solution is an integral part of a building’s ﬁre and safety plans Configuration 1 (Stacked Unit) – Configuration 2 (Stacked Unit) – Mechanical room favorite. Reduced footprint with tiered supply fan Ultra-quiet design with plenum fan and U-shaped cabinet AT DP FS TN TN VC XA HC FM FS XA EH XA RF MB Configuration 3 – Minimum frills. Maximum IAQ FS CC MB XA HC FF Configuration 4 – Exhaust air ﬂexibility with gas-heat and humidiﬁcation DP HM XA IG FS XA CC EE AF FE Configuration 5 – Cooling-only lab design with HEPA ﬁltration HF DP XA DI FS CC RF MB Configuration 6 – Classic hospital design with return fan economizer operation. DP JOHNSON CONTROLS RF XA DI FS CC XA HC AF EE FR 5 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION Flexibility of Design Component Flexibility Solution AHUs offer the ultimate in dimensional, material, and component ﬂexibility. Solution AHUs have the same appeal for both “standard” and “custom” markets. How an air-handling unit is designed and built determines how well it performs. AHUs are responsible for providing the environment with quality indoor air, in an energy efﬁcient and quiet manner. Solution AHUs help meet that responsibility by offering every available component, from energy wheels to air-monitoring stations to specialty-purpose filters. As technology creates new capabilities, Johnson Controls/ YORK will apply these to our Solution line. Engineering Flexibility • Variable cabinet dimensions • Material and component ﬂexibility • Full line of factory packaged controls installed, tested and commissioned by Johnson Controls certiﬁed technicians • Variable sized inlet and discharge openings • Indoor and outdoor constructions • Tiered (stacked) and custom conﬁgurations Superior Casing Performance The foam injected panels of our Solution air handling units enhance performance, maximizing the indoor air quality and help to create ASHRAE 62-2000 compliant designs while reducing costs. The direct result of the foam injection insulation is a rigid panel, low leakage, high pressure air handler, with increased energy savings, and reduced initial cost. Better IAQ Deﬂection presents a potential in leaks that form over time from the operational pressure. The foam injected Solution panels are 20% more rigid (L/240 vs. L/200) then the typical ﬁberglass or foam board construction. In addition the smaller deﬂections can be achieved using lighter sheet metal gauges then required by ﬁberglass construction. The result is a lower initial cost unit with greater performance. • Panels are individually removable without affecting structural integrity. Dimensional Flexibility You can design Solution AHUs to ﬁt the application and the space. Length, height and width can all be varied to match building constraints. With hundreds of crosssectional possibilities, you choose the best match for the application. In addition, all Solution AHU components have been designed with a variable-aspect ratio to meet your space and air-velocity requirements. Material Flexibility A complete line of construction materials are available, including galvanized steel, aluminum, painted steel, stainless steel, and more. Solution AHUs can handle a multitude of environments, from the most benign to the most corrosive. NOTE: All units/unit segments are shrink-wrapped to protect unit from contamination during shipping 6 Lower leakage reduces the inﬁltration of unﬁltered and unconditioned air into the space. The inﬁltration of unconditioned air can lead to condensation in unit walls, crevices and/or insulation. When the inﬁltration occurs in a negative pressure atmosphere downstream of the ﬁlter, it will lead to unﬁltered air being supplied to the space. Maintaining a low leakage for positive pressure segments reduces the loss of conditioned air to a potentially warm and humid ambient environment, causing increased condensation. Condensation can lead to premature corrosion as well as IAQ concerns. The Solution foam injected wall panels help to seal and maintain the leakage at maximum of 1% with a minimum +/-8” of static pressure. Options for a maximum leakage rate of 1/2% at a minimum of +/-10” of static pressure are available for those projects which demand it. Coil carryover, humidiﬁcation, and periodic wash downs are all instances where water is present in the unit. Foam insulated panels will not absorb, and retain water, like a ﬁberglass insulated panel will. In addition the thermal properties of foam are not degraded by an incident where the insulation comes in contact with water. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Energy Savings Factory Installation The energy savings associated with high performing air handler construction is directly associated with leakage and insulating properties. Factory installation improves quality and saves time. While a Solution AHU is being manufactured, Johnson Controls technicians can easily access all its segments. So there are no accessibility problems to cramp the quality of the controls installation, which often occurs on the jobsite. The inﬁltration of unconditioned air downstream of a coil, or the loss of conditioned air downstream of a coil are just two examples of reduced energy efﬁciency in an air handler. The foam injected panel helps to reduce both of these potential losses by creating a more rigid, lower leakage air handling over the life of the unit. Another form of energy loss associated with air handlers is the thermal energy that is lost through the cabinet of the air handler. The Solution foam injected panels lower energy consumption with better insulating properties. With the standard R-12.5 and optional R-18.8, or R-25, the Solution can help to reduce the energy usage. The injected panel provides additional thermal advantages in that the foam will ﬁll voids, and gaps that aren’t reached with ﬁberglass or foam board type constructions. Solution air handler units are capable of being factory tested to prove out both leakage and deﬂection. With the Solution product it’s not all about construction, it’s also about performance. Pre-engineering Packaged Controls Pre-engineering of sensors ensures the most accurate performance. There are great advantages to selecting factory mounted and wired end devices for your Solution air handling units. 1. Factory mounting maintains leakage performance 2. Factory wiring is plug and play 3. Factory testing of each mounted and wired device 4. Factory generated control diagrams speciﬁcally for each unit All sensor probes have been pre-engineered to determine the best mounting location, ensuring accurate and reliable readings. This improves performance of the unit while eliminating unwanted air leakage common in ﬁeld-mounted solutions. Factory engineering speeds ﬁeld connections The goal is to provide you with an AHU that simpliﬁes ﬁeld connection of the controls. For example, coil valves are shipped uninstalled, but pre-wired with quick connects. If an AHU is too large to ship in one piece, you can still count on fast and easy assembly of Metasys controls because labeled quick connects come standard on all shipping splits. Customized variable size openings Solution offers the most comprehensive option for factory provided openings. Custom size, custom location and custom shapes along with custom sized dampers,are designed to lower installation costs and risk while dramatically improving the quality of the application and performance of the air handler. DP FS EE EE FR IP Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Applying VSO Option to Solution Air Handling Units’ - Form 102.20-AG14 JOHNSON CONTROLS 7 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION Airflow Measurement Performance Solution AMS-60 qualiﬁes to bear the AMCA Ratings Seal for Airﬂow Measurement Performance. Ventilation air ﬂow can be controlled dynamically with the Solution AMS-60 which is tested to AMCA Standard 611-95. The Solution AMS-60 continues to be the best integral VIEWED FROM TOP air-ﬂow station offered for air handling units which is incorporated into mixing box and economizer segments to meet the most stringent ASHRAE 90.1 requirements There are 3 damper options to give various measurements of air ﬂow. See FIG. 1. NOTE: Dampers are split vertically 25% 25% 75% 75% 100% FIG. 1 – DAMPER OPTIONS Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AMS60 for use with Solution AHU’ - Form 102.20-AG1 State-of-the-Art Certification & Testing Solution Air Handlers are subject to stringent testing using certiﬁed, comprehensive and industry recognized testing laboratories. Testing is in accordance with ARI Standard 430 which evaluates the performance of the entire unit. This assures that each Certiﬁed Solution unit will indeed perform with certainty and reliability. Solution AHUs have also undergone extensive and rigorous testing to verify conformance with all U.S. and Canadian safety standards, and they bear the ETL Label. Extensive testing includes: • ARI 430 certiﬁed performance • ARI 260 sound data • Full line of ARI 410 certiﬁed coils • ETL listing for product safety per UL 1995 New Sound Testing Laboratory The new AHU laboratory at the Johnson Controls Grantley Park Tech Center includes the capability for sound power measurements on Air Handling Units up to 100,000 CFM in accordance with ARI 260. The facility will also include the capability for testing unit airﬂow in accordance with AMCA 210 to 100,000 CFM. For fan alone testing, the facility will also have AMCA 300 and AMCA 210 accreditation. All of this capability will be available for product development testing and for customer witness testing on critical projects. This facility will allow veriﬁcation and calibration of sound models used for unique features of Solution units, which will increase the accuracy of our predictions and ensure that 8 • ASHRAE 90.1 compliant • ASHRAE 62 compliant coil and drain pan design maximizes indoor air quality • Outstanding thermal capacity proven through independent testing • HEPA ﬁltration system exceeds the most stringent military DOP tests • AMCA 611 certiﬁed airﬂow measurement stations • ISO Quality Certiﬁcation • Seismic certiﬁcate of compliance Labeled Solution units are tested and listed by ETL in accordance with UL 1995, Standard for Safety Heating and Cooling Equipment, and thereby fully complying with NFPA 90A material requirements. our customers will continue to obtain the best available Solution sound data in the marketplace. This facility will be the largest AHU sound test facility in the world. Note that in order for a laboratory to measure ARI 260 sound data, the laboratory must be pure tone qualiﬁed to 50 Hz. This facility will be pure tone qualiﬁed to 50 Hz. Pure tone qualiﬁcation ensures that the test facility is capable of accurately measuring a noise source producing tones – such as a fan. Not qualifying the facility for pure tone response could lead to erroneous results with a tonal noise source. This is why ARI requires pure tone qualiﬁcation of reverberation rooms in the HVAC industry for anything other than VAV boxes. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Quality Construction Equals Improved IAQ Quality construction is a key to a minimum amount of AHU leakage. Leakage is an adversary of indoor air quality. It will depreciate the quality of the supply air by allowing dirty, unﬁltered air to seep into the air-stream downstream of the ﬁlters. states that “The drain pan outlet shall be located at the lowest point(s) of the pan.” Solution units remove the condensate with a multi-sloped drain pan that ensures positive drainage. Our pan design also offers the highest level of accessibility for periodic cleaning, now required by ASHRAE Standard 62. Raceways Raceways are used as the exterior skeletal construction of Solution. • Raceways provide the form and shape as well as structural support for panels, base and internal. • Raceway material is Galvanized To prevent this leakage, the rigid, thermally superior panels of Solution AHUs are matched with a rugged framework to provide an extraordinary casing performance. The maximum allowable air leakage is less than 1% at +/- 8" w.g. and a maximum L/240 deﬂection. The Shell of Solution is made up of double wall panels and doors. • Standard liner material is galvanized • Stainless liners are optional • Perforated aluminum liners are optional The ﬂoor is a double wall construction, with a galvanized steel walk-on surface. • Optional stainless steel • Optional aluminum tread plate Solution is offered with a full-perimeter base-rail with integral lifting lugs. • Optional base-rails • Lifting lugs are provided as necessary for material handling A ‘Curb Rest’ is provided to direct, guide and indicates alignment when setting a unit on the curb. • Galvanized steel strip attached to the raceway or base-rail • ‘Curb Rest’ is not to be considered a ﬂashing receiver for the curb. Multi-Sloped Drain Pans Improve Cost Savings The way to control micro-organisms, which can ﬂourish in drain pans, is to control the moisture of cooling-coil condensate which can remain in the pan during “off” or “heating” cycles. Solution UV-C light options eliminate the potential for a build-up of microbiological agents. Poorly designed drain pans are often breeding grounds for mold and poor IAQ. ASHRAE 62-2001, section 5.11.1 states that drain pans “...shall be sloped at least 1/8" per foot from the horizontal toward the drain outlet whether the fan is in the on or off position.” Section 5.11.2 1. Heat exchangers continue to operate at highefﬁciency levels due to sustainable, like-new, reduced pressure drop. 2. HVAC equipment operates for shorter periods of time saving cost on electricity. 3. Improved IAQ as the ﬁrst line of defense against sick building syndrome. Installation of UV-C lamps promotes a cleaner, healther, more productive work environment. More detailed information on page 57 of this manual. Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution IAQ Series General AHU Construction’ - Form 102.20AG3 JOHNSON CONTROLS 9 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION A Complete Line of Filters A complete line of clean air solutions for industrial plants, hospitals, schools, pharmaceutical process, airports and commercial buildings are available to control or remove airborne contaminants from the air stream. Achieving acceptable indoor air quality is more involved than calculating and applying the appropriate ventilation rate. Speciﬁc AHU performance and other common sense speciﬁcation items, tied to ASHRAE 62.1 recommendations, can help achieve the healthy indoor air quality environment desired. Light pre-ﬁltering duty: Stringent ﬁltration requirements: Odor or VOC removal – pleated – HEPA – Activated carbon – extended surface – Ultra-HEPA – 17 to 18 MERV Higher ﬁltration efﬁcient – 0.3 & 0.1 microns respectively Air puriﬁcation systems High-performance – – 99.97% & 99.99 % effectiveness – Near-HEPA performance Germicidal capability Low-resistance-to-airﬂow (initial pressure drop equal to a low-end pre-ﬁlter). 60% to 95% – 11 to 14 MERV – – rigid & bags – Energy-Saving Fan Options In any AHU, the fan is the largest energy consumer. Solution fans offer a range of energy-saving options through fan types and controls. Economizers (EE) provide an exhaust path for return air, allowing the outdoor air conditions, when suitable, to take advantage of 100% outside air for “free” cooling, allowing the chillers to be turned off a percentage of the time during the cooling season. Return and exhaust fans are available to meet the needs of varying building pressurization requirements. – Light aluminum fan wheels – Direct-drive plenum fans, which eliminate belt-and-pulley energy losses To assure the quietest possible operation, fans and motors are common base isolated from the cabinet. Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution - Reducing AHU Energy Consumption’ - Form 102.20AG13 10 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Energy Consumption Rearranging Equation 1 to solve for duct leakage class: The HVAC industry has taken a leadership role by creating energy-performance guidelines, such as ASHRAE 90.1. Solution AHUs are designed with ASHRAE 90.1 in mind. Eq. 2 In extreme ambient conditions, heat transfer through the casing must be controlled. Solution casing offers maximum thermal performance in the ﬂoors, walls and roof. To prevent energy-robbing air leaks, Solution units are designed for a maximum casing leakage of less than 1%. According to this, regardless of unit size or capacity, this type air-unit is roughly equivalent to a SMACNA leakage class of 18. For every 1% of air leakage at the AHU, 1% more air must be conditioned, and 1% more energy is consumed. Table 1. Comparative Solution Leakage Rates CL = Lmax/P0.65 CL = (0.5 cfm/ft2 x 100 ft2)/50.65 CL = 17.6 Analyzing Solution units is a little more complex than analyzing the other typical unit, since Solution strives for a maximum leakage rate of 1% of the unit design airﬂow at ± 8 in-w.c. That means that the leakage in cfm/100 ft2 of unit casing varies based on the size and capacity of the unit. A 4,000 cfm Solution unit will have a maximum leakage rate of 40 cfm, whether the unit is 8’ long or 10’ long. Therefore, the 10’ long unit will have an inherently lower cfm/100 ft2 leakage rate than the 8’ long unit, as shown in Table 1. Unit CFM: 4000 4000 16000 16000 H (Inches) 36 36 66 66 114 114 W (inches) 54 54 96 96 102 102 32000 32000 Comparing Apples-to-Apples L (inches) 98 124 105 132 125 150 Competitors claim “Air leakage rates between 1/2 and 1 percent” on their AHUs, but they don’t mention at what pressure this performance is achievable, nor do they even specify a leakage rate for the air units. Area (ft2) 150 182 324 385 537 612 1% Leakage (cfm) 40 40 160 160 320 320 Leakage (cfm/ft²) 0.27 0.22 0.49 0.42 0.60 0.52 This typically makes it difﬁcult to analyze their leakage performance by not qualifying it based on air pressure. However, if we reference to SMACNA class 3 air leakage this is a good place to begin our analyses. SMACNA class 3 refers to a standardized method of classifying duct leakage. While this classiﬁcation doesn’t technically apply to AHUs, it is a useful method of comparing the performance claims of different manufacturers. According to SMACNA Duct Leakage Test Procedures (1985), duct leakage is calculated using the equation: Eq. 1 Lmax = CLP0.65 where, Lmax = maximum permitted leakage in cfm/100ft2 duct surface area; CL = duct leakage class, cfm/100ft2 at 1 in-w.c. Using the Solution performance at ± 8 in-w.c. we can use the SMACNA leakage class as a standard comparator. By plugging the values from Table 1 into Equation 2, we ﬁnd the leakage class for the various Solution units as shown in Table 2. Table 2. Solution AHU Leakage Classes Unit CFM: 4000 4000 16000 16000 32000 32000 Leakage (cfm/ft²) 0.27 0.22 0.49 0.42 0.60 0.52 7 6 13 11 15 14 Leakage Class at ± 8 in-w.c Even on large AHUs, the leakage class of a Solution unit is lower than that of most competition. Many design engineers don’t realize this, because when they compare YORK’s performance to others they aren’t comparing apples-to-apples unless the performance is translated into the common language of leakage class. P0.65 = test pressure in in-w.c. Literature Reference — see Application Guide Form 102.20-MG1. See also M-42-06. JOHNSON CONTROLS 11 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION EPAct Efﬁcient Performance Consumption of energy can also be reduced by more efficient motors. Solution AHU motors meet EPAct efﬁcient performance standards for general purpose motors. Standard Solution EPAct efﬁcient and Premiumefﬁciency motors can be speciﬁed and used with frequency control as listed by NEMA Standards Publication MG 1-2006 (Motors and Generators): • MG 1-2006 Part 30 Application Considerations for General Purpose Motors used with Adjustable - Voltage OR Adjustable - Frequency Controls or Both • MG 1-2006 Part 31 Deﬁnite-Purpose Inverter-Fed Poly-phase Motors Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘Solution Air Handling Units AC Induction Motor Data’ Form 102.20-AG15. Energy Saving Air-Modulator™ When the air system is designed for variable-air volume (VAV), Solution offers the most efﬁcient method of VAV fan control with our AirModulator™ drive, which is mounted, wired and tested in our factory. Fans characteristically require much less power as the speed is reduced. With the Air-Modulator™, any reduction in fan speed results in a cubic reduction in fan horsepower. For example, a 10% speed reduction results in a 27% fan horsepower reduction! Air Modulator beneﬁts include: 1. Extended Equipment Life – soft start of motor and fan. 2. Quieter Fan Operation – fan operating at reduced speed and constant line of efﬁciency. 3. Eliminates need for motor starter panels. 4. Improved system control and response – DDC controls with LED digital display. 5. Proven reliability. Typically HVAC systems consume a third of the energy used in commercial buildings. Therefore an energy-efﬁcient HVAC system can represent a signiﬁcant savings in building operating costs. ASHRAE 90.1 provides architects and engineers with guidelines for the design of energy efﬁcient buildings, with the exception of low-rise residential buildings. Literature Reference — See Application Guides ‘ASHRAE 90.1 Guidelines’ – Form 102.20-AG2 & ‘Understanding AHU Casing Leakage’ – Form M-42-06 12 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Sound Attenuation An important component of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is acoustics. There are very few constants when it comes to acoustics, however it is always less expensive to design and install a system correctly the ﬁrst time than it is to make the system quiet after it is installed. The best way to reduce noise is not to create it in the ﬁrst place. ARI 260 requires that the unit be rated across its entire operating range according to the AMCA 300 test method. Johnson Controls/YORK has been and continues to be fully engaged in a rigorous ARI 260 testing program. Solution testing includes a wide variety of fan types, unit sizes and conﬁgurations. As a result, Solution can with assurance say sound power levels are reported in accordance with ARI 260. Solution AHU offers a variety of noise-reducing technologies. Solution AHUs are available with a nearly endless array of fan types, all custom selected for the exacting requirements of your project. Direct drive plenum fans can reduce vibration and drive noise by eliminating the belt-and-pulley mechanism. A range of fan-base construction and isolation techniques are available to help control sound. SOUND ATTENUATION RACEWAY ASY BULKHEAD ASY Source attenuation is the ﬁrst sound-reduction method that should be considered, and is typically least expensive. Since the fan is the primary moving part in an air-handling system, it’s the ﬁrst place to look when reducing noise. What little noise is left can be further reduced with direct methods of sound attenuation. Using perforated soundabsorbing walls as sound traps in the fan and dischargeplenum sections, Johnson Controls/ YORK equipment engineers can help you design units to meet your critical sound requirements. Inertia Base A concrete inertia base, which is inserted between the fan and its supportive structure, can be quickly and economically installed in all Solution unit cabinet sizes. – Inertia fan bases will accommodate both belt driven and direct drive fans – The added mass of the inertia base allows for a softer isolation system and greater isolation efﬁciencies as well as an effective means of dampening mechanical noise. – Concrete ﬁll is furnished by contractor. Application Note - As a rule of thumb the inertia base should be used when: • Class II & III fans with 40” diameter wheel or larger • All centrifugal fans driven by motors of 75HP or larger JOHNSON CONTROLS 13 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GENERAL INFORMATION Quick Selection The Quick Selection Guide for the Solution AHU was developed and intended to aid the Consulting Engineer, Architect, Design/Build Contractor, and Equipment /Controls Engineer in establishing overall estimates for (minimally) footprint dimensions, unit weight, & max motor horsepower. Contents consist of: – Applications, Features & Beneﬁts – Instructions – Data – Notes – Reference Formulas and Conversions Literature Reference — See Quick Select Tool – Solution Slide Chart – Form 102.20-SC1 14 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) FAN APPLICATION REVIEW Fan Laws (Recommended Accepted Practice) The fan laws are used to calculate performance characteristics; fan speed (RPM), fan air capacity (CFM), static pressure (SP) and brake horsepower (BHP) of a particular fan at conditions other than those at which the data was taken. By using the fan laws in conjunction with a fan curve, the fan performance can be calculated accurately at various operating conditions. Every fan has its own unique fan curve. FIG. 2 shows a fan curve at various RPMs. The system resistance curve relates the total pressure loss in an air handling system to the ﬂow rate of air through the system. The system curve is unique to each system because it expresses the pressure losses associated with the system. (AHU cabinet, coils, ﬁlters, supply and return ductwork, grilles and diffusers).The SP and CFM values are used to create the system curve for the particular system. FIG. 3 represents a fan curve with 2 system curves identiﬁed. System curves will always have a square function slope (parabola) because the SP varies as a square of the CFM. The point where the system curve intersects the RPM curve is the operating point of the fan (point A). If the system resistance changes (i.e., dirty ﬁlters or change in ductwork), the operating point will move along the RPM curve to a different operating point and therefore, new system curve (point B). With a ﬁxed system, the effects of change in RPM, air density of BHP can be calculated and plotted on the system curve by using the following fan laws: • The CFM varies directly with the RPM: CFM2 = CFM1 x l m RPM2 RPM1 • The SP varies as a square of the RPM: SP2 = l m RPM2 SP1 x 2 RPM1 PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE 75 9 MA • The BHP varies as a cube of the RPM: X. HP 00 RPM2 BHP2 = BHP1 x H 60 HP P 30 11 00 HP RP M 5 900 RP 20 3 10 HP 7.5 H P 2 • The SP and BHP are directly proportional to the air density: HP M 4 1 10 70 0R PM HP HP SP2 = SP1 x 50 0R l 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 AIRFLOW – CFM (100) FIG. 2 – CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE 9 1300 1500 8 75 MAX. HP 7 1100 60 6 B 5 BHP2 = BHP1 x m Density2 Density1 PM l l m m l m Density2 Density1 RPM2 x 2 RPM1 x RPM2 3 RPM1 The fan laws can only be used to project performance along a speciﬁc system curve. Referencing FIG. 3, Point A can be used to project the performance of Point C and similarly, Point B can be used to project the performance of Point D. Point A cannot be used to predict any other point on the RPM curve, it can only project performance on the system curve created by Point A. 50 40 900 30 4 25 A 20 D st em 2 3 700 Sy STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG) 3 RPM1 6 25 STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG) 40 M M RP RP 7 l m 15 HP 00 50 13 8 15 2 m 1 ste Sy 500 10 1 7.5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 AIRFLOW – CFM (100) FIG. 3 – FAN CURVE WITH TWO SYSTEM CURVES JOHNSON CONTROLS 15 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) FAN APPLICATION REVIEW Variable Air Volume A common mistake when selecting a fan with variable air volume is to assume a fan with VAV will follow a constant design system curve (passing through the point 0 CFM and 0 TSP) to maintain control. VAV systems do not have a constant system line, but rather a range of operating points necessary to satisfy the building requirements. In VAV systems, the operating point will continue to move based on the air modulation and as the CFM and SP change, the fan is modulated to match the new requirements, developing its own system curve. This modulation is accomplished by using inlet vanes, variable speed drives or discharge dampers. Before ﬁnalizing the fan selection, plot the new VAV system curve to conﬁrm the modulation range required does not enter into the instability range of operation. Select the most efﬁcient fan that can deliver both the design and minimum CFM requirements. If the initial selection does not provide sufﬁcient “turn down”, select the next smallest fan and re-plot the VAV system for the smaller fan and re-evaluate. Typically, the largest fan that can supply the required modulation is the most efﬁcient. Each application should be considered individually and evaluated to be sure the fan will not be forced into the unstable region at modulated condition. For variable speed drive (VSD) applications, the fan drive assembly is selected to operate approximately in the middle of the VSD’s range. When selecting a fan to be used with a VSD, if the RPM is close to or approaching the Class I limit, select the Class II fan. Selection of a Class I fan may result in premature bearing failure. Example Calculate the minimum CFM and at least 2 arbitrary points which fall within the stable operating range of the curve (using equations below) and plot these points along with the design points to create the new VAV system. (See FIG. 4.) Design CFM = 40,000 CFM = CFMd Design TSP = 4.5 in WG = SPd Static Pressure Control Point = 1.25 in WG = SPd 1st: Calculate the Minimum CFM: SPS Min CFM = CFMd x SP1 x l m CFMd CFM1 = 2 + SPS – SPd 1.25 40,000 x 3 x = 10,517 l m 2 40,000 + 1.25 – 4.5 15,000 where: CFM1, SP1 = arbitrary point located on surge line Min CFM = 10,517 2nd: Calculate the Arbitrary Points: 30,000 CFM where: CFM2 = 30,000 CFM2 2 SP2 = x (SPd – SPs) + SPs CFMd SP2 = l m l m 30,000 40,000 2 x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25 SP2 = 3.1 16 20,000 CFM where: CFM3 = 20,000 CFM3 SP3 = CFMd SP3 = l m l m 20,000 40,000 2 x (SPd – SPs) + SPs 2 x (4.5 – 1.25) + 1.25 SP3 = 2.1 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) PEAK EFFICIENCY LINE 9 00 00 13 15 8 PM M RP R 7 RPM 75 P .H AX M 5 t. 300 RPM HP HP 60 10 De HP 3 HP nP sig HP HP 20 30 50 4 25 40 STATIC PRESS. – (IN. WG) 1100 6 HP 2 Static Pressure Control Point 1 MODULATION RANGE Minimum CFM 50 100 150 200 Design CFM 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 AIRFLOW – CFM (100) FIG. 4 – FAN CURVE AT VARIOUS RPMs Solution Component Temperature Margins • Pre-ﬁlters - 150°F. • Standard motors (Class B Insulation) -104°F. • High Efﬁciency Filters - 200°F. • Motors with Class F Insulation -140°F. • Fan Bearings - 120°F (FC), 180°F (AF) • Power Wiring - 140°F. • Gasketing - 200°F • Controls & Control Wiring - 140°F. • Foam - Flash Point: 415°F (213°C) Fan Motor Heat (MBH) HEAT Horsepower 5 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 Fan Motor 2.8 3.6 4.4 6.2 7.5 8.7 9.4 13.0 16.0 19.0 21.0 25.0 Fan 12.7 19.1 24.5 38.2 51.0 63.6 76.3 102.0 127.0 153.0 191.0 254.0 Fan & Fan Motor 15.5 22.7 28.9 44.4 58.5 72.3 85.7 115.0 143.0 172.0 212.0 279.0 JOHNSON CONTROLS 17 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) COIL OPTIONS Flexibility and Performance illustrate the variety of coils which are available to meet every application. These carefully engineered coils are designed for an optimum balance between air pressure drop and heat transfer coefﬁcient, to allow the maximum amount of cooling or heating capacity without the added expense of high air-pressure drops. The coil designs are subjected to constant extensive evaluation studies comparing different ﬁn corrugations with various tube arrangements. The Johnson Controls/YORK Equipment Engineer in your area will welcome the opportunity to assist you with your coil applications. Coil Performance is certiﬁed in accordance with ARI Standard 410. Cooling Coils – Water and Direct Expansion Direct expansion (DX) 1/4" FPT PLUGGED VENT FITTING Chilled water / Hot water RETURN SUPPLY SUPPLY RETURN Solution optimizes coil performance with customized coil options. Solution coils are offered in a wide variety of types, sizes, arrangements and materials. Coil software optimizes capacity and pressure drop requirements. AHU Chilled water cooling coil • Available in CC, VC, MZ segments AHU Hot water heating coil • Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments AHU (DX) Direct Expansion cooling coil • Available in CC, VC, MZ segments Notes & Options Hand of Unit determines connection side of coil. See page 21. Header material: • Copper • Red Brass Connector material: • Red brass • Steel Connection Type: • MPT • Grooved Fin type: • 5/8” tube: Sine or Flat • 1/2” tube: Sine corrugated only Fin Spacing: • A vast range of ﬁns per inch available Fin Coatings: (Coatings reduce max face velocities) • Electro-ﬁn • Phenolic Coil Casing: • Galvanized • Stainless Steel Choice of heat transfer medium: • Water, Glycol (Ethylene glycol coils are ARI certiﬁed) • DX – (a variety of refrigerants to choose from) Fin Material & Thickness: • Aluminum - 0.006”, 0.008”, 0.010” • Copper - 0.006” 18 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Heating Coils – Integral face and bypass Integral face and bypass coils have alternating channels of heat transfer surface and bypass zones. The air ﬂow is directed over the heat transfer surface or through the by-pass zone by modulating dampers that are integral with the coil construction. Steam or Hot Water Integral face and bypass coil (IFB/VIFB) • Coils are available in the ‘IC’ segment • Tubes either Vertical or Horizontal • Coils for maximum freeze protection INTEGRAL FACE & BYPASS (IFB) COIL • Hot water or Steam coils • Multiple rows deep Notes & Options Coil Style: • IFB • VIFB Coil Type: • Water (Glycol) • Steam Rows: • 1,2,3,4 Connection: • SCH 40 pipe Thermostat: • None • Electric Fin Material: • Aluminum Fin Spacing: • A range of ﬁns per inch available Coil Casing: • Galvanized Heating Coils – Steam Distributing The construction of a Steam Distributing Coil is entirely different than that of a Standard Steam. Everyplace that you see an outside tube or header, there is an inside tube and header that you can’t see. Steam is distributed through these inside tubes and headers and slowly released to the outside tubes as the steam turns to condensate. The condensate then ﬂows back down the outside tubes in the same direction that the entering steam comes from. The idea is that all the steam in the inside tubes keeps the condensate in the outside tubes from freezing when air passes across the coil at less than 32ºF. However, under exactly the correct conditions, even steam distributing coils can freeze. JOHNSON CONTROLS Steam Distributing - 1” diameter tube • Available in CC, VC, HC, MZ segments • A vast range of ﬁns per inch available • Multiple tube wall thickness options Steam 19 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) COIL OPTIONS Typical Application of Air Handling Coils Heating Coils Heating coils can use steam or hot water to add heat to the air stream. In a cooling-only VAV system, the heating coil is generally placed in the ‘preheat’ position between the ﬁlters and cooling coil. The preheat coil can be omitted in this system if the minimum outside air requirement is low and would not result in a mixed air temperature below 50ºF to 55ºF. Heating coil capacity is controlled by means of a modulating control valve in the water or steam piping. The control valve position is usually controlled by means of a thermostat in the supply air duct in sequence with the cooling coil control valve. solenoid valves in the refrigerant liquid lines, which are energized to shut-off the ﬂow of refrigerant to part of the coil. There are several problems with the application of VAV to a direct expansion (DX) coil which require the designer to take special precautions when considering this system. First, the balance point temperature for the DX coil will change as the air ﬂow rate changes. Assuming constant coil capacity, reducing the CFM will reduce the suction temperature and pressure, making close control of air temperature difﬁcult. In addition, compressor unloading at reduced load will cause step changes in capacity and suction temperature, which can cause hunting in the ﬂow control loop. In short, the use of variable air ﬂows with a DX coil requires careful consideration of the effect air ﬂow changes make to the system. Balance point temperatures must be carefully considered. Cooling Coils Cooling coils remove both sensible and latent heat from the mixed air and can use chilled water, chilled brine, or refrigerant as the cooling source. In the case of chilled water, the supply water temperature generally ranges from 42ºF to 50ºF, depending on the latent load to be removed. Brine or a solution of ethylene or propylene glycol in water is traditionally used at temperatures of 32ºF to 40ºF for applications in which piping is exposed to freezing temperatures. Control of the cooling coil capacity at the air-handling unit is achieved by means of a two-way ‘throttling’ or three-way ‘mixing’ control valve. In VAV systems, a supply duct thermostat is typically used to modulate the control valve so as to maintain a constant temperature of air leaving the unit, usually 55ºF to 60ºF. When refrigerant is used as the cooling source, it enters the coil in liquid form from a condensing unit and provides cooling by a process called ‘direct expansion’. The liquid refrigerant evaporates as the warmer air moves across the coil, removing heat from the air during the process. The evaporated refrigerant is then compressed in the condensing unit, which also houses the condensing coil where the heat is rejected to the outside. Control of the coil capacity is typically by means of a series of Design Considerations In order to insure predicted coil performance, air distribution must be uniform. There are two design checks for this: 1. ‘45 degree rule’ – This rule states that the performance of the coil will not be affected as long as the diffusion angle from the most restrictive block-off to the ﬁnned portion of the coil is 45 degrees or less. This rule holds true unless there are unusual ﬂow ﬁelds, caused by such components as upstream fans or mixing boxes where not applied properly. 2. ‘Uniform pressure rule’ – This rule states that the performance of the coil will not be affected as long as the maximum difference in upstream, downstream, and combined static pressure due to local velocity pressure at any one point on the coil compared to another point that does not exceed 10 percent of the pressure drop through the coil. The basis for this rule is that the ﬂow rate through the coils at any one point is a function of the local upstream and downstream pressures, and if pressure differences are small, distribution will be uniform. Literature Reference — See “DX Piping Guide” – Form 050.40-ES2 20 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) SOLUTION SEGMENT IDENTIFICATION FAN SEGMENTS • FS – Supply • Forward Curved • Airfoil • Industrial Airfoil • SWSI Plenum (Belt and Direct Drive) • FR – Return • Forward Curved • Airfoil • Industrial Airfoil • SWSI Plenum (Belt and Direct Drive) • FE – Exhaust • Forward Curved • Airfoil • Industrial Airfoil HEAT SEGMENTS • IC – Integral Face & Bypass Coil • IG – Indirect Gas Fired Furnace • EH – Electric Heater ENERGY RECOVERY • ER – Energy Recovery FILTER SEGMENTS • FF – Flat Filter (2” or 4”) • AF – Angle Filter (2” & 4”) • RF – High Efﬁciency Filter • Rigid Filter (12”) • Bag Filter (21”) • Mini-Pleat Filter (4”) • HF – HEPA Filter ACCESSORY SEGMENTS • VP – Vertical Plenum • DP – Discharge Plenum • TN – Turning Plenum • DI – Diffuser • XA – Access segment • AB- Air Blender • EB – External Bypass • IB – Internal Bypass • FD – Face Damper • AT – Attenuator • HM - Humidiﬁer • UV - UVC Lamps INLET SEGMENTS • MB – Mixing Box • FM – Filter/Mixing Box • EF – Filter/Economizer • EE – Economizer • IP – Inlet Plenum • VE – Vertical Economizer • VF – Vertical Filter/Economizer COIL SEGMENTS • CC – Cooling Coil • HC – Heating Coil • VC – Vertical Coil • MZ - Multizone Unit & Coil Hand Identification FAN SECTION RIGHT REAR RIGHT HAND (RH) COIL CONNECTION LEFT HAND (LH) COIL CONNECTION RETURN AIR LEFT OUTSIDE AIR INLET SECTION DRIVE HAND AND COIL HAND DETERMINED BY FACING THE INLET SECTION JOHNSON CONTROLS FRONT 21 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) SINGLE FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE Fan Applications Fan segments are available as supply, return and or exhaust applications. Unit conﬁgurations have a segment option of utilizing a single fan or a dual fan arrangement. Isolation consists of 1" or 2" springs with a seismic snubber option. Thrust restraints and OSHA belt guards are available as required. Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI) • Forward Curve or Airfoil centrifugal • Belt Driven Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI) • Airfoil plenum • Belt Drive or Direct Drive Bearing options for fans with lubricating bearings: (refer to Notes & Options) • Extended Lube Line • External Lube Line In most fan systems a segment with a single fan is adequate for the required system design and rating. Methods of control can vary and may include dampers or variable speed drives. Also included in a single fan design may be the allowance for future expansions. In some situations, there may be a need for a system design using multiple fans in a cabinet. The following are some reasons to consider a dual fan arrangement: Dual Fan Considerations 1. One fan may be too large and not ﬁt into the desired space, or it may weigh too much if supported on upper levels. 2. The required operating range of the system may necessitate multiple fans instead of one large fan controlled over a wide operating range. 4. Critical systems are often equipped with redundant or back-up fans in case of a ﬁre or accident or some other emergency that requires a sudden increase in ﬂow. Redundant fans are also used to eliminate downtime during fan maintenance. 5. Some systems for process applications may require pressures that are greater than a single fan can produce or when noise may be a special concern. 3. Multiple fans for capacity control may be more economical if cost of operation is critical, especially at very low ﬂow rates for long time intervals. Dual Fan Applications Solution dual fan application methods include 50/50 where both fans operate together to share the load equally or 100/100 where only one fan at a time is in operation. • In a 50/50 application, the failure of one fan will result in a condition where the other fan will continue to operate. The single fan will provide partial load capabilities • In a 100/100 application, the failure of one fan will result in the operation of the other (standby) fan to provide full capacity Literature Reference — see Application Guide ‘AHU Dual Fan Options’ - Form 102.20-AG17 22 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Door and Discharge Locations Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan segment. Consideration must be given to which orientation is used where. Upstream/downstream usage follow. Where Doors are used: Rear/rear-inverted discharge – Upstream Top/bottom discharge – Downstream Front/front inverted discharge – Downstream Top-inverted/bottom-inverted discharge – Upstream FRONT (F) REAR (R) TOP (T) BOTTOM (B) HINGES DOOR HINGES FRONT INVERTED (FI) REAR INVERTED (RI) HINGES HINGES DOOR DOOR DOOR TOP INVERTED (TI) BOTTOM INVERTD (BI) HINGES HINGES DOOR HINGES HINGES DOOR DOOR DOOR AIRFLOW JOHNSON CONTROLS 23 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) SINGLE FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI) Options – Belt Drive Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan segments as shown. Consideration must be given to which orientation is used where. Upstream/downstream images shown below. Motor Beside Motor Behind Notes & Options (DWDI) 1. If a discharge plenum is immediately downstream of a fan section and the discharge plenum has a top discharge, the fan section will be rear inverted discharge. 2. If the discharge plenum has a rear, side or bottom discharge, the fan will be rear discharge. 3. When a diffuser is ordered immediately downstream of a fan section, the fan will be rear or rear inverted discharge. Fan type available • Forward Curve centrifugal • Airfoil centrifugal Class I (S) construction • Permanently sealed bearings • Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 18x18 (Forward Curve) 4. Door width is sized to remove max HP motor with connection box removed. Class 1 Construction NOTE: Doors follow motor location. See door locations illustration on page 23. Class II construction • Lubricating bearings • Fan sizes: 20x15 thru 40x40 • Lubricating bearings • Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 40x40 Thrust restraints are optional for rear and front discharge airfoil fans only. 24 • Not available for FC fans. • Required for AF with TSP over 6” JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI) Options Fan and fan motor may be oriented in the fan segments as shown. Consideration must be given to which orientation is used where. Upstream/downstream images shown below. Belt Drive Direct Drive Notes & Options (SWSI) 1. The plenum fan segments can accommodate multiple duct outlets, thus reducing the amount of ﬁeld duct work and transitions. 3. Fan discharge locations - rear, front, bottom, top, left and right. 2. When any ﬁlter segment (EF, FM, FF, AF, RF, or HF) or coil segment (CC or HC) is located upstream of a FS-SWSI, FR-SWSI or FE-SWSI, sufﬁcient transition length will be required between the FS segment and the ﬁlter segment. 5. Thrust restraints are required with TSP over 3”. JOHNSON CONTROLS 4. Single Width, Single-Inlet (SWSI) air foil plenum fans are available as Class I, II & III. (with lubricating bearings) 25 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) DUAL FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE Double-width/Double-inlet (DWDI) Options – Belt Drive Fan type available: • Forward Curve centrifugal • Airfoil centrifugal Class I (S) construction • Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 18x18 (Forward Curve) Class 1 construction • Fan sizes: 20x15 thru 22x22 Motor Behind Class II construction • Fan sizes: 7x7 thru 22x22 DWDI motor location – Behind only Notes & Options Access doors are provided on both sides of the segment. • Allow sufﬁcient access-to and clearance-around the segment for motor removal from either side. Separation Panel Option • DWDI option is mounted on fan discharge. • Note: Not available with fan exhaust (FE) • Option is required with 100 %/100 % method. Options include (depending on type of fan): Optional safeguard when servicing requires that the system be in a running status. A separation panel is positioned between the fans. 1. Manual sliding panel 2. Back-draft damper with counter balance 3. Mechanical Control damper Flow Isolation Options • • Optional isolation method to prevent air from an energized fan going back through a fan that is not energized. DUAL FAN WITH DISCHARGE DAMPERS DUAL FAN WITH SLIDING PANEL DUAL FAN WITH NO DAMPER DAMPER FS OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL SLIDING WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DAMPER DAMPER FR OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL SLIDING WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DAMPER NOTES: FE 26 1. DAMPER OPTIONS ARE ONLY AVAILABLE FOR FRONT/FRONT INVERTED/ REAR/REAR INVERTED DISCHARGE. OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DIRECTION OF AIRFLOW 2. DAMPERS OPTIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FOR TOP/TOP INVERTED/ BOTTOM/BOTTOM INVERTED DISCHARGE. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Single-width/Single-inlet (SWSI) Options – Belt-Drive or Direct Drive Fan type available: • Standard Airfoil (AF) 10" – 30" • *Industrial Airfoil (AF) 12" – 30" • Class I, II, *III SWSI motor location: • 10" to 16" fans - behind motor only • 18" to 30" fans -top motor only • Fans with top motor location will require thrust restraint Notes & Options Access doors are provided on both sides of the segment. • Allow sufﬁcient access-to and clearance-around the segment for motor removal from either side. Separation Panel Option • SWSI option is mounted on fan inlet. • Note: Not available with fan exhaust (FE) • Option is required with 100 %/100 % method. Options include (depending on type of fan): Optional safeguard when servicing requires that the system be in a running status. A separation panel is positioned between the fans. 1. Manual sliding panel 2. Back-draft damper with counter balance 3. Mechanical Control damper Flow Isolation Options • • Optional isolation method to prevent air from an energized fan going back through a fan that is not energized. DUAL FAN WITH SLIDING PANEL DUAL FAN WITH NO DAMPER DUAL FAN WITH INLET DAMPERS DAMPER FS OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL SLIDING WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DAMPER OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL FR OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL SLIDING WALL OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DAMPER INLET DAMPER 1 WHEEL DIAMETER FE JOHNSON CONTROLS OPTIONAL ISOLATION WALL DIRECTION OF AIRFLOW 27 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) FAN SEGMENT – FS, FR AND FE SWSI Plenum vs. DWDI Housed Fan Application Velocity Proﬁle: SWSI Plenum airfoil fans offer superior performance for many applications. Typical concerns with fan performance are efﬁciency, noise, and air velocity proﬁle through components. Plenum fans offer advantages for all three concerns. Additionally, these fans provide ﬂexibility with outlet conﬁgurations, reduced mechanical space footprint, and the beneﬁt of direct-drive. Due to the relatively small outlet/blast area of housed DWDI fans, an air diffuser must be applied to the discharge of the fan to obtain an acceptable velocity proﬁle through the next component. Air diffusers add static pressure which decreases fan efﬁciency and increases fan noise levels. SWSI plenum fans positively pressurize the entire cabinet, they do not require a diffuser with its associated performance losses. Efﬁciency: DWDI housed fans use a scroll to increase their efﬁciency. However, optimizing this fan requires a process referred to as “static regain”. Housed fans are tested with an outlet duct of 2.5 to 3.5 times the wheel diameter in length. This outlet duct allows the “static regain” process, where velocity pressure is converted to static pressure. Housed fans applied without this outlet duct will require a system effect factor (SEF) which decreases the fan efﬁciency. Housed fans in blow-through positions will also require an air diffuser which decreases the efﬁciency further. The combination of these two system effects brings even the best housed DWDI airfoil fan efficiency to, or below that, of the SWSI plenum fan, thereby eliminating the benefit of the fan scroll. Noise: Plenum fans have the benefit of effectively utilizing the entire unit as the fan housing, which offers superior attenuation. The same factors that decrease the housed fan’s efﬁciency discussed above also increase the noise level of the housed fan. Also, since the SWSI plenum fan has no scroll, typically there is room within the air handling unit for a larger wheel (33” SWSI plenum vs. 27” DWDI housed, for example), which generally produces better sound characteristics. For design pressures at or below 6.00 in. W.C., it is very common to see supply air sound power levels lower when using a SWSI plenum airfoil fan instead of the DWDI housed airfoil fan. Additionally, perforated liners may be used in plenum fan sections for greater attenuation. 28 Outlet Flexibility: SWSI Plenum fans serve to pressure the entire fan plenum, allowing for multiple duct take-off from the AHU. Additionally, these openings can be tailored to match virtually any duct conﬁguration, be it rectangular or round / ﬂat-oval with bellmouth ﬁttings for improved acoustic and optimized pressure drop performance. Mechanical Space Optimization: A housed DWDI fan requires a straight run of duct per AMCA guidelines at the outlet of the fan before elbows can be applied. This constraint imposes restrictions on duct layout and mechanical space design which generally increase overall footprint requirements. The ducted take-offs from pressurized plenums, as in the case of a SWSI plenum fan, does not have a requirement for a straight run and affords greater flexibility to the architect and engineer in ductwork design. Direct-Drive Beneﬁt: Specialty housed DWDI fans can be used in direct-drive arrangements, where the fan wheel is directly mounted onto the motor shaft, most-typically, housed fans are driven by a belt and sheave system. Belt-drive systems typically allow for 3-5% of efﬁciency loss and impose maintenance requirements not present in direct-drive systems. Additionally, belts wear and give off debris in the form of belt dust. Anymore, discerning engineer’s apply direct-driven SWSI plenum fans with VFD’s for efﬁcient variable air volume duty and trouble-free maintenance. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Fan Motor Control Methods Motor control options can be explained as any one of the 3 items described below. Disconnect • Low Cost This is a device for the source of power (line voltage as provided through the building electrical utility) from the controlled device (motor). • Constant Volume Across-the-line Starter • Higher Cost Motor Controller will provide a start / stop operation of a motor. An integral disconnect (shall incorporate a “lockout/tag-out” system) shall provide disconnecting of “line side” power from the electrical utility system. • Constant Volume • No BAS control needed • Start/Stop controlled remotely • Thermal Overload Protection • Under/over Voltage Relay • Disconnect Option - Fused only The motor controller will also contain the proper short circuit and thermal overload protection for the motor that it is controlling. Indoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R Indoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575 Outdoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R Outdoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575 Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) • Highest Cost The Air-Modulator type controller varies speed of the motor by pulse width modulation of the alternating current waveform. • Variable Volume An integral disconnect (incorporates a “lockout/tagout” system) provides disconnecting of “line side” power from the electrical utility system. • Start/Stop controlled remotely • Integrated basic unitary controller (can also integrate with BAS) • Comprehensive Protection • Disconnect Options -Fused, Non-fused, or None Indoor Enclosure - NEMA 1 This motor controller will also contain the proper short circuit and thermal overload protection for the motor that it is controlling. Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 460 Outdoor Enclosure - NEMA 3R Outdoor Voltages - 200, 208, 230, 380, 460, 575 Literature Reference — See Engineering Guide – ‘Air Modulators’ – Form 100.42-EG1 JOHNSON CONTROLS 29 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) COIL SEGMENT – CC, HC AND VC Cooling Coil – (CC) When cooling 100% OA there are precautions required. Summer design conditions are such that when air is cooled down to normal coil leaving temperatures, there is a considerable amount of condensate generated. Many applications suggest cooling coils should be selected for an air velocity under 500 FPM. If the unit is selected as a 100% OA application, the drainage area for larger face area coils will be increased to properly compensate for the probable condensate. Notes & Options Door Coils • A combination of Water and DX coils in the same segment requires all coils to be of the same tube diameter. • Multiple Water coils conﬁgured in the same segment must be of the same tube diameter. • Steam coils may be conﬁgured with 5/8” tube coils. A spacer must be used between a steam coil and any water coil or DX coil. • Usual door location is drive side • With pipe chase, the door is always opposite the pipe chase IAQ drain pans material options: Liner – Galvanized or Stainless Steel Headers • Usual header location is drive side. • All headers in the same segment must exit the unit on the same side. Heating Coil – (HC) When heating only is required the heating coil segment is an excellent minimally sized housing which shall accommodate a single heating coil. Coils are offered with left or right hand connections. Coils will be individually mounted and easily removable. Coil segment panels (side panels and top panel) shall be easily removable to allow for removal and replacement of coils, without affecting the structural integrity of the unit. Notes & Options Coils • • Doors Only hot water and steam coils are available in the HC segment. Only one coil (hot water or steam) is permitted per segment. Headers • Usual header location is on the drive side. • Doors are not available. Drain pans • Auxiliary drain pan is optional. • Usual drain location is header side. • The drain is always opposite the pipe chase. Literature Reference — See Service Guide – ‘Field Assembly ad Disassembly Indoor/Outdoor’ – Form 102.20-FA1 & Installation Manual Form 102.20-NOM1 30 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Vertical Coil – (VC) SIDE VIEW This segment shall provide for a 90-degree change in airﬂow direction from horizontal to vertical, after passing air through the coil space. FS FAN SEGMENT Coils are conﬁgured for horizontal air ﬂow to minimize segment length. Drains pans are extended to assure complete condensate drainage and coil access. Coil segment panels (side panels) shall be easily removable to allow for removal and replacement of coils, without affecting the structural integrity of the unit. VC SEGMENT AIRFLOW LEFT HAND SHOWN RIGHT HAND OPPOSITE CONDENSATE DRAIN CONNECTION 1 1/4" MPT Notes & Options Doors Coils All coils located in the same coil segment must have the same coil hand. • Usual door location is on the drive side. • Doors are always last in the air stream of the segment • Multiple Water coils conﬁgured in the same segment must be of the same tube diameter. • With pipe chase, the door is always opposite the pipe chase • A combination of Water and DX coils in the same segment requires all coils to be of the same tube diameter. • The steam coil is available for use in the VC segment. Steam coils may be conﬁgured with 5/8” tube coils. A spacer must be used between a steam coil and any water coil or DX coil. • Drain pans • IAQ drain pan liner - Galvanized or Stainless Steel • Usual drain location is on header side • With pipe chase, the drain is always opposite the pipe chase Headers • Usual header location is on the drive side. • All headers in the same segment must exit the unit on the same side. JOHNSON CONTROLS 31 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) STAGGERED COIL OPTION – CC, HC, AND VC Staggered Coil conﬁgurations are available as an option for both the indoor and outdoor Solution® units. Angled Wall or Back-to-Back conﬁgurations are available in both heating and cooling coil segments. Angle Wall Staggered coil design increases coil face area and allows increased CFM without having to increase cabinet size. Notes & Options Coils follows the ”primary” side of the unit. • A staggered coil can not be combined with a non-staggered coil in the same segment. • Each coil bank will be located over a drain pan. • Not available as a reduced face coil option. Controls • Optional control valve and valve jack (manifolded together external of unit). Headers • Coil connections can be on the same side or opposite sides. • Optional factory extended piping connections for each coil to the exterior of the unit. • Optional insulation for extended piping. • Extended piping does not apply to DX coils. Drain pans • Pan connection hand follows coil hand except for outside units where the drain connection is opposite the coil hand. • If coil connections are on both sides, the drain pan connection Back-to-Back Staggered coil design is speciﬁcally for a reduced coil pull distance and for opposite side connections. Two shorter coils will be used in place of one longer coil. Notes & Options Coils • • 32 Drain pans A staggered coil can not be combined with a non-staggered coil in the same segment. Not available as a reduced face coil option. • The drain pan connection follows the ”primary” side of the unit. Headers • Coil connections can be on the same side or opposite sides. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Multi-zone Segment – (MZ) HOT DECK DAMPER (FULL WIDTH) MZ heating and air conditioning units offer design and application advantages over various smaller single zone units. The Solution unit is designed to carry on that tradition by including a MZ segment into the design of the unit. MZ and Dual Deck air-handling units can be conﬁgured for heating and cooling, or cooling and ventilation, or ventilation and heating applications. HOT DECK CC (COLD DECK) XA DI DWDI < AIR FLOW -ORSWSI < AIR FLOW COLD DECK DAMPER (FULL WIDTH) Rear or Top discharge MZ conﬁgurations: • The bottom tier is the cold deck and contains a diffuser and a cooling coil space. • The top tier is the hot deck and contains a heating coil mounted horizontally at the upstream side of the hot deck. Air enters the diffuser then splits into two streams. • One stream turns up through the hot deck coil and exits the rear or top through the hot deck damper. • The other stream continues horizontally through the cooling coil and exits the rear or top through the cold deck damper. The MZ unit is optionally available less the zone dampers for use on dual duct or other blow-thru systems. If a hot deck opening is not required, it may be blanked-off in the ﬁeld. Notes & Options The MZ segment is for indoor applications only and will be the last segment in air-stream. Air pressure drop balance plates shall be used to equalize pressure drop across the hot and cold deck coils when required. Discharge options: • Top with damper or without damper • Rear with damper or without damper Door is optional for cold deck. Literature Reference — See Application Guide – ‘Multizone Application of Solution Units’ – Form 102.20-AG12 JOHNSON CONTROLS 33 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) HEATING SEGMENTS Integral Face & Bypass – (IC) Applications ideally suited for: The Integral Face & Bypass coil controls air temperature while full steam pressure or water ﬂow is maintained in the coil at all times. The temperature of the discharge air is controlled by proportioning the entering air through the multiple heating and by pass channels. 1. Make-up Air 2. Combustion Air Make-up 3. Penthouse units 4. Air conditioning preheat and heating/ventilating units. IFB RACEWAY WIREWAY AIRFLOW LEFT HAND SHOWN RIGHT HAND OPPOSITE Features & Beneﬁts: VIFB COIL CONECTIONS IFB COIL CONNECTIONS • Maximum freeze protection • Constant volume J L • Minimum temperature override K LE • Minimum stratiﬁcation VIFB • Accurate temperature control Notes & Options 1. Coil connections must be located opposite the access door. Doors: 2. All piping to be supplied by ﬁeld, coil connections are internal from factory. Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments. 3. Optional pipe chase with outdoor units A door is required in the immediate downstream segment from the IC segment. 4. Pipe chase is not intended for trapping or piping, but for the connections only. Headers: Usual header location is on the drive side. Header location must be opposite the access door. Coils: Only hot water and steam applications are available for this segment. 34 Auxiliary Drain pans: An auxiliary drain pan is optional. Usual drain location: • With pipe chase, the drain is always opposite the pipe chase • IFB on header side • VIFB on left side of the unit JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace – (IG) HEAT EX. CONTROL PANEL DOOR I.D. FAN Notes & Options The IG segment must be positive pressure. (Fan segment is not allowed downstream of the IG Segment.) Furnaces in VAV applications are designed to be used only with 100% supply fan airﬂow. Furnace includes a series stainless steel primary heat exchanger. A secondary stainless steel heat exchanger is also included. – An access door is required upstream of any IG segment. – Gas pipe train options are available – Use of furnace in reduced airﬂow operation may result in serious damage to equipment and may be hazardous. The IG segment pipe chase is a single pipe chase that covers only the IG segment. – Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace Maximum Temperature rise = 90F – Indirect Gas-Fired Furnace Maximum A.P.D. = 2.00” W.C. – The pipe chase is not intended for trapping or piping, but for the connections only. – The Maximum Temperature at the IG segment discharge = 190F – Pipe chase enclosure is optional for indoor units and required for Outdoor units. JOHNSON CONTROLS 35 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) HEATING SEGMENTS Turndown Examples and Guidelines – (IG) Choosing Considerations Description When choosing the proper turn down three issues should be considered. Indirect Fired Gas Heater section consists of the stainless steel primary and secondary heat exchanger with the power burner design. The basic design allows the power burner to inject the correct ratio of air and gas into the primary heat exchanger where the main combustion occurs. The heated products of combustion then pass through the multiple secondary tubes heating each tube for maximum heat transfer. The products of combustion then pass to the inducer draft fan and through the ﬂue. The air is heated by passing around the primary and secondary tubes for optimal heat transfer. The heater is designed for 80% efﬁciency. • The furnace comes wired with all necessary safety controls and valves installed. • The controls vary based on the BTU level and Insurance Requirements selected. • These units are designed to handle Natural Gas as a standard. • The gas pressure available at the unit needs to be considered when ordering the equipment. 1. Greater modulation provides improved temperature control. If the furnace is modulated to its minimum ﬁre position, and controls determine there is too much furnace capacity, then the furnace is staged on and off, on carefully chosen time delays, to satisfy the light load heating requirements. The 3-1 option is generally sufﬁcient particularly if design temperature rise does not exceed 30-40 degrees. 2. The greater the range of modulation the greater the cost. 3. Experience requires that a furnace should not turn down to a temperature rise less than 5-8 degrees. Greater modulation decreases the ﬂue stack temperature at low ﬁre, increases the amount of condensation, and can decrease the life of the heat exchanger even though all Solution furnaces utilizes a stainless steel primary and stainless steel secondary heat exchanger tubes along with condensate drains. The condensate line must be adequately sized, trapped, along with drainage of the condensate per local code. Equations: • BTU Output Required = CFM x 1.08 x Temperature Rise Required • BTU Input = BTU Output ÷ .80 The Solution furnaces are available with burner ﬁring arrangements: • 3-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate for 100% - 33% of full ﬁre • 10-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate from 100% - 10% of full ﬁre • 25-1 MODULATION: The burner will modulate from 100% - 4% of full ﬁre Literature Reference — See Installation Operation Manual – Form 102.20-NOM1 36 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Electric Heat – (EH) The EH segment can be installed in either a draw through or blow through arrangement. Remote Mounted terminal panels • An electric heat control panel may be selected as a remote panel. • In this case the panel will be shipped separate to the customer for ﬁeld installation. An optional wide access door may be ordered on the opposite side of the electric heater control panel. An SCR Controller is available on all heaters with a height dimension greater than 26.5”. Delta T = kW x 3160 CFM Notes & Options • Electric heaters are of “open coil” construction, with 80% nickel, 20% chromium coil elements machine crimped to stainless steel terminals and amply supported on ceramic bushing isolators. Open coil heaters are furnished with a disk-type, automatic reset thermal cutout for primary over-temperature protection. Heaters are also being furnished with disk-type, load-carrying manual reset thermal cutouts, factory wired in series with heater stages for secondary protection. • Heaters are rated for the voltage, phase and number of heating stages indicated in the schedule. All three-phase heaters will have equal, balanced, three-phase stages. • Finned tubular construction - optional JOHNSON CONTROLS • All internal wiring shall be stranded copper with 105°C minimum insulation and shall be terminated in crimped connectors or box lugs. • Power and control terminal blocks shall be provided and clearly marked for all ﬁeld wiring and shall be sized for installation of 75°C copper wire rated in accordance with NEC Table 310-16, not more than three conductors in a conduit. • Heaters shall be furnished with built-in fuses per NEC. Heaters with loads greater than 48 amps will be furnished with built-in fusing. Heaters shall be sub-circuited into a maximum of 48 amps per circuit. Low resistance single element fuses will be mounted in phenolic fuse blocks ﬁtted with extra tension springs to assure cool connections. Fuses shall be sized at least 125% of the load. 37 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) HEATING SEGMENTS Typical Applications An electric heating system will use either an open wire element or an element encased in a sheathed ceramic material. For most applications either construction can be used, however, in applications with potentially high humidity (i.e.100% OA application), the encased element will have a longer life expectancy and is recommended. Selection of the proper unit, heating load and temperature control system is dependent on the application of the unit. 1. Make-up Air Unit is used for heating 100% OA air to the indoor design temperature with a typical discharge temperature of 55-70° F. 2. Space Heating Unit is used for heating 100% RA from the conditioned space to make up for building heat loss. 3. Combination Make-up Air & Space Heating is used to heat OA & RA combined through a mixing box. Optional Control Methods 1. Proportional step control – multi-staging control of circuits 2. SCR Controller – a time proportioning type controller that modulates the heater and supplies the exact amount of power to match the heat demand. Precision controlled from zero to 100% in direct response to the modulating thermostat signal system. 100% step-less and noise-less operation. *Note – SCR’s are limited to a maximum KW. Multiple SCR’s may be applied to larger heaters. Multiple SCR’s do not imply full face control. See “Special Application Considerations”. 3. Vernier Proportional Control – used on larger KW heaters where very close heat control is required. The system employs a combination of SCR and non- 38 SCR steps. This is accomplished by satisfying most of the heat requirement through the non-SCR steps and then the last portion of the heat requirement is “ﬁne-tuned” by the modulating SCR controller. The SCR step is nominally equal to the KW of a non-SCR step to provide an even transition between steps. *Special Application Considerations: (contact factory for special applications) It is always important to ensure the proper control method so that the heater effectively treats the required amount of outdoor air regardless of temperature, without risking over heating and or tripping the low limit thermostat. 1. In applications where air ﬂow varies and temperature ranges are extreme, the face area of the heater should be designed for full face simultaneous control, thus avoiding problems of air and temperature stratiﬁcation. This is extremely relevant on heaters with large face areas. The full face control method, for a partial of fully active electric heat coil, eliminates the concern of air bypass through inactive circuits. Thus, almost any load split can be safely achieved. 2. With lower airﬂows under VFD control, one must assure there is even air ﬂow across the face area of the heater. This may require special consideration of the air-inlet position and size, (i.e. inlet to be centered on the front of the unit). a. Instability in temperature can easily occur if the variation in the air ﬂow characteristic is excessive. Large temperature variations can occur as speciﬁc stages and circuits are modulated on and off. In extreme cases, this instability can cascade and cause extreme over-heating on the complete heater face or in spots of the heater face due to low-air-ﬂow augmented by unit inlet opening locations and distance. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Recommended Safety Control Options: EXAMPLE: A fan relay and an airﬂow switch provide added protection for applications listed above. Determine whether the minimum air velocity requirement is met for a 108 kW heater installed for an air handling unit operating at 18,000cfm at a maximum inlet temperature of 65°F. – Fan relay provides the advantage of being a positive electrical interlock between the fan and the heater. – Airﬂow switch is normally used to prevent a heater from operating unless air is ﬂowing. Minimum Air Flows Electric heaters differ from steam or hot water coils in that the heat output is constant as long as the heater is energized. Therefore, sufﬁcient air ﬂow must be provided to prevent overheating and nuisance tripping of the thermal cutouts. The minimum required velocity is determined from the graph on the basis of entering air temperature and watts per square foot of cross segmental heating coil area. 1. Heating Coil Area = 33 sq. ft. 2. kW / sq ft. = 108 kW = 3.3 kW / sq. ft. 33 sq. ft. 3. Use top curve (below 80°F inlet air). Find 3.3 kW per square foot on the vertical axis. Read the minimum face velocity required, which in this case is 250 feet per minute (fpm). 4. AHU FV = 18,000 cfm = 545 fpm 33 sq. ft. Since 545 FPM exceeds the minimum velocity requirement of 250 FPM, this installation is satisfactory for heater operation. Equations: Use these formulas as rough guidelines for estimating purposes only: EQUATION 1: MBH = kW x 3.412 EQUATION 2: T = kW x 3160 Scfm EQUATION 3: Actual kW = Rated kW x V actual V rated EQUATION 4: Load Amps = kW x 1000 V x 1.732 Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Electric Heaters for Air Handling Units’ – Form 102.20-AG4 JOHNSON CONTROLS 39 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ENERGY RECOVERY – ER Energy Recovery An HVAC system that utilizes energy recovery is more energy efﬁcient, improves humidity control, and reduces peak demand charges. Solution Energy Recovery wheels: – Improve building HVAC system performance by efﬁciently preconditioning the outdoor air supply. The ER segment transfers heat & humidity from adjacent exhaust air & outside air streams. – Improves HVAC system efﬁciency up to 40% Horizontal wheel segment – Improves de-humidiﬁcation capacity up to 75% Thermal performance is certiﬁed by the manufacturer in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 84, Method of Testing Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers and ARI Standard 1060, Rating Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Ventilation Equipment HEATWHEEL MOTOR Vertical wheel segment Notes & Options ER has only one type of conﬁguration – supply air fan draw-thru and exhaust air fan draw-thru for indoor and outdoor applications. 1. Indoor - Vertical wheel segment with stacked construction a. All doors are usually on drive side with two on top tier (both sides of wheel) and two on bottom tier (both sides of wheel). 2. Indoor and Outdoor - Horizontal wheel segment with single tier construction Wheel control • Damper control • VFD – Auxiliary drain pan – none – Purge function – Optional a. Outside Air inlet is located on both sides of segment b. Access door is usually on drive side for horizontal wheel segments. Literature Reference — See Application Guide “Energy Recovery Wheels” – Form 102.20-AG6 40 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) FILTER SEGMENTS – AF, FF, RF AND HF Application and Options Table Application: (AF) – Pre-ﬁlter side-load negative pressure conﬁguration Side loading only – Single stage ﬁltration AIRFLOW Options: – Auxiliary Drain pan options – 2” & 4” Low Efﬁcient media – 4” High Efﬁcient media AF - ANGLE FILTER Side loading only AIRFLOW Application: (FF) Options: – Pre-ﬁlter side-load negative pressure conﬁguration – Auxiliary Drain pan – Single stage ﬁltration – Low Efﬁcient media Application: (RF) Options: – 2” & 4” media FF - FLAT FILTER Rear, Front or side loading (length includes 2" prefilter) AIRFLOW – Pre ﬁlter negative pressure conﬁgura- – 2-stage ﬁltration. tions: – Auxiliary Drain pan Side-load, front load and rear load – 4” & 12” High Efﬁcient Media – Final ﬁlter positive pressure conﬁgu(65%-95%) rations: Front-load (upstream access required) Rear-load (downstream access required) Side-load RF - RIGID FILTER Application: (Bag) Rear, Front or side loading (length includes 2" prefilter) AIRFLOW Options: – Pre ﬁlter negative pressure conﬁgura- – 2-stage ﬁltration. tions: – Auxiliary Drain pan Side-load, front load and rear load – High Efﬁcient Media (65%-95%) – Final ﬁlter positive pressure conﬁgurations: Front-load (upstream access required) Rear-load (downstream access required) Side-load RF - BAG FILTER Application: (HF) Front loading AIRFLOW – Face velocity - maximum 500 fpm – Pre ﬁlter negative pressure conﬁgura- – Single stage ﬁltration tions: Options: Front-load (upstream access re– Auxiliary Drain-pan quired) – Media efﬁciency 99.97% & 99.99% – Final ﬁlter positive pressure conﬁgurations: Front-load (upstream access required) HF - HEPA FILTER Caution – Never place a blow-thru ﬁnal ﬁlter segment directly downstream of a cooling coil with a saturated leaving air temperature. Once the relative humidity has reached 100%, adiabatic cooling applies to the expanding air and associated temperature drop. Moisture deposits may form on ﬁnal ﬁlters. JOHNSON CONTROLS 41 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) FILTER SEGMENTS – AF, FF, RF AND HF Mechanical Air Filters ASHRAE 52.2 Particle Size Ranges Mechanical air ﬁlters remove dust by capturing it on the ﬁlter medium, the ﬁlter element. A mechanical air ﬁlter is any type of dry media ﬁlter. All of the throwaway air ﬁlters used in HVAC systems and Air Handlers are mechanical air ﬁlters. Any man made or natural ﬁber ﬁlter is a mechanical air ﬁlter. This includes HEPA air ﬁlters as well. Range Size (in microns) Group 1 0.30 to 0.40 E1 2 0.40 to 0.55 E1 3 0.55 to 0.70 E1 4 0.70 to 1.00 E1 5 1.00 to 1.30 E2 Comparing Various Air Filters To MERV Ratings 6 1.30 to 1.60 E2 Dry-media ﬁlters exhibit an increase in efﬁciency as they collect dirt and dust. A dry media ﬁlter is at the lowest efﬁciency rating when it is ‘clean’. The increase in efﬁciency corresponds to a decrease in open area as the media collects ﬁbers and particles. In dust critical environments the user typically can’t wait for the increased efﬁciency. As a result of this type issue, ASHRAE 52.2 deﬁned the minimum efﬁciency reporting value (MERV) to describe ﬁlter performance. 7 1.60 to 2.20 E2 8 2.20 to 3.00 E2 The MERV is based on the worst case performance of a ﬁlter through all six stages of dust loading and all particles 0.3-10 microns. Because the rating represents the worst-case performance, end users can use it to assure performance in applications where a maximum particle count must be maintained over the ﬁlter’s entire life. ASHRAE 52.1 arrestance and dust-spot tests used either weights or times to generate a ratio, or efﬁciency. This efﬁciency was an easy way to describe a ﬁlter’s performance. Thus, a 50 percent ﬁlter would stop a nominal 50 percent of the particles in the air stream as averaged over the test period. Unfortunately, this average over time told a user nothing about performance for a speciﬁc particle size at a speciﬁc stage in a ﬁlter’s life. ASHRAE Standard 52.2 rates ﬁlter arrestance differently. Standard 52.2 testing protocol includes the reliable and consistent testing of ﬁlter performance on particles of nominal 0.3-10 microns in diameter. This testing provides an accurate and clear description of arrestance at each stage, rather than the average produced by Standard 52.1. 9 3.00 to 4.00 E3 10 4.00 to 5.50 E3 11 5.50 to 7.00 E3 12 7.00 to 10.00 E3 The efﬁciency of the ﬁlter is measured on 12 particle size ranges. The twelve size ranges are then placed in three larger groups (E1, E2, E3) and the percentages in each group are averaged MERV Value Group 1 Av. Eff.% 0.3 to 1 Group 2 Av. Eff.% 1 to 3 Group 3 Av. Eff.% 3 to 10 1 n/a n/a E3<20 2 n/a n/a E3<20 3 n/a n/a E3<20 4 n/a n/a E3<20 5 n/a n/a 20<35 6 n/a n/a 35<50 7 n/a n/a 50<70 8 n/a n/a 70 9 n/a E2<50 85 10 n/a 50<65 85 11 n/a 65<80 85 12 n/a 80 90 13 E1<75 90 90 14 75<85 90 90 15 85<95 90 90 16 95 95 95 The average is called the Particle Size Efﬁciency which is used to determine the Minimum Efﬁciency Reporting Value (MERV). 42 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) MERV Analysis The required MERV rating for ﬁlters will follow directly from the maximum allowable particle concentrations in the three bands of 0.3-1.0 microns, 1.0-3.0 microns and 3.0-10.0 microns. The following comparisons are not meant to be deﬁnitive: MERV Particle Rating Size Applications Type 1-4 >10 um Residential Permanent Light Commercial Metal Equipment Foam 1. A rating of MERV 10 corresponds to 50-65 percent efﬁciency for particles 1-3 microns and above 85 percent efﬁciency for particles 3-10 microns. 2. A rating of MERV 13 corresponds to less than 75 percent arrestance efﬁciency for particles 0.3-1 microns, above 90 percent efﬁciency for particles 1-3 microns, and above 90 percent efﬁciency for particles 3-10 microns. 3. A rating of MERV 15 corresponds to 85-95 percent arrestance efﬁciency for particles 0.3-1.0 microns, above 90 percent efﬁciency for particles 1-3 microns, and above 90 percent efﬁciency for particles 3-10 microns. 4. Ratings of MERV 16 to MERV 20 correspond to HEPA and ULPA ﬁlters. Note: The entire list of MERV ratings based on particle arrestance efﬁciency is found in Table 12-1 of Standard 52-2. As an example, if you are concerned with pulling out a high percentage of molds, mold varies in size from about 4 microns to 40 microns. Filter Fiberglass Poly Panel 5-8 3 to 10 um Commercial Industrial Pleated Filters Better Res. Paint Booth 9-12 1 to 3 um Res. – Best Commercial 13-16 16-20 Telecommunications Rigid Box Industrial Bag 0.3 to 1 um 0.3 um Best Pleated Rigid cell Rigid Cell Smoke Removal Bags General Surgery V-Cell Hospitals Mini-pleat Health Care HEPA / ULPA • The greatest numbers of mold spores are less than 10 microns in diameter. • The chart indicates a MERV 8 ﬁlter will pull out at least an average of 70% of the particles down to 3 microns. • Pleated ﬁlters are available in a MERV 11. The MERV 11 would give you an average of at least 85% mold removal. JOHNSON CONTROLS 43 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF Mixing Box/Mixing Segment (MB/FM) ROOF PANEL Solution has designed a mixing box (MB) which combines fresh air and re-circulated air by means of interconnected dampers. TOP DAMPER Solution’s space saving combination ﬁlter mixing segment (FM) offers an angle ﬁlter as an integral part of the mixing segment to economically provide ﬁltering and mixing capability. FRONT DAMPER END WALL PANEL Notes & Options • The MB/FM Segment typically must be the ﬁrst segment in direction of airﬂow. Hood application – only the following outdoor segments are available • Access doors are optional. • • Auxiliary drain pans optional except when bottom opening is selected Hood Options • Combination ﬁlter mixing segment (FM) provides a full-height access door for ﬁlter service. • Bird screen is standard with all hoods • Moisture eliminator is available as an option • Variable size openings and dampers are optional. • Safety grate option for bottom openings Note: When the moisture eliminator option is selected the moisture eliminator acts as the bird screen. A separate bird screen will not be required. Mixing box (MB or FM) Economizer (EE or EF) outside air (OA) inlet openings. Economizer ECONOMIZER WALL Solution offers numerous economizer conﬁgurations for various ventilation applications. The economizer is designed with factory packaged controls in-mind. Correctly set-up economizers will constantly track building pressurization as well as both indoor and outdoor air temperatures using transducers, mixed air sensors and enthalpy control that monitors air temperature and humidity. DOOR DAMPER DAMPER ANGLE FILTER ASY DOOR Notes & Options • The EE or EF segment may be ﬁrst in the air-stream or may be used in conjunction with other segments in an economizer application. Hood application – only the following outdoor segments are available with hoods • Fan Exhaust (FE) discharge openings • Economizer (EE or EF) exhaust air (EA) discharge openings 44 Hood Options • Bird screen is standard with all hoods • Moisture eliminator is available as an option Note: When the moisture eliminator option is selected the moisture eliminator acts as the bird screen. A separate bird screen will not be required. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Vertical Economizer Solution offers a Vertical Economizer arrangement which consists of tiered segments; top and bottom. Both top and bottom segments are designed to be of minimum length required. The VE arrangement is designed to be ﬁrst in the air-stream unless it is immediately preceded by XA, FR (DWDI), FR (SWSI), FE (DWDI), FE (SWSI). The VE segment must be conﬁgured in a top tier arrangement per the following rules: 1. Only one VE per unit 2. Must be tiered over the MB or FM segment 3. MB or FM segment must have a top damper General Considerations: 1. VE segment shall be available for all Solution unit sizes provided engineering rules for stacking allow the top section of VE segment to be tiered. 2. VE segment shall be designed for the conﬁgurations described in the sketches below. 3. Both top and bottom sections of the VE segment shall be designed to be of minimum length required. The design shall allow the two sections of VE segment to be of different lengths. 4. Sound data shall be provided for all conﬁgurations of VE segment. 5. Controls shall be available on VE segment for both top and bottom sections. 6. Filter option shall be available in the bottom section of the VE segment similar to FM segment. 7. Doors are available as an option for indoor units and are required for outdoor units. Notes & Options • VE segment will have the same construction materials as the MB or FM segment. • Auxiliary drain pans optional except when bottom opening is selected • No optional auxiliary drain pain. • Variable size openings and dampers are optional. • Optional Access Doors & View-ports. • Safety grate option for bottom openings JOHNSON CONTROLS 45 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) MIXING BOX OPTIMIZATION CHART This Mixing Box Optimization chart provides techniques and suggestions to meet the desired needs for your speciﬁc mixing box design process. It is a decision-making process in which the effectiveness of a mixing box must be considered. Ideally, mixing boxes should provide adequate mixing. Mixing Box Assessment Standard Mixing Box with/without Angle Filter Mixing Effectiveness GOOD APPLICATION Most effective Advantages • Lowest ﬁrst cost • Space saving Disadvantages • Risk of low mixing effectiveness • with ﬁlter 1. In constant volume system • with VAV • Parallel blade control damper • Risk of nuisance low limit tripping • Blade orientation and rotation promotes mixing • Risk of stratiﬁcation Standard Mixing Box without filters and *Sequenced Controlled Dampers (sequence listed below) Standard Mixing Box without filters and Static Air Mixer (blender) BETTER APPLICATION Most effective 1 In VAV system 2. With Min Max damper 3. With opposed blade control damper * Sequenced damper control is most suitable for low air ﬂow – low velocity applications BEST APPLICATION Most effective 1. Outside air designs at freezing and sub-freezing temperatures 2.Constant or VAV systems *Sequenced opposed control dampers are recommended for VAV systems • Lower ﬁrst cost • Mixes outside and return air more proportionately • Improves system performance at low ﬂow rates • Risk of nuisance low limit tripping • Risk of possible stratiﬁcation • Sequence will add stability to the control loop • Greatly improves mixing of sub-freezing air streams • Higher ﬁrst cost among damper designs • Greatly reduces, if not elimi- • Increases unit length nates, stratiﬁcation in short • Some additional static distances pressure loss • Works effectively and consistently *Suggested sequence of operation as follows: 1) Start the fan with the return air damper fully open and the outdoor air damper fully closed. a) An independent signal shall be sent to the Outdoor air damper i) Minimum open position b) An independent signal shall be sent to the Return air damper i) Full open position 2) The outdoor air damper shall modulate further open to admit additional outdoor air as required to satisfy the (mixed air), (discharge air) temperature sensor or IAQ requirements. 3) Once the outdoor air damper is fully open, if additional outdoor air is required, the return air damper shall modulate toward its closed position. 46 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF Typical Economizer Application Building Pressurization ASHRAE Standards Demanding Economizer Considerations: Building Pressurization – is deﬁned as the relative air pressure in a building, as compared to the exterior or ambient air pressure. A design amount of outside air must be introduced to insure design building ventilation. ASHRAE 90 - The ‘standard’ details requirements for a high performance & energy-efﬁcient design of buildings (which includes equipment as part of the building system). What is high performance? • Lower energy usage • Lower life cycle cost • Durable • Healthy • Productive How buildings use energy? • Different building types use it differently • Occupancy & equipment schedule • Internal vs. external load dominated buildings • Building occupants ASHRAE 62 - The ‘standard’ details Indoor Air Quality issues with the purpose to establish acceptable ventilation procedures & standard-of care. What are ventilation procedures? • Mechanical ventilation systems shall include controls, manual or automatic, that enable the fan system to operate whenever the spaces served are occupied • The system shall be designed to maintain the minimum outdoor airﬂow as required under any load condition What is a standard-of-care? • Guidelines to designers addressing contaminant source control, minimum maintenance activity & frequency, ﬁltration and managing relative humidity JOHNSON CONTROLS This difference in pressure has a large impact on how the building operates and it can have undesirable if not peculiar impacts on building operations. Over-pressurized buildings will have doorways which are transformed into wind tunnels. Under-pressurization will create a building that has become negatively pressurized and inﬁltration makes indoor climate control difﬁcult. The difference between the amount of OA and EA must remain constant at all operating conditions to maintain proper building ventilation and pressurization. Over Pressurization caused by • Too much OA • Not enough EA Results in • Excessive energy consumption • Perimeter doors opening Under Pressurization caused by • Too little OA • Too much EA Results in • Ventilation problems with occupants • Excessive building odors • Poor temperature control (inﬁltration) • Excessive energy costs • Difﬁculty in opening doors Knowing how to correct and avoid pressurization problems can prevent minor, inconvenient and comfort related issues from growing into insurmountable problems and liability issues. 47 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) MIXING SEGMENTS & ECONOMIZERS – MB, FM, EE, EF, FD, IP, VE AND VF Methods of Pressurization Control Dedicated Exhaust Fan Economizer - Full Return Air Fan Economizer - Fan runs only when economizer opens the OA dampers Handles pressure losses through Handles pressure losses through • Return air system • Return air system when in exhaust mode • Exhaust dampers • Exhaust air path Supply Fan handles pressure losses through Building pressurization provides insight in identifying, diagnosing, correcting and most importantly, avoiding some unusual building operational problems. • Outside air dampers • Mixed air dampers Economizer Arrangements TOP VIEW ANGLED MIXING DAMPER ( 100% OA, 100% EA) (100% OA, 100% EA) ( 100% OA, 100% EA) L/R SIDE DAMPER SIDE VIEW EE - Economizer with angled mixing damper. EE - Economizer with vertical mixing damper. NOTE: Top dampers not available for outdoor units. LD08032 EF - Filter/Economizer LD08033 LD08034 TOP VIEW SIDE VIEW SIDE VIEW EE - Inlet/Economizer VE - Vertical Economizer (50% OA on each side with barometric exhaust) NOTE: VF (VerticalFilter Economizer) is available with filtration. LD08035 Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Return & Exhaust Fan Economizers and Building Pressurization’ – Form 100.00-AG3 48 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Face Damper – (FD) FS XA FD XA Notes & Options The FD segment contains a full face damper • Face dampers are sized to cover whole components downstream within tunnel. Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments. • The FD is available for both indoor and outdoor applications. • The FD can be located ﬁrst in air stream or last in air stream, only with indoor applications. Access is required immediately upstream of the FD segment to access damper actuator and linkage. Damper material option: • Galvanized • Aluminum Inlet Plenum – (IP) W The Inlet Plenum is as its name implies; a segment used to provide a proper means of air entry into the air handler. TOP/BOTTOM INTAKE FRONT INTAKE Openings may be applied to top, bottom, front, left side and right side. L TOP VIEW L The variable size opening option allows the opening to be properly aligned and sized for airﬂow convergence and or divergence. FRONT VIEW LEFT / RIGHT SIDE INTAKE H SIDE VIEW Notes & Options If a plenum fan is used as a return fan and return air is ducted, an IP segment must be provided upstream of the plenum fan. • • Access Door - Optional • Auxiliary Drain Pans – Optional Dampers are not available as an option JOHNSON CONTROLS 49 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ACCESSORY SEGMENTS Diffuser Segment – (DI) The diffuser segment is constructed of heavy gauge galvanized steel with a built-in perforated plate, which prevents high velocities through the center of the downstream component. This segment is mainly used for blow-thru type applications immediately after a DWDI fan or locations where even air distribution across the unit cross section is a necessity. Notes & Options The Diffuser Segment must be placed immediately downstream of a DWDI fan segment when ﬁlters, attenuators, humidiﬁers, electric heater and/or coils immediately follow the fan. • Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional • Access Door – Optional Access Segment – (XA) The Access Segment is a functional segment provided to allow access-to or inspection-of any component in adjacent segments. The access segment assists in determining the best segment arrangement for a speciﬁc function and or layout. It is designed for ﬂexibility with full sized access doors and variable segment length. XA Notes & Options Access Segments may be used at any point in the unit conﬁguration; positive pressure (blow thru) or negative pressure (draw thru) conﬁgurations. Access segments may be provided for maintenance, cleaning, service and or spacing for correct air ﬂow requirements. 50 • Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional (minimum segment length applies) • Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit -minimum segment length applies) JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Vertical Plenum – (VP) VP The Vertical Plenum (VP) is a segment designed for vertical conﬁgurations (top tier) with unique discharge arrangements. Multiple and variable size supply air openings are available through the VP segment. The VP segment may be applied as an acoustical chamber, with perforated panel option, that dampens low frequency sound. In addition, the air stream expansion reduces turbulence and creates an acoustical end reﬂection. FS XA AF Notes & Options Discharge locations available are top, front, rear, left side and right side. Discharge opening options are rectangular, round and oval. Doors are optional (Inward opening for positive pressure) Discharge Plenum – (DP) The Discharge Plenum (DP) is a segment designed for horizontal conﬁgurations with unique discharge arrangements. Multiple and variable size supply air openings are available through the DP segment. The DP segment may be applied as an acoustical chamber, with perforated panel option, that dampens low frequency sound. In addition, the air stream expansion reduces turbulence and creates an acoustical end reﬂection. DP FS XA AF Notes & Options Discharge locations available are top, bottom, rear, left side and right side. JOHNSON CONTROLS Discharge opening options are rectangular, round and oval. • Auxiliary Drain Pan - Optional • Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit - Inward opening for positive pressure) 51 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ACCESSORY SEGMENTS Sound Attenuator – (AT) SOUND ATTENUATOR Sound Attenuators are rated for two ﬂow conditions, FORWARD and REVERSE. • Forward ﬂow occurs when air and sound-waves travel in the same direction, as in a supply air duct or fan discharge. • Reverse ﬂow occurs when sound-waves and air travel in opposing directions, as in a typical return-air system. Because attenuation values are generally higher in the ﬁrst ﬁve octave bands in the reverse ﬂow mode, compared to the forward ﬂow mode, more economical silencer selections can often be made on the return-air systems. These phenomena are illustrated below. RACEWAY ASSEMBLY BULKHEAD ASSEMBLY FORWARD FLOW REVERSE FLOW Under FORWARD FLOW conditions, highfrequency sound is refracted into the ductsilencer walls. Under REVERSE FLOW conditions, sound is refracted away from the walls and toward the center of the duct-silencer. Notes & Options Silencer Length Options: • 3ft, 5ft, 7ft Face Velocity • Low • Ultra Low Media Types: Frequency Range • Normal • Low Casing Materials: • Galvanized • Stainless Steel • Standard Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments. • Film-lined (Hospital media) • None (No media) When AT segment is located immediate downstream of DWDI fan segment a Diffuser segment is needed to ensure even airﬂow distribution. Literature Reference — See Application Guide ‘Acoustichecks for Air Handling Projects’ – Form 100.00-AG2 & ‘Fundamentals of Acoustics’ – Form 102.20-AG4 52 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Noise & Vibration Any mechanical device is capable of generating noise and vibration for a variety of reasons. The air handler unit noise emanates simultaneously from three distinct sources: aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical. Noise generally applies to any problem in which the ears are the main sensor. Noise is made up of many different sound frequencies at various loudness levels. Noise when compared to vibration is similar in that they both have amplitude and frequency. Usually noise is a much lower amplitude and energy content which is measured in db referenced to Watts. Typically noise has a much wider frequency range and a higher upper limit than vibration (63Hz – 8KHz) Vibration generally applies to any problem in which the hands or touching are the main sensor. Amplitude is large when there is a problem. It has much greater energy content with a smaller frequency range (3Hz – 500Hz) Noise Considerations and Characteristics Mechanical and electrical noise sources usually begin as vibration and are later transferred into airborne noise. To avoid unsatisfactory noise levels, many factors should be considered at the design stage. Noise is generally considered low quality, unwanted sound. Characteristic words such as tone, pitch, steady, unsteady and intermittent help to deﬁne whether the source of the noise is aerodynamic, mechanical or electrical. Electrical Aerodynamic Mechanical Generated noise is caused by turbulence, high velocities, and instabilities due to pulsation and surge. Technically speaking it relates to pressure pulsations and is characterized by a continuous broadband frequency spectrum with an objectionable superimposed pure tone. Generated noise is a function of motors, Generated noise has a different sound relays, motor controls, or unbalanced quality and characteristic. It can have line voltages into the motor a metallic sound caused by metal-tometal contact or working noise radiating from belts and bearings. This noise may be constant or intermittent. Vibration Considerations and Characteristics Rotating devices, such as air handling units, all create vibration which can be transmitted to other parts of the structure. The magnitude of this vibration is subject to a number of things, the most signiﬁcant of which is the Aerodynamic amount of unbalance of the rotating components. The frequency at which this occurs is the operating RPM of the components. There are many different sources of vibration. One of the most difﬁcult tasks is the systematic identiﬁcation of the vibration characteristic; amplitude, frequency, location or direction. Mechanical Vibration may occur from unbalance, Vibration is generated when a forced vibration in which the energy and char- resonance, looseness and rubbing. acteristics of the air-stream are large enough to cause turbulence, pulsations or a blade frequency tone. Vibration can also be the result of a resonance (reverberation). JOHNSON CONTROLS Electrical Vibration generated occurs from torsion ﬂuctuations, eddy current induced ﬁelds and improper wiring. 53 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ACCESSORY SEGMENTS Air Blender/Mixers – (AB) The static mixer provides a high level of mixing in a minimal distance and at a low pressure drop. Mixers placed just after the mixing segment improves mixing outside and return air streams. Mixers work effectively and consistently. There are no moving parts. Applications (When used): Features & Beneﬁts: – Eliminates air stratiﬁcation – Provides most mixing in shortest possible distance – Reduces low limit-stat nuisance trips – Improves accuracy of temperature control systems – Mixes outside ventilation air into supply air stream to satisfy IAQ/IEQ requirements – Allows for greater use of economizer operation – Requires negligible energy (typical application is between 0.10 - 0.20” w.g.) – Provides expected mixing for every cabinet size – Provides reliable pressure drop rating which includes the effect of mixer to plenum area ratio. – Provides uniform velocity proﬁle for even ﬁlter loading and enhanced coil performance Notes & Options AB segment should be applied immediately after the mixing box/economizer segment. AB segment is designed to mix air from openings on any combinations of: top, bottom, end and sides. Minimum velocity through a mixer is 400 FPM. 54 Air mixer arrangements may include one mixer, two horizontal mixers, three horizontal mixers, two vertical mixers or three vertical mixers. The arrangement depends upon upstream segment conﬁguration. Door - optional Drain pan - optional Mixer material option: Aluminum or Stainless Steel JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Face & Bypass Damper Segments – (IB), (EB) Internal Face & Bypass – (TB) The IB Segment must be located immediately upstream of a reduced face coil. FS HC IB XA AF • Available for indoor or outdoor applications. • Designed to divert airﬂow around a coil. When a full face coil is required downstream of the reduced face coil, access segment(s) must be included between the coils. IB segment is used to control • Humidity • Low temperature ﬂows across water coils Notes & Options Access doors and viewing ports must be located in adjacent segments. • An 18” access door is required immediately upstream of the IB segment to access damper actuator and linkage. Damper material option: • Galvanized • Aluminum External Face & Bypass – (EB) Each EB segment must be conﬁgured with a “bypass air inlet” downstream in the conﬁguration for reintroducing the bypassed air to the unit. The EB segment cannot exist without such a “bypass air inlet” partner. • The EB segment is available for indoor application only The external face and bypass damper is located upstream of a full-face coil. External Bypass damper is a balanced opposed blade face damper with interconnecting linkage. • Bypass duct is to be ﬁeld supplied FS HC EB AF Notes & Options Damper material option: Door is optional • Galvanized • It is designed to divert airﬂow through an external bypass duct. • Aluminum • External Bypass segment assumes ‘top’ outlet. Drain pan is optional JOHNSON CONTROLS 55 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ACCESSORY SEGMENTS IP TN TN TN TN XA HF XA DP Turning Segments – (TN) The purpose of the Turning Segment is to assist air turning in a vertical direction. A Turning Segment (TN) can only be located at the end of a unit conﬁguration. Segment lengths are engineered for a variety of tiered space saving conﬁgurations. FS CC AF FS CC AF MB Notes & Options TN segments are available for conﬁguring in both top and bottom tiers. Access Door – Optional (both sides of the unit - Inward opening for positive pressure) Drain pan is optional for bottom tier segments. Humidifier Segment – (HM) Adding humidiﬁcation for full winter comfort and productivity is just as important as air conditioning in the summer months. Temperature control must be combined with humidity control to maintain proper comfort parameters. ASHRAE 62 indicates that relative humidity is part of acceptable ventilation procedures & standard-of care Solution provides a standard steam injection distribution type humidiﬁer with a short absorption manifold for use where short steam absorption distances are critical. • Steam is distributed evenly through the full length of the manifold. • The header size, number and spacing of distribution tubes shall be determined so that all steam is absorbed by the air before reaching the next component in the air stream depth. Notes & Options • Valves cannot be selected as an off-the-shelf item; each valve has a speciﬁc plate/oriﬁce speciﬁcally cut per order speciﬁcations. • Control valve actuation shall be electronic and shall be compatible with either a 0-10V DC signal or a 4-20 mA control signal. • The humidiﬁer segment may be conﬁgured upstream of RF, FF, and AF ﬁlter segments. Factory mounted controls are not available in the Humidiﬁer segment. Any FMED device in a downstream segment should be located at least the absorption distance away from the humidiﬁer manifold. • • Valve package shall be supplied and shipped loose. Field Installation and wiring is required. Usual humidiﬁer headers are located the same side as coil headers. • Optional stainless steel supports and liner • The Humidiﬁer Vendor humidiﬁer selection software shall size the valve package. • Electric, gas and steam-to-steam generator types • Optional auxiliary drain pan • Optional access doors • Optional controls • The recommended location of the HM segment is downstream of the HC segment but upstream of the CC segment. • The humidiﬁer segment can not be conﬁgured upstream of a HEPA ﬁlter segment. • 56 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) UV Segment – (UV) Johnson Controls has developed UV-C lighting options that control the growth and transfer of surface and airborne microbial agents. By incorporating UV light options into your air handling unit it is now possible to control microbiological infestations, using ultraviolet light technology to disinfect the unit, thereby maintaining the cleanliness of the unit and the re-circulated air of the space being conditioned. By eliminating a multitude of micro-organisms, IAQ is improved and occupants are healthier. Airborne Inactivation Option – is accomplished by installing the stand-alone “Airborne Inactivation” segment upstream and/or downstream of all cooling coil segments to control airborne microbial agents. UV-C lights for this type of application are of higher intensity and are designed for “On-the-ﬂy” kill of airborne contaminates. Lamps are conﬁgured for 360° UV irradiance for maximum air-stream cleansing. Surface Decontamination Option – is done by incorporating UV-C lights in the coil segment downstream of all cooling coils and above all drain pans. In this application reﬂectivity of the UV light is of dominant importance. Exposure time is unlimited. Any increase in reﬂectivity enhances the UV effectiveness and efﬁciency. The kill rate increases dramatically with this application method. AIRBORNE OPTION Combining Both Options – If both Surface Decontamination and Airborne Inactivation options are used together, they can virtually clean your unit and the air you breathe. Working together with various ﬁltration systems and complying with the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 62.1 will assure the best possible IAQ when a designer combines all of these technologies. SURFACE OPTION UV UV SA OA DP HF XA DI FS CC AF MB RA Notes & Options Optional Radiometer • Radiometer detects and measures intensity of radiant thermal energy Optional Access Door • • Mechanical interlock switch to assure that the UVC assembly will be de-energized when accessed. • Optional View-port Optional stainless steel supports and rails Access is optional for servicing the UV lights. Literature Reference — See Application Guide — ‘Solution® Air-Handling Units UV-C Light Options’ – Form: 102.20-AG16 & Specification Sheet – Form: 102.20-S16 JOHNSON CONTROLS 57 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) ACCESSORY SEGMENTS Pipe Chase Enclosure 3. Roof, ﬂoor, side and end panels will be double wall construction. 1. The Pipe Chase may be selected in various depths. 4. Pipe chase doors 2. The Pipe Chase may be applied to XA, HC, CC, VC, IC or IG segment. a. These segments must be on the bottom tier of an indoor or outdoor unit. • All pipe chases must have at least one door. 5. Pipe chase curb • The pipe curb under a pipe chase will be level with the curb under the unit. WALL PANEL WITH COIL OUTLETS PIPE CHASE PANEL ASSEMBLY PIPE CHASE ACCESS DOOR PIPE CHASE CURB ASSY OUTDOOR: DRAIN CONNECTION IS ALWAYS ON SIDE OPPOSITE PIPE CHASE. INDOOR: DRAIN CONNECTION IS ALWAYS SAME SIDE AS PIPE CHASE. Roof Curb Johnson Controls recommends that an HVAC factory curb always be provided. Solution curbs are built to ﬁt the unique footprint of each air handler. Solution also provides speciﬁc drawing and speciﬁcation data for each unit and curb. These documents provide vital data such as unit dimensions, weight, component details, cross braces, supply & return opening layout dimensions, and notes which are unique to each unit. Although insulated curbs are speciﬁed in many cases, the contractor responsible for the roof typically supplies the insulation function. Notes & Options 1. Johnson Controls does not recommend vibration isolation be provided on both the fan skid, inside the unit, and the curb, outside the unit, without credible testing results. 3. Dual vibration isolation applications must be designed by a licensed Professional Engineer specializing in vibration isolation design. 2. Using improperly designed internal and external isolation springs can increase vibration. 4. Units with a baserail and a bottom opening: duct connection is ﬂush with the bottom of the unit, not ﬂush with the baserail. 58 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) SLOPED CURB LENGTH-WISE SLOPE OUTSIDE AIR OUTSIDE AIR SUPPLY AIR RETURN AIR 42" MAX ROOFTOP PIPE CHASE RETURN AIR IN 14" MIN SUPPLY AIR ROOFTOP RETURN > SUPPLY SUPPLY > RETURN 42" MAX 42 RETURN AIR 14" MIN WIDTH-WISE SLOPE ROOFTOP 14" MIN PIPE CHASE *14" RETURN AIR IN 42" MAX ROOFTOP RIGHT > LEFT LEFT > RIGHT Special Curb Requests Spring isolation curbs Seimic isolation curbs Roof curbs that incorporate adjustable spring isolators into the curb as a single component. Most isolation curbs are designed for 1” static deﬂection springs. The springs are mechanically fastened and sized within the frame to ensure uniform deﬂection for the entire system. The vibration eleimination portion of the curb is constructed of structural steel and should be designed to match the bottom of the rooftop unit. Usual operating height is 21” with options for different heights. Roof Curbs that incorporate seismic isolation as a fully adjustable support system speciﬁcally designed for unit vibration and seismic/wind restraint. Seismic isolation curbs are designed to meet superimposed live and dead loads, including equipment and other construction loads to be supported by the curb. The curb contains mountings designed and rated to resist seismic forces in all directions. Literature Reference — See Application Guide — ‘Roof Curb & Unit Application’ – Form 100.00-AG11 JOHNSON CONTROLS 59 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) CONTROLS Factory-Packaged Controls – (FPC) Typical FPC Wiring YORK Factory-Packaged Controls assure you of getting: • A complete factory-engineered system Location of wiring harnesses are typically opposite the high voltage. See “Power-Wiring Options diagram on page 62. • Reduce costs by taking the guesswork out of control installation • A higher quality control system direct from the factory • Full service support Notes & Options Factory mounted devices are available as packaged ‘Standards’ kits, which are deﬁned as pre-engineered system applications. Most likely several ‘Standards’ will “ﬁt” a given AHU conﬁguration. 60 Devices are available in a variety of options from mount-only with no control panel to a complete mounted, wired and factory-tested with the Johnson Controls Metasys FEC series controller. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) Software Process The software process will automatically apply the devices to the functional segments required for the control method. Field Equipment Controller (FEC) Our open design FEC conrollers use the industry standard BACnet MS/TP open communication protocol – customers can use devices from other vendors on the network, don’t have to stay with one vendor which provides wider options to the customer and consulting engineer On time, on budget – Standards reduce engineering and installation time and result in the lowest possible installed cost. New tools like CCT reduce conﬁguration and commissioning time. Minimize issues – Johnson Controls builds reliability into each device. Our documentation and training are excellent so the devices are installed correctly the ﬁrst time. Reduce operating costs – With adaptive tuning, the system uses process condition information it acquires and adapts for improved control without manual intervention. State-based control reduces wear and tear on actuators and other components by allowing the system to be in only one mode at a time. For example, only heating or only cooling. JOHNSON CONTROLS 61 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) CONTROLS Power Wiring Options TOP VIEW LOW VOLTAGE RETURN FAN MOTOR WIRING. CDW - HEATING LOW VOLTAGE CDW - COOLING SUPPLY FAN MOTOR WIRING. EMAL HIGH VOLTAGE SUPPLY FAN MCC CABINET. OPTIONAL SINGLE POINT MOTOR WIRING FAN SEGMENT PRIMARY ACCESS DOOR. ALTERNATE MOTOR WIRING CUTOUT LOCATION RETURN FAN MCC CABINET. Notes & Options All motor wiring will be sized and installed based upon National Electrical Code requirements. The wire-ways will be categorized as follows: A disconnect panel will be required anytime there are (2) or (3) 3-phase loads that require a common factory terminated wiring connection. A maximum of (3) 3-phase loads are allowed for single point power option. • High Voltage – (120V and higher) is usually on drive side of the product • Low Voltage – (24V) is usually on opposite drive side. i. • All motor wiring will be installed neatly in perpendicular and/or parallel planes with the unit walls and ﬂoors. ii. Return / Exhaust Fan Motor Controller. Single Point Power (SPP) is deﬁned as: 1. ALL electrical loads in a speciﬁc unit conﬁguration wired to a common point of connection through the proper motor control protection devices. This requires the customer to bring only one source of power to the unit. 3-phase loads are as follows: Supply Fan Motor Controller iii. Gas Heater. iv. Electric Heater. v. Energy Wheel Motor Controller. 2. Where motor controls (VFD, starter or wired disconnect) are NOT selected, no motor wiring shall be provided. Should 120V or 24V elements be selected where motor controls are not included, they shall require ﬁeld wiring. 3. Where multiple motor control devices are selected, optionally, single point power connections shall be provided. The ﬁeld power supply point shall be the supply fan segment. 4. Where an external wired disconnect option is selected for either supply or return/exhaust fans (or both), single point wiring shall NOT be available. There are three different sizes of transformers available; 150VA, 500VA, and 2000VA. • 62 The transformer being the device, used to transform power from a primary voltage of 460 volts, 230 volts, or 575 volts, to a secondary voltage level. An example of a secondary voltage would be 120 volts. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) INDUSTRY FORMULAS Electrical Watts ÷ Amps = Volts Volts x Amps = Watts Watts ÷ Volt = Amps Amp (A) = a measurement of rate of ﬂow of electrons along a wire Volt (V) = a measure of electrical potential Kilowatt (kw) = a thousand watts Watt (W) = a measure of power an electrical device consumes BTU = KW x 3415 1KW = 1.34 HP 1 HP = 2545 BTUH PUMP HP = FLOW (gpm) x HEAD (ft 5311 x E pump x E motor FAN CFM x SP 6350 x E fan PUMP KW = FAN KW = FLOW (gpm) x PD (ft) 5311 x E pump x E motor .7457 x BHP E motor 1.73 = 3 FOR THREE PHASE SERVICE HP = FAN STATIC EFF = FAN MECH EFF = CFM x SP 6350 x BHP CFM x TP 6350 x BHP Basic Fan Laws Drive Calculations CFM varies directly as the RPM Motor RPM x Motor Pulley PD = Blower RPM x Blower Pulley PD CFM1 CFM2 = RPM1 RPM2 Static pressure varies as the square of the RPM Example: SP1 SP2 1,750 x 7.2 = 1,190 Blower RPM 10.6 = (RPM1)2 = (RPM2)2 (CFM1)2 (CFM2)2 10% too much CFM: HP varies as the cube of the RPM BHP1 BHP2 = (RPM1)3 = (RPM2)3 (CFM1)3 (CFM2)3 1,750 x 7.2 = 11.8 “ PD Blower Pulley 1,190 x (0.90) Air TOTAL COOLING LOAD (MBH) = 4.5 x CFM STANDARD AIR x (ENTHALPY ENT. AIR - ENTHALPY LVG. AIR) / 1000 4.5 = 0.075 (WT. OF STD. AIR, # / FT3) x 60 (MIN./HR.) SENSIBLE COOLING LOAD (MBH) = CFM x 1.08 x (EDB-LDB) 1000 1.08 = 0.075 (WT. OF STD. AIR, # / FT3) x 60 (MIN./HR.) x .24 (Speciﬁc Heat of dry air) SENSIBLE HEAT RATIO = SH MBH/Sq. Ft. x FA x 1000 TOTAL COOLING LOAD (BTW/HR) = GPM x 500 x (EWT-LWT) 500 = 8.33 (WT. OF H20 @ 60 deg F, # / GAL) x 60 (MIN./HR.) x 1.0 (Speciﬁc heat of water) Metric Conversions CFM x 1.6992 = m3/hr Ft/min x 0.00508 = m/s BTU x 0.00029 = kWh CFM x 0.4719 = L/s Inch x 25.4 = mm Gpm x 0.063 = L/s HP x 0.7457 = kW Lb x 0.4535 = kg JOHNSON CONTROLS 63 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Indoor and outdoor air handling units and components as scheduled and shown on drawings. B. Motor disconnects, motor starters, and variable frequency drives. 1.02 RELATED SECTIONS A. The requirements of the General Conditions, Supplementary Conditions, Division 1, equipment schedules, and drawings apply. 1.03 REFERENCES A. AMCA 99 – Standard Handbook B. AMCA 210 – Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Rating Purposes C. AMCA 500 – Test Methods for Louvers, Dampers, and Shutters D. AMCA 611-95 – Methods of Testing Airflow Measurement Stations for Rating E. ANSI/AFBMA 9 – Load Ratings and Fatigue Life for Ball Bearings F. ANSI/UL 900 – Test Performance of Air Filter Units G. ARI 260 – Sound Rating of Ducted Air Moving and Conditioning Equipment H. ARI 410 – Forced-Circulation Air Cooling and Air Heating Coils I. ARI 430 – Testing and Rating of Central-Station Air Handling Units J. ASHRAE 52.1/52.2 – Method of Testing General Ventilation Air Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency by Particle Size K. ASHRAE 62 – Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality L. ASHRAE 90.1 – Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings M. ASTM-C 1338 – Standard Test Method for Determining Fungi Resistance of Insulation Material and Facings. N. NFPA 70 – National Electric Code (conductors, equipment and raceways) O. NFPA 90A – Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilation Systems P. SMACNA – HVAC Duct Construction Standards Q. UL-181 – Mold Growth and Humidity Test R. UL-1995 – Standard for Safety for Heating and Cooling Equipment S. ISO/PWD 13261-3 – Sound Power Rating of air-conditioning and air-source heat pump equipment: Part 3, Ducted Equipment. T. ISO 9614 – Determination of sound power levels of noise sources using sound intensity: Part 1, Measurement at discrete points; Part 2, Measurement by scanning, and Part 3, Precision method for measurement by scanning. 1.04 QUALITY ASSURANCE A. Manufacturer shall have a minimum of 25 years of experience in designing, manufacturing, and servicing air-handling units. 64 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) B. The design indicated on the schedules and shown on the drawings is based upon the products of the named manufacturer. Alternate equipment manufacturers are acceptable if equipment meets scheduled performance requirements and dimensional requirements. C. If equipment is supplied by a manufacturer other than the one named, coordinate with the General Contractor and affected subcontractors to ensure the specified performance is met. This coordination shall include (but is not limited to) the following: 1. Structural supports for units 2. Size and location of concrete bases/housekeeping pads 3. Location of roof curbs, unit supports and roof penetrations 4. Ductwork sizes and connection locations 5. Piping size and connection/header locations 6. Interference with existing or planned ductwork, piping and wiring 7. Electrical power requirements and wire/conduit and over current protection sizes. 8. Trap height requirements D. The Mechanical Contractor shall be responsible for costs incurred by the General Contractor, Subcontractors, and Consulting Engineers to accommodate units furnished by a manufacturer other than manufacturer named as basis of design. 1.05 RATINGS AND CERTIFICATIONS A. Air Handling Unit safety: ETL or UL 1995 B. Air Handling Unit energy use: ASHRAE 90.1 C. Fans: AMCA 210 D. Air Coils: ARI 410 E. Air Handling Unit certification program: ARI 430 F. Filter media: ANSI/UL 900 listed Class I or Class II G. Control wiring: NEC codes & ETL requirements H. Motors: Federally mandated Energy Policy Act (EPACT). I. Airflow Monitoring Stations: AMCA 611-95 1.06 SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTATION REQUIRED A. Furnish fan performance ratings and fan curves with specified operating point clearly plotted. B. Furnish drawings indicating unit dimensions, required clearances, field connection locations, wiring diagrams, shipping drawings, and curb drawings. C. Furnish performance report showing fan, motor, coil, and component performance details. Performance report shall detail unit casing performance and include materials, gauges, and finishes. D. Furnish operation and maintenance data, including instructions for lubrication, filter replacement, motor and drive replacement, and condensate pan cleaning; spare parts lists, and wiring diagrams. JOHNSON CONTROLS 65 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS E. Adjust and report performance ratings for the proper altitude of operation. F. Report air-handling unit performance ratings in accordance with ARI-430 (static pressure, airflow, fan speed, and fan brake horsepower). [Tip 1]: ARI 430 established testing, rating and conformance requirements for AHUs. To claim compliance, manufacturers must periodically submit production AHUs to ARI for testing. G. Report static pressure profiles by component section. H. Report coil ratings in accordance with ARI-410 (capacities and pressure drops). I. Report and rate sound power levels in accordance with ARI-260 (ducted discharge, ducted inlet, free inlet sound). J. Airflow measuring device performance shall be certified and rated in accordance with AMCA-611. Report data in accordance with AMCA-611. Provide AMCA Certified Rating Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance. K. Report panel deflection at +/-8” w.g., stated in terms of ‘L/X’ where ‘L’ is the casing panel length and ‘X’ is a constant provided by the AHU manufacturer. L. Report casing leakage rate at +/-8” w.g., specified in terms of percentage of design airflow. M. Report weight loads and distributions by component section. N. Report product data for filter media, filter performance data, filter assembly, and filter frames. [Tip 2]: ARI 410 established testing, rating and reporting standards for air coils. This includes special attention to heating and cooling capacity as well as air and ﬂuid pressure drops. [Tip 3]: ARI 260 standardized the measurement and reporting of sound data for AHUs. It does not require manufacturers to adhere to a certiﬁcation program to claim compliance. It does require an extensive testing program. (Note: AMCA 300 applies to sound for bare fans only) [Tip 4]: AMCA 611 details the requirements for certifying the performance of airﬂow measuring stations. It assures buyers that the reported data is accurate and reliable. Testing is performed by AMCA or by an independent AMCA certiﬁed facility. O. Report electrical requirements for power supply wiring including wiring diagrams for interlock and control wiring, clearly indicating factory-installed and field-installed wiring. P. Report motor electrical characteristics. 1.07 DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING A. Comply with ASHRAE 62, Section 5 (mold and corrosion resistant casings, filters upstream of wetted surfaces, and drain pan design). B. Comply with ASHRAE 62, Section 7 (practices to be followed during construction and startup). Protect equipment from moisture by appropriate in-transit and on-site procedures. [Tip 5]: ASHRAE 62 established minimum standards for designing, building and operating a building to help ensure acceptable indoor air quality. C. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for handling, unloading and storage. D. Protect, pack, and secure loose-shipped items within the air-handling units. Include detailed packing list of loose-shipped items, including illustrations and instructions for application. E. Protect, pack and secure controls devices, motor control devices and other electronic equipment. Do not store electronic equipment in wet or damp areas even when they are sealed and secured. F. Enclose and protect control panels, electronic or pneumatic devices, and variable frequency drives; and pack with desiccant bags. Replace desiccant bags every 60 days. For equipment stored in an environment with a relative humidity greater than 60%, change bags every 30 days. Do not store equipment in wet or damp areas even when they are sealed and secured. G. Seal openings to protect against damage during shipping, handling and storage. 66 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) H. Provide shrink-wrap around unpainted units. The membrane shall cover entire AHU during shipping and storage. Cover equipment, regardless or size or shape. Tarping is not acceptable. I. Shrink-wrap equipment, including electrical components, for protection against rain, snow, wind, dirt, sun fading, road salt/chemicals, rust and corrosion. Keep equipment clean and dry. J. Tarp painted units to protect against rain and road debris during shipping. [Tip 6]: ASHRAE 62 Section 7.1.3 recommends the protection of equipment on site and during transport. Shrink wrap is a cost-effective, high-quality way to comply with this recommendation. K. Clearly mark AHU sections with unit tag number, segment sequence number, and direction of airflow. Securely affix safety-warning labels. 1.08 EXTRA MATERIALS A. Provide one set of filters for balancing, and one additional set for final turnover to owner. B. Provide one extra set of belts, in addition to the factory-installed set. 1.09 WARRANTY A. Provide warranty for 18 months from date of shipment. Warranty shall cover manufacturer defects. Warranty shall include labor for 12 months from date of shipment. Warranty work shall be performed by manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed technician. Service technician must be based within 50 miles of job site. B. Include factory-provided controls in the parts and labor warranties. [Tip 7]: Specifying an 18 month warranty helps to ensure that the owner will beneﬁt from a full 12 months of warranty. Specifying labor warranty ensures that the manufacturer will stand by their product for quality and performance during that time. Specifying local service support helps ensure quick response when service is desired or needed. C. Parts associated with routine maintenance, such as belts and air filters shall be excluded. 1.10 SYSTEM STARTUP A. Do not operate units for any purpose, temporary or permanent, until ductwork is clean, filters are in place, bearings lubricated, and fan has been test run under observation. B. Comply with manufacturer’s start-up requirements to ensure safe and correct operation and integrity of warranty. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 ACCEPTABLE MANUFACTURERS A. YORK Solution B. Approved Equal (Prior written approval by engineer of record is required) 2.02 GENERAL DESCRIPTION A. Air Handling Unit (AHU) consists of a structural base, insulated casing, access doors, fans, motors, motor controls, coils, filters, dampers, controls, components, and accessories; as shown on drawings, schedules, and specifications. B. Provide AHU to meet the specified levels of performance for scheduled items including airflow, static pressure, cooling capacity, heating capacity, electrical characteristics, sound, casing leakage, panel deflection and casing thermal performance. JOHNSON CONTROLS 67 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS C. AHU shall maintain structural integrity when wall panels are removed. D. Provide internal components and accessories as specified and scheduled. Components and accessories shall be installed by the AHU manufacturer in an ISO9002 certified facility. E. Ship units in one piece. Split units only where necessary for shipping and installation. F. Manufacturer shall provide detailed, step-by-step instructions for disassembly and reassembly. G. For AHU segments that must be broken down for rigging and installation: segment shall be disassembled and reassembled by manufacturer’s factory-trained service personnel. H. Manufacturer shall perform a field leakage test to confirm 1% leakage per section 2.25. I. Manufacturer shall provide a written statement confirming that the unit is built to the manufacturer’s factory standards and that the unit will carry the full warranty. 2.03 STANDARDS COMPLIANCE A. Comply with ratings and certifications referenced in this specification. B. Manufacturers who do not comply with ARI-430 shall factory test EACH unit to verify brake horsepower rating, airflow performance and total static pressure performance. See specification Section 2.23 (VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE) for testing requirements. [Tip 8]: ARI 430 established testing, rating and conformance requirements for AHUs. To claim compliance, manufacturers must periodically submit production AHUs to ARI for testing. C. Manufacturers who do not conform to requirements of ARI 260 for ducted discharge and return air sound shall submit EACH unit to an independent sound test laboratory for ARI 260 testing. The test laboratory shall conform to ARI 260, Section 4.4, Test Equipment and Facilities. 2.04 BASE RAIL A. Provide a structural base rail under the full perimeter of the unit, formed from mill galvanized steel. B. Provide clearance for proper external trapping of drain pans steam condensate. C. Provide base rail and lifting lug system that does not require additional support for rigging. Include base rail lifting lugs at each side shipping splits and at unit corners. 2.05 CASING A. Provide double wall AHU casing. Exposed insulation is not acceptable. B. Panel assembly shall meet UL standard 1995 for fire safety. Panel assembly shall comply with the requirements of NFPA 90A. C. Provide an insulation system that is resistant to mold growth in accordance with a standardized test method such as UL 181 or ASTM C 1338. [Tip 9]: This spec item also found in ASHRAE standard 62, section 5.5.1. D. Encapsulate insulation with sheet metal so that air does not contact insulation. Panels insulated with fiberglass shall be sealed at each corner and around their entire perimeter, to eliminate airflow through the panel and to eliminate microbial growth potential within the casing wall. 68 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) E. Provide casing with minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of 12 hr-ft2-°F/ BTU. F. Roof, wall, floor, and access door panels shall be galvanized or stainless steel. G. Provide an additional .125” aluminum diamond tread plate floor liner in access areas. H. Provide perforated liner in the fan section and other sections as shown on the drawings. The perforated panel shall enclose matte-faced fiberglass insulation. I. Provide a unit frame of galvanized steel that provides the overall structure of the unit and does not rely on the casing panels for structural integrity. Insulate frame in the same manner as panels, roof, and floors. J. Provide AHU casing that leaks no more than 1% of design airflow at +/-8” w.g. K. Provide wall panels and access doors that deflect no more than L/240 when subjected to +/- 8” w.g. ‘L’ is the panel-span length and ‘L/240’ is the deflection at panel midpoint. L. Provide floors and roofs that deflects no more than L/240 when subjected to a 300 lb load at mid-span. ‘L’ is the panel-span length and ‘L/240’ is the deflection at panel midpoint. M. Provide outdoor AHUs with a roof system that deflects no more than L/240 when subjected to a snow load of 30 lb/ft2. ‘L’ is defined as the panel-span length and ‘L/240’ is the deflection at the panel midpoint. N. Provide outdoor AHUs with a roof sloped at a minimum pitch of 1/4” per foot. The roof shall overhang side and end panels by a minimum of 2”. O. Provide an exterior finish on outdoor units that shows a breakdown of less than 1/8” on either side of a scribed line when subjected to ASTM B117 500 hour, 5% salt spray conditions. This is equivalent to an ASTM D1654 rating of ‘6’. [Tip 10]: Casing thermal performance has a direct impact on the owner’s utility bill. Spec R-12 for the utmost in energy savings. Many manufacturers employ 2” walls with foam insulation to achieve this high thermal performance. With ﬁberglass insulation, 4” walls may be required to achieve R-12. [Tip 11]: Some manufacturers do not insulate the frames of their units, leaving the casing vulnerable to sweating and energy loss. [Tip 12]: Some manufacturer’s casings leak 5% or more. Ensure that energy is not wasted by outward leakage and that conditioned air is not contaminated by inward leakage. Leaky units are also prone to sweating at their leak points. 1% leakage at design static pressure is a very common benchmark for leak integrity. [Tip 13]: When static pressure in a unit changes and panels deﬂect, leakage occurs. Over time, panels experience metal fatigue, leading to even more leakage. This wastes energy and compromises IAQ. Spec L/240 for the most rigid and leak-free casing. Specifying sheet metal gauges does not guarantee rigid panels. Foam-insulated panels may be required to meet this performance. [Tip 14]: Floor systems are the most prone to leakage than the other panels of the casing. Every time someone walks on the AHU ﬂoor, panels deﬂect, leading to leakage and sweating. Spec L/240 for the most rigid and leak-free ﬂoor. Specifying sheet metal gauges does not guarantee rigid a rigid ﬂoor. Foam-insulated panels may be required to meet this performance. 2.06 PRIMARY DRAIN PANS A. Provide drain pans that comply with requirements for the AHU casing (Section 2.07). B. Comply with the stated intent of ASHRAE Standard 62. C. Provide a drain pan under each cooling coil and humidifier. Drain pans for cooling coils and humidifiers shall meet the requirements of ASHRAE 62. D. Provide drain connection made of same material as drain pan. Do not use dissimilar metals because of the risk of galvanic corrosion. Weld connection to the drain pan. E. Drain pan shall be double wall with an R-value of 12 hr-ft2-°F/BTU. The entire area of the drain pan shall have this level of thermal performance. F. Insulate plumbing associated with drain pan drains and connections. G. Provide drain pan under the complete width and length of cooling coil and humidifier sections. H. Drain pan shall allow visual inspection and physical cleaning on 100% of the pan surface without removal of the coil or humidifier. JOHNSON CONTROLS [Tip 15]: On outdoor units, roof panels are more prone to leakage than wall panels due to high thermal stress and snow loads. Ensure that performance is achieved on the roof by specifying L/200 or higher. [Tip 16]: Poorly designed drain pans are often breeding grounds for mold and poor IAQ. ASHRAE 62-2001, section 5.11.1 states that drain pans “…shall be sloped at least 1/8” per foot from the horizontal toward the drain outlet…whether the fan is in the on or off position.” Section 5.11.2 states that “The drain pan outlet shall be located at the lowest point(s) of the pan.” [Tip 17]: Some drain pan designs may call for less insulation at the lowest points of the pan. [Tip 18]: This plumbing is difﬁcult to access and service. Uninsulated connections may lead to sweating and puddling beneath the unit. 69 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS I. Provide a minimum of 1” clearance between the drain pan and any coil casing, coil support or any other obstruction. J. Provide drain pan that allows the design rate of condensate drainage regardless of fan status. [Tip 19]: YORK recommends this clearance so that the drain pan can be cleaned and inspected without requiring coil removal. ASHRAE 62 recommends annual inspection during the cooling season and cleaning if necessary. K. Provide drain pan sloped in at least two planes by at least 1/8” per foot toward a single drain. Locate drain connection at the lowest point of the pan. Pan shall have no horizontal surfaces. 2.07 ACCESS DOORS A. Provide access door(s) that meet requirements for the AHU casing. B. Provide industrial style stainless steel hinges that permit 180 degrees of door swing. C. Provide latches with roller cam mechanisms that ensure a tight seal. Rotating knife-edge or “paw” latches are not acceptable. D. Provide each door with a single handle linked to multiple latching points or a separate handle for each latching point. Doors serving access segments shall have an interior latch handle. E. Provide access doors with a locking hasp to accommodate a lockout device. F. Provide double-pane viewing windows as shown on the elevation view drawings. Windows shall be a non-condensing type consisting of an integrated silica desiccant dehumidification layer. Minimum dimension shall be 3” x 8”. 2.08 PIPE CHASE CABINET A. Provide pipe chases with double wall, insulated panels. Pipe chase shall have the same thermal performance as the unit casing. B. Provide a perimeter base rail and/or roof curb under the pipe chase(s) that meets requirements for the AHU base rail and/or roof curb. C. Manufacturer may combine the pipe chase enclosures of adjacent segments. D. Provide a minimum pipe chase depth, as shown on drawings. Pipe chase depth is the clear inside dimension from inner pipe chase surface to outer unit surface. E. Manufacturer may ship pipe chases separate from AHU if the chases are provided with lifting lugs for field installation per the AHU base rail requirements. Manufacturer shall provide step-by-step instructions with illustrations for proper pipe chase installation. 2.09 ROOF CURBS A. Provide factory-fabricated galvanized steel roof curb for outdoor units. Roof curb shall support the full-perimeter of the air handling equipment, including pipe chases. B. Match roof curb to roof slope. Curb surface shall be level in both axes. C. Provide wood nailing strip to which roofer may nail roof flashing. D. Ship roof curb loose for field installation prior to unit placement. 2.10 FANS A. Provide double width double inlet (DWDI) housed fans or single width single inlet (SWSI) plenum fans as equipment schedule and drawings. 70 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) B. Airfoil fans shall comply with AMCA standard 99 2408 69 and 99 2401 82. Provide an AMCA Seal on airfoil fans. Airfoil fan performance shall be based on tests made in accordance with AMCA standards 210 and comply with the requirements of the AMCA certified ratings program for air performance. C. Provide fans with true airfoil blades unless otherwise scheduled. [Tip 20]: True airfoil fans are desirable as they offer higher efﬁciency and have a non-overloading fan characteristic. D. Provide fans with the following accessories: 1. Fan inlet screens in the inlets of fan housing (REQUIRED on SWSI plenum fans) 2. Access door inlet screen (on AHU casing) 3. OSHA-compliant belt guard enclosing the fan motor and drive E. Provide airfoil fans with blades formed of extruded aluminum, as scheduled. Bent sheet metal blades are not acceptable. F. Provide an access door in the fan scroll, as shown on drawings. G. Provide fans with polished steel shafts with first critical shaft speed at least 125% of the maximum operating speed for the fan pressure class. Shaft shall have an anti-corrosion coating. H. Provide fan motor on an adjustable base to allow adjustable and consistent belt tension. I. Mount the fan and motor assembly on a common adjustable base. This common base shall attach to vibration isolators, which mount to structural support channels. These channels shall span the AHU floor and mount directly to the AHU frame. Manufacturers not complying with this requirement must submit detailed structural and weight data to a licensed structural engineer for review and stamped certification. The mechanical engineer shall review these engineers’ final reports prior to submittal approval. J. Provide vibration isolation springs with 1” or 2” static deflection, as scheduled. [Tip 21]: Under no circumstances should the fan and motor assembly mount to the AHU casing ﬂoor. This would lead to excess casing vibration poor acoustics, panel fatigue and air leakage. K. Connect DWDI fans to the unit casing or bulkheads with canvas flexible connection. L. Provide horizontal thrust restraints between AHU casing and fan housings with end discharge. This requirement applies to the following cases: 1. SWSI fans operating at greater than 3” of total static pressure 2. DWDI airfoil fans operating at greater than 6” of total static pressure 3. DWDI airfoil fans operating at greater than 3” of total static pressure 2.11 BEARINGS AND DRIVES A. Provide bearings complying with ANSI/AFBMA 9 for fatigue life ratings. [Tip 22]: L-50 implies that bearings have a 50% chance of failure during 200,000 hours of operation. L-10 bearings have only a 10% chance of failure during the same time period. B. Provide fan bearings with an average life L50 of at least 200,000 hours. C. Provide fan bearings with an average life L10 of at least 200,000 hours, as scheduled. D. Provide permanently lubricated bearings on forward curved fans smaller than 18.” On other fans, provide re-greaseable bearings with hydraulic grease fittings and lube lines extended to the motor side of the fan or to the exterior of the unit (primary access side). E. Provide plenum fans with direct-drive transmissions. JOHNSON CONTROLS [Tip 23]: L-50 implies that bearings have a 50% chance of failure during 200,000 hours of operation. L-10 bearings have only a 10% chance of failure during the same time period. [Tip 24]: Direct drive plenum fans provide higher levels of efﬁciency and are typically quieter than belt-driven fans. 71 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS F. Provide drives selected with a 1.5 service factor. Sheaves shall be machined from a close grain cast iron and statically balanced by the manufacturer. Provide a fixed pitch sheave on the motor. G. Provide fixed pitch sheaves on both the fan and motor. Fans with motors rated at 15 hp or less may be field balanced using variable pitch sheaves. Provide fixed pitch sheaves when final balance is complete. Air balancer shall select and provide final set of sheaves. H. Provide multiple belt drives on belt driven fans with motors 10 hp or greater. Belts shall be V-type, precision molded, raw edge construction, anti-static, oilresistant and heat-resistant. 2.12 ELECTRICAL MOTORS A. Provide fan motors built in accordance with the latest standards of the NEMA and IEEE. B. Provide AHU and fan motors in compliance with ASHRAE 90.1. C. Provide fan motors with the following characteristics: 1. 60 hertz, 1750 rpm operation 2. Service factor of 1.15 3. Premium efficiency, or as required to meet ASHRAE 90.1 4. NEMA design ball bearing type 5. Rated for continuous duty at full load in a 104°F (40°C) ambient 6. Open drip proof (ODP) or totally enclosed, fan cooled (TEFC) as scheduled. 7. Suitable for use in variable frequency application, per NEMA MG-1 Part 30 8. Inverter ready per NEMA STD MG1 PART 22.214.171.124 [Tip 25]: ASHRAE 90.1 has a detailed requirement for motor efﬁciency – typically requiring what manufacturer’s call “premium” efﬁciency motors. 90.1 also has a detailed requirement for motor SIZE, depending on the application, static pressure, etc. D. Provide direct drive plenum fans coupled to motors with matching speed, as scheduled. 2.13 FAN-MOTOR DISCONNECTS A. Provide UL or ETL listed fan-motor disconnects and associated components, as scheduled and shown on drawings. Disconnects shall comply with applicable provisions of the National Electric Code. B. Provide fused or non-fused fan-motor disconnects in NEMA 1, NEMA 3R, NEMA 4, or NEMA 12 enclosures, as scheduled and shown on drawings. C. Mount disconnects on the primary access side of the associated fan segment. 1. Mount unit main disconnect (on units with single point power) on the primary access side of supply fan section. D. Disconnect shall be suitable for use as an OSHA lockout/tagout disconnect when applied in accordance with part IV, Department of Labor OSHA 29 CFR Part 1910, Control of Hazardous Energy Source (lockout/tagout): final rule. E. Disconnect handles shall be lockable in the “off” position with up to three padlocks. Switch mechanism shall be directly lockable in the “off” position via padlock when door is open. 72 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) F. Provide disconnects with integral ground lug. 1. Provide two (2) #14 ground wires on 16A to 100A disconnects. 2. Provide one (1) #6-250 ground wire on 200A to 400A disconnects. G. Provide auxiliary contacts, as scheduled. 2.14 FAN-MOTOR STARTERS A. Provide UL or ETL listed motor starters and associated components, as scheduled and shown on drawings. Starters shall comply with applicable provisions of the National Electric Code. B. Provide starter in a NEMA 3R enclosure. C. Mount starter on the primary access side of its associated fan section, and wire starter to motor, unless shown otherwise on drawings. D. Provide the following features in each starter panel: 1. Main power block 2. Motor contactor(s) 3. Individual starter short circuit and overload protection devices 4. Two primary control fuses, one secondary control line size fuse 5. Three phase ambient compensated overload heater elements 6. 115-volt control power transformer with primary and secondary protection 7. Five-point terminal strip for field control connections 8. Factory wired, non-fused or fused main power disconnect, integral with starter panel 9. Integrated on/off auto switch. 10. Wiring to fan motor E. Starters on outdoor units shall be suitable for use in ambient temperatures from 5°F to 104°F: 1. Provide low ambient temperature kit suitable for use down to -20°F. 2. Provide high ambient temperature kit suitable for use up to 135°F. 2.15 FAN-MOTOR VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES (VFDS) A. Provide UL or ETL listed VFDs and associated components, as scheduled and shown on drawings. VFDs shall comply with applicable provisions of the National Electric Code. B. Mount VFDs in a dedicated NEMA 1 compartment located on the primary access side of its associated fan section and wire VFD to motor, unless otherwise indicated on drawings. C. Enclose outdoor VFDs in a NEMA-3R enclosure. D. VFDs on outdoor units shall be suitable for use in ambient temperatures from 5°F to 104°F: 1. Provide low ambient temperature kit suitable for use down to -20°F. 2. Provide high ambient temperature kit suitable for use up to 135°F. JOHNSON CONTROLS 73 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS E. After unit installation, VFD shall be started and programmed by a factory trained and employed service technician. Refer to Section 3.05. F. Provide the following VFD disconnect and bypass option: 1. Fused main disconnect 2. 2 contactor VFD bypass 3. 2 contactor VFD bypass with fused disconnect 4. 2 contactor VFD bypass with non-fused disconnect [Tip 26]: Select from item a, b, c or d. Consider that VFDs are a mature, proven and highly reliable technology. Bypass packages are therefore not as important as they used to be. Perhaps specifying a spare drive in lieu of bypass packages on drives is a better value for the owner. G. Provide harmonic distortion feedback protection: 1. Equivalent 5% impedance input line reactor 2. Integral RFI/EMI filtering to meet EMC EN61800-3 for First Environment H. Provide a user interface with the following features: 1. 30 Character multi-lingual alphanumeric display 2. Parameter set-up and operating data 3. Display data shall include: a. output frequency (Hz) b. speed (RPM) c. motor current d. calculated % motor torque e. calculated motor power (kW) f. DC bus voltage g. output voltage h. heat sink temperature i. elapsed time meter (re-settable) j. kWh (re-settable) k. input / output terminal monitor l. PID actual value (feedback) & error m. fault text n. warning text o. scalable process variable display I. 74 Provide VFD with the following protection circuits: 1. over current 2. ground fault 3. over voltage 4. under voltage 5. over temperature 6. input power loss of phase 7. loss of reference/feedback JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) 8. J. adjustable current limit regulator VFD shall be UL 508C approved for electronic motor overload (12t). K. Provide high input transient protection and surge suppression 1. 4 MOVs ahead of diode bridge 2. 120 Joule rated 1600V diode module 3. Compliant with UL 1449 / ANSI 61.4 L. Provide the following communication features: 1. Two programmable analog inputs 2. Six programmable digital inputs 3. Two programmable analog output 4. Three programmable digital relay outputs 5. Modbus RTU Communications protocol 6. Adjustable filters on analog inputs and outputs 7. Input speed signals, including 4-20 mA and 0-10 VDC 8. Accel/Decel contacts (floating point control) 9. Auto restart (customer selectable and adjustable) 10. Start/Stop options shall include 2 wire (dry contact closure), 3 wire (momentary contacts), application of input power, and application of reference signal (PID sleep/wake-up) 11. Integrated control interface for Siemens FLN, Johnson N2, Modbus RTU, or BACnet MS/TP or LONworks over RS-485. M. Provide the following functions: 1. Premagnetization on start 2. DC braking/hold at stop 3. Ramp or coast to stop 4. Seven preset speeds 5. Three critical frequency lockout bands 6. Start function shall include ramp, flying start, automatic torque boost, and automatic torque boost with flying start 2.16 FACTORY INSTALLED ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES A. In addition to motor power terminals, provide an independent power terminal for convenience receptacles and lights. Provide switches as shown on drawings. B. Provide incandescent or fluorescent lights in segments as scheduled or shown on drawings. Provide light switches as scheduled or shown on drawings. C. Provide a 1-hour timer on external light switches. D. Provide a 120v convenience receptacle on supply fan segment. 2.17 HEATING AND COOLING COMPONENTS A. Provide coils manufactured by AHU manufacturer, except where noted in contract documents. JOHNSON CONTROLS 75 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS B. Coils shall meet or exceed performance scheduled on drawings. 1. When applicable, provide coils with performance certified in accordance with ARI Standard 410 for coil capacity and pressure drop. Circuit coils such that the fluid velocity is within the range of certified rating conditions at design flow. C. Provide cooling coils with a maximum face velocity of 550 fpm or 500 fpm or 450 fpm. Face velocity calculations shall be based on the finned area of the coil. D. Provide cooling coil drain pan that is sufficient to contain coil condensate. Drain pan shall extend a minimum of 6” or 10” or 14” downstream of the face of the coil. E. Provide coil segment casing to accommodate full-face or reduced-face coils as scheduled. Provide face and bypass coil segments with factory installed bypass damper. F. Provide at least 18” or 24” or 30” of access between coils. Provide an easily operable access panel or door, as shown on drawings. [Tip 27]: Coils with higher face velocities are more vulnerable to moisture carryover. A coil’s vulnerability to condensate carryover depends on the coil design. Coils with densely packed ﬁns (12 or 14 fpi) are more vulnerable. Coils with staggered tube arrangements (YORK standard) are less vulnerable. The cleanliness of a coil also matters. [Tip 28]: YORK coils are designed and selected to prevent moisture carryover. However, dirty coils or coils operating under non-design conditions may lead to carryover moisture. Therefore, YORK recommends at least 6” of drain pan downstream to catch moisture. More drain pan is better, as it will keep moisture from reaching downstream components such as fans and fan motors. G. Provide coil segment casing that meets or exceeds casing performance of the unit. H. Provide panels that are easily removable with no special tools. I. Locate access doors to provide clearance for pipe insulation, connectors, and accessories. Space shall allow a minimum of 90 degrees of door swing. J. Provide coils built in their own full perimeter frame. Tube sheets on each end shall have fully drawn collars to support and protect tubes. Horizontal coil casing and support members shall allow moisture to drain. Casing and support members shall not block finned area. [Tip 29]: Because the coil segment is the coldest part of the AHU, thermal performance, leakage and deﬂection are critical here. Cooling coil drainpans are typically the root of an AHU’s IAQ problems, making performance even more critical. K. Individual coils shall be removable from the side of the AHU. L. Provide an intermediate drain pan on stacked cooling coils. Intermediate drain pan shall slope in a minimum of two planes toward a single drain connection. M. Provide a single intermediate vertical coil support on coils with a finned length greater than 62”. Provide two vertical supports on coils with a finned length greater than 100”, and three vertical supports on coils with a finned length greater than 141”. N. Extend coil connections through AHU casing. Provide a 1/4” FPT plugged vent/drain tap on each connection. Circuiting shall allow complete draining and venting when installed. Vent and drain connections shall be on the coil connection extension outside of the unit casing. O. Insulate gap between coil stub out connection and AHU casing with a spoolshaped sleeve grommet. Adhesive rings applied the casing walls are not acceptable. P. Water and glycol coils shall be operable at 250 psig working pressure and up to 300° F. Factory test water and glycol coils with 325 psig compressed air under water. Q. Direct expansion (DX) coils shall conform to ANSI B9.1 (Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration) when operating with a maximum refrigerant pressure of 250 psig. Factory test DX coils with 325 psig compressed air under water. 76 [Tip 30]: Coil penetrations are a very common leakage point. Not only can air leak through the casing, but it can also leak into individual panels. This leads to a loss in IAQ and energy efﬁciency performance. Spec a tight seal by specifying coil connections that are extended through the casing, and by specifying a spool-shaped grommet seal that isolates the coil connection from the panel, and that isolates the interior of the unit from the exterior. Coil penetrations are a very common leakage point. Not only can air leak through the casing, but it can also leak into individual panels. This leads to a loss in IAQ and energy efﬁciency performance. Spec a tight seal by specifying coil connections that are extended through the casing, and by specifying a spoolshaped grommet seal that isolates the coil connection from the panel, and that isolates the interior of the unit from the exterior. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) R. Steam distributing coils shall be operable at 50 psig pressure and a corresponding saturated steam temperature of 298° F. Factory test steam coils with 315 psig compressed air under water. Dehydrate and seal coils prior to shipping. S. Provide steam-distributing coils with a tube outer diameter (OD) of 1” and an inner distribution tube of 5/8” O.D. Circuit coils for gravity drain of condensate without trapping. Steam shall discharge in the direction of condensate flow to ensure even heat transfer across each tube. T. Provide water, glycol and DX coils with a tube OD of 5/8” or 1/2”. Mechanically expand tubes to form fin bond and provide burnished, work-hardened interior surface. Tubes shall have a minimum tube wall thickness of 0.020” or 0.025” or 0.035” or 0.049” for 5/8” tubes, and 0.016” or 0.020” or 0.032” for 1/2” tubes. U. Provide coils with copper tube return bends with the following final minimum thicknesses: 1. 0.035” for 5/8” diameter tubes 2. 0.032” for 1/2” diameter tubes with 0.020” or 0.032” tube wall thicknesses 3. 0.020” for 1/2” diameter tubes with 0.016” tube wall thickness. [Tip 31]: The outer radius of a coil tube’s return bend can be very vulnerable to premature failure. Tubes that are machine bent to create a return bend are especially susceptible to failure, as the outer radius of the bend is stretched and has a ﬁnal thickness that is signiﬁcantly thinner than the initial tube thickness. Specifying and enforcing a FINAL thickness of .035” at the outer radius of the return bend will help ensure a robust and long-lasting coil V. Provide water, glycol and steam coil headers made of seamless copper or brass tubing. Pipe connections shall be steel or red brass. Header connections (tubes and piping connections) shall be silver-brazed or TIG welded. W. Provide DX coils with brass distributor and solder-type connections. Suction and discharge connections shall be on the same end regardless of coil depth. Mount refrigerant specialties outside of unit. Provide DX coils with a hot gas bypass port on distributor. X. Provide coils with die-formed, continuous aluminum or copper fins. Fins shall have fully drawn collars to accurately space fins and protect tubes. Fins shall be 0.006” or 0.008 or 0.01” thick. Y. Provide coil coatings as scheduled or indicated on drawings. 2.18 FILTERS A. Provide filter segments and filters as scheduled. B. Provide side loading filters for filter segments located upstream of coil segment(s) with an access door on the drive side through which filters can be easily loaded. C. Provide face loading filters for segments located downstream of coil segment(s). Provide an 18” (minimum) access plenum and access door on the drive side through which face loading filters can be easily loaded. [Tip 32]: Face loading ﬁlters offer a tighter seal and less air bypass than side loading ﬁlters. For performance reasons, it is best to not use side loading ﬁlters in downstream or “ﬁnal” positions, where the ﬁlters typically have high efﬁciencies. Be sure to specify generous access, as they require space upstream or downstream of the rack to change ﬁlters. D. Provide filter racks integral to the unit and constructed of galvanized steel or stainless steel. E. Provide Class 2 or Class 1 filter media per U.L. 900 and as required by local codes. F. Filter types, efficiencies, and nominal depths shall be as follows: 1. Flat filters – 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4” 30% pleated filters, as scheduled. 2. Angled filters – 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, or 2” 30% pleated filters, as scheduled. JOHNSON CONTROLS 77 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS 3. Rigid filters – 4” mini pleated, 12” rigid, or 22” bag filters with efficiencies of 60-65% (MERV 11), 80-85% (MERV 13), 90-95% (MERV 14), or 9095% (MERV 15), respectively; as scheduled. a. Provide a pre-filter rack in rigid filter segments. Pre-filters shall have 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4” 30% pleated filters as scheduled. 4. Carbon filters – 2” deep rechargeable, incinerable, or disposable panels filled with 60% activity carbon, as scheduled. a. Carbon filtration system shall be designed for a minimum contact efficiency of 99% with a residence time of at least 0.08 seconds. b. Provide post-filter and/or pre-filter rack in carbon filter segments with 2” throwaway, 2” permanent cleanable, 2” 30% pleated, or 4” 30% pleated filters, as scheduled. 5. HEPA filters – 12” 99.97%, or 99.99% efficient media, as scheduled. a. Performance of installed filtration system shall be certified via a DOP test and classified as UL Class 1 when tested in accordance with UL Standard 586. b. Filter frame shall be specifically developed for HEPA filters, with appropriate quantities of filter clamps. G. Provide a flush mounted, factory installed magnahelic differential pressure gage on the drive side of unit to measure pressure drop across filters. Manufacturer shall provide fully functional gauges, complete with tubing. 2.19 DAMPERS A. Provide dampers tested in accordance with AMCA 500. B. Provide factory-installed dampers, as shown on drawings. C. Dampers shall have airfoil blades, extruded vinyl edge seals, and flexible metal compressible jamb seals. D. Dampers shall have a maximum leakage rate of 4 CFM/square foot at 1” w.g., and shall comply with ASHRAE 90.1. E. Damper blades shall be parallel acting unless otherwise indicated. F. Damper blades shall be galvanized steel or aluminum, as scheduled. 2.20 AIRFLOW MONITORING STATIONS A. Provide airflow monitoring stations, as scheduled or shown on drawings. B. Provide airflow monitoring stations tested in accordance with AMCA Standard 611 in an AMCA registered laboratory. Airflow monitoring stations shall bear the AMCA Ratings Seal for Airflow Measurement Performance. C. If airflow station incorporates a control damper, control damper shall comply with leakage rates per ASHRAE 90.1 and with specification section 2.19 DAMPERS. D. Provide a factory-installed transducer that sends a CFM-proportional, 4-20 mA or 0-10V signal, as specified. 2.21 DIFFUSERS A. Provide diffuser segments as shown on drawings. 78 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) B. Diffuser plates shall ensure proper air flow across components downstream of DWDI fans. 2.22 APPURTENANCES A. Provide rain hoods on outdoor unit air intakes, as shown on drawings. Provide moisture screens on outdoor air inlet rain hoods. B. Provide safety grates over bottom openings, as shown on drawings. 1. Safety grates shall be capable of supporting a 300 lb. center load. 2.23 FINISHES A. Manufacturer shall clean the exterior surfaces of units prior to finishing, painting, or shipment. B. Manufacturer shall paint outdoor units prior to shipment. Manufacturer shall paint indoor units, as scheduled or shown on drawings. 1. Manufacturer shall apply a primer prior to painting units. 2. Manufacturer shall apply a finish coat of acrylic polyurethane paint. 3. Finished unit shall exceed 500-hour salt spray solution (5%) test without any sign of red rust when tested in accordance with ASTM B-117. 2.24 TESTS AND INSPECTIONS A. Manufacturer shall dynamically balance fan/motor/base assembly. 1. Balance constant volume fan assemblies at design RPM. 2. Balance variable volume fan assemblies from 10% to 100% of design RPM. 3. Take filter-in measurements in the horizontal and vertical axes on the drive and opposite-drive sides of fan shafts. 4. Take filter-out measurements in the horizontal, vertical, and axial axes on the drive and opposite-drive side of fan shafts. 5. Constant speed fan vibration limits: filter-in measurements shall not exceed 4 mils. Filter-out measurements shall not exceed 6 mils in the horizontal and vertical axes, and 7 mils in the axial axis. 6. Variable speed fan vibration limits: filter -in measurements shall not exceed 7 mils. Filter-out measurements shall not exceed 9.5 mils. B. Manufacturer shall hipot test wiring intended to carry voltages greater than 30Vac. 2.25 VERIFICATION OF PERFORMANCE A. Factory test one out of every five AHUs (or a minimum of one unit) to verify compliance with airflow, static pressure, casing leakage, and panel deflection requirements. Owner and engineer reserve the right to select units to be tested. Manufacturer shall pay food, lodging, and travel expenses for up to two witnesses. 1. Alternatively, field test units to verify compliance with airflow, static pressure, casing leakage, and panel deflection requirements. Follow testing procedures outlined in this specification. Manufacturer shall hire a mechanical engineer of record to supervise testing. JOHNSON CONTROLS 79 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS B. One representative from both the owner and the engineer shall witness the test. Manufacturer shall pay food, lodging and transportation expenses for two witnesses. C. Perform test on a fully assembled unit with sections joined per manufacturer’s installation instructions. Use of additional material (tape, sealant, caulk) is not acceptable. D. Perform tests to verify the following performance criteria: 1. Casing leaks no more than 1% of design CFM at +/-8” w.g. 2. Casing panels deflect no more than L/240 at +/-8” w.g. ‘L’ is defined as the panel span length and ‘L/X’ is the deflection at panel midpoint. [Tip 33]: Make sure that bidders to your speciﬁcation are held accountable for their performance. Specifying leakage and deﬂection tests are an important part of ensuring the owner gets the performance that was speciﬁed. E. Unit shall meet the Large Missile Impact Test for AHU casing (walls, roof, and doors) and base. Unit shall carry a Notice of Acceptance (NOA) from the Miami-Dade County Product Control Division. Label equipment per NOA labeling instructions. F. Provide written letter of guarantee from manufacturer stating that no condensation will form on the exterior of units, under given design conditions. G. Should a unit fail a test, treat unit with a permanent remedy at manufacturer’s expense until test is successfully passed. [Tip 34]: It is not practical or reasonable to test for thermal performance or sweating. However a manufacturer should know their performance capabilities and should willingly write this letter. 2.26 FACTORY TEST SETUP AND METHODS A. AHU Preparation 1. Assemble and seal AHU sections per manufacturer’s installation manual. 2. Close and latch access doors. No additional sealing is permitted. 3. Seal duct, damper and louver openings. 4. Blank off and seal supply fan opening(s). 5. Blank off and seal supply fan bulkhead to isolate positive and negative pressure sections. B. Pressurization procedure 1. Pressurize positive pressure side to specified static pressures using a pressure blower. 2. Pressurize negative pressure side to specified static pressures using a pressure blower. 3. Measure and monitor differential pressure exerted on the cabinet with a pressure gage. C. Test measurement 1. Measure panel deflections at the centers (length and width) or four panels chosen by owner and engineer. 2. Measure pressure drop through an ASME long radius nozzle, mounted n the test module. 3. Monitor leakage at the same time panel deflection is measured. D. While under pressure, inspect units failing to meet specified leakage and deflection. Treat failing areas with a permanent remedy. Repeat test and inspection. Re-treat unit as necessary to pass both tests. E. Provide test data and results in a complete report to the owner. 80 JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 INSTALLATION A. Install equipment per industry standards, applicable codes, and manufacturer’s instructions. B. Do not use AHUs for temporary heating, cooling or ventilation prior to complete inspection and startup performed per this specification. C. Install AHUs on a concrete pad, roof curb, or structural steel base, as shown on drawings. D. Install AHUs with manufacturer’s recommended clearances for access, coil pull, and fan removal. E. Provide one complete set of filters for testing, balancing, and commissioning. Provide second complete set of filters at time of transfer to owner. F. Install AHU plumb and level. Connect piping and ductwork according to manufacturer’s instructions. G. Install seismic restraints and anchors per applicable local building codes. Refer to specification Section 230548 (15240 / 15070) for product and installation requirements. H. Install pipe chases per manufacturer’s instructions. 3.02 FIELD QUALITY CONTROL A. Store per AHU manufacturer’s written recommendations. Store AHUs indoors in a warm, clean, dry place where units will be protected from weather, construction traffic, dirt, dust, water and moisture. If units will be stored for more than 6 months, follow manufacturer’s instruction for long-term storage. B. Rig and lift units according manufacturer’s instructions. 3.03 AHU INSPECTION A. Hire manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician to perform an inspection of unit and installation prior to startup. Technician shall inspect and verify the following as a minimum: 1. Damage of any kind 2. Level installation of unit 3. Proper reassembly and sealing of unit segments at shipping splits. 4. Tight seal around perimeter of unit at the roof curb 5. Installation of shipped-loose parts, including filters, air hoods, bird screens and mist eliminators. 6. Completion and tightness of electrical, ductwork and piping connections 7. Tight seals around wiring, conduit and piping penetrations through AHU casing. 8. Supply of electricity from the building’s permanent source 9. Integrity of condensate trap for positive or negative pressure operation [Tip 35]: Improper storage can degrade the longevity and performance of an AHU. Rust and bacteria may form if units are not kept dry. IAQ and energy efﬁciency may be negatively impacted once improperly stored AHUs are operating. [Tip 36]: A thorough inspection and necessary corrections ensure a proper installation. A proper installation is necessary to fully realize the energy, IAQ and acoustical beneﬁts of a high-performance AHU and system. 10. Condensate traps charged with water 11. Removal of shipping bolts and shipping restraints JOHNSON CONTROLS 81 FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS 12. Sealing of pipe chase floor(s) at penetration locations. 13. Tightness and full motion range of damper linkages (operate manually) 14. Complete installation of control system including end devices and wiring 15. Cleanliness of AHU interior and connecting ductwork 16. Proper service and access clearances 17. Proper installation of filters 18. Filter gauge set to zero B. Resolve any non-compliant items prior to proceeding with the inspection of the fan assembly. 3.04 INSPECTION AND ADJUSTMENT: AHU FAN ASSEMBLY A. Hire the manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician perform an inspection of the AHU fan assembly subsequent to general AHU inspection and prior to startup. Technician shall inspect and verify the following as a minimum: 1. Fan isolation base and thrust restraint alignment 2. Tight set screws on pulleys, bearings and fan 3. Tight fan bearing bolts 4. Tight fan and motor sheaves 5. Tight motor base and mounting bolts 6. Blower wheel tight and aligned to fan shaft 7. Sheave alignment and belt tension 8. Fan discharge alignment with discharge opening 9. Fan bearing lubrication [Tip 37]: A thorough inspection and adjustment of the fan assembly helps ensure that the energy, IAQ and acoustical beneﬁts of a high-performance AHU and system are realized. 10. Free rotation of moving components (rotate manually) B. Manufacturer shall perform service to bring fan performance within factory specifications. 3.05 STARTUP SERVICE AND OWNER TRAINING A. Manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician shall startup AHUs. Technician shall perform the following steps as a minimum: 82 1. Energize the unit disconnect switch 2. Verify correct voltage, phases and cycles 3. Energize fan motor briefly (“bump”) and verify correct direction of rotation. 4. Re-check damper operation; verify that unit cannot and will not operate with all dampers in the closed position. 5. Energize fan motors and verify that motor FLA is within manufacturer’s tolerance of nameplate FLA for each phase. JOHNSON CONTROLS FORM 102.20-QG1 (808) B. Provide a minimum of 4 hours of training for owner’s personnel by manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician. Training shall include AHU controls, motor starter, VFD, and AHU. C. Training shall include startup and shutdown procedures as well as regular operation and maintenance requirements. D. If AHU is provided with a factory-mounted variable frequency drive (VFD), hire the VFD manufacturer’s factory-trained and factory-employed service technician to inspect, test, adjust, program and start the VFD. Ensure that critical resonant frequencies are programmed as ‘skip frequencies’ in the VFD controller. E. Submit a startup report summarizing any problems found and remedies performed. 3.06 FIELD PERFORMANCE VERIFICATION A. Leakage: Pressurize casing to +/-8” w.g. and measure leakage. Pressurize casing to –8”w.g. and measure leakage. If leakage exceeds 1% of design airflow, seal leakage points with a permanent solution. Repeat test. If the AHU still does not pass, contact the manufacturer to seal unit. [Tip 38]: A ﬁeld leakage test is a prudent step to ensure that the AHU performs as promised. The test is a ﬁnal conﬁrmation that the AHU will perform. Field testing conﬁrms that the AHU withstood the stresses of shipping, rigging and installation and can still provide high performance. B. Submit a field test report with testing data recorded. Include description of corrective actions taken. 3.07 CLEANING A. Clean unit interior prior to operating. Remove tools, debris, dust and dirt. B. Clean exterior prior to transfer to owner. 3.08 DOCUMENTATION A. Provide Installation, Operation & Maintenance Manuals in the supply fan section of each unit. Provide six additional copies for owner’s project system manual. B. Provide six copies of Spare Parts Manual for owner’s project system manual. JOHNSON CONTROLS 83 Printed on recycled paper Form: 102.20-QG1 (808) Supersedes: 102.20-QG1 (707) © 2008 Johnson Controls, Inc. P.O. Box 423, Milwaukee, WI 53201 Printed in USA www.johnsoncontrols.com
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File Type : PDF File Type Extension : pdf MIME Type : application/pdf PDF Version : 1.4 Linearized : Yes XMP Toolkit : Adobe XMP Core 4.0-c316 44.253921, Sun Oct 01 2006 17:14:39 Modify Date : 2009:04:22 14:13:40-07:00 Create Date : 2009:04:22 14:13:40-07:00 Metadata Date : 2008:08:08 10:35:38-04:00 Creator Tool : PScript5.dll Version 5.2.2 Format : application/pdf Title : Solution Air Handling Units - 200 to 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models), Engineering Guide, 102.20-QG1 Description : Solution Air Handling Units - 200 to 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models), Engineering Guide, 102.20-QG1 Creator : York, A Johnson Controls Company 2008 Subject : Solution Air Handling Units - 200 to 100, 000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models), Engineering Guide, 102.20-QG1 Producer : Acrobat Distiller 8.1.0 (Windows) Keywords : Solution Air Handling Units - 200 to 100,000 CFM (Indoor & Outdoor Models), Engineering Guide, 102.20-QG1 Document ID : uuid:e5f14e63-2c95-45b1-a8f5-83a2b4dddfb8 Instance ID : uuid:ffe1d161-5e0a-4169-9882-1cb58706e37e Page Count : 84 Author : York, A Johnson Controls Company 2008EXIF Metadata provided by EXIF.tools