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ADOBE FRAMEMAKER 8
USER GUIDE
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Adobe® FrameMaker® 8 User Guide for Windows® and UNIX®.
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iii
Contents
Chapter 1: Getting started
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Adobe Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
What's new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 2: FrameMaker basics
The Welcome Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
About the workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Understanding the structured workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Working with unstructured FrameMaker documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Working with structured FrameMaker documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
About structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Working with XML documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Word processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Text formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Multiple Undo/Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Chapter 3: Unicode support
About Unicode support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
FrameMaker features supporting Unicode content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Setting up your computer and keyboard to work with multiple languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Chapter 4: FrameMaker tables
About tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Inserting tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Converting between text and tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Copying, moving, and removing tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Changing the look of tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Positioning tables on a page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Adjusting rows and columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Sorting columns and rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Rotating cells and tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Controlling page breaks in tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Positioning and autonumbering text within cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Working with ruling and shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
Redefining (updating) table formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Renaming and deleting table formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Creating table formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Working with tables in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Inserting structured tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Filling in structured tables with text and graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Copying, moving, and removing structured tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
iv
Applying different formats to structured tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Positioning structured tables on a page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Adjusting rows and columns in structured tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Rotating cells and tables in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Chapter 5: Cross-references and footnotes
Inserting cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Working with cross-reference markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Displaying the source of a cross-reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Editing cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Creating cross-reference formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Using building blocks for source information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Editing cross-reference formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Maintaining cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Resolving cross-references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Working with footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Changing footnote formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Working with endnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Working with cross-references in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Inserting element-based cross-references in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Working with ID values in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Resolving cross-references in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Working with footnotes in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Working with endnotes in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Chapter 6: Variables and equations
About variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Inserting variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Editing variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Deleting variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Converting variables to text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Updating system variables on body or reference pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Importing variable definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Changing variable definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Creating variables for running headers and footers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Working with variables in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
About Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Using the Equations palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Inserting math elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Creating equations in structured documents using elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Chapter 7: Filter By Attribute
About Filter By Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Build a filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Apply a filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
Save a document after applying a filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
v
Modify a filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Delete a filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Additional information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
Chapter 8: Conditional text
About conditional text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
Planning conditional documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Creating, changing, and deleting condition tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
Using Boolean expressions to generate conditional output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Applying and removing condition tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Working in conditional documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Editing elements in conditional structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Chapter 9: Graphics and anchored frames
About Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Using the drawing tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
About graphic elements in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
About Anchored Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Creating anchored frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Editing anchored frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Preparing anchored frames for tagged PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Anchored frames in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Chapter 10: Color
About Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Color models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Planning to use color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364
Using color libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Applying colors and tints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Defining and modifying colors and tints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Viewing colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Printing color documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Postprocessing color documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Printing to typesetters (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Chapter 11: Page layout and templates
About page layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Changing the basic page layout of a document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
Creating and editing custom master pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Aligning text across columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
About multiflow documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Working with reference pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
About Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
Using templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
Creating templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
Organizing templates in a folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413
Creating templates for generated files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
vi
Creating templates to change conditional text settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Changing templates for blank paper and text files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
Importing and updating formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415
About import and update settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416
Chapter 12: Tables of contents and indexes
About Tables of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
About generated files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
Preparing the sources for TOCs and other generated lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Generating TOCs and other lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Updating and editing TOCs and lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Troubleshooting TOCs and lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425
Embedding TOCs in a document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
About indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Adding index markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428
Generating indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Updating and editing indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Creating a master TOC or index for several books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Troubleshooting indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Adding custom marker types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Adding titles and other static text to lists and indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Formatting lists and indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Changing the sort order of indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Working with group titles in indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Working with TOCs in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Generating TOCs and other lists in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Updating and editing lists in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Adding index marker elements in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456
Formatting lists and indexes in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Troubleshooting TOCs and lists in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
Embedding TOCs in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
Chapter 13: Books
About book files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Building books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Working with files in a book window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Determining how documents and pages are numbered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
Inserting numbering in your documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Changing the format of files in a book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Using book-wide commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Updating books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Comparing books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
Troubleshooting books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475
About structured book files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476
Generating and updating structured books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 477
Working with book structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
vii
Chapter 14: Revision management
About revision management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
About change bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Comparing document versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484
Determining the number of words and characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Track Edited Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
Chapter 15: Managing files using WebDAV
File management using WebDAV (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Getting started with workgroup management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Managing document links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Chapter 16: Importing, linking, and exporting
About importing files into FrameMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Choosing the right method for importing and linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
Using Copy and Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Using the Import command to import text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Using the Import command to import graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Using drag and drop (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511
Using OLE (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Using graphic insets (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Exporting text and graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Importing text into structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Inserting imported graphic elements into structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
Using the File Import feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519
Importing SWF files into FrameMaker documents (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522
Importing three-dimensional objects into FrameMaker documents (Windows) . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Chapter 17: Hypertext and view-only documents
About online systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
Preparing areas for becoming active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Inserting hypertext commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Creating hypertext links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Creating button matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Creating pop-up menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Creating alert messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543
Creating ways to start or open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Creating ways to close or exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Testing and troubleshooting hypertext documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547
Adding hypertext links to generated files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
Working in view-only documents and books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .551
Working with FluidView format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Inserting hypertext command elements in structured documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
Chapter 18: HTML, XML, and Adobe PDF conversion
About HTML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556
About Adobe PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575
About tagged Adobe PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
viii
Defining a tagged Adobe PDF file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Troubleshooting and tips on PDF conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Saving structured documents as Adobe PDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
Defining PDF job options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
Chapter 19: Processing XML
Migration from unstructured FrameMaker to XML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
XML with FrameMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
XML with XSL transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
XML with Cascading Style Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
XML with Schema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
Chapter 20: UNIX macros and utilities
About the UNIX version of FrameMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Using UNIX keyboard macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Capturing UNIX screen images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
Performing command-line operations with fmbatch (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
Printing with fmprint (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Copying file hierarchies with fmcopy (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Inverting images with fminvert (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 636
Converting color images to monochrome (UNIX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
Chapter 21: Creating accessible documents (Windows)
Authoring for accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
Using accessibility features in FrameMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
Setting your FrameMaker workspace for high-contrast viewing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Preparing documents for accessibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
Testing accessibility in files using a screen reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
Chapter 22: Structured authoring using DITA
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
About DITA in FrameMaker 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Using DITA in FrameMaker 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
Chapter 23: Adobe Technical Communication Suite features in Adobe FrameMaker
Creating and editing images using RoboScreen Capture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Inserting and editing Adobe Captivate demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .672
Launch Adobe Acrobat Connect from Adobe FrameMaker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 674
Sending PDFs for review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Appendix A: Typing in dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
About typing in dialog boxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679
Appendix B: Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
Keyboard shortcuts for Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681
Keyboard shortcuts for UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738
ix
Shortcuts for specific keyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
Working with structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
1
Chapter 1: Getting started
If you haven't installed your new software, begin by reading some information on installation and other prelimi-
naries. Before you begin working with your software, take a few moments to read an overview of Adob Help® and
of the many resources available to users. You have access to plug-ins, templates, user communities, seminars,
tutorials, RSS feeds, and much more.
Installation
Requirements
To review complete system requirements and recommendations for your Adobe software, see the Read Me file on
the installation CD.
Install the software
1Close any other Adobe applications open on your computer.
2Insert the installation disc into your CD drive, and follow the on-screen instructions.
Note: For more information, see the Read Me file on the installation CD.
Activate the software
If you have a single-user retail license for your Adobe software, you will be asked to activate your software; this is a
simple, anonymous process that you must complete within 30 days of starting the software.
For more information on product activation, see the Read Me file on your installation CD, or visit the Adobe website
at www.adobe.com/go/activation.
1If the Activation dialog box isn't already open, choose Help > Activate.
2Follow the on-screen instructions.
Note: If you want to install the software on a different computer, you must first deactivate it on your computer. Choose
Help > Deactivate.
Register
Register your product to receive notifications of updates and other services.
To register, follow the on-screen instructions in the Registration dialog box, which appears after you install and
activate the software.
If you postpone registration, you can register at any time by choosing Help > Registration.
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Adobe Help
Adobe Help resources
Documentation for your Adobe software is available in a variety of formats.
In-product and LiveDocs Help
In-product Help provides access to all documentation and instructional content available at the time the software
ships. It is available through the Help menu in your Adobe software.
LiveDocs Help includes all the content from in-product Help, plus updates and links to additional instructional
content available on the web. For some products, you can also add comments to the topics in LiveDocs Help. Find
LiveDocs Help for your product in the Adobe Help Resource Center, at www.adobe.com/go/documentation.
Think of Help, both in the product and on the web, as a hub for accessing additional content and communities of
users. The most complete and up-to-date version of Help is always on the web.
PDF documentation
The in-product Help is also available as a PDF that is optimized for printing. Other documents, such as installation
guides and white papers, may also be provided as PDFs. All documents available in the OnlineManuals folder in the
previous versions of Adobe FrameMaker® are posted on the Adobe web.
All PDF documentation is available through the Adobe Help Resource Center, at www.adobe.com/go/
documentation.
To see the PDF documentation included with your software, look in the Documents folder on the installation or
content CD.
Printed documentation
Printed editions of the product Help are available for purchase in the Adobe Store, at www.adobe.com/go/store. You
can also find books published by Adobe publishing partners in the Adobe Store.
A printed Getting Started Guide is also included with the software.
Customer support
Visit the Adobe Support website, at www.adobe.com/support, to find troubleshooting information for your product
and to learn about free and paid technical support options. Follow the Training link for access to Adobe Press books,
a variety of training resources, Adobe software certification programs, and more.
Downloads
Visit www.adobe.com/go/downloads to find free updates, tryouts, and other useful software. In addition, the Adobe
Store (at www.adobe.com/go/store) provides access to thousands of plug-ins from third-party developers, helping
you to automate tasks, customize workflows, create specialized professional effects, and more.
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Adobe Labs
Adobe Labs® gives you the opportunity to experience and evaluate new and emerging technologies and products
from Adobe.
At Adobe Labs, you have access to resources such as these:
Prerelease software and technologies
Code samples and best practices to accelerate your learning
Early versions of product and technical documentation
Forums, wiki-based content, and other collaborative resources to help you interact with like-minded developers
Adobe Labs fosters a collaborative software development process. In this environment, customers quickly become
productive with new products and technologies. Adobe Labs is also a forum for early feedback, which the Adobe
development teams use to create software that meets the needs and expectations of the community.
Visit Adobe Labs at www.adobe.com/go/labs.
User communities
User communities feature forums, blogs, and other avenues for users to share technologies, tools, and information.
Users can ask questions and find out how others are getting the most out of their software. User-to-user forums are
available in English, French, German, and Japanese; blogs are posted in a wide range of languages.
To participate in forums or blogs, visit www.adobe.com/communities.
What's new
Top new features of Adobe FrameMaker 8
Unicode support Support for the Unicode text encoding standard lets you author content in multiple languages. All
features in FrameMaker, such as find and change, markers, hypertext, and catalog entries, support Unicode. You can
export to PDF with Unicode bookmarks, tags, comments, and so on. You can import or export Unicode content from
other applications. Additional dictionaries help you author content in more languages.
Enhanced conditional text features Single-sourcing of documents is enhanced by the following features:
Manage condition tags, using the new Manage Conditional Tag dialog box.
Add new condition tags, using the new Add Conditional Tag dialog box.
Rename condition tags.
Use the New Color button in the Edit Conditional Tag dialog box to define a new color for a condition tag.
Visually distinguish text with multiple condition tags, as the color of the text depends on the set of tags applied to
the text. For more information, see “Appearance of text with multiple condition tags” on page 307.
Build Boolean expressions with complex combinations of condition tags and Boolean operators to generate condi-
tional output.
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Enhanced Structured/XML authoring Structured authoring is improved with the following enhancements:
XML roundtripping is enhanced to preserve XML comments as markers. System variables and Processing
Instructions (PIs) are also roundtripped.
You can import element formatting from CSS into DTD, so you can ensure consistent formatting across different
XML applications. The CSS file can be referenced in the XML document or manually imported. Multiple CSS files
can be imported sequentially, for multi-level formatting.
Support for single-sourcing workflows lets you filter structured documents. The single-sourcing workflows are
preserved across other XML applications, which use attribute values for filtering XML documents.
Filter By Attribute You can filter structured documents based on attribute values using complex Boolean expres-
sions. Multiple expressions can be created and saved for generating different outputs.
Track Text Edits You can track text edits made in a document. The added and deleted text are highlighted for visual
distinction. You can navigate through the edited sections and accept or reject specific changes. You can also preview
the document to see its original or final state. The changed information is preserved in the XML roundtrip.
DITA application pack The in-built DITA application pack and a DITA menu, facilitate DITA authoring. You can
generate a FrameMaker document directly from a DITA Map. You can use the standard FrameMaker features while
authoring DITA content.
3D workflows (Windows® only) You can insert 3D objects (U3D format) in FrameMaker 8 documents only. You can
also set parameters, such as default view, rendering mode, background color, and lighting scheme for the 3D object.
You can publish the document in PDF format with active 3D models. The 3D objects are preserved in the XML
roundtrip.
Support for SWF files (Windows only) You can create documents with SWF files, such as Adobe Captivate® movies.
The SWF object is preserved in the XML roundtrip.
HTTP file path support (Windows only) You can specify an HTTP path to import graphics into a document, either
by copying or by reference. The HTTP path is preserved in the XML roundtrip.
Enhanced WebDAV support The WebDAV support is extended to allow authoring and editing of XML files located
on the Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) server.
Import of Office 2007 content (Windows only) You can import content from Microsoft® Word® and Microsoft
Excel® 2007.
5
Chapter 2: FrameMaker basics
The Welcome Screen
By default, the Welcome Screen appears when you open FrameMaker only when Adobe Flash® Player is installed in
your machine. If you want, you can prevent the Welcome Screen from appearing using the following steps.
To prevent the display of the Welcome Screen:
1Select File > Preferences > General.
The Preferences dialog box appears.
2Select the Don't Show Welcome Screen option if you don’t want this dialog box to appear when you open
the software.
3Click Set.
The Welcome Screen isn’t displayed the next time you open FrameMaker.
Note: You can also select the Don’t Show Welcome Screen Again option in the Welcome Screen.
About the workspace
The Adobe FrameMaker workspace comprises structured and unstructured interfaces. A workspace includes a
Document window with formatted contents or the Structure View window with the Element Catalog. When you
work in the unstructured workspace, the only window available is the Document window, which displays the content
of your document as it will appear on a printed page or online. Alternatively, the Document window and the
Structure View window are available when you work in the structured workspace. These windows help you organize
elements in a valid structure.
When you open the application for the first time, FrameMaker provides you with the option to work in the Unstruc-
tured FrameMaker workspace, or in the Structured FrameMaker workspace. You can change the interface you work
in by selecting the desired workspace. After you select the workspace, FrameMaker opens in the selected mode in
each successive launch of the application, regardless of the structure status of the document you open.
To switch between unstructured FrameMaker and structured FrameMaker:
1Select File > Preferences > General (Windows), or File > Preferences (UNIX®).
2In the Product Interface list, select FrameMaker or Structured FrameMaker.
3Click Set. You are prompted to restart FrameMaker for the preference change to take effect.
Components of the FrameMaker workspace
FrameMakercomprises several components and operations common to the structured and unstructured
workspaces.
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Document window
A Document window appears when you open a structured or unstructured FrameMaker document. The window
shows the document with its text formatted, its graphics and other items in place, and everything laid out in a page
design. If more than one document is open, a Document window appears for each one.
Customizing the document display in the Document window
You can change the way each document window looks in the following ways:
Zooming in and out
Changing the preset display units
Showing and hiding window guides
Changing the set of menu commands
Zooming in and out
You can zoom in to focus on details or zoom out to see more. The Zoom pop-up menu, in both the Document
window and Structure View for structured documents, shows the current zoom setting.
A. Zoom pop-up menu B. Zoom Out button C. Zoom In button
You can change the zoom setting of one or more documents in a book by selecting the documents in the book
window and choosing a command from the View > Zoom menu.However, the Fit Page In Window, Fit Window to
Page, and Fit Window To Text Frame will affect only selected documents that are open.
To change the zoom setting:
Do one of the following:
To magnify text and objects, click the Zoom In button. FrameMaker zooms in on the area of the page containing
the insertion point or selection. If the document doesnt contain an insertion point or a selection, FrameMaker
zooms in on the center of the page.
To decrease the magnification, click the Zoom Out button.
To display text and objects at a particular magnification, select a percentage from the Zoom pop-up menu.
To display the entire page in the current window, select Fit Page In Window from the Zoom pop-up menu.
To resize the window to the size of the page:
Select Fit Window To Page from the Zoom pop-up menu. If the view options are set to display facing pages, the
window is resized to accommodate two pages side by side.
To resize the window to the size of the text frame:
Select Fit Window To Text Frame from the Zoom pop-up menu.
A
C
B
A
C
B
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To change the available zoom settings:
1Select Set from the Zoom pop-up menu.
2Do one of the following:
To change the available zoom settings, select the percentage you want to change and enter the new percentage.
Enter any percentage from 25% to 1600%. The values are sorted in the ascending order, so you can enter values in
any text box.
To return to the default percentages, click Get Defaults.
Note: You can customize the default zoom settings. For information, see the online manual Customizing FrameMaker
on the Adobe website: www.adobe.com/devnet/framemaker/pdfs/Customizing_Frame_Products.pdf.
3Click Set.
To make 100% zoom match the page size in Windows:
1Select File > Preferences > General.
2For Monitor Size, specify the diagonal size of your monitor, and then click OK.
If screen-to-paper fidelity is not critical, you may want to leave Monitor Size set to Default. This ensures cross-appli-
cation compatibility, which is important if you frequently edit embedded OLE objects within a document.
Changing the preset display units
Some text boxes in dialog boxes require a unit of measurement (such as points or inches) for the value you enter. You
can specify the default units for font size and line spacing (font size units) and for other measurements (display
units). The default units of measurement appear after the values in the text boxes. If you enter a value without a unit
of measurement, FrameMaker uses the default unit.
To change the preset units:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to work in.
2Select View > Options.
3Specify values for Display Units and Font Size Units, and then click Set.
To enter different units in a text box:
Enter one of the following abbreviations for the units along with the numeric value:
cm to specify centimeters
mm to specify millimeters
" or in to specify inches
pc, pi, or pica to specify picas
pt or point to specify points
dd to specify didots
cc or cicero to specify ciceros
Q to specify Q units (refers to font size and line spacing for Japanese language only)
FrameMaker converts the entry to the preset display units when you click a command button in the dialog box.
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For example, if your documents display units are picas and if you want to set a paragraph indent of 1 inch, enter 1"
in the First Indent text box. When you click Apply, the measurement changes to the number of picas that corre-
sponds to 1 inch.
Showing and hiding window guides
You may want to show several visual guides in the document window. The following types of guides are available:
Borders around text frames, graphic frames, and imported objects
Markers, paragraph returns, and other symbols in running text
Rulers along the top and left side of the window
You can also show a grid of horizontal and vertical lines for drawing, resizing, and aligning graphics. For information
on this grid, see “Using grids” on page 311.
The visual guides are all nonprinting, so you do not need to hide them when you print.
To show or hide visual guides:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Do the following:
To show or hide borders, select View > Borders. (If the book window is active, select View > Show Borders or
View > Hide Borders.)
To show or hide the text symbols, select View > Text Symbols. The following symbols may appear in the
document window.
To show or hide the rulers, select View > Rulers.
To change the spacing of ruler or grid intervals:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Select View > Options.
3Select a new setting from the Rulers pop-up menu or from the Grid pop-up menu, and click Set.
Text symbol Meaning
End of paragraph
End of flow and end of table cell
Tab
Anchored frame and table anchor
Marker
Forced return
Manual equation alignment point
Nonbreaking space
Discretionary hyphen
Suppress hyphenation
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Changing the set of menu commands
You can display a subset of menu commands called quick menus. The quick menus do not have commands for
formatting text, editing some aspects of graphics, and inserting some objects such as markers and variables.
If you do not see all the menu commands described in this manual, you may have the quick menus displayed.
Note: If youre using a structured document, your application developer may have changed the commands available in
the complete menus.
To display the quick menus:
Select View > Menus > Quick.
To return to the complete menus:
Select View > Menus > Complete.
To customize menus:
Add, move, or remove menus and commands as described in the online manual Customizing FrameMaker.
This manual is available on the Adobe website: www.adobe.com/devnet/framemaker/pdfs/
Customizing_Frame_Products.pdf.
File display options
FrameMaker contains an option that allows you to display the file name before the path in the frame titles of
document windows, so that you can see the file name if a long path name would otherwise hide it.
In Windows, there is a new flag, DisplayFileLeafFirst, in the initialization file, maker.ini. If the value
is On, the file name in the document or book window title is shown in the format filename pathname. This format
is also used to display the file name in the dialog that lists all open files. By default the value is set to Off, the line
is marked as a comment, and the file name is displayed in the format pathname filename, as previously.
In UNIX, there is a new boolean xresource, Maker.displayFileLeafFirst. When this is set to True, the
file name in the document or book window title is shown in the format filename pathname. By default the value
is set to False, and the file name is displayed in the format pathname filename, as previously.
The flag does not affect how the root name of the folder or directory tree is shown in individual file names inside the
book window.
Paging through a document in the Document window
You can page through a Document window using controls in the status bar.
A. Previous Page button B. Next Page button
You can also define how FrameMaker displays pages when you scroll—up and down, left and right, or two pages at
a time.
If the document you are paging through is part of an open book, FrameMaker may display an alert message
prompting you to choose to open the next or previous document in the book. For example, if you click the Previous
Page button on the first page of a document, clicking Yes in the alert message box will open the previous document
in the book. The last page of that document will appear.
AB
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To go to another page:
Do one of the following:
To go to the next page, click the Next Page button.
To go to the previous page, click the Previous Page button.
To go to the first page in the document, Shift-click the Previous Page button.
To go to the last page in the document, Shift-click the Next Page button.
To go to a specific page or the page containing a specific line number, click in the Page Status area, specify the page
or line number you want to display, and click Go.
To go to the page containing the insertion point, click in the Page Status area, click Page Containing the Insertion
Point, and click Go.
To move quickly through the pages, scroll vertically.
You can click or select in the Structure View to display the corresponding page in the document window.
This is often the quickest way to go to the page you want. For information on working in Structure View, see “The
Structure View window” on page 12.
To set how pages scroll:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Choose View > Options.
3Choose one of the following options from the Page Scrolling pop-up menu:
To display pages from top to bottom (for example, page 2 below page 1), choose Vertical.
To display pages from left to right (for example, page 2 to the right of page 1), choose Horizontal.
To display pages two at a time, side by side, choose Facing Pages.
To display as many pages as will fit in the window from left to right, choose Variable.
4Click Set.
To make pages display more quickly:
Do the following:
Open the document by bypassing the update of imported graphics, cross-references, and text insets. (Opening a
document without updating references makes a document open faster but may slow down the display of
individual pages.) For more information on this, see “Opening documents without updating references” on
page 23.
Turn off the display of graphics by choosing View > Options, deselecting the Graphics option, and clicking Set.
The graphics also do not appear in print.
Display small text as gray bars by choosing File > Preferences > General, entering a point size in the Greek Screen
Text Smaller text box, and clicking Set. Whenever text in your document is displayed in a point size smaller than
the size you specified, it appears on the screen as a gray bar.
Using command shortcuts
You can use the following types of shortcuts in a structured or unstructured document:
Keyboard shortcuts for all commands (for a list of these shortcuts, see the online Help).
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The QuickAccess bar, which has several pages of commands for working with documents and editing text,
graphics, and tables
The Formatting bar, which contains text formatting commands
The Track Text Edit bar, which contains commands for tracking, accepting, and rejecting text edits
The context pop-up menus, which have commands that are useful at the location of the pointer
Important: When using structured documents, keep in mind that shortcuts have the same effect on your document’s
structure as their menu-command equivalents. For example, if you paste an element using a context menu, the element
may not be valid at its new location. Or if you change text to italics using a QuickAccess command, you may be
overriding an elements format rules.
You can view multiple documents in different tabs. When you select the Tabbed Bar option in the View menu, the
tabs of open FrameMaker document windows appears.
FrameMaker also provides a formatting bar for quickly modifying a paragraphs spacing, alignment, or tab stops. You
should use this bar only in an unstructured document, because in structured documents these properties are usually
handled by elements. For more information, see “Changing text without using the catalogs” on page 103.
Note: If you select text to which different font types, font sizes, and paragraph tags have been applied, the Paragraph
Format, Font Name, and Font Size menus in the Formatting bar will display blank entries. For example, if you select
text containing font sizes 12 and 14, the entry in the Font Size menu will appear blank.
Using the QuickAccess bar
You can keep the QuickAccess bar open in the workspace and click commands as you need them. See the Quick
Reference Card for a list of the available commands.
To display the QuickAccess bar:
Select View > QuickAccess bar.
To use the QuickAccess bar:
Do any of the following:
To select a command from the bar, click the command button.
To display a different group of commands, click on the bar.
To change to vertical or horizontal orientation, click on the bar.
To view help for the commands, click on the bar.
To close the QuickAccess bar:
Do one of the following:
(Windows) Select View > QuickAccess bar.
(UNIX) Place the pointer on the bar and press Control+c.
Using context menus
The context menus contain commands for the item under the pointer—for example, text, a graphic, selected table
cells, or the document as a whole when the pointer is in the margin.
To display a context menu:
Right-click.
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Understanding the structured workspace
About the structured workspace
When you work with structured documents, you’ll use the Document window and the Structure View window with
the Element Catalog. These windows help you organize elements in a valid structure.
Contents and structure information
To work with the structured workspace, you must be in the Structured FrameMaker interface. For information on
working in Structured FrameMaker, see “About the workspace” on page 5.
The Structure View window
The Structure View window shows a hierarchy of elements for the document (or the flow within a document) that
has the insertion point or selection. The view uses bubbles to represent elements and their relationship to one
another, and it identifies errors in the documents structure. You can also display attributes in the Structure View.
The document window and Structure View are both editable, and anything you do in one is mirrored in the other.
You can have the two views open side by side, to keep track of both contents and structure. If you click or select in
one view, an insertion point or selection appears at the equivalent place in the other view, and any editing you do in
one is reflected in the other. If you click or select in an unstructured flow in a document window, the Structure View
is empty.
Note: If you are using the OpenWindows windows system for UNIX, you cannot resize the Structure View window when
the pushpin feature is turned on.
To display the Structure View:
Click the Structure View button at the upper right corner in the document window.
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You edit text and other contents in the document window. You can edit the structure of a document in either view,
but it’s usually easier to make your changes in the Structure View, where you can drag and drop bubbles to rearrange
elements or select bubbles to edit them in other ways.
The structured document’s Element Catalog
A structured documents Element Catalog lists the elements you can use at the current location, provides commands
for adding and editing elements, and may display other information about the current location, such as whether you
can type text.
Element Catalog
To display the Element Catalog:
Click the Element Catalog button at the upper right in the document window.
The information in the Element Catalog comes from content rules in the definition for the current element—
the element with the insertion point or selection. The current location is the position of the insertion point or
selection in that element.
The catalog is initially preset to show only the elements that are valid at the current location, though you can have it
display more elements if you want greater flexibility (see “Changing the scope of elements available in a structured
document” on page 18).
The catalog is empty if you click or select in an unstructured flow, if the document does not have any element defini-
tions, or if no more elements are required at the current location and no optional elements are available.
The Element Catalog uses the following symbols to identify whether an element is valid:
Heavy check mark The element is valid at the current location. If you insert the element, the current (parent)
element will be correct and complete up to this location.
Plus sign (+) The element is an inclusion (SGML only) in the current element and is valid at the current location.
The plus sign always appears next to a heavy check mark. Inclusions are valid only in SGML documents, so this sign
will not appear in XML documents.
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Even though inclusions are as valid as elements identified with just a heavy check mark, you might find it helpful
to list inclusions separately (see “Changing the scope of elements available in a structured document” on page 18).
If a document has many inclusions, it can be difficult to find other valid elements in the catalog.
Question mark (?) The element is a possible replacement for the element right after the insertion point or for the
selected elements. It is valid at the current location, but will make child elements after it invalid. If you insert an
element with a question mark, the current (parent) element will be complete and correct up to this location, but
you’ll have to correct errors after the new element.
Light check mark The element is valid later in the current element. If you insert one of these elements, the current
(parent) element will be correct but incomplete up to this location. You’ll have to go back and fill in missing
child elements.
No symbol If an element in the catalog has no symbol, it is not valid at the current location or later in the current
element. It may be valid earlier in the current element or outside the element.
The Element Catalog may also include the following indicators to provide other information about the
current location:
<TEXT> You can type text at this point.
<UNDEFINED> The current element does not have a definition in the document. The element was probably pasted
from a document with different element definitions. (This does not appear when the catalog is set to display all
elements.)
<INVALID> The contents of the current element are invalid. (This does not appear when the catalog is set to display
all elements.)
You can use buttons in the Element Catalog to insert an empty element, wrap an element around contents, and
change the type of an existing element. For details on working with the catalog, see “About elements” on page 521.
Customizing the display of the structured workspace
You can customize the FrameMaker workspace by showing element boundaries and other guides in a document
window, showing attributes for new elements in the Structure View, and changing the set of menus in the menu bar.
Collapsing and expanding elements
You can collapse an element bubble in the Structure View to stack the element and all of its descendants into a single
bubble. This does not affect the placement of the insertion point, the contents of the element, or the way in which
the element appears in the document window.
Collapsed element
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Expanding an element shows all the bubbles again.
Expanded element
Collapsing elements gives you a higher-level look at a documents structure and makes it easier to move elements
around. You may find it especially helpful to collapse long lists of items and procedures with many steps.
When an element has descendants, a plus sign or minus sign appears on the left side of the element’s bubble:
A plus sign (+) appears when the element is collapsed, indicating that more element bubbles are available for
viewing. The plus sign is red if there is invalid content anywhere inside the collapsed element.
A minus sign (–) appears when the element is expanded.
To collapse or expand an element:
Click the minus sign or plus sign on the left side of the element’s bubble.
To collapse or expand an element and all its siblings:
Shift-click the minus sign or plus sign on the left side of the elements bubble.
Showing and hiding attributes for an element
An element may be defined to have attributes, which provide supplemental information about the element. For
example, an attribute might describe the draft version of a Chapter element or the level of classification of a Memo
element. For more information on the uses of attributes, see “Attributes for elements” on page 522.
You can show all of an element’s attributes, none of its attributes, or only the attributes that are required or have a
value. You can also show or hide attributes for all new elements you add to a document (see “Changing the scope of
elements available in a structured document” on page 20).
When an element is defined to have attributes, a plus sign or minus sign appears on the right side of the
elements bubble:
A plus sign (+) appears when some or all of the attributes are hidden, indicating that more attributes are available
for viewing.
A minus sign (–) appears when all the attributes are showing.
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To show or hide attributes for an element:
Click the plus sign or minus sign on the right side of the elements bubble.
As you click the sign, you cycle through three possible displays. Clicking a minus sign hides the attributes. If no
attributes are showing, clicking a plus sign shows attributes that are required or have a value. If some attributes are
already showing, clicking a plus sign shows all the attributes.
Click the minus sign to the right of the element to hide attributes. The sign will become a plus sign. Click the plus sign to show attributes that
are required or have an attribute. The sign then becomes a minus sign. Click the minus sign again to show all attributes.
To show or hide attributes for an element and all its siblings:
Shift-click the plus sign or minus sign on the right side of the element’s bubble.
Showing and hiding element boundaries
Element boundaries mark each element’s beginning and end in a document window. Working with boundaries
showing can help you see how a documents contents fit into its elements, and can make it easier to place an insertion
point properly or to make the right selection.
For most elements, the boundaries can appear as opening and closing brackets ( [ ] ) or as two boxes with an element
tag. For some elements (graphics, footnotes, markers, tables, and equations), the elements location can be marked
only by one box with a tag. Table parts themselves, such as table titles and cells, do not display element boundaries.
However, element boundaries do display inside of table parts.
When elements are inside other elements, their brackets or tags nest to show the hierarchy.
Note: The brackets and tags that mark element boundaries are characters that both print and occupy document space.
You may wish to hide them before printing to prevent them from printing and to view a document layout that is not
altered by the element boundaries.
To show or hide bracket element boundaries:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
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2Select View > Element Boundaries. (If the book window is active, select View > Show Element Boundaries or
View > Hide Element Boundaries.)
Most types of elements have an opening bracket ( [ ) and a closing bracket ( ] ).
A. Section element B. Head element C. Para element
To show or hide tag element boundaries:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Select View > Element Boundaries (as Tags). If the book window is active, select View > Show Element Boundaries
(as Tags) or View > Hide Element Boundaries (as Tags).
Most types of elements have an opening boundary tag and a closing boundary tag. Some elements, such as footnotes,
have no boundary tags. They appear as a single tag.
Tag eleme nt boundaries
C
B
A
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Showing and hiding attributes for new elements
You can show or hide attributes for new elements in the Structure View. The view can display all the attributes in the
flow, none of the attributes, or only the attributes that are required or have a value. This setting applies to new
elements as you enter them.
You can also show or hide attributes for an individual element (see “Showing and hiding attributes for an element”
on page 17).
To show or hide attributes for new elements:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Select View > Attribute Display Options, choose the display option you want, and click Set.
Changing the scope of elements available in a structured document
When adding elements to a structured document, you may want to insert only elements that are valid at the current
location. (These are the elements that have heavy check marks, heavy check marks and a plus sign, and question
marks in the Element Catalog.) If you prefer to add elements this way, you can work from the beginning of a
document to the end and be sure that its structure is valid at every point along the way.
There may be times when you want to work more loosely though, and in these cases you can make more elements
available. For example, some draft documents may not need to adhere strictly to a predefined structure, but will
follow the structure only as a guideline. Or you may plan to make your document conform to a structure but do not
have all the information you need to complete it from start to finish.
When more elements are available, the additional elements appear in the Element Catalog and are available if you
insert elements from the keyboard. You can also list inclusions after other valid elements in the catalog.
The Element Catalog displays symbols to identify valid elements (see “Using the structured documents Element
Catalog” on page 15). When showing invalid elements, you can still use the symbols as suggestions for building a
valid structure.
To change the scope of elements available:
1Make the appropriate document window or book window active. If a book window is active, select the documents
you want to affect.
2Select Element > Set Available Elements. You can also click Options in the Element Catalog.
3Select one of the following options in the Show Tags For area:
To show only elements that are valid for the current location, select Valid Elements for Working Start to Finish.
Use this option if you plan to go through a document from start to finish and fill in the elements in their correct
order and hierarchy.
To show elements that are valid for the current location or later in the current element, select Valid Elements for
Working in Any Order. Use this setting if you plan to build a valid document but not necessarily by working from
start to finish. This is helpful if you dont have all the information you need.
To show elements allowed anywhere in the current element, select Elements Allowed Anywhere in Parent.
Use this setting if you want more flexibility for filling in elements. You can insert elements that are invalid and
correct the errors later.
To show all elements defined for the document, select All Elements. Use this setting if youre not building a valid
document, if you want flexibility and will correct errors later, if you’re wrapping elements around contents, or if
you want to see what’s available elsewhere in the document.
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To show a set of elements that you specify, select Customized List. Use this setting to work with a subset of the
elements, to display elements in a fixed order, or to work with a list that is static instead of context-sensitive.
4If you selected Customized List, click Edit and create or change a list of elements.
To move element tags between the Show and Don’t Show lists, use the arrow buttons or double-click the element tags.
Transfer all of the elements from one list to another by holding down Shift as you click an arrow button. Click the
Move Up and Move Down buttons to arrange the elements in the Show list in the order you want them to appear in
the Element Catalog. Click Set when the list is the way you want it.
Note: A customized list of tags is always the same regardless of the location of the insertion point, so be careful to include
all the tags you’ll need. The only indication of validity is a check mark next